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10.

BENDING
A member is said to be in bending if at its current cross section a bending
moment develops. A member in bending is called beam. The bending may be
classified using different criteria:
a) After the forces position in space, we have:
plane bending: the forces acting on the beam are located within the same
plane, this plane containing the beam axis and one of the principal axes
of inertia of the beam cross sections (Fig. 10.1).
unsymmetric bending: the forces acting on the beam are located within
the same plane, this plane contains the beam axis but contains neither of
the principal axes of inertia of the beam cross sections (Fig. 10.2).
general bending: the forces acting on the beam are not located within the
same plane, but each force does intersect the axis (Ox) of the beam (Fig.
10.3).
Fig. 10.1 Fig. 10.2

Fig. 10.3
Strength of Materials
b) After the types of internal forces developing at the current cross section we
have:
pure bending: the internal forces reduce to a bending moment (of a
constant value, orientation and sense along the beam), the shearing force
being zero (Fig. 10.4a and Fig. 10.4b between points 1 and 2).
simple bending: the bending moment M
i
developed at the current cross
section of the beam is accompanied by the shearing force T (Fig. 10.4b,
between points A-1 and B-2).
10.1 PRISMATIC MEMBERS IN PURE BENDING
As discussed above, an example of a member in pure bending is furnished by
the portion 1-2 of the beam shown in Fig. 10.4b. In deriving the pure bending
formulas, we make the following assumptions:
the beam material is continuous, homogeneous, isotropic and elastic;
material modulus of elasticity in tension is equal to that in compression;
the beam cross section is constant along the member involved;
stresses do not exceed the proportional limit (i.e. Hookes law is
available);
the beam is in pure bending;
Bernoullis hypothesis is also valid.
We shall now detach a portion of infinitely small length dx, located between
points 1 and 2, from the beam shown in Fig. 10.4b (Fig. 10.5). This portion is
bounded by the planes (I and II) perpendicular to the axis of the beam. Due to the
a. b.
Fig. 10.4
196
Bending
action of the external loads the portion considered will bend, but will remain
symmetric with respect to the plane containing the loads applied to the beam.
Moreover, since the bending moment M
iz
is the same at any cross section, the
portion considered will bend uniformly (Fig. 10.5b). Thus the line C

(for
example) along which the upper face of the member intersects the plane of the
external forces P will have a constant curvature. In other words, the line C

, which
was originally a straight line, will be transformed into a circle of center O
1
and so will
the lines CD, C

D

etc.
On the other hand, we note that, due to the action of the external loads, the
longitudinal fibers of the portion considered will deform: the fibres of the upper part
of the portion considered decrease in length while the fibers of the lower part increase
in length.
It follows that there must exist a surface parallel to the upper and the lower
faces of the beam whose fibers do neither increase nor decrease in length. This
surface is called the neutral surface. The neutral surface intersects the plane of forces
P along an arc of circle CD (Fig. 10.5b) which is called the neutral axis of the beam.
Since the longitudinal fibres of the member in pure bending do modify their
length along the longitudinal direction, we conclude that normal stresses x

develop
at any cross section of such a member. Using the theory of elasticity or certain
experimental methods, one may verify that the normal component x

is the only
nonzero stress component exerted on the current cross-sectional points of the beam.
Let us now return for a while to the bended portion of the beam represented in
Fig. 10.5b. We denote by
d
the angle made by the two sectional planes I and II
which bound the beam portion considered and by

the radius of curvature


corresponding to the neutral axis CD. We shall now consider a fibre C

located at a
distance y bellow the neutral surface. As discussed above, the neutral fibre CD will
a.
(Scheme of Fig. 10.4b)
b.
Fig. 10.5
197
Strength of Materials
not modify its length in bending. The length of fibre CD will therefore remain equal
to dx. We write
d d x
, (10.1)
On the other hand, the arbitrary longitudinal fibre C

considered will change its


original length dx with quantity
( ) dx
. We have
( ) ( ) d d d y x x + +
, (10.2)
It follows that
d d ) (d d y x + +
,
or
( ) d d y x
. (10.3)
The strain x

of fibre C

considered becomes therefore


( )

y y
x
x
x

d
d
d
d

. (10.4)
We conclude that the longitudinal normal strain x

varies linearly, throughout


the member, with the distance y from the neutral surface. Moreover, since Hookes
law for uniaxial stress applies, we have:


y E
E
x x


, (10.5)
where E is the modulus of
elasticity of the material
involved.
Formula (10.5) shows that, in the elastic range, the normal stress varies linearly
with the distance from the neutral surface (Fig. 10.6).
Recalling the relations between the internal forces and stresses, applied to the
beam shown in Fig. 10.6, we write:
0 0 d 0 d 0 d

z
A A A
S
E
A y
E
A
y E
A N

0
z
S
. (10.6)
(This means that Oz is a centroidal axis.)
0 0 d 0 d 0 d

zy
A A A
iy
I
E
A z y
E
A z
Ey
A z M

Fig. 10.6
198
Bending
0
zy
I
. (10.7)
(This means that Oz and Oy are the principal axis of inertia of the beam cross section)


iz z
A
iz iz
A A
iz
M I
E
M A y
E
M A y
Ey
A y M

d d d
2

z
iz
EI
M

1
(10.8)
Formula (10.8) (usually called Euler-Bernoulli's formula) gives us the
expression of the curvature of the beam neutral surface as a function of the applied
bending moment M
iz
,

modulus of elasticity E and the second moment of the beam
cross sectional area A with respect to the axis about which the bending moment is
applied (I
z
). The curvature is defined as the reciprocal of the radius of curvature

. It
measures the deformation of the member caused by the bending moment M
iz
.
Substituting

1
for
z
iz
EI
M
into (10.5), we write:
y
I
M
EI
M
y E y E
z
iz
z
iz
x


1
.
We have obtained therefore the expression of the normal stress x

at any distance y
from the neutral axis (Oz) as:
y
I
M
z
iz

, (10.9)
called Naviers formula or elastic flexure formula. We note that the stress is
compressive above the neutral axis (y < 0) and tensile below the neutral axis (y > 0).
This happens only if the applied bending moment is positive (Fig. 10.7a). If the
bending moment at the cross section considered is negative then we shall have
compression bellow and tension above the neutral axis (Fig. 10.7b).
From formula (10.9) it follows that the maximum normal stress develops at
cross sectional points for which the distance y is maximum.
199
Strength of Materials
We write
z
iz
max
z
iz
max
z
iz
max
W
M
y
I
M
y
I
M

, (10.10)
where
max
z
z
y
I
W
is called the elastic cross section modulus with respect to the Oz
axis.
The strength condition becomes therefore
a
z
max i
max
W
M

, (10.11)
where a

is the allowable value of the normal stress for the material involved.
The elastic cross section modulus depends upon the shape and dimensions of
the cross - section:
rectangular cross section (Fig. 10.8):
a.
b.
Fig. 10.7
200
Bending
6
2
12
2
3
bh
h
bh
y
I
W
max
z
z
. (10.12)
Fig. 10.8
circular cross section (Fig.10.9):
32
2
64
3
4
d
d
d
y
I
W
max
z
z

. (10.13)
Fig. 10.9
annular cross-section (Fig. 10.10):


2
64 64
4 4
D
d D
y
I
W
max
z
z

( )
4
3
4
4
1
32
2
1
64
c
D
D
D
d D

1
1
]
1

,
_

,
(10.14)
Fig. 10.10
where the ratio
D
d
has been denoted by c.
IMPORTANT REMARK
The relatively small number of engineering application where pure bending is
encountered does not justify a complex study in this matter. Fortunately the results
obtained for pure bending may be also applied to simple bending or to other types of
loading as well. An example is presented below.
201
Strength of Materials
Numerical example
A steel beam of the cross-section shown, is subjected to several external loads (Fig. 10.11).
Knowing that
MPa
a
150

:
a) Draw the shear and bending moment diagrams;
b) Determine the values of I
z
and W
z
;
c) Determine the minimum allowable value of dimension b so that the beam would not fail
due to the action of the external loads.
a) For the shear and bending moment diagrams we write
0 8 20 4 4 8 2 30 20 2 10 0 + +
B A
Y M
;

kN Y
B
21
.
0 20 4 4 8 6 30 20 8 10 10 0 + + +
A B
Y M
;

kN Y
A
51
.
With these values, the shear and bending moment diagrams have been sketched in Fig. 10.11.
b) The second moment of the beam cross - sectional area is:
( )
4
4
3
666 , 0
64
4
12
2
b
b
b b
I
z

,
_

.
It follows that
Fig. 10.11
202
Bending
3
4
666 , 0
666 , 0
b
b
b
y
I
W
max
z
z


.
c) The maximum normal stress is
MPa
b W
M
all
z
max i
max
150
666 , 0
10 56 , 89
3
6


.
Thus
mm b 97
150 666 , 0
10 56 , 89
3
6

.
It is important to note that formula (10.9) has been derived for a member with a
plane of symmetry and a uniform cross section. As presented in chapter 6 or 9, for
beams heaving a variable cross section, the corresponding normal stresses will not
agree with Naviers formula. In such cases a stress concentration occurs. For
example higher stresses develop if the beam cross-section presents a sudden change
(Fig. 10.12). The ratio between the maximum actual normal stress ( max
'
) and the
maximum stress ( max

) computed with formula (10.10) is called the stress


concentration factor:
max
max
k

(10.15)
The stress concentration
factor is given in form of
tables or graphs for
different particular cases.
The actual value of the
maximum stress at the
critical cross section may
be then expressed as
ax m k max

,
where max

is computed with Naviers formula.


10.2 SHEARING STRESSES IN BEAMS SUBJECTED TO SIMPLE
BENDING
Fig. 10.12
203
Strength of Materials
Let us consider a beam with a vertical plane of symmetry, in simple bending.
This means that, at any cross section, the bending moment (M
iz
or M
iy
) is
accompanied by the corresponding shearing force (T
y
or T
z
respectively) - Fig. 10.13.
Since a shearing force develops at any cross section of the beam, besides the normal
stresses x

, shearing stresses

do also develop at any elementary area dA of the


cross section. It may be shown that, excepting some particular points of the cross
section, the direction of

(with components xy

and xz

) cannot be determined
using the strength of materials methods only.
For example, let us detache the element abcda'b'c'd' from the beam represented in
Fig. 10.13b, Fig. 10.14. We assume that, at an arbitrary point B located on the
circumference of the beam cross section, the shearing stress

has an arbitrary
direction. It may be resolved however into two components 1

and 2

as shown in
the figure. But we know that shear cannot take place in one plane only, an equal
shearing stress occuring on another plane perpendicular to the first one. This means
that 1

must be accompanied by
'
1

which is perpendicular to 1

and contained
within the surface aba'b' . Since the face aba'b' of the element considered is a part of
the free surface of the beam, all stresses on this face must be zero. Thus,
a. b.
Fig. 10.13
204
Bending
0
'
1

. (10.16)
It follows that
0
1 1

. (10.17)
Since the stress component 1

equals zero, we conclude that the shearing stress

at
point B acts along the tangent at the cross section circumference. This conclusion
remains valid for any particular point of the cross section circumference.
Let us now to return to the current cross section of the beam represented in Fig.
10.13a. As mentioned above, at the level of
this cross section the internal forces are
represented by the bending moment M
iz
and
the shearing force T
y
. Since the effect of M
iz
(which gives the normal stresses x

) has
been discussed previously (Navier's formula)
we shall now concentrate our attention on the
shearing stresses. We shall try to investigate
the shearing stresses occuring at points
located on an arbitrary segment mn, parallel
to Oz axis, at distance y from the neutral
surface (i.e. from Oz axis) (Fig. 10.15). As
demonstrated above, at points m and n the
shearing stress

is tangent to the cross


section circumference. On the other hand, due
to the symmetry of the cross section with
respect to the plane Oxy, the tangents at
points m and n will intersect the Oy axis at the
same point O
1
(Fig. 10.15). Within such a
context, two basic assumptions (usually called Juravski's assumptions) have to be
considered:
for any other point m
1
of segment mn, the direction of

passes through
point O
1
;
the shearing stress xy

remains constant for all points located on the


segment mn. Its value depends only upon the distance y from the Oz axis (i.e.
from the neutral surface).
From Fig. 10.15 we have

(10.18)
Fig. 10.14
Fig. 10.15
205
Strength of Materials
1 1 1
1
1
1
tg ) ( ) (
) (
) (
tg

m m
m
m
xy xz
xy
xz
.
At point C, for which
0
1

, we write
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 0 tg
1
C C C
xy xy xz

. (10.19)
In other words, the shearing stress component xz

at any particular point of segment


mn may be expressed as a function of xy

. The problem is, therefore, to find out the


mathematical connection between the shearing stress component xy

and the shearing


force T
y
over the cross section considered. This will be done bellow.
We shall now detache from the beam of Fig. 10.13 a portion of infinitely small
length dx, bounded by two planes perpendicular to the axis of the beam (sections S
1
and S
2
) (Fig. 10.16a). We do also cut this portion with a longitudinal plane passing
through an arbitrary segment mn (analogous to that of Fig. 10.15) of the beam cross

a.
b.
Fig. 10.16
206
Bending
section. This plane (mnm'n') will be, therefore, parallel to the beam neutral surface
(Fig. 10.16b).
We shall now retain only that part of the beam located bellow the sectional plane
mnm'n' (Fig. 10.16b). We denote by A
1
the area of surface mnq (this area remaining
constant along Ox axis) and by b the width of the beam of distance y from the neutral
axis Oz. As represented in Fig. 10.16b, at the level of the cross section S
1
, iz i
M M

and T
y
develop, while, at the level of the cross section S
2
, i i
M M d +
and y
T
develop
as cross sectional internal forces. The retained element mnqm'n'q' is subjected to:
the cross sectional shearing stresses xy

developed at the level of the cross-


sectional points located on segment mn. As discussed above, these stresses
are accompanied by equal longitudinal shearing stresses yx

.
the normal stresses

developed at the level of the cross-sectional surfaces


mnq and m'n'q' of area A
1
.
The axial force N
1
developed at the level of the entire mnq surface is therefore
z
A
z
i
z
i
A
z
i
A
S
I
M
A y
I
M
A y
I
M
A N

1 1 1
d d d
1 1 1

, (10.20)
where
z
S
is the first moment of
1
A
with respect to the neutral axis Oz while I
z
is the
moment of inertia of the entire cross sectional area of the beam about the neutral axis.
Since an increase of the bending moment ( i
M d
) occurs at the level of section
2
S
,
the axial force developed at surface mnq is therefore
( )
z
z i i
I
S dM M
N N N
+
+
1 1 2
d
. (10.21)
We shall now write the equilibrium equation of element mnqmnq about Ox axis as
follows:
( )
0 d
d

+
z
z
i
yx
z
z i i
S
I
M
x b
I
S M M

.
We note that

x b
yx
d
is the corresponding axial force given by the average shearing stress
yx

over the differential area of width b and length dx.

i
M d
represents the differential change in bending moment
i
M
within the
distance dx.
We write:

0 d
d
z
z
i
yx
z
z i
z
z i
S
I
M
x b
I
S M
I
S M

207
Naviers formula
Strength of Materials


z
z i
yx
z
z i
yx
I b
S
x
M
I
S M
x b
d
d d
d
z
z y
yx
I b
S T


.
In other words, the shearing stress xy

developed at the level of the beam cross


sectional points located on segment mn, at distance y from the neutral axis Oz, may
be expressed through:
Z
z y
yx xy
I b
S T


(Jurawskis formula), (10.22)
where
T
y
: the shearing force at the beam cross-section considered;
b: the width of the beam cross-section at the level where the shearing
stresses must be derived;
I
z
: the moment of inertia of the entire cross-section with respect to Oz
neutral axis;
S
z
: the first moment of the area located either above or bellow the level
where the shearing stresses have to be computed.
It is important to note that the crosssectional shearing stresses xy

(which depend
upon the quantities described in formula (10.22)), are always accompanied by equal
longitudinal shearing stresses which tend to shear the beam about a longitudinal
plane (Fig. 10.17a). In other words, at each such level a reciprocal sliding tendency
occurs (Fig. 10.17b).
a. b.
Fig. 10.17
208
Bending
RECTANGULAR SECTIONS
The distribution of shearing stresses ( xy

) in a rectangular section may be sketched


using formula (10.22) Fig. 10.18. We shall compute the shearing stress value, at a
current level mn located at distance y
1
from the neutral axis and then we shall
represent the shearing stress variation along the rectangular section depth as a
function of y
1
. Thus, at the level mn (Fig. 10.18) we write

z
z
z
z y
xy
I b
S T
I b
S T



,
_

,
_

,
_

2
1
2
3 1 1 3
y
4
h
2
b
12
bh
b
T
y
2
h
2
1
y
2
h
b
12
bh
b
T
=

,
_

2
1
2
3
y
4
h
bh
T 6
.
We write therefore
) (
1 xy
2
1
2
3 xy
y y
4
h
bh
T 6

,
_


. (10.23)
This shows that the shearing stresses xy

have a parabolical distribution along the


rectangular section depth. The maximum shearing stress develops at the level of the
neutral axis and may be found by substituting y
1
with zero in (10.23). We have
A
T
bh
T h
bh
T
xy xy

2
3
2
3
4
6
) 0 (
2
3
max

.
This means that, the maximum shearing stress developing at the level of the neutral
axis Oz is
A
T
2
3

max

, (10.24)
Fig. 10.18
209
Strength of Materials
where A is the rectangular area (
h b A
). In other words the maximum shearing
stress is 50 % greater than the average shearing stress.
We do also note that, for
2
1
h
y t
, the shearing stress xy

becomes zero.
CIRCULAR SECTIONS
The distribution of shearing stresses in a circular section may be derived in a
similar manner. We shall
compute the value of the
shearing stress at a current
level mn, at distance y
1
from the neutral axis and
then we shall represent the
shearing stresses variation
along the circular section
depth as a function of y
1
(Fig. 10.19).
For convenience we shall first derive the current expression of the first moment
of the area A
1
located below the current level mn (hachured area of Fig. 10.19) with
respect to the neutral axis Oz as a function of distance y
1
. We write

1
d ) (
1
A
mn z
A y y S
. (10.25)
We select the element of area dA in the shape of a thin horizontal strip and thus
reduce the computation of the above double integral to integration in a single variable
(Fig. 10.19). We write
y y r y b A
y
d 2 d d
2 2

,
where r is the radius of the circular section. We have therefore
( ) ( )


y y r y r y y r y A y y S
r
y A
r
y
z
d d 2 d
2 2 2 2 2 2
1
1 1 1
( ) ( )
2
3
2
1
2
2
3
2 2
3
2
3
2
1
y r y r
r
y
.
With this expression of
( )
1 z
y S
, the shearing stress becomes
( )
2
3
2
1
2
4
2
1
2
3
2
64
2
y r
d
y r
T
bI
S T
bI
S T
Z
z
Z
z y
xy

,
(
r d 2
)
Fig. 10.19
210
Bending
which reduces to
( )
1
2
2
1
1
3
4
y
r
y
A
T
xy xy

,
_


, (10.26)
where A is the area of the entire circular section considered.
This shows that the shearing stresses xy

have a parabolic distribution along


the circular section depth. The maximum shearing stress does also develop at the
level of the neutral axis and may be found by substituting 1
y
with zero in (10.26).
We have
( )
A
T
O
xy max xy

3
4

. (10.27)
This indicates that the maximum shearing stress in a circular section is 33 % greater
than the average shearing stress. We do also note that, for
r y t
1 , the shearing stress
xy

becomes zero (Fig. 10.19).


10.3 PREVENTION OF LONGITUDINAL SLIDING IN CASE OF
COMPOSITE SECTIONS
For beams with a long span or subjected to high loads, a high value of the
elastic cross-section modulus is required. In many such cases beams with composite
sections are chosen. If a beam, for example, were composed of two or more layers
placed on each other, bending would produce the effect shown in Fig. 10.20.
The separate layers 1 and 2 would slide past each other and the total strength of
the beam would be the sum of the strengths of the layers. The beam is considerably
weaker than a solid beam of equivalent dimensions.
To increase the strength of the beam shown in Fig. 10.20, the layers are
gripped together by means of several rivets or bolts. These rivets or bolts will prevent
Fig. 10.20
211
Strength of Materials
the layers from sliding when bended (Fig.10.21). The built-up beam will work like a
solid beam of equivalent dimensions, and a considerably more effort is required to
make it fail.
On the other hand the rivets or bolts which prevent the layers from sliding
reciprocally will be sheared by longitudinal forces developed at the layers separation
plane. It is important to mention that this horizontal reciprocal sliding tendency does
also occur even if the beam is solid. This may be explained through the longitudinal
shearing stresses yx

which develop in simple bending (Fig. 10.17).


Numerical example
The composite beam shown in Fig. 10.22, is made by discontinuous welding. It is subjected
to a uniformly distributed force
m kN q / 42
and three concentrated forces
kN P 420
.
Knowing that the weld throat depth is
mm a 7
, the length of weld
mm c 100
and the weld
allowable shearing stress
MPa
a
80

:
a) Draw the shear and bending-moments diagrams;
b) Compute the values of I
z
and W
z
for the beam section involved;
c) Determine the maximum values of the normal and shearing stresses (
max

and
max

);
Fig. 10.21 Fig. 10.22
212
Bending
d) Determine the required value of length e at which the discontinuous welds have to be placed so
that the composite section would not fail in bending;
e) Draw the normal and shearing stresses distribution over the cross section 2
left
;
f) Compute the values of the principal stresses
1

and
2

at point K of section 2
right
.
Solution
a. The shear and bending moments diagrams have been sketched in Fig. 10.22.
b. Within the computation of the cross-sectional I
z
and W
z
we shall neglect the weld area. We write
therefore
4 8
3
2
3
10 40 , 20
12
800 10
2 240 20 410
12
20 240
mm I
z

+
1
1
]
1

;
3 5
8
10 57 , 48
420
10 40 , 20
mm
y
I
W
ax m
z
z


.
c. The maximum normal stress is
MPa
W
M
z
imax
max
32 , 151
10 57 , 48
10 735
5
6


.
The maximum shearing stress develops at the level of the neutral surface of the beam (Oz
axis) at the cross section where the shear is maximum. From Juravskis formula we have:
[ ]
MPa
I b
S T
z
z max
max
68 , 62
10 40 , 20 10
200 10 400 410 240 20 10 462
8
3


.
d. The welds are subjected to longitudinal shearing forces, which are a direct consequence of the
shearing stresses yx

which develop on longitudinal planes at levels mn or m n Fig. 10.22.


As we already know, the longitudinal shearing stresses xy yx

may be computed with
Juravskis formula:
z
z
xy yx
I b
S T


.
For a covering computation we shall chose:
N T T
max
3
10 462
;
mm b b
min
10
;
4 8
10 40 , 20 mm I
z
;
3
410 240 20 mm S
z
.
Two welds (the upper right and left welds for example) have to cover the longitudinal
shearing force developed on a rectangular area of dimensions e b . This force is obtained from the
shearing stress yx

multiplied by this area:


z
z
z
z
yx
I
e S T
e b
I b
S T
e b F


. (10.28)
On the other hand, this force has to be supported by the two welds of length c. We write
( )
a
z
z
a c a
I
e S T


2 2
,
which finally gives:
213
Strength of Materials
mm e 216
.

e. The normal and shearing stresses distribution at section 2
left
may be obtained using Naviers and
Juravsky's formulas. The results are given bellow.
At the level of point K (Fig. 10.22) two kinds of stresses develop:
A normal stress x

, perpendicular to the cross section at K;
A shearing stress xy

, acting within the cross-sectional plane, and of a constant value


for all cross-sectional points located at level mn Fig. 10.22.
The principal stresses at K for the cross section 2
right
are:
( )
2 2
4
2
1
2
2 , 1 xy y x
y x


+ t
+
,
where
0
y

.
We write
( ) MPa y
I
M
k
z
i
x
72 , 147 410
10 40 , 20
10 735
) (
8
6


;
( )
MPa
I b
S T
k
z
z
xy
42 , 0
10 40 , 20 240
415 240 10 10 210
) (
8
3


.
It follows that
( )
2 2
42 , 0 4 72 , 147
2
1
2
72 , 147
2 , 1
+ t


,
which reduces to

'

. 721 , 147
; 00119 , 0
2
1
MPa
MPa

10.4 BEAMS OF CONSTANT STRENGTH



Fig. 10.23
214
Bending
The above presented matters concerning bending have been limited so far to
prismatic beams of constant cross sections. If the applied bending moment is constant
along the beam involved, the stresses developed at any cross section will have the
same value and distribution (Fig. 10.24).
Since the maximum normal stress max

usually controls the design of the


beam, the strength condition
a max

(where a

is the allowable value of the


normal stress for the material involved)
for the beam shown in Fig. 10.24 is met in
the same manner at each particular cross
section. If the applied bending moment
varies along the beam, the strength
condition must insure that the stresses in
the critical section(s) are at most
215
Strength of Materials
equal to the allowable values of the normal and shearing stresses (Fig. 10.25). It
follows that, in all other sections, the stresses will be smaller (or much smaller)
than the allowable stresses.
A prismatic beam therefore, is almost always overdesigned, and considerable savings
of material may be realized by using nonprismatic beams of variable cross sections.
The problem is, therefore, to design such beams for which the elastic cross
-sectional modulus z
W
(or y
W
) to vary along the beam ( z
W
= z
W
(x) or z
W
= z
W
(x)), so that at any cross section, to have
Fig. 10.25
216
Bending
( )
( )
.
a
z
i
x W
x M

(10.29)
It follows that
( )
a
i
z
x M
x W

) (
. (10.30)
If we know the variation law of the bending moment as a function of x (
) (x M M
i i

)
and the stress allowable value of the material involved - a

, we may thus design the


geometry of the beam which to lead to an optimum use of the material. A beam
designed in this manner is referred to as a beam of constant strength.
Let us now return to the beam represented in Fig. 10.26 in a simplified manner.
The bending moment diagram shows a linear variation of i
M
with respect to x:

x P M
i

.
This beam may be designed as a beam of constant strength if we vary the cross
section in a continuous way along the length of the member. Usually, there are two
ways to do this in practical applications:
to vary the depth of the beam at constant width
or
to vary the width of the beam at constant depth.
Let us now consider the first case (Fig. 10.26). The strength condition at any cross
section of the beam is:
a
z
i
max
x W
x M

) (
) (
.
It follows therefore that
,
6
) (
) (
2
x h b x P
x W
a
z

which gives
Fig. 10.26
217
Strength of Materials
a
b
x P
x h

6
) (
. (10.31)
Formula (10.31) shows us a parabolic variation of the beam cross section depth as a
function of x. The geometry of such a beam has been represented in Fig. 10.26. On
the other hand, it is important to note that, for cross sections located in the vicinity of
the external force P application point, the cross sectional area decreases too much and
does not meet the shearing stresses strength condition requirement (
a max
A
P
A
T

2
3
2
3
, A: the cross-sectional area; a

: the allowable value of the


shearing stresses).
This is why we have to adopt a constant cross section which to insure the
shearing stresses strength condition for a certain length 0
x
of the beam (Fig. 10.26).
We denote by 0
y
the depth of the beam throughout this portion. We write
therefore
a max
y b
P
A
T


0
2
3
2
3
,
which gives
( )
a a
b
x P
x h
b
P
y

0
0
6
2
3
0 .
This means that
2 2 2
2
2 2
2
8
3
6 4
9 6
4
9
0
0


a
a a
a a a
b
P
P
b
b
P
x
b
x P
b
P

.
In conclusion, the beam of constant strength (with a variable depth and a
constant width) must have a constant cross section for a length
2
8
3
0

a
a
b
P
x

,
following than a parabolic
variation of the depth, as shown in
Fig. 10.26. The beam of constant
strength designed in this manner
provides savings of material of
aprox. 30 %, with respect to a
prismatic beam (Fig. 10.27).
The volume of the beam of constant strength is (Fig. 10.27)

abc V
3
2

.
In the second case we may keep the depth constant and vary the width of the
Fig. 10.27
218
Bending
beam (Fig. 10.28). We shall follow the same reasoning. The only difference
compared with the preceding case consists in the variation of the width instead of that
of the depth.
The strength condition at any cross section of the beam is:
( )
( )
a
z
i
max
x W
x M

.
It follows therefore that
( )
6
) (
2
h x b x P
x W
a
z

,
which gives
( )
a
h
x P
x b

2
6

. (10.32)
Formula (10.32) shows us a linear variation of the beam cross section width as a
function of x. The geometry of such a beam has been represented in Fig. 10.28. On
the other hand, as specified in the preceding case, the shearing stresses strength
condition requirement must also be met. We write therefore (Fig. 10.28):
a max
b h
P
A
T


1
2
3
2
3
,
which gives
a a
h
x P
h
P
b

2
1
1
6
2
3
.
This means that
Fig. 10.28
219
Strength of Materials


a
a a
a
h
P
h
h
P
x

4 6 2
3
2
1
.
In conclusion, the beam of constant strength (with a variable width and a
constant depth) must have a constant cross section for a length

a
a
h
x

4
1

, following
then a linear variation of the width, as shown in Fig. 10.28. The beam of constant
strength designed in this manner
provides savings of material of
aprox. 50 % with respect to a
prismatic beam (Fig. 10.29).
The volume of the beam of constant strength is (Fig. 10.29).
abc V
2
1

.
10.5 UNSYMMETRIC BENDING
A beam is said to be under unsymmetric bending if at any cross section the
bending moment vector is not directed along a principal centroidal axis of the cross
section (Fig. 10.30).
GENERAL CASE OF UNSYMMETRIC BENDING STATE OF STRESS
Consider a straight beam of constant cross section subjected to unsymmetric
bending. A centroidal rectangular coordinate system zOy is attached to the beam
cross sections (Fig. 10.31). Due to the action of the applied bending moment i
M
(with components iz
M
and iy
M
), normal stresses develop at the level of each
Fig. 10.29
Fig. 10.30
220
Bending
particular elementary area
A d
of the beam cross section. To derive the unsymmetric
bending formulas, we make the following assumptions:
stresses do not exceed the proportional limit (i.e. Hookes law is
available;
the beam is in unsymmetric bending;
Bernoullis hypothesis is also valid.
The stresses developed may be obtained by superposing the stresses
corresponding to the bending moment components iz
M
and iy
M
, as long as the
conditions of applicability of the principle of superposition are satisfied. Within the
context of the above presented assumptions, we may consider that the normal strain
of the beam longitudinal fibres does linearly depends upon the coordinates z and y.
We may write therefore:
3 2 1
C y C z C
x
+ +
, (10.33)
where C
1

, C
2

and C
3

are constants.
Since the Hooke s law conditions are satisfied we have
( ) + +
3 2 1
C y C z C E E
x x

(10.34)
3 2 1 3 2 1
C y C z C C E y C E z C E + + + +
.
where C
1
, C
2
and C
3
are also constants.
The relationships among internal forces and stresses within the involved beam
cross section may be written as follows


A A A
iz iy
M A y M A z A N . d ; d ; 0 d
(10.35)
We may now substitute 3 2 1
C y C z C + +
into (10.44) and write
Fig. 10.31
221
Strength of Materials
( )
( )
( )

'

+ +
+ +
+ +

A
iz
A
iy
A
M A y C y C z C
M A z C y C z C
A C y C z C
. d
; d
; 0 d
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1

'

+ +
+ +
+ +



A A A
iz
A A A
iy
A A A
M A y C A y C A zy C
M A z C A yz C A z C
A C A y C A z C
. d d d
; d d d
; 0 d d d
3
2
2 1
3 2
2
1
3 2 1
(10.36)
It follows that

'

+ +
+ +
+ +
. 0
;
;
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
A C S C S C
M S C I C I C
M S C I C I C
z y
iy y zy y
iz z z zy
(10.37)
Since Oz and Oy are centroidal axes we have
; 0 d

A
z
A y S
. 0 d

A
y
A z S
In these conditions, the last relation of (10.37) gives
0 0
3 3
C A C
. (10.38)
We may now retain the first two relations of (10.37), with C
3
= 0, and (10.34) in a
single system of three equations:
222
Bending

'

+
+
+
.
;
;
2 1
2 1
2 1
y C z C
M I C I C
M I C I C
iy zy y
iz z zy
(10.39)
This may be considered a system of three equations with two unknowns (C
1
and C
2
).
The condition of compatibility in accordance with Rouches theorem is therefore
0
y z
M I I
M I I
iy zy y
iz z zy
, (10.40)
where
0
zy y
z zy
I I
I I
.
It follows that
0 + +
zy y
z zy
iy
z zy
iz
zy y
I I
I I
M
y z
I I
M
y z
I I
,
which finally reduces to:
iy
zy y z
z zy
iz
zy y z
zy y
M
I I I
I z I y
M
I I I
I z I y
2 2


, (10.41)
The condition
0
, leads to the equation of the cross section neutral axis (N.A):
( ) ( ) 0 +
iy z zy iz zy y
M z I y I M z I y I
. (10.42)
10.6 GENERAL BENDING
A beam is said to be under general bending if the forces acting on the beam are not
located within the same plane, but the support of each force does intersect the Ox axis
of the beam (Fig. 10.3). In such cases the beam deforms after a certain curve in space.
The neutral axes of different cross sections will not be located within the same plane
and there will be NO neutral plane.
To resolve such cases the following steps have to be covered:
The external forces have to be resolved about two principal planes (Oz and Oy);
223
Strength of Materials
The bending moment diagrams must be then drawn for each of the two planes
(Oz and Oy);
The critical sections (where the resultant bending moment has maximum
values) must be established;
For each critical section the maximum normal stress has to be computed and
then compared with the normal stress allowable value of the material involved.
224
Bending
PROBLEMS TO BE ASSIGNED
P.10
P.10.1 For the beams shown (Fig. P.10.1):
(a) Draw the shearing force and bending moment diagrams;
(b) Determine the cross-sections centroidal points, I
z
and W
z
;
(c) Determine the required dimensions of the cross-sections (t=?) if
a
= 180 MPa.

a.
b.
c.
d.
Fig. P.10.1
225
Strength of Materials
P.10.2 For the beam shown in Fig. P.10.2, determine the largest value of the uniformly distributed
force q which may be applied without exceeding either of the following allowable stresses:
a
= -
90 MPa and
a
= + 30 MPa.
Fig. P.10.2
P.10.3 For the beam shown in Fig. P.10.3:
(a) Draw the shear and bending moment diagram;
(b) Determine the centroid, I
z
and W
z
of the cross-section;
(c) Determine the allowable uniformly distributed load q if
a
= + 40 MPa in tension and
a
=
-120 MPa in compression.
Fig. P.10.3
P.10.4 A steel I - shaped beam must support the loading shown (Fig. P.10.4). Knowing that
all
=
180 MPa, select the lightest I- shaped profile required.
Fig. P.10.4
P.10.5. For the beam and loading shown (Fig. P.10.5):
(a) Draw the shear and bending moment diagrams;
(b) Determine the required value of t if
a
= 200 MPa ;
(c) Draw the normal and shearing stresses diagrams at sections A
left
and B
left
.
226
Bending
Fig. P.10.5
P.10.6 A cantilever beam AB has a constant depth h = 20 mm and a variable width b as shown
(Fig. P.10.6). Locate the cross section where the normal stress has a maximum value and
determine this value.
Fig. P.10.6
P.10.7 Three beams of the same cross section are pin connected at B and C and loaded as shown
(Fig. P.10.7). Determine the required value of the uniformly distributed load q knowing that
a

=
160 MPa.
Fig. P.10.7
227
Strength of Materials
228