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BENDING

A member is said to be in bending if at its current cross section a bending

moment develops. A member in bending is called beam. The bending may be

classified using different criteria:

a) After the forces position in space, we have:

plane bending: the forces acting on the beam are located within the same

plane, this plane containing the beam axis and one of the principal axes

of inertia of the beam cross sections (Fig. 10.1).

unsymmetric bending: the forces acting on the beam are located within

the same plane, this plane contains the beam axis but contains neither of

the principal axes of inertia of the beam cross sections (Fig. 10.2).

general bending: the forces acting on the beam are not located within the

same plane, but each force does intersect the axis (Ox) of the beam (Fig.

10.3).

Fig. 10.1 Fig. 10.2

Fig. 10.3

Strength of Materials

b) After the types of internal forces developing at the current cross section we

have:

pure bending: the internal forces reduce to a bending moment (of a

constant value, orientation and sense along the beam), the shearing force

being zero (Fig. 10.4a and Fig. 10.4b between points 1 and 2).

simple bending: the bending moment M

i

developed at the current cross

section of the beam is accompanied by the shearing force T (Fig. 10.4b,

between points A-1 and B-2).

10.1 PRISMATIC MEMBERS IN PURE BENDING

As discussed above, an example of a member in pure bending is furnished by

the portion 1-2 of the beam shown in Fig. 10.4b. In deriving the pure bending

formulas, we make the following assumptions:

the beam material is continuous, homogeneous, isotropic and elastic;

material modulus of elasticity in tension is equal to that in compression;

the beam cross section is constant along the member involved;

stresses do not exceed the proportional limit (i.e. Hookes law is

available);

the beam is in pure bending;

Bernoullis hypothesis is also valid.

We shall now detach a portion of infinitely small length dx, located between

points 1 and 2, from the beam shown in Fig. 10.4b (Fig. 10.5). This portion is

bounded by the planes (I and II) perpendicular to the axis of the beam. Due to the

a. b.

Fig. 10.4

196

Bending

action of the external loads the portion considered will bend, but will remain

symmetric with respect to the plane containing the loads applied to the beam.

Moreover, since the bending moment M

iz

is the same at any cross section, the

portion considered will bend uniformly (Fig. 10.5b). Thus the line C

(for

example) along which the upper face of the member intersects the plane of the

external forces P will have a constant curvature. In other words, the line C

, which

was originally a straight line, will be transformed into a circle of center O

1

and so will

the lines CD, C

D

etc.

On the other hand, we note that, due to the action of the external loads, the

longitudinal fibers of the portion considered will deform: the fibres of the upper part

of the portion considered decrease in length while the fibers of the lower part increase

in length.

It follows that there must exist a surface parallel to the upper and the lower

faces of the beam whose fibers do neither increase nor decrease in length. This

surface is called the neutral surface. The neutral surface intersects the plane of forces

P along an arc of circle CD (Fig. 10.5b) which is called the neutral axis of the beam.

Since the longitudinal fibres of the member in pure bending do modify their

length along the longitudinal direction, we conclude that normal stresses x

develop

at any cross section of such a member. Using the theory of elasticity or certain

experimental methods, one may verify that the normal component x

is the only

nonzero stress component exerted on the current cross-sectional points of the beam.

Let us now return for a while to the bended portion of the beam represented in

Fig. 10.5b. We denote by

d

the angle made by the two sectional planes I and II

which bound the beam portion considered and by

corresponding to the neutral axis CD. We shall now consider a fibre C

located at a

distance y bellow the neutral surface. As discussed above, the neutral fibre CD will

a.

(Scheme of Fig. 10.4b)

b.

Fig. 10.5

197

Strength of Materials

not modify its length in bending. The length of fibre CD will therefore remain equal

to dx. We write

d d x

, (10.1)

On the other hand, the arbitrary longitudinal fibre C

original length dx with quantity

( ) dx

. We have

( ) ( ) d d d y x x + +

, (10.2)

It follows that

d d ) (d d y x + +

,

or

( ) d d y x

. (10.3)

The strain x

of fibre C

( )

y y

x

x

x

d

d

d

d

. (10.4)

We conclude that the longitudinal normal strain x

the member, with the distance y from the neutral surface. Moreover, since Hookes

law for uniaxial stress applies, we have:

y E

E

x x

, (10.5)

where E is the modulus of

elasticity of the material

involved.

Formula (10.5) shows that, in the elastic range, the normal stress varies linearly

with the distance from the neutral surface (Fig. 10.6).

Recalling the relations between the internal forces and stresses, applied to the

beam shown in Fig. 10.6, we write:

0 0 d 0 d 0 d

z

A A A

S

E

A y

E

A

y E

A N

0

z

S

. (10.6)

(This means that Oz is a centroidal axis.)

0 0 d 0 d 0 d

zy

A A A

iy

I

E

A z y

E

A z

Ey

A z M

Fig. 10.6

198

Bending

0

zy

I

. (10.7)

(This means that Oz and Oy are the principal axis of inertia of the beam cross section)

iz z

A

iz iz

A A

iz

M I

E

M A y

E

M A y

Ey

A y M

d d d

2

z

iz

EI

M

1

(10.8)

Formula (10.8) (usually called Euler-Bernoulli's formula) gives us the

expression of the curvature of the beam neutral surface as a function of the applied

bending moment M

iz

,

modulus of elasticity E and the second moment of the beam

cross sectional area A with respect to the axis about which the bending moment is

applied (I

z

). The curvature is defined as the reciprocal of the radius of curvature

. It

measures the deformation of the member caused by the bending moment M

iz

.

Substituting

1

for

z

iz

EI

M

into (10.5), we write:

y

I

M

EI

M

y E y E

z

iz

z

iz

x

1

.

We have obtained therefore the expression of the normal stress x

at any distance y

from the neutral axis (Oz) as:

y

I

M

z

iz

, (10.9)

called Naviers formula or elastic flexure formula. We note that the stress is

compressive above the neutral axis (y < 0) and tensile below the neutral axis (y > 0).

This happens only if the applied bending moment is positive (Fig. 10.7a). If the

bending moment at the cross section considered is negative then we shall have

compression bellow and tension above the neutral axis (Fig. 10.7b).

From formula (10.9) it follows that the maximum normal stress develops at

cross sectional points for which the distance y is maximum.

199

Strength of Materials

We write

z

iz

max

z

iz

max

z

iz

max

W

M

y

I

M

y

I

M

, (10.10)

where

max

z

z

y

I

W

is called the elastic cross section modulus with respect to the Oz

axis.

The strength condition becomes therefore

a

z

max i

max

W

M

, (10.11)

where a

is the allowable value of the normal stress for the material involved.

The elastic cross section modulus depends upon the shape and dimensions of

the cross - section:

rectangular cross section (Fig. 10.8):

a.

b.

Fig. 10.7

200

Bending

6

2

12

2

3

bh

h

bh

y

I

W

max

z

z

. (10.12)

Fig. 10.8

circular cross section (Fig.10.9):

32

2

64

3

4

d

d

d

y

I

W

max

z

z

. (10.13)

Fig. 10.9

annular cross-section (Fig. 10.10):

2

64 64

4 4

D

d D

y

I

W

max

z

z

( )

4

3

4

4

1

32

2

1

64

c

D

D

D

d D

1

1

]

1

,

_

,

(10.14)

Fig. 10.10

where the ratio

D

d

has been denoted by c.

IMPORTANT REMARK

The relatively small number of engineering application where pure bending is

encountered does not justify a complex study in this matter. Fortunately the results

obtained for pure bending may be also applied to simple bending or to other types of

loading as well. An example is presented below.

201

Strength of Materials

Numerical example

A steel beam of the cross-section shown, is subjected to several external loads (Fig. 10.11).

Knowing that

MPa

a

150

:

a) Draw the shear and bending moment diagrams;

b) Determine the values of I

z

and W

z

;

c) Determine the minimum allowable value of dimension b so that the beam would not fail

due to the action of the external loads.

a) For the shear and bending moment diagrams we write

0 8 20 4 4 8 2 30 20 2 10 0 + +

B A

Y M

;

kN Y

B

21

.

0 20 4 4 8 6 30 20 8 10 10 0 + + +

A B

Y M

;

kN Y

A

51

.

With these values, the shear and bending moment diagrams have been sketched in Fig. 10.11.

b) The second moment of the beam cross - sectional area is:

( )

4

4

3

666 , 0

64

4

12

2

b

b

b b

I

z

,

_

.

It follows that

Fig. 10.11

202

Bending

3

4

666 , 0

666 , 0

b

b

b

y

I

W

max

z

z

.

c) The maximum normal stress is

MPa

b W

M

all

z

max i

max

150

666 , 0

10 56 , 89

3

6

.

Thus

mm b 97

150 666 , 0

10 56 , 89

3

6

.

It is important to note that formula (10.9) has been derived for a member with a

plane of symmetry and a uniform cross section. As presented in chapter 6 or 9, for

beams heaving a variable cross section, the corresponding normal stresses will not

agree with Naviers formula. In such cases a stress concentration occurs. For

example higher stresses develop if the beam cross-section presents a sudden change

(Fig. 10.12). The ratio between the maximum actual normal stress ( max

'

) and the

maximum stress ( max

concentration factor:

max

max

k

(10.15)

The stress concentration

factor is given in form of

tables or graphs for

different particular cases.

The actual value of the

maximum stress at the

critical cross section may

be then expressed as

ax m k max

,

where max

10.2 SHEARING STRESSES IN BEAMS SUBJECTED TO SIMPLE

BENDING

Fig. 10.12

203

Strength of Materials

Let us consider a beam with a vertical plane of symmetry, in simple bending.

This means that, at any cross section, the bending moment (M

iz

or M

iy

) is

accompanied by the corresponding shearing force (T

y

or T

z

respectively) - Fig. 10.13.

Since a shearing force develops at any cross section of the beam, besides the normal

stresses x

, shearing stresses

cross section. It may be shown that, excepting some particular points of the cross

section, the direction of

(with components xy

and xz

) cannot be determined

using the strength of materials methods only.

For example, let us detache the element abcda'b'c'd' from the beam represented in

Fig. 10.13b, Fig. 10.14. We assume that, at an arbitrary point B located on the

circumference of the beam cross section, the shearing stress

has an arbitrary

direction. It may be resolved however into two components 1

and 2

as shown in

the figure. But we know that shear cannot take place in one plane only, an equal

shearing stress occuring on another plane perpendicular to the first one. This means

that 1

must be accompanied by

'

1

which is perpendicular to 1

and contained

within the surface aba'b' . Since the face aba'b' of the element considered is a part of

the free surface of the beam, all stresses on this face must be zero. Thus,

a. b.

Fig. 10.13

204

Bending

0

'

1

. (10.16)

It follows that

0

1 1

. (10.17)

Since the stress component 1

at

point B acts along the tangent at the cross section circumference. This conclusion

remains valid for any particular point of the cross section circumference.

Let us now to return to the current cross section of the beam represented in Fig.

10.13a. As mentioned above, at the level of

this cross section the internal forces are

represented by the bending moment M

iz

and

the shearing force T

y

. Since the effect of M

iz

(which gives the normal stresses x

) has

been discussed previously (Navier's formula)

we shall now concentrate our attention on the

shearing stresses. We shall try to investigate

the shearing stresses occuring at points

located on an arbitrary segment mn, parallel

to Oz axis, at distance y from the neutral

surface (i.e. from Oz axis) (Fig. 10.15). As

demonstrated above, at points m and n the

shearing stress

section circumference. On the other hand, due

to the symmetry of the cross section with

respect to the plane Oxy, the tangents at

points m and n will intersect the Oy axis at the

same point O

1

(Fig. 10.15). Within such a

context, two basic assumptions (usually called Juravski's assumptions) have to be

considered:

for any other point m

1

of segment mn, the direction of

passes through

point O

1

;

the shearing stress xy

segment mn. Its value depends only upon the distance y from the Oz axis (i.e.

from the neutral surface).

From Fig. 10.15 we have

(10.18)

Fig. 10.14

Fig. 10.15

205

Strength of Materials

1 1 1

1

1

1

tg ) ( ) (

) (

) (

tg

m m

m

m

xy xz

xy

xz

.

At point C, for which

0

1

, we write

( ) ( ) ( ) 0 0 tg

1

C C C

xy xy xz

. (10.19)

In other words, the shearing stress component xz

mn may be expressed as a function of xy

mathematical connection between the shearing stress component xy

force T

y

over the cross section considered. This will be done bellow.

We shall now detache from the beam of Fig. 10.13 a portion of infinitely small

length dx, bounded by two planes perpendicular to the axis of the beam (sections S

1

and S

2

) (Fig. 10.16a). We do also cut this portion with a longitudinal plane passing

through an arbitrary segment mn (analogous to that of Fig. 10.15) of the beam cross

a.

b.

Fig. 10.16

206

Bending

section. This plane (mnm'n') will be, therefore, parallel to the beam neutral surface

(Fig. 10.16b).

We shall now retain only that part of the beam located bellow the sectional plane

mnm'n' (Fig. 10.16b). We denote by A

1

the area of surface mnq (this area remaining

constant along Ox axis) and by b the width of the beam of distance y from the neutral

axis Oz. As represented in Fig. 10.16b, at the level of the cross section S

1

, iz i

M M

and T

y

develop, while, at the level of the cross section S

2

, i i

M M d +

and y

T

develop

as cross sectional internal forces. The retained element mnqm'n'q' is subjected to:

the cross sectional shearing stresses xy

sectional points located on segment mn. As discussed above, these stresses

are accompanied by equal longitudinal shearing stresses yx

.

the normal stresses

mnq and m'n'q' of area A

1

.

The axial force N

1

developed at the level of the entire mnq surface is therefore

z

A

z

i

z

i

A

z

i

A

S

I

M

A y

I

M

A y

I

M

A N

1 1 1

d d d

1 1 1

, (10.20)

where

z

S

is the first moment of

1

A

with respect to the neutral axis Oz while I

z

is the

moment of inertia of the entire cross sectional area of the beam about the neutral axis.

Since an increase of the bending moment ( i

M d

) occurs at the level of section

2

S

,

the axial force developed at surface mnq is therefore

( )

z

z i i

I

S dM M

N N N

+

+

1 1 2

d

. (10.21)

We shall now write the equilibrium equation of element mnqmnq about Ox axis as

follows:

( )

0 d

d

+

z

z

i

yx

z

z i i

S

I

M

x b

I

S M M

.

We note that

x b

yx

d

is the corresponding axial force given by the average shearing stress

yx

i

M d

represents the differential change in bending moment

i

M

within the

distance dx.

We write:

0 d

d

z

z

i

yx

z

z i

z

z i

S

I

M

x b

I

S M

I

S M

207

Naviers formula

Strength of Materials

z

z i

yx

z

z i

yx

I b

S

x

M

I

S M

x b

d

d d

d

z

z y

yx

I b

S T

.

In other words, the shearing stress xy

sectional points located on segment mn, at distance y from the neutral axis Oz, may

be expressed through:

Z

z y

yx xy

I b

S T

(Jurawskis formula), (10.22)

where

T

y

: the shearing force at the beam cross-section considered;

b: the width of the beam cross-section at the level where the shearing

stresses must be derived;

I

z

: the moment of inertia of the entire cross-section with respect to Oz

neutral axis;

S

z

: the first moment of the area located either above or bellow the level

where the shearing stresses have to be computed.

It is important to note that the crosssectional shearing stresses xy

(which depend

upon the quantities described in formula (10.22)), are always accompanied by equal

longitudinal shearing stresses which tend to shear the beam about a longitudinal

plane (Fig. 10.17a). In other words, at each such level a reciprocal sliding tendency

occurs (Fig. 10.17b).

a. b.

Fig. 10.17

208

Bending

RECTANGULAR SECTIONS

The distribution of shearing stresses ( xy

using formula (10.22) Fig. 10.18. We shall compute the shearing stress value, at a

current level mn located at distance y

1

from the neutral axis and then we shall

represent the shearing stress variation along the rectangular section depth as a

function of y

1

. Thus, at the level mn (Fig. 10.18) we write

z

z

z

z y

xy

I b

S T

I b

S T

,

_

,

_

,

_

2

1

2

3 1 1 3

y

4

h

2

b

12

bh

b

T

y

2

h

2

1

y

2

h

b

12

bh

b

T

=

,

_

2

1

2

3

y

4

h

bh

T 6

.

We write therefore

) (

1 xy

2

1

2

3 xy

y y

4

h

bh

T 6

,

_

. (10.23)

This shows that the shearing stresses xy

rectangular section depth. The maximum shearing stress develops at the level of the

neutral axis and may be found by substituting y

1

with zero in (10.23). We have

A

T

bh

T h

bh

T

xy xy

2

3

2

3

4

6

) 0 (

2

3

max

.

This means that, the maximum shearing stress developing at the level of the neutral

axis Oz is

A

T

2

3

max

, (10.24)

Fig. 10.18

209

Strength of Materials

where A is the rectangular area (

h b A

). In other words the maximum shearing

stress is 50 % greater than the average shearing stress.

We do also note that, for

2

1

h

y t

, the shearing stress xy

becomes zero.

CIRCULAR SECTIONS

The distribution of shearing stresses in a circular section may be derived in a

similar manner. We shall

compute the value of the

shearing stress at a current

level mn, at distance y

1

from the neutral axis and

then we shall represent the

shearing stresses variation

along the circular section

depth as a function of y

1

(Fig. 10.19).

For convenience we shall first derive the current expression of the first moment

of the area A

1

located below the current level mn (hachured area of Fig. 10.19) with

respect to the neutral axis Oz as a function of distance y

1

. We write

1

d ) (

1

A

mn z

A y y S

. (10.25)

We select the element of area dA in the shape of a thin horizontal strip and thus

reduce the computation of the above double integral to integration in a single variable

(Fig. 10.19). We write

y y r y b A

y

d 2 d d

2 2

,

where r is the radius of the circular section. We have therefore

( ) ( )

y y r y r y y r y A y y S

r

y A

r

y

z

d d 2 d

2 2 2 2 2 2

1

1 1 1

( ) ( )

2

3

2

1

2

2

3

2 2

3

2

3

2

1

y r y r

r

y

.

With this expression of

( )

1 z

y S

, the shearing stress becomes

( )

2

3

2

1

2

4

2

1

2

3

2

64

2

y r

d

y r

T

bI

S T

bI

S T

Z

z

Z

z y

xy

,

(

r d 2

)

Fig. 10.19

210

Bending

which reduces to

( )

1

2

2

1

1

3

4

y

r

y

A

T

xy xy

,

_

, (10.26)

where A is the area of the entire circular section considered.

This shows that the shearing stresses xy

the circular section depth. The maximum shearing stress does also develop at the

level of the neutral axis and may be found by substituting 1

y

with zero in (10.26).

We have

( )

A

T

O

xy max xy

3

4

. (10.27)

This indicates that the maximum shearing stress in a circular section is 33 % greater

than the average shearing stress. We do also note that, for

r y t

1 , the shearing stress

xy

10.3 PREVENTION OF LONGITUDINAL SLIDING IN CASE OF

COMPOSITE SECTIONS

For beams with a long span or subjected to high loads, a high value of the

elastic cross-section modulus is required. In many such cases beams with composite

sections are chosen. If a beam, for example, were composed of two or more layers

placed on each other, bending would produce the effect shown in Fig. 10.20.

The separate layers 1 and 2 would slide past each other and the total strength of

the beam would be the sum of the strengths of the layers. The beam is considerably

weaker than a solid beam of equivalent dimensions.

To increase the strength of the beam shown in Fig. 10.20, the layers are

gripped together by means of several rivets or bolts. These rivets or bolts will prevent

Fig. 10.20

211

Strength of Materials

the layers from sliding when bended (Fig.10.21). The built-up beam will work like a

solid beam of equivalent dimensions, and a considerably more effort is required to

make it fail.

On the other hand the rivets or bolts which prevent the layers from sliding

reciprocally will be sheared by longitudinal forces developed at the layers separation

plane. It is important to mention that this horizontal reciprocal sliding tendency does

also occur even if the beam is solid. This may be explained through the longitudinal

shearing stresses yx

Numerical example

The composite beam shown in Fig. 10.22, is made by discontinuous welding. It is subjected

to a uniformly distributed force

m kN q / 42

and three concentrated forces

kN P 420

.

Knowing that the weld throat depth is

mm a 7

, the length of weld

mm c 100

and the weld

allowable shearing stress

MPa

a

80

:

a) Draw the shear and bending-moments diagrams;

b) Compute the values of I

z

and W

z

for the beam section involved;

c) Determine the maximum values of the normal and shearing stresses (

max

and

max

);

Fig. 10.21 Fig. 10.22

212

Bending

d) Determine the required value of length e at which the discontinuous welds have to be placed so

that the composite section would not fail in bending;

e) Draw the normal and shearing stresses distribution over the cross section 2

left

;

f) Compute the values of the principal stresses

1

and

2

at point K of section 2

right

.

Solution

a. The shear and bending moments diagrams have been sketched in Fig. 10.22.

b. Within the computation of the cross-sectional I

z

and W

z

we shall neglect the weld area. We write

therefore

4 8

3

2

3

10 40 , 20

12

800 10

2 240 20 410

12

20 240

mm I

z

+

1

1

]

1

;

3 5

8

10 57 , 48

420

10 40 , 20

mm

y

I

W

ax m

z

z

.

c. The maximum normal stress is

MPa

W

M

z

imax

max

32 , 151

10 57 , 48

10 735

5

6

.

The maximum shearing stress develops at the level of the neutral surface of the beam (Oz

axis) at the cross section where the shear is maximum. From Juravskis formula we have:

[ ]

MPa

I b

S T

z

z max

max

68 , 62

10 40 , 20 10

200 10 400 410 240 20 10 462

8

3

.

d. The welds are subjected to longitudinal shearing forces, which are a direct consequence of the

shearing stresses yx

As we already know, the longitudinal shearing stresses xy yx

may be computed with

Juravskis formula:

z

z

xy yx

I b

S T

.

For a covering computation we shall chose:

N T T

max

3

10 462

;

mm b b

min

10

;

4 8

10 40 , 20 mm I

z

;

3

410 240 20 mm S

z

.

Two welds (the upper right and left welds for example) have to cover the longitudinal

shearing force developed on a rectangular area of dimensions e b . This force is obtained from the

shearing stress yx

z

z

z

z

yx

I

e S T

e b

I b

S T

e b F

. (10.28)

On the other hand, this force has to be supported by the two welds of length c. We write

( )

a

z

z

a c a

I

e S T

2 2

,

which finally gives:

213

Strength of Materials

mm e 216

.

e. The normal and shearing stresses distribution at section 2

left

may be obtained using Naviers and

Juravsky's formulas. The results are given bellow.

At the level of point K (Fig. 10.22) two kinds of stresses develop:

A normal stress x

, perpendicular to the cross section at K;

A shearing stress xy

for all cross-sectional points located at level mn Fig. 10.22.

The principal stresses at K for the cross section 2

right

are:

( )

2 2

4

2

1

2

2 , 1 xy y x

y x

+ t

+

,

where

0

y

.

We write

( ) MPa y

I

M

k

z

i

x

72 , 147 410

10 40 , 20

10 735

) (

8

6

;

( )

MPa

I b

S T

k

z

z

xy

42 , 0

10 40 , 20 240

415 240 10 10 210

) (

8

3

.

It follows that

( )

2 2

42 , 0 4 72 , 147

2

1

2

72 , 147

2 , 1

+ t

,

which reduces to

'

. 721 , 147

; 00119 , 0

2

1

MPa

MPa

Fig. 10.23

214

Bending

The above presented matters concerning bending have been limited so far to

prismatic beams of constant cross sections. If the applied bending moment is constant

along the beam involved, the stresses developed at any cross section will have the

same value and distribution (Fig. 10.24).

Since the maximum normal stress max

beam, the strength condition

a max

(where a

normal stress for the material involved)

for the beam shown in Fig. 10.24 is met in

the same manner at each particular cross

section. If the applied bending moment

varies along the beam, the strength

condition must insure that the stresses in

the critical section(s) are at most

215

Strength of Materials

equal to the allowable values of the normal and shearing stresses (Fig. 10.25). It

follows that, in all other sections, the stresses will be smaller (or much smaller)

than the allowable stresses.

A prismatic beam therefore, is almost always overdesigned, and considerable savings

of material may be realized by using nonprismatic beams of variable cross sections.

The problem is, therefore, to design such beams for which the elastic cross

-sectional modulus z

W

(or y

W

) to vary along the beam ( z

W

= z

W

(x) or z

W

= z

W

(x)), so that at any cross section, to have

Fig. 10.25

216

Bending

( )

( )

.

a

z

i

x W

x M

(10.29)

It follows that

( )

a

i

z

x M

x W

) (

. (10.30)

If we know the variation law of the bending moment as a function of x (

) (x M M

i i

)

and the stress allowable value of the material involved - a

geometry of the beam which to lead to an optimum use of the material. A beam

designed in this manner is referred to as a beam of constant strength.

Let us now return to the beam represented in Fig. 10.26 in a simplified manner.

The bending moment diagram shows a linear variation of i

M

with respect to x:

x P M

i

.

This beam may be designed as a beam of constant strength if we vary the cross

section in a continuous way along the length of the member. Usually, there are two

ways to do this in practical applications:

to vary the depth of the beam at constant width

or

to vary the width of the beam at constant depth.

Let us now consider the first case (Fig. 10.26). The strength condition at any cross

section of the beam is:

a

z

i

max

x W

x M

) (

) (

.

It follows therefore that

,

6

) (

) (

2

x h b x P

x W

a

z

which gives

Fig. 10.26

217

Strength of Materials

a

b

x P

x h

6

) (

. (10.31)

Formula (10.31) shows us a parabolic variation of the beam cross section depth as a

function of x. The geometry of such a beam has been represented in Fig. 10.26. On

the other hand, it is important to note that, for cross sections located in the vicinity of

the external force P application point, the cross sectional area decreases too much and

does not meet the shearing stresses strength condition requirement (

a max

A

P

A

T

2

3

2

3

, A: the cross-sectional area; a

shearing stresses).

This is why we have to adopt a constant cross section which to insure the

shearing stresses strength condition for a certain length 0

x

of the beam (Fig. 10.26).

We denote by 0

y

the depth of the beam throughout this portion. We write

therefore

a max

y b

P

A

T

0

2

3

2

3

,

which gives

( )

a a

b

x P

x h

b

P

y

0

0

6

2

3

0 .

This means that

2 2 2

2

2 2

2

8

3

6 4

9 6

4

9

0

0

a

a a

a a a

b

P

P

b

b

P

x

b

x P

b

P

.

In conclusion, the beam of constant strength (with a variable depth and a

constant width) must have a constant cross section for a length

2

8

3

0

a

a

b

P

x

,

following than a parabolic

variation of the depth, as shown in

Fig. 10.26. The beam of constant

strength designed in this manner

provides savings of material of

aprox. 30 %, with respect to a

prismatic beam (Fig. 10.27).

The volume of the beam of constant strength is (Fig. 10.27)

abc V

3

2

.

In the second case we may keep the depth constant and vary the width of the

Fig. 10.27

218

Bending

beam (Fig. 10.28). We shall follow the same reasoning. The only difference

compared with the preceding case consists in the variation of the width instead of that

of the depth.

The strength condition at any cross section of the beam is:

( )

( )

a

z

i

max

x W

x M

.

It follows therefore that

( )

6

) (

2

h x b x P

x W

a

z

,

which gives

( )

a

h

x P

x b

2

6

. (10.32)

Formula (10.32) shows us a linear variation of the beam cross section width as a

function of x. The geometry of such a beam has been represented in Fig. 10.28. On

the other hand, as specified in the preceding case, the shearing stresses strength

condition requirement must also be met. We write therefore (Fig. 10.28):

a max

b h

P

A

T

1

2

3

2

3

,

which gives

a a

h

x P

h

P

b

2

1

1

6

2

3

.

This means that

Fig. 10.28

219

Strength of Materials

a

a a

a

h

P

h

h

P

x

4 6 2

3

2

1

.

In conclusion, the beam of constant strength (with a variable width and a

constant depth) must have a constant cross section for a length

a

a

h

x

4

1

, following

then a linear variation of the width, as shown in Fig. 10.28. The beam of constant

strength designed in this manner

provides savings of material of

aprox. 50 % with respect to a

prismatic beam (Fig. 10.29).

The volume of the beam of constant strength is (Fig. 10.29).

abc V

2

1

.

10.5 UNSYMMETRIC BENDING

A beam is said to be under unsymmetric bending if at any cross section the

bending moment vector is not directed along a principal centroidal axis of the cross

section (Fig. 10.30).

GENERAL CASE OF UNSYMMETRIC BENDING STATE OF STRESS

Consider a straight beam of constant cross section subjected to unsymmetric

bending. A centroidal rectangular coordinate system zOy is attached to the beam

cross sections (Fig. 10.31). Due to the action of the applied bending moment i

M

(with components iz

M

and iy

M

), normal stresses develop at the level of each

Fig. 10.29

Fig. 10.30

220

Bending

particular elementary area

A d

of the beam cross section. To derive the unsymmetric

bending formulas, we make the following assumptions:

stresses do not exceed the proportional limit (i.e. Hookes law is

available;

the beam is in unsymmetric bending;

Bernoullis hypothesis is also valid.

The stresses developed may be obtained by superposing the stresses

corresponding to the bending moment components iz

M

and iy

M

, as long as the

conditions of applicability of the principle of superposition are satisfied. Within the

context of the above presented assumptions, we may consider that the normal strain

of the beam longitudinal fibres does linearly depends upon the coordinates z and y.

We may write therefore:

3 2 1

C y C z C

x

+ +

, (10.33)

where C

1

, C

2

and C

3

are constants.

Since the Hooke s law conditions are satisfied we have

( ) + +

3 2 1

C y C z C E E

x x

(10.34)

3 2 1 3 2 1

C y C z C C E y C E z C E + + + +

.

where C

1

, C

2

and C

3

are also constants.

The relationships among internal forces and stresses within the involved beam

cross section may be written as follows

A A A

iz iy

M A y M A z A N . d ; d ; 0 d

(10.35)

We may now substitute 3 2 1

C y C z C + +

into (10.44) and write

Fig. 10.31

221

Strength of Materials

( )

( )

( )

'

+ +

+ +

+ +

A

iz

A

iy

A

M A y C y C z C

M A z C y C z C

A C y C z C

. d

; d

; 0 d

3 2 1

3 2 1

3 2 1

'

+ +

+ +

+ +

A A A

iz

A A A

iy

A A A

M A y C A y C A zy C

M A z C A yz C A z C

A C A y C A z C

. d d d

; d d d

; 0 d d d

3

2

2 1

3 2

2

1

3 2 1

(10.36)

It follows that

'

+ +

+ +

+ +

. 0

;

;

3 2 1

3 2 1

3 2 1

A C S C S C

M S C I C I C

M S C I C I C

z y

iy y zy y

iz z z zy

(10.37)

Since Oz and Oy are centroidal axes we have

; 0 d

A

z

A y S

. 0 d

A

y

A z S

In these conditions, the last relation of (10.37) gives

0 0

3 3

C A C

. (10.38)

We may now retain the first two relations of (10.37), with C

3

= 0, and (10.34) in a

single system of three equations:

222

Bending

'

+

+

+

.

;

;

2 1

2 1

2 1

y C z C

M I C I C

M I C I C

iy zy y

iz z zy

(10.39)

This may be considered a system of three equations with two unknowns (C

1

and C

2

).

The condition of compatibility in accordance with Rouches theorem is therefore

0

y z

M I I

M I I

iy zy y

iz z zy

, (10.40)

where

0

zy y

z zy

I I

I I

.

It follows that

0 + +

zy y

z zy

iy

z zy

iz

zy y

I I

I I

M

y z

I I

M

y z

I I

,

which finally reduces to:

iy

zy y z

z zy

iz

zy y z

zy y

M

I I I

I z I y

M

I I I

I z I y

2 2

, (10.41)

The condition

0

, leads to the equation of the cross section neutral axis (N.A):

( ) ( ) 0 +

iy z zy iz zy y

M z I y I M z I y I

. (10.42)

10.6 GENERAL BENDING

A beam is said to be under general bending if the forces acting on the beam are not

located within the same plane, but the support of each force does intersect the Ox axis

of the beam (Fig. 10.3). In such cases the beam deforms after a certain curve in space.

The neutral axes of different cross sections will not be located within the same plane

and there will be NO neutral plane.

To resolve such cases the following steps have to be covered:

The external forces have to be resolved about two principal planes (Oz and Oy);

223

Strength of Materials

The bending moment diagrams must be then drawn for each of the two planes

(Oz and Oy);

The critical sections (where the resultant bending moment has maximum

values) must be established;

For each critical section the maximum normal stress has to be computed and

then compared with the normal stress allowable value of the material involved.

224

Bending

PROBLEMS TO BE ASSIGNED

P.10

P.10.1 For the beams shown (Fig. P.10.1):

(a) Draw the shearing force and bending moment diagrams;

(b) Determine the cross-sections centroidal points, I

z

and W

z

;

(c) Determine the required dimensions of the cross-sections (t=?) if

a

= 180 MPa.

a.

b.

c.

d.

Fig. P.10.1

225

Strength of Materials

P.10.2 For the beam shown in Fig. P.10.2, determine the largest value of the uniformly distributed

force q which may be applied without exceeding either of the following allowable stresses:

a

= -

90 MPa and

a

= + 30 MPa.

Fig. P.10.2

P.10.3 For the beam shown in Fig. P.10.3:

(a) Draw the shear and bending moment diagram;

(b) Determine the centroid, I

z

and W

z

of the cross-section;

(c) Determine the allowable uniformly distributed load q if

a

= + 40 MPa in tension and

a

=

-120 MPa in compression.

Fig. P.10.3

P.10.4 A steel I - shaped beam must support the loading shown (Fig. P.10.4). Knowing that

all

=

180 MPa, select the lightest I- shaped profile required.

Fig. P.10.4

P.10.5. For the beam and loading shown (Fig. P.10.5):

(a) Draw the shear and bending moment diagrams;

(b) Determine the required value of t if

a

= 200 MPa ;

(c) Draw the normal and shearing stresses diagrams at sections A

left

and B

left

.

226

Bending

Fig. P.10.5

P.10.6 A cantilever beam AB has a constant depth h = 20 mm and a variable width b as shown

(Fig. P.10.6). Locate the cross section where the normal stress has a maximum value and

determine this value.

Fig. P.10.6

P.10.7 Three beams of the same cross section are pin connected at B and C and loaded as shown

(Fig. P.10.7). Determine the required value of the uniformly distributed load q knowing that

a

=

160 MPa.

Fig. P.10.7

227

Strength of Materials

228

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