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International Journal of JOURNAL Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 INTERNATIONAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 6340(Print), ISSN

N 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) IAEME AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)

ISSN 0976 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 6359 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), pp. 273-280 IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com

IJMET
IAEME

EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SOLAR WATER HEATER USING POROUS MEDIUM AND AGITATOR
Dr. R. P. Sharma Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology Mesra, Ranchi, 835215 India. E-mail: rpsharmabit123@gmail.com

ABSTRACT The aim of the present study is to improve the thermal performance of flat plate solar collector using a novel cost effective enhanced heat transfer technique. The present work focuses on the process of energy conversion from the collector to the working fluid. This experimentally accomplished by using agitator in the riser tube ,packing of collectors surface with pebbles and stainless steel chips. The basic purpose of agitator in the riser tube is to intensify heat transfer , packing of collector surface with pebbles and stainless steel chips is for longer heat retention and enhanced heat capture respectively .it has been found that the efficiency of collector with agitator and metal chips is highest among all other combinations. Keywords: Porous medium, pebbles, agitator, solar water heater etc 1. INTRODUCTION

In performance of flat plate solar collectors used in modern domestic hot water systems have not changed significantly in past. In past in order to estimate the performance of solar water heaters, water circulating to storage by thermosyphon was investigated. The use of an optical element consisting of three specularly reflective surfaces and an infrared reflective surface finding towards the absorber of a plate solar collector has been designed [3]. By incorporating a panel of such optical elements in between the absorber and the window of the flat plate solar water collector, the radiation and convection heat losses were reduced. Afterward, more comprehensive studies to evaluate the thermal performance of a thermosyphone system were conducted. An experimental test ring, incorporating a system having fine thermocouple on the bottom surface of the water pipes and six thermocouples on
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) IAEME

the bottom surface of the water pipes and six thermocouple on the bottom surface of the absorber plate was designed and tests performed. Thermocouples were also placed in the storage tank [1, 2]. The performance of a thermosyphone system with vertical or horizontal storage tank was maximized when the daily collector volumetric flow was approximately equal to the daily load flow. Am experimental study was conducted in a water flat plate collector with laminar flow conditions to analyze the flow distribution through the collector [4].it was conducted that the flow distribution depends on the relation between energy loss on the risers and the energy losses in the manifolds. To obtain a homogeneous flow distribution to influence of the energy losses in the risers must control the system. Laminar flow in internally formed tubes by assuming constant and uniform heat flux in tube and fin surface has been analyzed using fins should great enhancement in thermal performed [5]. 2. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP The experiments were conducted at the solar laboratory at the mechanical engineering department, BIT Mesra. The coordinates of the place are 23.4120N, 85.4390E.The basic parts of the working models are - Flat plate water heater, Insulated Water Storage Tank, Instruments used, Eppley Pyranometer, Digital Thermometer, Agitator using Copper Wire, Packing Media, Pebbles, Stainless Steel chips. The frame of the solar collector was cuboidal in shape and made of plywood 10mm thick. The internal dimensions of the collector were 1.2m x 0.6m x 18cm. Five pieces of plywood were sawed off from a larger piece and then attached to each other with nails. The top surface of the collector was left open for the glass cover plate. Aluminium channels were nailed onto the top of the frame to secure the glass cover. The corners and joints of the frame were sealed off by using putty-an epoxy adhesive. The inside walls were painted black with black enamel paint. Aluminium sheet was used to cover the entire floor area of the collector. This sheet has grooves to increase contact surface between sheet and tubes. Channel was attached to the absorber plate using steel wires. The Aluminium sheet along with pipes was painted black to increase absorptivity of heat. This was fixed to the wooden box using nails. The tubes/channels were made using GI water pipes. The riser tubes were of 0.5 in. internal bore diameter and header tubes with 1 in. internal bore diameter. 5 holes were drilled in the header tubes at spacing of 12 cm. Agitator made of Copper wire was inserted in the riser tube and were welded accordingly in the header tube. Agitator was made by curling Copper Wires with approximate diameter of 1cm. Wires were curled on a rod of diameter 1cm in the form of helix with a pitch of approximately 0.8cm. The stand was inclined at 22.5. A glazed glass sheet measuring 1.20m x 0.60m x 4mm was used as the single glass cover for the apparatus. It was secured to the top of the glass cover using epoxy adhesive (putty) for easy removal. A Thermocol sheet measuring 1.2m x 0.6m x 1cm was secured to the bottom surface of the wooden frame by glue and a layer of Glass wool of thickness 2.5cm was secured using steel net and nails. It was done to minimize heat loss from the absorber to the surroundings. Water storage tank was made using GI sheet. It has two concentric tanks with air acting as an insulator between them. The internal tank, measuring 72cm internal diameter and 72 cm depth, is used for water storage. Outer tank measured 87cm internal diameter and 87cm depth. Two holes are drilled at the bottom, one act as the inlet and other as the outlet. The tank has a cover at the top to seal it. The whole water storage tank was covered with an insulating material. A layer of pebbles used in construction sites is used to increase the heat retention in the collector box. It has density of 6.9 gm/cubic cm. Iron Scraps from machining
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) IAEME

processes can be used for packing the solar bed, which in turn can increase the thermal efficiency by trapping solar radiation and reducing the conductive and convective losses from top.

Figure 1: Satellite image of the Solar lab, BIT Mesra

Figure 2: Working model of the flat plate solar water heater

Figure 3: Working model with agitator and pebbles

Figure 4: Absorber plate with pipes

Figure 5: Pipes with Agitator

Figure 6: Water storage tank

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) IAEME

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The following results are obtained and presented in tabular form given by using Case 1: Agitator in the riser tube Case 2: Packing of collector surface with pebbles Case 3: Packing of collector surface with stainless steel chips Table 1: Flat Plate Water Heater with Agitator only (24th April) Global Radiation (W/sq. m) 730 786 863 905 956 995 846 1023 982 1135 1159 1206 1113 956 843 653 528 318 420 325 286 234 Diffused Radiation (W/sq. m) 144 157 177 186 200 209 177 214 206 244 249 265 244 215 193 150 124 76 100 81 72 59 Beam Radiation (W/sq. m) 586 629 686 719 756 786 669 809 776 891 910 941 869 741 650 503 404 242 320 244 214 175 Ambient Temp. (deg. C) 25 26 27 28 29 31 32 33 35 36 36 37 37 38 38 37 37 35 35 34 32 31 Temp. of Water (deg. C) 28 31 32 34 38 39 40 42 42 44 45 49 49 50 49 49 48 48 47 46 44 45 39 30

Time 09:00 am 09:20 am 09:40 am 10:00 am 10:20 am 10:40 am 11:00 am 11:20 am 11:40 am 12:05 pm 12:30 pm 01:20 pm 01:40 pm 02:00 pm 02:20 pm 02:40 pm 03:00 pm 03:20 pm 03:40 pm 04:00 pm 04:20 pm 04:40 pm 07:40 pm 10:00 pm

Average Global Radiation = 784.63 W/sq.m ; Average Diffused Radiation = 170.09 W/sq.m ; Average Beam Radiation = 610.39 W/sq.m ; Efficiency = 17.38 %

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) IAEME

Graph1: Temp VS Time with agitator

Graph2: Intensity VS Time on 24th april,2013

Table 2: Flat Plate Water Heater with Agitator and Pebbles as Packing Media (25th April) Global Radiation (W/sq. m) 658 813 769 837 863 995 740 925 870 230 736 708 650 410 140 420 348 Diffused Radiation (W/sq. m) 138 170 161 180 186 218 163 203 196 52 166 163 152 98 35 105 89 Beam Radiation (W/sq. m) 520 643 608 657 677 777 577 722 674 178 570 545 498 312 105 315 259 Ambient Temp. (deg. C) 26 28 30 31 32 32 33 34 37 37 37 37 36 36 36 35 35 32 24 Temp. of Water (deg. C) 31.0 32.5 35.0 35.5 37.0 38.4 39.0 40.0 41.0 42.0 42.5 42.5 43.0 43.5 43.5 43.4 43.3 40.0 33.0

Time 10:40 am 11:00 am 11:20 am 11:40 am 12:00 pm 12:20 pm 12:40 pm 01:00 pm 01:20 pm 01:40 pm 02:00 pm 02:20 pm 02:40 pm 03:00 pm 03:20 pm 03:40 pm 04:00 pm 06:30 pm 10:00 pm

Average Global Radiation = 653.65 W/sq.m Average Diffused Radiation = 145.59 W/sq.m Average Beam Radiation = 507.94 W/sq.m Efficiency = 21.91 %
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) IAEME

Graph3: Temp VS time with agitator and pebbles

Graph4: Intensity VS Time graph on 25th April, 2013

Table 3: Flat Plate Water Heater with Agitator & Metal Chips as Packing Media (26th April) Time 10:20 am 10:40 am 11:00 am 11:20 am 11:40 am 12:00 pm 12:20 pm 12:40 pm 01:00 pm 01:20 pm 01:40 pm 02:00 pm 02:20 pm 02:40 pm 03:00 pm Global Radiation (W/sq. m) 857 924 903 950 320 975 940 850 520 500 550 670 600 530 150 Diffused Radiation (W/sq. m) 172 185 181 200 70 205 188 171 114 100 121 134 138 127 31 Beam Radiation (W/sq. m) 685 739 722 750 250 770 752 679 406 400 429 536 462 403 119 Ambient Temp. (deg. C) 30.0 32.0 32.0 33.0 34.0 34.0 35.0 35.0 36.0 36.0 36.5 37.0 37.0 35.0 34.0 Temp. of Water (deg. C) 34.9 36.7 38.3 40.0 41.5 42.5 45.0 45.0 45.0 46.0 46.5 47.0 47.5 47.6 47.1

Average Global Radiation = 682.6 W/sq.m Average Diffused Radiation = 142.5 W/sq.m Average Beam Radiation = 540.1 W/sq.m Efficiency = 22.19 %

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) IAEME

Graph5: Temp VS time with agitator and metal chips

Graph6 : Intensity VS Time on 26th April, 2013

Temperature Variation in Water Tank with Height

Graph7: Temperature gradient at 11:00 am

Graph8: Temperature gradient at 3:00pm

The Temp-time graph of first model (using agitator only) dips more than that of second model (using agitator and pebbles) during later part of the day. This justifies better heat retention capacity and longer duration purpose fulfillment over a day of second model as compared to first model. As it can be seen from the thermal gradient curve, temperature of water rises with height. This can be attributed to the property of warm water to stay above cold water layer because of difference in density. The hottest layer is slightly below the top layer, this is due to conduction and convection losses from the top layer, which is in contact with air. This graph can be utilized practically in drawing hot water from the point slightly below the point of hottest layer.

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) IAEME

5. CONCLUSIONS Present experimental work has been performed with the aim of enhancing the heat transfer in a passive flat plate solar water collector using cost effective techniques that could be easily applied in a typical (conventional) flat plate collector without changing or redesigning its shape. Such technique would allow the reduction of the solar collector area and its associated manufacturing costs. The presence of the copper agitator inside the channels changed the flow pattern in such a way which increased heat transfer from fluid present in the near-wall zone to the internal layers of the water. The efficiency has been further improved by packing the collector box with a layer of pebbles. This presented an added advantage that warm water was retained for a longer duration of time till 10:00 PM in night. Hence this model can be used to fulfill requirements of hot water even after dusk. Also this model has a very good scope of implementation in rural areas where there is lack of electricity. The model also shows a good result by using metal chips as packing media. It improved the heat transfer coefficient considerably. It has a promising industrial scope. Overall conclusion from the experimental work undertaken is that using such a low cost modifications in design, using a metallic agitator insertion, pebbles and metallic chips as packing media, considerably improves the performance of the solar collector. REFERENCES 1. KS Ong, A finite-difference method to evaluate the thermal performance of a solar water heater, Solar Energy, Vol. 18, 181-191, 1974. 2. KS Ong, An improved computer program for the thermal performance of a solar water heater, Solar Energy, Vol. 18, 183-191, 1976. 3. Schmidt C, Goetzberger A, Schmid J., Test results and evaluation of integrated collector storage system with transparent insulation, Solar Energy, Vol. 41, 487-494, 1988. 4. V. Weitvrecht, D. Lehmann and A. Richter, Flow distribution in solar collectors with laminar flow conditions, Solar Energy, Vol. 73, 433-441, 2002. 5. M. H. Hu and Y. P. Chang, Laminar flow in internally finned tubes under constant and uniform heat flux, Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 95, 332, 1973. 6. Ajay Kumar Kapardar and Dr. R. P. Sharma,, Experimental Investigation of Solar Air Heater using Porous Medium, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 387 - 396, ISSN Print: 0976 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 6359. 7. Ajay Kumar Kapardar and Dr. R. P. Sharma, Numerical and Cfd Based Analysis of Porous Media Solar Air Heater, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 374 - 386, ISSN Print: 0976 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 6359.

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