You are on page 1of 41

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Resistance of a ship:

R

T =

f (V, L,

ρ ν

,

, g)

– Total resistance

 

V

Speed of the ship

L

Length of the ship

ρ

Density of the fluid

ν

Kinematic viscosity of the fluid

g

Acceleration of gravity

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Dimensional analysis

– Total resistance coefficient

C

T

= C

T

(

R

n

,

F

n

)

• Total resistance coefficient (S = Wetted surface)

C

T

=

R 1/ 2ρ V

T

2

S

• Reynolds number

R n

=

VL

ν

• Froude number

F n

=

V

gL
gL

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Flow similarity

Equal non-dimensional numbers.

  • - Reynolds number:

  • - Froude number:

L s R = R ⇒ V = V n n m s s m L
L
s
R
=
R
V
=
V
n
n
m
s
s
m
L
m
L
m
F
=
F
V
=
V
n
n
m
s
s
m
L
s

(same fluid)

Conclusion: it is impossible to satisfy simultaneously the equality of Reynolds and Froude numbers.

The model dimensions do not allow the equality of the Reynolds number for model testing.

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Resistance tests

Resistance force is measured at model scale (model) and extrapolated for full scale (ship).

Measurements are performed with the equality of the Froude number at model and full scale (Froude scaling):

V

m

= α

1/ 2

V

s

α = L

s

/ L

m

is the scale factor.

Model’s length

L

m

is determined by the geometrical

properties of the towing tank.

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Resistance tests

The length of the model should try to minimize the difference in Reynolds number (maximum length) within the limits imposed by the towing tank dimensions.

– The precision of the measurements increases with the growth of the model.

– Model dimensions are limited by the depth (h) and width (b) of the towing tank section to avoid a significant influence of the bottom and side walls.

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Resistance tests

Typical model dimensions:

L

m <

  • L m <

h

h: depth

b / 2

b: width

Area of the model’s midsection < 1/200 bh

– With the reduction of the ship’s length it becomes difficult to avoid a significant region of laminar flow.

At full scale, the flow is nearly “fully-turbulent” (region of laminar flow at the bow is negligible). Therefore, model testing should avoid laminar flow.

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Resistance tests

For the typical Reynolds number of model testing (10 6 to 10 7 ), transition to turbulence must be stimulated:

– Trip wires, studs or roughness strips applied at the bow. These devices introduce an added resistance that has to be estimated to correct the measured resistance.

– Turbulence of the outer flow may be increased with the use of grids or bars in the incoming flow.

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Resistance tests

3. Resistance of a Ship • • • 3.1 Model testing Resistance tests The model is

The model is towed at a constant speed and it is generally free to heave, surge, pitch and roll.

The resistance force is measured.

The test is performed at different speeds.

3. Resistance of a Ship

3. Resistance of a Ship 3.1 Model testing Resistance tests 9

3.1 Model testing

Resistance tests

3. Resistance of a Ship 3.1 Model testing Resistance tests 9

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Resistance tests

3. Resistance of a Ship 3.1 Model testing Resistance tests 10

10

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Resistance tests

3. Resistance of a Ship 3.1 Model testing Resistance tests 11

11

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Resistance tests

3. Resistance of a Ship 3.1 Model testing Resistance tests 12

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Resistance tests

3. Resistance of a Ship 3.1 Model testing Resistance tests 13
3. Resistance of a Ship 3.1 Model testing Resistance tests 13
3. Resistance of a Ship 3.1 Model testing Resistance tests 13
3. Resistance of a Ship 3.1 Model testing Resistance tests 13

13

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Examples:

Resistance tests

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uc35JROubRM&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MLc-NRKYqis&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Odkc4ic6jds

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RQfzXdTuceY&feature=related

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Resistance tests

3. Resistance of a Ship 3.1 Model testing Resistance tests 15

15

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Resistance tests

3. Resistance of a Ship 3.1 Model testing Resistance tests 16

16

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Resistance tests

3. Resistance of a Ship 3.1 Model testing Resistance tests 17

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Resistance tests

3. Resistance of a Ship 3.1 Model testing Resistance tests 18

18

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Resistance components

Resistance has two contributions:

 

– Friction resistance. (Shear-stress at the wall) – Pressure (residual) resistance. (Pressure distribution on the ship surface)

Non-dimensional coefficients:

  • C T

(

R

n

,

F

n

)

= C

F

(

R

n

)

+C

R

(

R

n

,

F

n

)

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Resistance components. Froude’s hypothesis

Froude’s Hypothesis:

– The friction resistance may be calculated from the flow over a flat plate with the same length of the ship (equality of Reynolds number) and the same wetted surface. All the rest is residual resistance.

– The residual resistance is independent of the Reynolds number, i.e. it depends only on the Froude number.

C

T

(

R

n

,

F

n

)

= C

F

(

R

n

)

+C

R

(

F

n

)

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Resistance components. Froude’s hypothesis

Model scale:

– Total resistance coefficient:

  • C T

m

=

R

T

m

1/ 2ρ

m

V

m

  • 2 S

m

– Friction resistance coefficient:

C

F

m

= C

F

(

R

n

m

)

– Residual resistance coefficient:

C

R

m

= C

T

m

C

F

m

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Resistance components. Froude’s hypothesis

Ship (full scale):

– Residual resistance coefficient:

C

R

s

= C

R

m

= C

T

m

C

F

m

– Friction resistance coefficient:

C

F

s

= C

F

(

R

n

s

)

– Total resistance coefficient:

C

T

s

=

C

R

s

+

C

F

s

+

c

a

• Correlation allowance, c

a

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Extrapolation of the friction resistance

• Schoenherr: 0,242 = log( R × C ) n F C F • ITTC 1957:
• Schoenherr:
0,242
=
log(
R
×
C
)
n
F
C
F
ITTC 1957:
0,075
C
=
F
2
(log
R
2)
10
n

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Geosims Lucy Ashton

3. Resistance of a Ship 3.1 Model testing Geosims Lucy Ashton 24

24

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Geosims Simon Bolivar
Geosims Simon Bolivar

25

3. Resistance of a Ship

  • C T

Resistance components

Froude’s method log R n
Froude’s method
log R
n

26

3. Resistance of a Ship

Resistance components

Viscous pressure resistance “Form drag” C T C F>0 R F=0 C Resistência F de forma
Viscous pressure resistance “Form drag”
C T
C
F>0
R
F=0
C
Resistência
F
de forma
log R
C
= (1+ k)C
+ C
T
F
w

Form (“viscous pressure”) resistance coefficient: kC F 1+k: Form factor

3. Resistance of a Ship

  • C T

Resistance components

Hughes’s method log R n
Hughes’s method
log R
n

28

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Deteremination of form factor Prohaska’s method

Wave resistance coefficient

4

F 4
F 4

C

T

  • C F

n

is proportional to

F n
F
n

Total resistance coefficient:

C

T

=

(1

+ k C

)

F

+ cF

n

4

Therefore,

C

T

C

F

= (1+

k

) +

c

F

n

4

C

F

  • C F

29

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Extrapolation of the Resistance, ITTC method

Model scale:

– Total resistance coefficient:

  • C T

=

R

T

m

m

1/ 2ρ

m

V

m

  • 2 S

m

– Friction resistance coefficient. ITTC line:

  • C F

= C

F

(

R

)

m

n

m

– Form factor 1+k,viscous resistance coefficient:

  • C V

=

(

)

1+ k C

 
 

F

m

– Wave resistance coefficient:

  • C w

  • m (1+ k)C

= C

T

m

F

m

30

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Extrapolation of the Resistance, ITTC method

Ship (full scale):

– Wave resistance coefficient:

C

w

s

= C

w

m

– Form factor 1+k independent of Reynolds number. – Friction resistance coefficient, ITTC line:

C

F

s

= C

F

(

R

n

s

)

– Total resistance coefficient:

C

T

s

= (1+

k C

)

F s
F
s

+

C

w

s

+

c

a

• Correlation allowance c

a

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Roughness effects

Roughness effects on the wall shear-stress of a turbulent flow:

– For typical roughness heights

k

s

smaller than the thickness

of the viscous sub-layer (region with negligible Reynolds stresses), the wall shear-stress is not affected by the roughness of the wall, hydrodynamically smooth wall.

k u + s τ k ≡ < 5 ν τ w u = τ ρ
k u
+
s
τ
k
< 5
ν
τ
w
u
=
τ
ρ

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Roughness effects

Roughness effects on the wall shear-stress of a turbulent flow:

– For typical roughness heights

k

s

much larger than the

thickness of the viscous sub-layer (region with negligible

Reynolds stresses), the wall shear-stress becomes

independent of the Reynolds number and essentially

determined by the roughness height, fully-rough regime.

k

+

k u

s

τ

ν

> 70 80

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Roughness effects

Roughness effects on the wall shear-stress of a turbulent flow:

Equivalent sand-grain roughness height,

k

sg

, of a given

surface is the height of an evenly distributed sand-grain

roughned flat plate that produces the same resistance of the

selected surface. This is a single parameter definition of

roughness that is not easy to obtain for real ship surfaces. A

recently painted ship has a typical value of k sg =30µm,

which is equivalent to 150µm for the average roughness

height, k M , (the typical roughness height measured in

shipyards).

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Roughness effects

Roughness effects on the wall shear-stress of a turbulent flow:

– The non-dimensional parameter used to quantify roughness

effects is the Reynolds number based on the roughness

height

R

k

=

Vk

sg

ν

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Roughness effects
Roughness effects

36

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Roughness effects

Roughness effects on the wall shear-stress of a turbulent flow:

– Near-wall non-dimensional roughness parameter depends

on the Reynolds number of the flow

k

+

=

u k

τ

s

=

ν

C

f

k

s

2 L
2
L

R

L

0.17

 

  L 
 
L

x

0.1

k

s

L

R

0.9

L

– Model testing is perfomed with “hydrodynamically

smooth” surfaces.

– Full scale ships have rough surfaces.

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Roughness effects

Roughness effects are covered by the correlation allowance,

c

a

.

The correlation allowance is not only a “roughness correction”.

Each model basin uses its “know-how” to determine

  • c a

.

Holtrop’s formula for the correlation allowance:

c

a

=

0.006(

L

wl

+

100)

0,16

0.00205

Bowden and Davison formula:

  • c a

 

   k   

M

1 3

1 3

= 0.105

 

0.00064

 

 

L

PP

 

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Appendage resistance

Resistance tests are frequently performed with the rudder

and the remaining appendages (shaft brackets, bilge keels,

fins, etc).

The appendages contribute to the wetted surface of the ship.

The Reynolds number based on the ship length (and

undisturbed velocity) is not representative of the local flow

on the appendages. In general, due to the smallest

dimensions of the appendages, the local flow has a smaller

Reynolds number than the ship flow.

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Appendage resistance

The extrapolation of the resistance based on a friction

resistance dependent on the Reynolds number and an equal

form factor at model and full scale, may not be applicable to

each appendage separately.

Due to the small size of the appendages at model scale, it

may be impossible to avoid laminar flow on the appendages

for the lowest velocity tests, required to determine the form

factor. At full scale, the flow will be “fully-turbulent” on the

appendages.

3. Resistance of a Ship

3.1 Model testing

Appendage resistance

An alternative way to determine the viscous pressure

resistance of the appendages (“form drag”) is to perform

two model scale tests at high speed for a bare hull and a

fully-appended model. Assuming that the wave resistance is

equal in both models and that the friction resistance

component may be corrected according to the wetted

surface of the two models, the difference between the

resistance of the two tests gives a measure of the viscous

pressure resistance of the appendages.