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THE MESSENGER

...
+ t-~ ,..... «r LlB No. 48 - June 1987
ia.~·.' 0
A TIME FOR CHAN .,. C'
7

At its December meeting last year, I rinn~~ decade, the VLT opens up an era of great opportunity for
informed Council of my wish to termi- proje ~J~ndly affect all of European astronomers, but it will re-
nate my appointment as Director Gener- ESO's activities as weil as its interaction quire a major effort to utilize the new
al of ESO following the approval of the with the scientific community in the instruments in an effective way while the
VLT proposal, expected later this year. member countries. Not only is the VLTa construction of the VLT proceeds.
Already at the time of my reappointment large project in financial terms, but most A particularly important aspect of this
three years ago, Council was aware that ESO staff members will have to give it a relates to the functioning of La Silla,
I did not intend to serve out a full third large part of their time. The same is the which, of course, will have to remain a
five-year term, because of the desire to case for many scientists and engineers top priority. It is here, more than any-
have more time for other activities. Now in the member countries, since it is fore- where else, that the European as-
that the preparatory phase of the VLT seen that much of the VLT instrumenta- tronomical community finds the fruits of
has been completed with the formal tion will be developed in the European the large investments that have been
presentation of the project to Council on laboratories. made.
31 March and with approvallikely before While ESO will have to devote many Several years ago, we decided to see
the end of the year, 1 January 1988 of its resources to the VLT, at the same if sites could be found for the VLT with a
seems to be the optimal time for a time other essential needs will present quality still higher than that of La Silla,
change in the management of ESO: themselves: SEST is just beginning to even though La Silla ranks among the
function, the ND is almost completed best sites in the world. Subsequent
and needs to be fully instrumented, and studies have shown that Paranal has a
• On 4 June, Council unanimously appoinled
Prof. H. van der Laan 10 be Direclor General tor hopefully the ECF will have the Space substantially lower frequency of clouds
a tive-year period trom 1 January 1988. Telescope to worry about. All of this and a very much lower humidity. Seeing

The road to Paranal (February 1987; photo: C. Madsen).


measurements are under way, and the the advantages of learning to operate a
first results, though as yet inconclusive, modern telescope on Paranal before the
look promising. It therefore was decided arrival of the VLT would be important,
that the VLT proposal should present there are serious problems with regard
Paranal as the more likely option, even to the time scale; these are currently
though a definitive choice need not be being analyzed. Should it appear that
made before three years from now. the Paranal location would cause undue
Paranal is a remote place in one of the delays, the ND would still be placed at
world's driest deserts. While a good La Silla.
gravel road passes e10se by, there is no Astronomers have been accustomed
village or anything within many kilome- to look at telescopes as instruments of
ters. So the complete infrastructure will Professor H. van der Laan, who will become
almost eternal use. This was perhaps
have to be built there by ESO. A de- Director General from January 1, 1988. reasonable at a time in wh ich mainte-
velopment of Paranal along the lines of nance needs were small and instrumen-
La Silla would be costly and time-con- tation relatively simple. At present, how-
suming, but fortunately also not ever, the annual costs of operating and
necessary. continue to operate another site at high instrumenting a modern telescope at a
Remote control is being used at La cost for the remaining 15 %. In the long remote site and processing the resulting
Silla on an experimental basis. For the run, there appears to be only one solu- data far exceed the capital investment
VLT it will be the principal mode of use. tion: if the VLT were to be placed at prorated over one or two decades. It
Remote diagnostics and trouble shoot- Paranal, all of ESO's telescopes would follows that the acquisition of new tele-
ing will undoubtedly follow. With such have to be operated there. This might scopes must automatically be accom-
technologies, it would seem that the involve the moving of some of the La panied by the closing of existing ones.
Paranal site may be run with a compara- Silla telescopes. Moving the 2.2 m, CAT, The VLT represents ESO's long range
tively small number of highly qualified 1.5 m DK and SEST would not present future. Without it the Organization could
staft. Another factor which reinforces major problems; the 3.6 m is too cum- not survive very long. However, for more
this conclusion is that the VLT - like the bersome to move, except perhaps as a than a decade, La Silla will continue to
ND - will be operated with very few "zenith telescope" for cosmological provide the data essential for the scien-
instrument exchanges. studies. What really would be useful to tific work of a large community. It is
Suppose the VLT were placed at Pa- move more than a decade from now c1ear, therefore, that even if Paranal
ranal, what about the other ESO tele- remains to be seen at that time. were to be developed, everything will
scopes? With its 16-m equivalent The ND poses a particular problem. have to be done to guarantee the con-
diameter, the VLT would represent near- Within a year, it will be ready for installa- tinuation of the functioning of La Silla at
Iy 85 % of the total photon collecting tion in Chile. If Paranal were ultimately to its present high level of quality.
area of the ESO telescopes. It would be chosen as the VLT site, would it not L. WOLTJER
seem hard to imagine that ESO would be more rational to place it there? While Director General

The Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope


R. S. BOOTH, Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Göteborg, Sweden
M. J. OE JONGE, Institut de Radioastronomie Millimetrique, Grenoble, France
P. A. SHA VER, European Southern Observatory

significant breakthrough as a dedicated come an extension of the existing VLBI


Introduction
sensitive millimetre-submillimetre in- arrays for the study of the submilliarc-
Dramatic changes have taken place strument. It is the only telescope of its second properties of low declination
during the past two years at the south- kind in the southern hemisphere and radio sources.
ern end of the telescope ridge on La among the first such instruments in the
Silla and now, where once stood a world.
Background
meteorological station, stands a 15-m SEST will extend the observational
submillimetre telescope. The telescope, part of the radio spectrum towards the The idea of building an IRAM design
designed by IRAM engineers, has been infrared and will enable European as- telescope on La Silla was first conceived
built on behalf of the Swedish Natural tronomers to probe the molecular by the astronomers of IRAM and Onsala
Science Research Council (NFR) and c10uds of the southern Milky Way and Space Observatory, and enthusiastically
ESO. It will be operated jointly by ESO other nearby galaxies, providing infor- supported by ESO. The outcome of the
and NFR (through the Onsala Space mation on stellar evolution and galactic subsequent negotiations between the
Observatory) . dynamics. It will enable them to investi- parties and their funding agencies was
The Swedish-ESO Submillimetre gate the radio continuum properties of an agreement between the Swedish
Telescope, acronym SEST, while not the stars, H I1 regions and interstellar Natural Sciences Research Council and
actually breaking new ground at ESO, dust in this new wavelength region, and ESO to install and operate the 15-m
since some groups have al ready used provide valuable new data on quasars telescope on La Silla and share the ex-
the 3.6-m and other telescopes at sub- and radio galaxies in the submillimetre pense and the observing time over a 15-
millimetre wavelengths, represents a wavelength regime. SEST mayaiso be- year period. IRAM agreed to build the

2
telescope under contract with ESO. As
part of the agreement, Onsala Space
Observatory has the technical responsi-
bility for the first receivers and the over-
all project.
The formal agreements were signed
at a small ceremony at Onsala Space
Observatory on June 26, 1984. Under a
separate Nordic agreement related to
the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT),
Finnish astronomers will benefit from
10% of the Swedish observing time.

The Importance of La Silla


La Silla is an important site for SEST
on two counts. The first is its southern
location, making the telescope unique
as the only major telescope in the south-
ern hemisphere to operate below 3 mm
wavelength. The second is the low at-
mospheric attenuation above this dry
mountain site. Figure 2 shows the rela-
tive transmission of the atmosphere as a
function of frequency for 1 and 4 mm of
precipitable water. The atmospheric wa-
ter vapour content above La Silla is be-
low 4 mm for nearly one hundred per
cent of the time during the winter
months, with some days below 1 mm.
These are very good observing condi-
tions, and early experience with the tele-
scope shows the enormous improve-
ment over a typical sea-Ievel site.
Figure 1: The 15-m Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope.

The Telescope
The general specifications for SEST
are given in Table 1. The telescope is Hoerner's homology principle, wh ich The SEST reflector consists of 176
designed to achieve a reflector profile means that it is not an extremely stiff panels, each mounted at 5 points, all of
accuracy of 50 microns r. m. s., giving structure and is allowed to distort as a which have servo-controlled motors für
good (coherent) performance down to function of elevation angle. The flexure adjustment. The telescope has been
wavelengths :s 0.8 mm (375 GHz). (The is, however, constrained such that the surveyed by A. Greve of IRAM using a
Ruze criterion on performance of radio reflector always retains a parabolic form direct (theodolite and measuring tape)
telescopes gives 50 % efficiency at a and, by the simple expedient of moving method in the zenith pointing position.
wavelength of 16 x r. m. s. error). the subreflector an appropriate pre- By successive adjustment of the panels
The antenna (described by Jean De- determined amount, the focus is main- a parabolic profile has been achieved
lannoy at the Aspenäs ESO-IRAM-On- tained and with it the efficiency of the with an r.m.s. accuracy of 80 microns.
sala Workshop on (sub)millimetre as- paraboloid. The telescope can operate Further such adjustment, it is hoped, will
tronomy) is identical to three others be- within the specifications in winds up to result in an r.m.s. of better than 70 mi-
ing built by IRAM on the Plateau de 14 ms- 1 and under temperature gra- crons. Final trimming of the surface will
Bure, France, as movable elements of dients of up to 10°C across the sur- be attempted either using the technique
an interferometer. From the outset, face. of holography on a satellite transmission
therefore, an essential design require-
ment was the capability to operate with-
out aradome or other enclosure normal-
1,0
Iy associated with telescopes of this >-
u CII
precision. This is only achieved through C
CII <-
0,8
<- CII
new technology. The new concept be- ",.c
Q.Q. 4mm~0
hind these antennae is the extensive use VI
c
VI
0 0,6
of carbon fibre, in both the backing '" E
<- ......
~< 0,4
structure and the reflector. The material CII CII
is light-weight and therefore gravita- >.c
:;: .....
tional distortion is smalI, and it has a -'" .....
CII 0
0,2
low temperature coefficient, thereby Cl:

minimizing the effects of temperature 100 200 300 400 500 600
gradients on the surface profile. Finally, FREO.UENey (GHz)
the telescope is designed using von Figure 2: Transmission through the atmosphere with 1 and 4 mm of atmospheric water vapour.

3
TAßlE 1. SEST Specification tinuum back-end and two Acousto-Op-
tic spectrometers (AOS), built by the
Main reflector Axisymmetric paraboloid University of Cologne, will be provided.
Diameter 15 m The first AOS (bandwidth 100 MHz, re-
flD 0.325 solution 50 kHz) is already in use, and a
Tolerance 50 microns r. m. s.
second (bandwidth 500 MHz, resolution
Focus for receivers Cassegrain 500 kHz) is being built.
Subreflector diameter 1.5 m
The first receiver in operation on
Magnification 15.7
SEST tunes over the band 85-117 GHz
Half power beam width 50" at A 3 mm
and has an instantaneous bandwidth of
(12 db edge tapes) 17" at A 1 mm
500 MHz. Its noise temperature is
Pointing accuracy 2 arcseconds
250 K, single side-band (SSB). This is
Environmental constraints
being used for telescope tests, pointing,
Max. wind for operation 14 m S-l
56 m S-l etc., and will be the first available for
Max. wind far survival
Icing load observation. The second receiver sys-
10 cm
(De-icing heaters are provided) tem is still under construction. It is de-
signed to cover the range 220-280 GHz
(BIW 500 MHz) and the expected noise
temperature is - 600 K (SSB). The
or by optical methods. The laUer tech- Receivers SEST submillimetre receiver will also be
nique may be possible because indi- built at Onsala, and will cover a band
vidual panels have a highly reflective Under the NFR-ESO agreement, On- near 345 GHz. Finally, we are discussing
surface with aprecision of -16 microns sala Space Observatory (Department of the possibility of providing a sub-
on average. The optical performance of Radio and Space Science of Chalmers millimetre broad-band bolometer sys-
the SEST reflector was inadvertently University of Technology) is responsible tem for continuum observations and a
tested during construction when, due to for the first receivers. All are dual polari- VLBI back-end is also under considera-
an oversight, the reflector pointed within zation systems based on Schottky- tion.
10 degrees of the sun; the consequent diode mixer front-ends cooled to 15 Kin
concentration of power at the edge of c10sed cycle refrigerators. They are de-
Control and Data Analysis
the sub-reflector caused some damage signed to be controlled and monitored
to the sub-reflector and several panels, by computer. A chopper wheel system SEST and its associated instrumenta-
which has since been repaired. Because is available for calibration and beam- tion is controlled by two networked
of the good optical performance of the switching. The front-ends feed cooled mini-computers: an HP A900 and an HP
panels it is hoped that SEST may be FET intermediate frequency amplifiers, A600. The A900, the main computer,
used as a "light bucket" at frequencies centre frequency 4 GHz, although a has 1.5 megabytes of primary memory
considerably in excess of 375 GHz. 1.5 GHz I. F. is also available. A con- and 120 megabytes of disk space. The

T (K)

R Dar

8.0

4.0

0.0

-60.0 -30.0 0.0 30.0 60.0


KM/S
Figure 3: Spectrum of the new 86 GHz SiO maser discovered in the Mira variable R Ooradus.

4
A600 is at present dedicated to the con-
trol of the AOS spectrometers. Instru-
ments and sensors are interfaced to the Proposals tor SEST Observations
computers via the industry standard bus Routine observations using SEST will be allocated on a six-month basis, in accordance
systems GPIB and CAMAC. with the standard ESO observing schedule. They are expected to commence with period
Two popular on-line data reduction 41, starting 1 April 1988, for which the proposal deadline is 15 October 1987.
packages designed for radio astronomy In the meantime, there will be opportunities for Iimited observations using the first
are supported. These are POPS (People receiver (85-117 GHz) and AOS (50 kHz resolution) starting in August or September,
Oriented Parsing Service), a system de- during the testing and calibration phase. These opportunities are necessarily restricted to
astronomers with considerable experience in millimetre wave observations, who are willing
veloped in the USA, and Toolbox, a
to work with an evolving system and contribute to its development. Proposals for this
system developed in Germany. Users period should be submitted as soon as possible to the Visiting Astronomers Office in
mayaiso write their data to tape using Garching.
the well-known FITS format for reduc-
tion by other popular off-line systems.

Operations
The operation of SEST on La Silla is in planetary atmospheres and the con-
and quasars, and the cosmic back-
the hands of a team comprising: tinuum emission from planets and as-
ground radiation since the Sunyaev-
Scientist in Charge: teroids at submillimetre wavelengths will
Zeldovich decrement changes sign
Lars E. B. Johansson be of great interest.
between 2 mm and 800 microns
Microwave Engineers: We look forward to these exciting dis-
wavelength.
Magne Hagstrom, Nick Whyborn; coveries, which have been made pos-
In the field of molecular spectroscopy
Software Scientists: sible by the dedicated efforts of the
the southern sky has great potential be-
David Murphy, Michael Olberg many people involved.
cause the southern Milky Way contains
This dedicated group has been heavi-
a plethora of important dark clouds and
Iy involved with receiver and software
H 11 regions, many with unusual features.
development for more than a year. Two
Probably one of the most important al-
further persons will soon be added to
this team.
though poorly understood discoveries
of molecular line astronomy is the fact
List of ESO Preprints
Following its completion under the
that so many protostars in the Galaxy go 491. B. Barbanis: Irregular Periodic Orbits.
supervision of Dietmar Plathner, the new Celestial Mechanics. March 1987.
through the stage of bipolar outflow.
telescope was handed over to the team 492. L. Milano, M. Rigutti, G. Russo and A.
The southern sky is rich in optical sign-
at La Silla on March 13, 1987 and "first Vittone: Some Observed Peculiarities of
posts of bipolar flows, such as Herbig-
light" was obtained on March 24. Com- the Tripie System V 701 Cen. As-
Haro objects, and this points to a feast
missioning is now under way, and series tronomy and Astrophysics. April 1987.
of new observational data. Their obser- 493. S. Cristiani: Observation of the H 11
of tests designed to determine the
vations in the new wavelength range Galaxy Giving Origin to the Z = 0.3930
pointing and homology characteristics
and with the higher resolution provided Absorption System of the aso
and the receiver performance, and to
by SEST should help us understand this 1209 + 107. Astronomy and Astrophy-
streamline the control system, are in
unexpected phenomenon. sics Letters. March 1987.
progress. When these are complete, ex- 494. L. Koch-Miramond and M. Auriere: X-
At the other end of the evolutionary
perienced millimetre astronomers will be Ray and UV Observations of Omega
scale, the study of mass loss from
invited to try out the system. SEST Centauri with EXOSAT. Astronomy and
evolved stars, Mira variables and red
should become generally available in Astrophysics. March 1987.
giants is an exciting prospect, particu-
early 1988 after the 230 GHz receiver 495. S. Cristiani et al.: Radial Velocities of
larly in view of the host of IRAS objects Galaxies in the Cluster Klemola 22 from
has been commissioned. Proposals will
now waiting to be observed at millimetre Observations with Optopus, the ESO
be accepted for the ESO October dead-
wavelengths. One of the first observa- Multiple Object Spectroscopic Facility.
line. Sweden and ESO will handle their
tions with SEST provided the detection Astronomy and Astrophysics. April
respective proposals through separate
of a new 86 GHz SiO maser in a Mira 1987.
programme committees and time will be 496. E. Giraud: Malmquist Bias in the Deter-
variable, R Doradus (Figure 3).
allocated to the two parties on a 50-50 mination of the Distance to the Her-
In the past few years we have seen
basis. cules Supercluster. Astronomy and As-
much interesting work on the carbon
trophysics. April 1987.
monoxide distribution and molecular
497. G. Garay: The Orion Radio Zoo: Pigs,
cloud dynamics in nearby galaxies.
Scientific Programme Deers and Foxes. Invited talk given at
Again IRAS has been an inspiration and the V. lAU. Regional Latin-American
The scientific programme for SEST we now find that extragalactic CO is Meeting, Merido, Mexico (October
depends, of course, on the interests of detectable in galaxies with recessional 6-10,1986). April 1987.
the user community. A full discussion of velocities greater than 8,000 km s-'. 498. B. Binggeli, G.A. Tammann and A. San-
the potential programmes for the tele- The southern sky is rich in active galax- dage: Studies of the Virgo Cluster. VI.
scope took place during the Aspenäs ies and their observation will enhance Morphological and Kinematical Struc-
workshop (ESO Conference and Work- the statistical data base needed to re- ture of the Virgo Cluster. Astronomical
late star formation rates to molecular Journal. April 1987.
shop Proceedings No. 22, 1985). While
499. T. Le Bertre: Optical and Infrared Ob-
the millimetre and submillimetre spec- emission, IR and continuum radio
servations of Two Type-li OH/IR
tral region is usually considered the pro- fluxes. Sources. Astronomy and Astrophysics.
vince of molecular line astronomy and Finally, solar system objects will not April 1987.
cosmochemistry, we saw a great deal of be neglected with SEST. In fact, it may 500. Supernova 1987 A in the LMC. As-
interest in continuum studies both of be possible to observe comet Wilson trometry (R. M. West et al.), Photometry
interstellar dust, active galactic nuclei already next month. Observations of (S. Cristiani et al.), Polarimetry (H. E.

5
Schwarz and R. Mundt), Inlrared Ob- 502. L. Milano, G. Russo and A. Terzan: FS 504. L. Binette, T.J.-L. Courvoisier and A.
servations (P. Bouchet et al.), Medium Lup: A Contact Binary in Poor Thermal Robinson: Constraints on the Soft x-
and High-resolution Spectroscopy (I. J. Contact. Astronomy and Astrophysics. Ray Continuum 01 AGN Derived Irom
Danziger et al.; A. Vidal-Madjar et al.) May 1987. Photoionization Models. Astronomy
Astronomy and Astrophysics, Letters. 503. L. Binette, A. Robinson and T.J.-L. and Astrophysics. May 1987.
March 1987. Courvoisier: The lonizing Continua 01 505. T.J.-L. Courvoisier and M. Camenzind:
501. H. Dekker and B. Delabre: Simple, Active Galactic Nuclei: Are Power Laws Magnetic Field and Synchronization in
Wide-Band Atmospheric Dispersion Really Necessary? Astronomy and As- Mildly Relativistic Shocks. Astronomy
Corrector. Applied Optics. May 1987. trophysics. May 1987. and Astrophysics. May 1987.

High Speed Multicolour Photometry of the X-ray Burster


MXB 1636-53
R. SCHOEMBS, M. PFEIFFER, R. HAEFNER, Universitäts-Sternwarte München
H. PEOERSEN, ESO

1. Introduction
X-ray burst sources are thought to be
low-mass binary systems in which a
mass-Iosing late-type main-sequence
star transfers matter via an accretion
disk onto a neutron star. The high po-
tential energy of the material is con-
verted to high kinetic energy, which
subsequently thermalizes and escapes
as X-rays. Depending on the tempera-
ture, the strength of the magnetic field
and the accretion rate of the neutron
star, a thermonuclear flash can occur on
its surface from time to time. Within
seconds a total energy of about 1039 erg
is released. The resulting radiation is
predominantly in the X-ray band. Burst
intervals are mostly irregular and range
from hours to days. There is no clear
relation between the shape of the burst,
the intervals and the continuously emit-
ted X-ray level. Black-body fits to the
energy distribution of the bursts yield
temperatures up to 107 K and a radius of
the emitting area of approximately
10 km thus supporting the neutron star
model.
Optical bursts correlated with X-ray
bursts have been observed for several
sources. The shape of an optical burst is
similar to that recorded in the X-ray
range, whereas its energy content is a
fraction of 10-4 only. Nevertheless, this
is more than expected from an extrapo-
lation of the X-ray spectrum. Usually the
optical burst is delayed by a few sec-
onds. This can be understood as a con-
sequence of the longer light path from
the X-ray source via the place of repro-
cessing to the observer, compared to
the path on the direct way.
MXB 1636-53 (optical counterpart:
V 801 Ara) is one of the best studied
examples in both the X-ray domain and
the optical region. Several coincident X- Figure 1: The data-acquisition system of the photometer placed inside the dome of the 3.6-m
ray/optical bursts were recorded and telescope during observations.

6
the data concerning this system contri-
buted appreciably to our knowledge on
bursters. Initially optical data were ob-
tained in unfiltered light and could mere-
Iy give crude estimates of the properties
of the disko The delay from X-ray burst
T
to optical burst was found to be about
2.5 seconds (pedersen et al., 1982, Mat-
suoka et al., 1984). Black-body fits to I

the energy distribution yielded a tem- U ..j...U


1
285
perature of about 50,000 K for the disk !
during burst, twice as large as during
quiescence. UBV burst light curves ob- CI) •
~ti;~~.
, 'i/o .... ~
J,
I
I
tained later on showed that the single-
temperature black body reprocessing
t-
Z
:J
.... ,...
~ ~

.. .~ ~ 1"
~......
:
:
)
,. ~ 18 8330
model is only approximatively correcl. 4:...: ,~
o ,. ......- -:. ..
...-..-u o
Siow modulations in the persistent opti- U V !~~~f~~ '.; -'-
cal flux of about 4 hours were inter-
preted as due to binary motion (Law- a: "'.\. i . \. ~
~ -.;. - .
rence et al., 1983).
The aim of our observing campaign CD - ~....
~.,."
'
.....;
. .'..
.,::
.. ...
..- ..:- V 33300
was twofold: (i) More data concerning Z V ~B 0
the spectral development during optical
burst should be collected to further in-
g
vestigate the physical state of the accre- H
Cl:
tion disk and the processes converting ~
X-rays into optical lighl. (ii) Long data Cl. 25000
sequences should be recorded to im- X'
o o
prove the period of the suspected orbi- U
tal variation and to obtain information
about variations of the system in UBVRI ,". .... t

wh ich might even allow to derive more '\.'


.
.''.' '. ..LI I 10000
system parameters. I
The original plans for coordinated
-'---~R o
,,
i
simultaneous X-ray observations had ,
to be abandoned since unfortunately :
EXOSAT got out of control shortly be- \~
'\0"
.::.• !
I
fore our observation and the Japanese i
TENMA X-ray observatory was not op- L...-__----+~~---:::-...fo-:-_:_:::'--~I o
erating at the time in question. In the 0.000 0.071 0.142
following we report on the optical obser- HJO - 2446562.714
vations and on the provisional results.
Figure 2: Atmospheric transparency variations during the first niglJt (4 11) replesented by the
comparison star counts.
2. Preparation and Observations
Four nights (May 12-15,1986) at the
3.6-m telescope were granted to the
projecl. We used the three-channel
UBVRI photometer developed at the programme provides for real time kept below detection. Figure 1 shows
Universitäts-Sternwarte München (Bar- graphics and statistical information. the instrumental setup in the dome.
wig et al., 1987). The instrument pro- Before starting the observations we Regrettably, the observations were
vides for simultaneous multicolour re- were not sure whether our TV acquisi- impeded by excessive wind and by
cording of object, comparison star and ti on system would be sufficiently sensi- clouds. Useful observations could be
sky, thus it allows photometric work tive and the built-in autoguider would performed only during parts of the first,
even under otherwise unfavourable co-operate with the 3.6-m telescope. second and fourth night, while the third
meteorological conditions. But from the very beginning the in- night was lost completely. As an exam-
Photometry of MXB 1636-53 de- strumentation worked without prob- pie, Figure 2 shows the count-rates ob-
manded measurements at high time re- lems. Since the cables were not suffi- tained for the comparison star during
solution simultaneously in 15 data ciently long for the control room, the the first nighl. Only at the very beginning
channels. To do this, a new programme computer system and displays had to a short time interval of fairly stable
package had to be written. The final be placed in the dome and thus also the transparency was encountered. The
version allows to reach 10msec time observers. We were afraid to extend the second part of the second night and the
resolution without deadtime with an cables since this would make the sys- end of the last night were very cloudy.
economic output of roughly 1 Mbyte tem more vulnerable to electrical pick- Due to the special observing tech-
within 20 minutes corresponding to one up noise. Straylight from displays, etc. nique and the properties of the star field
8" floppy disko The disks can be loaded and other sources of interference were around MXB 1636-53 it was necessary
alternately into one of the two drives carefully checked before we started our to use a hitherto unknown star as com-
while the other one is recording. The observations and their influences were parison. After some time we suspected

7
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:~ .:": ".'..
~
~ • ,''.,-1.,
Gi (l,." '.,. ",>. • R 0.022
~ ~'.- '~" """":~" .\",:...,.':.~~~... V 0.0

I .,

~~~~··:~/'·:.j:,:f(:{".~ :::-n~~
I 0.014
R 0.0

t
0."'0"'00,--.0......""07""'1---,0,...."-'14""2-""0"".2""'1-=-4-"0""'.2""85........... I 0.0
HJD - 2446563.571

Figure 3a, b. c: Condensed light curves (rel. intensity) of MXB 1636-53 which show the whole observing period, covering the nights of May 11/
12. 12/13, 14/15 respectively. Arrows indicate the position of the identified bursts.

that it might be variable, and thus the ited, causing incomplete compensation ing the first and the last night. Corre-
photometer was prepared for a different of the atmospheric variations during lated colour variations occur at some of
comparison star. Their calibration, per- very cloudy skies. This was the case at the peaks.
formed at a later date, yielded results the beginning and end of the first night A periodogram analysis of the new
constant within 0.1 magnitude. and at the end of the second and third data revealed a possible period of
Integrations of 40 msec for the object night. Figures 3a, b, c show the full 3.76 h. This is consistent with the 3.78 h
and 200 msec for sky and comparison extent of the light curve, binned to period determined by Pedersen et al.,
star were used. The aperture of the 80 sec/dot. Significant, slow variations (1981). However, the significance of our
diaphragms throughout the observing were present during all three nights. The period is not high, because of the large
period was 7". Table 1 shows typical time constant of these variations is vari- gaps and superposed irregular varia-
photon fluxes as measured in UBVRI able, being shorter during the second tions. Figure 4 shows a phase diagram
under good transparency conditions. night, while the amplitude is larger dur- of data in V, calculated for the period P
According to atmospheric refraction
the count-rates in U and I are attenuated
at larger zenith distances. This effect is TABLE 1: Average fluxes (counts/sec)
at least partly compensated by the re-
ference channel. Channel U B V R I

MXB 1636-53 50 200 175 100 25


3. Reduction and Results Comparison star 1 (-22", +94") 65 2285 6875 4950 2335
Comparison star 2 (+151", -19") 250 2915 4855 2140 745
The reduction procedure makes use Sky (7" diaphragm) 60 180 400 235 115
of separately measured dark counts and
of transformation coefficients which, for
each colour, relate the sensitivity of the
three channels. A file is produced wh ich
contains HJD-time and the five object
intensities relative to the comparison P '" 3.76 h
star. Using magnitudes or fluxes of the
comparison star they can be converted
into absolute values. The reduction
programme offers options by which the
effective integration time (wh ich equals
the time resolution) can be increased to
a fixed value or to a variable amount
depending on sky transparency. The lat-
ter mode was used because of the vari-
able transparency in order to yield data
of fairly comparable rms.
x,.:
For the determination of the transfor-

mation coefficients photometric condi-
tions are required. Good conditions
were never encountered during the
o 1P 2?
whole observing period. Thus the quality Figure 4: Phase diagram ofthe condensed light curve of MXB 1636-53 with twice the period of
of the transformation coefficients is lim- 3.76 hours.

8
= 2,3.76 h. The two representations of
the light curve are thus based on statis-
tically independent data. Their shape
and the occurrence of some repeating
Two New Slide Sets From ESO
features is striking. Especially the dip
ESO announces the publication of two new slide sets, available fram July 1,
near maximum, not explicitly mentioned
1987:
by Pedersen et al., is weil represented in
their phase diagram. • Objects in the Southern Sky
Apart from these slow variations two
bursts were detected. In Figure 3 a and
• Supernova 1987 A in the Large Magellanic Cloud
b their position is indicated by arrows. Both sets include 20 high-quality 5 x 5 cm slides, accompanied by a
The burst light curves with high time comprehensive, explanatory text and presented in a folder with a beautiful
resolution are superposed for compari- cover. The first set contains spectacular colour views of selected objects in
son in Figure 5. The scales are the same the southern sky, as photographed with ESO telescopes during the recent
in both cases, but the zerapoints were years. The second set in which some slides are in colour and others in black-
shifted to separate UBVRI. The data and-white, summarizes the most important observations of the brightest
were smoothed by a recursive low-pass supernova since 383 years. Apart fram images of the LMC field before and
filter. Burst 1, observed during the first after the explosion, it also includes selected spectra and other observational
night, is less intense and has a slower results from La Silla
onset than burst 2, which has a rise time The sets, which are also useful for educational purposes, may be obtained
of less than two seconds. This limits the by sending 35,- DM, wh ich is the equivalent of the cost price, incl. postage,
extension of the visible emitting area to to:
about 6 . 10 10 cm. In colour B (highest
ESO Information and Photographic Service
count-rates) a double-peak structure is
Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2
shown for burst 2 with aseparation of
0-8046 Garching bei München
about 3 seconds. Similar features were
Federal Republic of Germany
found by Sztajno et al. 1985 in the X-ray
band. The colours of the optical bursts 00 not forget to indicate your name and accurate address. Please note that
are consistent with a very hot source. the delivery time may be a few weeks.
Cooling effects during descent are indi-

: . MXB1636-53

Figure 5: The two observed bursts superposed to demonstrate similarities and differences (1 point ~ 320 msec). Burst 1, observed during the
first nigl7t is less intense and has a slower onset than burst 2. The curves were smoothed (FWHM = 50 points) in order to reduce the noise.

9
MXB1636-53 UT: 1986.05.13 04:4~50

U-B
i-=- - -tu-B -0.7

tu-B -0.5

8-V 0.4
B-V 0.5
V-R 0.0

V-R
,'.:.........
.; ...• ,/"......./'.•..
... : ... ...
,:

f--- - - - - -.:..,.... - - - - - - - V-R 0.5


'.
.'
CD '-..-, .-." .. V-I 0.5
C
x
'.
. ',.. :-" ...
~
".-' . . : : .
:'y';i:. ... -
....
.-' ".:'" ,:
-
"
: ',': ",' '

.. .•... ::.... ,. .. :.,,: V 16.9


..:....,:"....
------- ---~. --- V-I 1.0

v
--'--'- V 17.9
O.OOE+OO 2.22E-04 4.44E-04 6.66E-04 8.88E-04
HJO - 2446563.709
Figure 6: Burst 2 and its colour variations. The curves were smoothed (FWHM = 50 points) in order to reduce the noise in the colours (1 point ~
320 msec).

cated (see Fig. 6). A detailed analysis,


however, requires more than two sam- Line and Continuum Imaging
pies in order to enable the separation of
individual characteristics from the gen- S. di Serego Alighieri*, ST-ECF
eral behaviour and to improve the sig-
nal-to-noise ratio. These considerations
led to a successful application for fur- The study of line emitting objects of- powerful and versatile image reduction
ther observations in July 1987, possibly ten requires to image separately the line systems. Although I will coneentrate
in collaboration with ASTRO-G, the new emission from the continuum one, in here on images of aetive galaxies ob-
Japanese X-ray observatory. order to discriminate the different physi- tained with the ESO telescopes and
cal components. This is generally not GGD cameras at La Silla and reduced
possible with the broad bands of the using MIDAS, the following diseussion
standard photometrie systems, like can be applied with small modifications
UBVRI. Rather one should use narrower to any class of line emilting objeets and
References bands selected according to the to other sites, detectors and reduetion
wavelengths of the emission lines. I dis- systems. I will first give some hints on
Barwig, H., Schoembs, R., Buckenmayer, C.: cuss here the techniques to obtain pure how to eonduet the observations and
1987 Astron. Astrophys., 175, 327. and calibrated line and continuum im- then diseuss the reduction procedure. A
Lawrence et al.: 1983, The Astrophysical ages. "Pure" means that the line image technical note eontaining more detailed
Journal, 271, 793. is free from the contribution of the con- information is available from the author
Matsuoka, M. et al.: 1984, The Astrophysical tinuum and vice versa.. Since narrow- for those interested in actually using
Journal, 283, 774. band imaging is not a new teehnique, I these teehniques.
Pedersen el al.: 1982, The Astrophysical will restriet myself to the eonsiderable
Journal, 263, 325.
improvements recently offered by the
Pedersen, H., van Paradijs, J., Lewin, W.: Observing Hints
1981, Nature, 294, 725. availability of linear and calibratable de-
Sztajno, M., van Paradijs, J., Lewin, W. H. G., tectors, of interferenee filter sets and of It is necessary to obtain exposures
Trümper, J., StoIIman, G., Pietsch, W., van both with a filter centred on the emission
der Klis, M.: 1985, The Astrophysical Jour- • AHilialed to lhe Aslrophysics Division, Space line and with a filter on the nearby con-
nal, 299, 487. Science Departmenl, European Space Agency. tinuum. The lalter is used to derive the

10
morphology of the component of the technique of measuring the "bias" level but can affect considerably the flux
object, which emits continuum radia- from the "overscan" area of a CCO measurement and are difficult to distin-
tion, and to subtract the continuum con- frame (i. e. the few columns following the guish from stars in poorly sampled ima-
tamination in the line exposure. The final physical pixels) must be used very care- ges (e. g. EFOSC). Cosmic rays can be
quality of the images depends consider- fully, since this area is contaminated by removed by median filtering, but better
ably on the filter selection. The line filter the signal in the rest of the CCO, be- results are obtained with the MIOAS
should be very narrow, compatible with cause of charge transfer inefficiencies. command AVERAGEIWINOOW (FCOM-
the radial velocity range of the line emit- There is in fact no need to measure and PARE in IHAP). This command com-
ting material, in order to minimize the subtract the "bias" separately: the dark putes a special average of two or more
continuum (and sky) contamination and subtraction removes sufficiently weil all aligned exposures: for each pixel the
to allow a proper correction of the additive components, before flat-field- average is computed using only the pix-
wavelength-dependent nonuniformities ing deals with the muttipticative ones. el contents in the original frames, wh ich
(interference fringes) by flat-fielding. The Small residuals would anyway be re- do not deviate from the median of the
transmission curve of the filter should be moved by the sky subtraction process. I contents of that pixel by more than an
examined to check that the line falls have noticed that the dark signal in- allowed uncertainty, related to the ex-
where the transmission is high and that creases considerably and shows an pected noise level. The other pixel con-
there are no other emission lines within horizontal line in the middle of the field tents are presumed to be contaminated
the filter band pass. Regions of rapidly (for the RCAs) if the CCO has been and discarded from the average. Oiffer-
varying transmission (filter wings) exposed to high ambient illumination ences in exposure time and background
should be avoided, since a small filter tilt (e. g. while mounting it). This persistence level in the original images are
or even the converging beam of the effect can last for days. Simple precau- accounted for by special frame descrip-
telescope can change the transmission tions can be taken to avoid it. . tors. The allowed uncertainty is com-
considerably. In practice 20-50 A wide Flat-field exposures should obviously puted separately for each pixel and is
filters can be used. Image quality inter- be obtained for every filter. Good results made up of two parts: a constant one,
ference filters exist in the ESO filter set can be reached with dome flats using which is related to the read-out noise
for common emission Iines. For the [0111] day light. The illumination from internal and depends only on the input parame-
A5007 and Ha lines such filters are lamps is usually not sufficiently uniform. ter BGERR, and a second one, which is
available to cover a range of redshifts Experience has shown that flat-fields related to the photon noise and de-
for extragalactic objects. The continuum and darks are good for a whole run, pends on the pixel content through the
filter can be broader (100-200 A) to in- provided that no modifications are input parameter SNOISE.
crease the S/N ratio, but must be free of made to the CCO camera or to the filters Table 1 lists the recommended values
lines over its entire range. A (nuclear) on the filter wheels. Hopefully in the near of these parameters for some of the
spectrum of the source is a useful help future this will become true on longer CCOs commonly used at La Silla. These
in the filter selection. time scales, so that the observer could values have been derived empirically
It is advisable to take - at least - two take the calibration exposures from an fram the width of the main peak in the
exposures of the object in each filter to archive. histogram of the difference between two
eliminate cosmic ray signatures and to A good spectrophotometric standard short exposure darks (for BGERR) and
check on the detection of faint features. star (e. g. from Oke, 1974, Ap. J. Suppt. of the difference of two well-exposed
Some observers offset the telescope 27, 21) must be observed each night flat-fields (for SNOISE). They provide re-
slightly - a few arcseconds - between through all the filters used during that jection of the cosmic ray signatures
the first and second exposure. This night. The star should be weil exposed, larger than four times the r. m. s. read-
allows to eliminate permanent CCO de- but below saturation, and exposure out noise or six times the r. m. s. photon
fects like bad columns, but requires re- times longer than 10 seconds should be noise. These rather high rejection
binning of one image before it can be used, so that the inaccuracy due to the thresholds ensure that the original im-
compared with the other one, thereby uncertainty of the exact exposure time is ages are modified only where it is strictly
decreasing its resolution and therefore negligible. If these two latter require- necessary. They can be lowered for
making the comparison of the two im- ments are incompatible, it is acceptable some applications, like the cleaning of
ages more problematic. I prefer to take to defocus the telescope. dark exposures. The higher threshold
the two images in the same conditions recommended for the photon noise
as far as possible. Exposure times in the allows for the differences in the original
continuum filter can be shorter, e. g. in- images which often occur in regions of
Reduction Procedure large gradients (e. g. the wings of the
versely proportional to the filter width.
Telescope focus should be checked fre- After the usual dark subtraction and stellar profiles) because of seeing varia-
quently, since it changes during the flat-fielding, a major problem in the re- tions or residual misalignments. It is
night and with the filter thickness. duction of long exposure CCO frames is useful to check the result of the AVER-
As usual, dark exposures should be the elimination of cosmic ray signatures. AGEIWINOOW command by comparing
taken and subtracted from the object These are not only a cosmetic problem, it with a normal average of the original
exposures. The dark signal is so linear
with the exposure time that it is suffi-
cient to take darks at a few exposure
TAßlE 1
times and interpolate between them. An
exception to this linearity are the so- GGD Gain' Read-out noise' Gain factar' ßGERR SNOISE
called "bias" exposures (i. e. 1 sec. e- e-ADU- I
darks), which have higher signal than
expected from the extrapolation 01 #3 G50 40 10.5 10.4 1.40
#5 G30 49 13.5 10.2 1.16
longer dark exposures. This might be
#7 G100 18 6.0 5.6 1.65
due to the heating of the CCO produced
by its frequent reading while taking a • From "CCD detectors available at La SlIla", ESO Techn. Rep. by P. Sinclaire, June 1986.
series of very short exposures. Even the

11
(a) (b)

CONTOUR LEvELS PKS 0349-27 [OII:9 ).5007 CON TOUR LEVELS PKS 0349-27 Continuum at 6560 Ä

30.000 - er ", 0.500 -


Cl
<W)
@
60.000 -
~._q 1.000-
'" ()
.. 0

120.00e - 2.000 -
p. '"
I§!
240.000 - 4.000-
•• '(I
. ~
'.. '-,
480.000 - 8.000 - ,~

o (9J
(8)
960.000 - o 16.000 -
f q

1920. 0 0 - 32.000 -

60 arcsec

Figure 1: contour plots of [Dill)}" 5007 (a) and continuum (b) images of the radio galaxy PKS 0349-27 derived from GGO exposures obtained with
the 2.2-m telescape at La Silla. The cross marks the position of the galaxy nucleus. Gontour levels are listed on the lett and are in units of 10- 18
ergcm-2 S-1 arcsec-2 for the line image and of 10 18 ergcm-2s -lA 1 arcsec-2 for the continuum one.

CCD frames: the difference should be by "trials and errors", that is by increas- the single components. Then the im-
positive restricted to the pixels affected ing it until one starts to have negative ages of the object can be flux calibrated
by cosmic rays. The input parameters to values in the line-continuum image. if an assumption can be made on the
the AVERAGEIWINDOW command can Good results are produced in this case shape of its spectrum (within the filter
alternatively be derived fram the CCD only for objects wh ich have regions of band). Two cases are examined here:
characteristics: bright continuum but no line emission. A 1. In the line-continuum image the radi-
more general method, wh ich I have fi- ation from the object is concentrated at
BGERR =
N SNOISE
2.75-,=; = 4.25 II nally adopted for the imaging of active the wavelength Ae of the emission line;
yF galaxies, is to evaluate the scaling factor then the flux F),o at Ae can be computed
where N is the CCD read-out noise (in directly from the observations of the fram the measured count rate Co:
e-, r. m. s) and F is the gain factor (in standard star and fram the relative ex-
e-AOU-'). h·c·C
posure times. The best results with this F),o = S . A (Ae, ao ) . E(/I.e) . Ae
As mentioned earlier, the "pure" line method are obtained if some assump-
image is obtained - after sky subtrac- ti on can be made on the shape of the 2. For the continuum image the average
tion - fram the exposure in the line filter continuum spectrum to be subtracted, flux density within the filter band is:
by subtracting a praperly scaled copy of so that differences in its average value in
h·c·C
the continuum exposure. The determi- the two filters can be compensated for. f),o = S . ) A(A,ao ) . E(~) . A . dA
nation of this scaling factor is a critical For example in the case of radio galax-
one, since the final line fluxes will de- ies, the spectrum of the "standard" ellip- For a good calibration it is important
pend stranglyon it in the regions where tical galaxy given by Yee and Oke, 1978 that the wavelength dependence of Eis
the continuum is bright. Different (Ap. J. 226, 753) has been used suc- evaluated correctly. On the contrary, the
methods can be used to derive the scal- cessfully. absolute value of E is not critical. If an
ing factor, depending on the application. Last but not least the images are flux error of, say, a factor of two is made in
One is to ensure that stellar images are calibrated using the observations of the the evaluation of the detector quantum
weil subtracted, at least on average, in standard star and the assumption that efficiency, this factor is taken into
the final line - continuum image. Unfor- the latter were taken in the same condi- account by the equivalent area S com-
tunately it is usually not justified to tions as the object exposures except for puted from the standard star observa-
assume that the spectrum of the con- the airmass. First from the measured tion and will not affect the flux calibra-
tinuum component of the object under count rate Cs (in e·s· ' ) of the standard tion. If, on the other hand, even the
study has the same shape than the av- star and from its flux fis tabulated in the absolute value of Eis evaluated correct-
erage spectrum of the stars in the field. literature we compute the equivalent Iy (and the night is photometric), then S
Moreover for extragalactic objects even area S: is equal to the collecting area of the
a small redshift can change consider- telescope. For most of the standard
ably the relative amount of continuum S- h·c·Cs start observations, which I have ob-
- ) f)sC)"') . A(A, as) . E(A) . ep . dA
radiation falling in the two filters. A way tained with the CCDs at La Silla, S is
to solve these difficulties for extragalac- where A is atmospheric transmission for equal to the collecting area of the tele-
tic objects is to use, instead of stars, the airmass a of the observation (A = scope within 20 %. The value of S pro-
other galaxies in the field at the same 10-0.4 aKp.) , K(A) being the atmospheric vides then a useful check on the instru-
redshift as the object under study, but extinction in magnitude per airmass) ment performance and on the observing
without emission lines. Clearly this and Eis the efficiency of the telescope + conditions. For calibration of narraw-
method can be used only very rarely. filter + detector combination, derived by band images I have prepared a data-
The scaling factor can also be evaluated multiplying the measured efficiencies of base of MIDAS tables containing filter

12
transmission curves, detector efficien- the exposure times. weil the ionized gas can be separated
cies, mirror reflectivities, etc. This Figure 1 shows the results of the ap- from the stellar component in a case
database is useful also in the prepara- plication of these techniques to the im- where the two have a clearly different
ti on of the observations for estimating aging of a radio galaxy, showing how structure.

Velocity and Velocity Dispersion Fields of NGC 6684:


An SBO Galaxy with a Ring
0. BETTONI, Astronomical Observatory of Padua, Italy
G. GALLETTA, Astronomy Oepartment, University of Padua, Italy

ing images were continuum flattened


1. Observations Data Reduction and Analysis and analysed with the Fourier Quotient
NGC 6684 is a southern SO galaxy of All the spectra have been digitized Technique described in Bertola et al.
magnitude B = 11.35 showing a bright with the ESO POS microdensitometer (1984), giving simultaneously the radial
bar aligned about 20 0 from the minor using a 12.5 x 50 ~l slit and considering velocity, the velocity dispersion and the
axis of the disk and encircled by an a wavelength interval of 3800-4500 A. line-strength parameter for each scan
elongated luminous ring (b/a = 0.77). No emission lines were detected in the line of each spectrum. The curvature of
This galaxy has been observed within a spectra, but Ca 11 Hand K absorption the spectral lines has been measured
programme of study of stellar motions in and G-band are weil defined. All the from a full slit comparison spectrum by
barred galaxies, a subject which in the POS images were calibrated in intensity measuring with the Grant 2 coordinate
recent years has been analysed by and wavelength and sky subtracted us- machine of ESO the position of 12
many theoretical works but that has ing the ESO-IHAP procedure at the spectral lines. It has been found quite
been studied observationally only by Padova HP computer centre. The result- negligible, producing a shift lower than
few authors. Among the galaxies for
which the whole stellar velocity field is
known, the velocity dispersion field has
been studied only for NGC 936 (Kor-
mendy, 1984).
NGC 6684 was observed in May 1983
and March 1984 at the 3.6-m telescope
of the European Southern Observatory
at La Silla, Chile. The spectra were taken
using the Cassegrain Boiler and Chivens
spectrograph plus a 3-stage EMI image
tube and setting the slit at four different
position angles corresponding to the
apparent major and minor axes of the
disk, the bar major axis and to a P.A. at
45 0 from the major axis. The spectra of
some early K-type giant stars were re-
corded each night, for use in the reduc-
tions as template stars of zero velocity
dispersion. The exposure times were
ranging from 30 to 55 minutes. The slit
was set to a width of 1.5 arcseconds on
the sky and to a length of 1.9 arcmi-
nutes. The plate scale along the slit im-
age was 38.5 arcsec mm- 1 , and the
dispersion was 39 Nmm.
The spectroscopic observations of
the galaxy were associated to a mor-
phological study based on two 15-mi-
nute V frames taken with the 320 x 512 30"
RCA CCO of the 1.5-m Oanish tele-
scope on the night of May 6/7, 1986 and
on the analysis of the galaxy images on
ESO (B) and ESO/SRC (J) charts. In the
following we describe some of the more
interesting results arising from our ob-
servations. Figure 1: Image of NGC 6684 from ESO (8) chan.

13
TABLE 1: Intrinsie shape of the single component of NGC 6684, as deduced from the isophote f1attening and orientation. The lines of the nodes
have been assumed at </) = 42°, P.A. of the disk, and the inclination of the galactic plane is i = 48~ 4.

OBSERVED INTRINSIC PROJECTED


PARAMETERS PARAMETERS VALUES

component qo (I) - (I)n)o r b q p R qc «I) - (I)n)c

disk 0.69± 0.03 0°_ 5° - 0° 0.250 1.000' - - -


bar 0.60 0.04 108° 2° 30" 102° 0.443 0.454 44" 0.600 108.0
ring 0.77 0.01 174° 2° 37" 102° 0.000' 0.847 54" 0.766 172.7
bulge 0.83 0.03 166° 8° 10" 159° 0.817 0.824 11" 0.830 166.0

• values assumed.

10 km/s for points having r ~ 30" from mean values listed in Table 1 were ana- in principle to deduce the values of q
the nucleus. All the velocities have been Iysed in order to deduce the intrinsic and p by deprojecting the observed
corrected to the Sun. The mean velocity shape of the light distribution. Since ellipticities and position angles. This is a
and velocity dispersion of the nucleus each one of the isophotes could be con- simple geometrical problem which
are found to be Vo = 866 ± 22 km/s and sidered as the projection of an ellip- allows only one solution, providing that
äo = 93 ± 12 km/s respectively. The soidal shell with intrinsic axial ratios the orientation angles of each ellipsoid
mean nuclear velocity is slightly higher e
9 = c/a, = b/a (a > b> cl. it is possible with respect to the line of sight are de-
than previous determinations for the
redshift of NGC 6684: 812 ± 30 km/s
(Corwin and Emerson 1982) and
823 km/s (de Vaucouleurs et al. 1976,
RC 2).
The above data allow us to produce

\
maps of the velocity dispersion and ve-
locity fields. These are reproduced on
the same scale in Figures 2 and 3 re-
spectively. To analyse the large-scale
kinematical features of the galaxy, all
the data have been smoothed with a
gaussian weighting function S8
(FWHM = 4'') and rebinned at 3" interval 57

before being plotted in the maps. The


velocities are scaled to the systemic ve-
locity and lines of equal velocity and
velocity dispersion have been drawn in- S7 S3 S3

terpolating by eye from the observed 10"


values. In the case of the velocity field,
the curvature of the outer lines has been
assumed from the estimate of the P.A.
~S .3 .4
corresponding fo the maximum velocity
gradient made in the next paragraph.
For the velocity dispersion we tried to
show the elongation of the equivelocity 66
fines due to the presence of the bar with
respect to the more symmetrie structure
of the bulge + disk component.
~ --
The shape and the orientation of the
four galaxy components (disk, ring, bar
and bulge) has been measured on the <;1

CCO frames and on the ESO/SRC (J)


and ESO (8) charts (Fig. 1), producing
the mean values listed in the three first
colums of the Table 1. They are, for each
component: the observed axial ratio
velocity \
90' the position angle er of the major axis dispersion
(referred to that of the disk) and its ex-
tension r. Analysing the light distribu-
tion, we observed the presence of a
..
Figure 2: Map of the measured velocity dispersion. The original values have been smoothed
progressive shift of the bar isophote to
with a gaussian weighing function (FWHM = 4 arcsec) and rebinned each 3 arcsec before
the NW, indicating a displacement of the being plotted in the maps. Lines of equal velocity dispersion have been drawn interpolating by
bar centre with respect to the galaxy nu- eye from the observed values and taking into account the geometry of the system (bar+disk).
cleus. The amount of this displacement An asterisk represents the position of the nucleus. The direction of the disk's major axis (full
has been evaluated as 2" to the NW. The line), that of the bar (dotted line) and the scale of the image are shown.

14
fined (see Williams 1981, and Galletta
1983). The only exeeption to the unique-
ness of the solution is the indeterminate
ease where the observed P.A. eoineides
with the line of the nodes. The analysis
is eomposed by three main steps: First,
\ \
113

from the apparent flattening of the disk,


assuming an intrinsie axial ratio of 0.25 ~3

(Sandage et al. 1970), we deduee its -24


inelination with respeet to the plane of
the sky ahd the P.A. ern of the line of the -,~
6&
nodes. This produees the values / -14
i = 48.4° and ern = 42° respeetively. 62 18 -18

Seeond, by means of these values we


deprojeet on the plane of the galaxy all
.. ",,/ / 'J.,j ,{~:l·-"
y(.;/,. ~71~:/
the distanees rand the P. A. er observed
on the sky and we define, as a first 10
approximation, the true extention R of
86 -40 -60 /80
60 40 ~71_4 -28 -2~6 ,/ /'
eaeh eomponent of NGC 6684 and the
angle iS formed by its major axis with the
line of the nodes. Finally, synthetie
6f'" -27 //-(&8
-4
-62 -82-88
-42
-~5

isophotes are produeed with different 2 / -56


values of 9 and E and the resulting -be
flattenings and P.A. are eompared with / -6~
the observed values of Table 1, until a -74
satisfying agreement within the measur- I
-ij4
25
ing errors is found. The values so ob-
tained are indieated in Table 1, eolumns
16 \197
-~3
from 5 to 7, and the ranges of aeeept-
able solutions are shown in Figure 4. \
-~3

20

\
Discussion o
The veloeity dispersion field (Fig. 2)
shows that a is always deereasing out-
velocity
ward, with the exeeption of the bar, Figure 3: The same as in Figure 1, but for the rotation eurves. All the veloeity values are sealed
where a narrow substrueture of eonstant to the systemie veloeity. A small triangle represents the approximate position of the symmetry
veloeity dispersion (about 104 km/s) is point of the rotation eurves.
seen. Sinee the bar is elose to the zero
veloeity line, we ean expeet that the
observed amplitude of the veloeity dis-
persion is due to the sum of the stellar point not eoineident with the galaxy eould represent, with respeet to the. sys-
streamings along the bar. Contrary to nueleus. The position of this symmetry tem bar + bulge, something like a Lag-
the veloeity map, the inner veloeity dis- point, at about 4.5" SE from the nueleus, rangian point in the three-body prob-
persion field appears more symmetrie is indieated in Figure 3 with a small lems of eelestial meehanies. The shape
around the nucleus instead of around triangle. Obviously this asymmetry is not
the symmetry point of the veloeities. lf due to obseillations of the veloeity val-
this effeet is real, it indieates a quite ues beeause of the measuring errors. As 1. disc
p=.Q 6=102·
eomplex veloeity field. said in the previous paragraph, a similar a ring
The map of the veloeity field shows displaeement from the nueleus has 0.8
two interesting features: First, the mean been observed also in the light distribu-
rotation at P. A. = 35° (near the major tion of the bar, but at NW, at the other
o.
axis) and P.A. = 80° shows almost side with respeet to the symmetry point
equal veloeity values, an indieation of of the kinematies. This type of displaee-
elliptie orbits. An interpolation of the ve- ment between the bar, the optieal nu- 0.4

loeities observed outside the bar with a cleus and the eentre of symmetry of the
kinematieal model of eoplanar and ellip- rotation eurves is typieal of Magellanie- 0.2
tie orbits produees lines of equiveloeity type and late-type barred spirals, where
it is eonneeted with the presenee of one i ="'8?4
with a maximum veloeity gradient at
or two points of equilibrium in the gravi- 0.0 f;:--'---::-:--'-~-:-'-;!-;;--'--o'":,....-'----..J
P. A. = 59°, 17° away from the diree- 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
tion of the disk major axis (see Fig. 3). tational field. In barred SOs, kinematieal q=~
Sinee at the maximum extent of the map asymmetries like that of NGC 6684 have
Figure 4: Areas of possible solutions, in the
(- 40" from the nueleus) the light of the been reported for NGC 936 (Kormpndy
plane ela-bla, for the intrinsie f1attenings of
bulge dominates, we must suppose that 1983), but in a system where the bar eaeh eomponent of NGC 6684, as eoming
the bulge of NGC 6684 possesses ellip- isophotes do not show any asymmetry from our analysis of the geometry of the
tie orbits. Seeond, the line of zero veloe- with respeet to the nueleus of the system. The asterisks indieate the exaet solu-
ity, aligned with the bar, follows a galaxy. We ean then suppose that the tions found or adopted. The angle on the
pattern symmetrie with respeet to a symmetry point observed in NGC 6684 plane of the galaxy is also indieated.

15
of the isovelocity lines with I v I than the disk and slightly misaligned. Its References
~ 20 km/s is similar to that expected for flattening and orientation are consistent
the family of long axial orbits moving with an elliptic structure aligned with the Bertola, F., Bettoni, D., Rusconi, L., Sedmak,
within the bars. bar axis and with axial ratio 0.847. (4) G., 1984, Astron. J., 89, 356.
A geometrical model wh ich can repro- According to the kinematics, the bulge Corwin, H. G. Jr., Emerson, D., 1982, Mon.
duce the shape of the isophotes has could be triaxial. From the analysis of Not. R. Astron. Soc., 200, 621.
de Vaucouleurs, G., de Vaucouleurs, A., Cor-
also been attempted, as described in the possible solutions, excluding
win, H.G.Jr., 1976 (RC 2). Second Refer-
the previous paragraph, by interpolation shapes as flat as the disk, we found a ence Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (Austin,
of the galaxy isophotes. From it results possible axial ratio of q = 0.817, University of Texas Press) .
that (see Fig. 4 and Table 1): (1) The disk .e = 0.824, almost prolate, and elon- Galletta, G., 1983, Astrophys. Space Sc., 92,
is probably oblate in shape. Oespite the gated on the plane of the disk at 57° 335.
lack of kinematical information, its P.A. from the bar axis. But the roundness of Kormendy, J., 1983, Astrophys. J., 275, 529.
remains constant even if the flattening its isophotes makes this last result quite Kormendy, J., 1984, Astrophys. J., 286, 132.
changes slightly, a feature typical ofaxi- uncertain. Sandage, A., Freeman, K. C., Stokes, N. R.,
symmetric systems. (2) The bar is al- A more complete analysis of the data 1970, Astrophys. J., 160,831.
Williams, T. B., 1981, Astrophys. J., 244,458.
most prolate, having similar axial ratios is now in progress and will be compared
.e
(9 = 0.44, = 0.45). (3) The ring cannot with the data for the other SBO systems
be circular, since it appears rounder included in the programme.

lOS Spectroscopy of Planetary Nebulae


A. ACKER, Observatoire de Strasbourg, Centre de Oonnees Ste//aires, France
B. STENHOLM, Lund Observatory, Sweden

The apertures used are very small; 111. Analysis of the Quality of the
I. Introduction
most objects are, however, stellar-like, lOS Oata
From 1982 to 1984, Lundström and and this majority of objects is also the
1. Reliability
Stenholm conducted low-resolution less observed part of the whole group.
spectroscopy of faint emission-line ob- On the other hand, extended objects, To estimate the reliability of the whole
jects in the southern Milky Way (see particularly those of low surface bright- system through different observing
Lundström, Stenholm, 1984). Their ex- ness, are difficult to observe in this periods, we have compared the reduced
perience showed that the lOS is very manner (10 minutes per object, in order fluxes obtained for independent spectra
efficient for spectroscopy of faint emis- to execute the programme during a of spectrophotometric standard stars.
sion-line objects. They established that reasonable period of time). We have obtained the following values
a mean exposure time of 10 minutes Table 2 presents the number of ob- of the spread t,. ep to the mean value cp of
permits a clear classification of the ob- jects observed within each allocated the flux calculated over the whole
served objects, and a study of their observing run. spectra:
most intense lines. Based on this study, Here, we will report only about the star W 485 A (3 spectra)
we have undertaken, since 1984, a observations done at La Silla. The status < t,. ep/ep > = 4,5%
spectroscopic survey of the planetary of the project is shown in the diagram in L TI 9239 (6 spectra)
nebulae. This study has been con- Figure 1. The reductions are carried out < t,. ep/ep > = 4,5%
ducted with a double aim: with the IHAP programme, working on L 970-30 (6 spectra)
- realization of an atlas of calibrated the HP 1000 computer at La Silla, in < t,. cp/cp > = 7 %
spectra, within the framework of the Garching, at the Observatoire de Haute-
forthcoming Strasbourg-ESO Cata- Provence, and at the Institut de Physi-
logue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae; 2. Measurement of Blends
que du Globe de Strasbourg. Up to now,
- a statistical study of properties of the we have reduced all 723 spectra ob- The measurement of line areas is
nebulae, in relation with problems of tained at La Silla and measured line done by using the Multiple-Gaussian-Fit
stellar evolution. intensities for 220 of them. procedure of IHAP for the blends of [N 11]
That means that most of the 1,500
objects known (1,100 in the southern Table 1: Instrument Configurations
sky) should be observed, essentially at
La Silla, and at the Observatoire de European Southern Observatoire
Haute-Provence for the northern ob- Observatory Haute-Provence
(ESO) (OHP)
jects.
Status reports showing the earlier Telescope 1.52 m 1.93 m
situation were given by Stenholm Spectrograph Boiler & Chivens CARELEC
(1986). and Stenholm, Acker (1987). Detector IDS CCD
Number of useful pixels 2053 511
Aperture 4 x 4" 2.5 x 4"
11. The Observations and Reduc- Approximate wavelength range 400-740 nm 385-740 nm
tions Dispersion 17 nm/mm 26 nm/mm
Approximate resolution 1 : nm 1 : nm
In Table 1, some instrumental and ob-
Normal exposure time 10 min 10 min
servational parameters are summarized.

16
Table 2:

LA SILLA Observatoire de HAUTE-PROVENCE

Telescope time Number of Telescope time Number of


observed objects observed objects

1983 (05) and 1984 (04) (9 nights) 127 1986-07-28 - 1986-08-5 (8 nights) 74
(12 southern)
1985-07-15 - 1985-07-21 (6 nights) 112 1986-12-19 - 1986-12-24 (5 nights) 61
1985-07-27 - 1985-08-05 (8.5 nights) 100 1987-03-06 - 1987-03-12 (6 nights) 5
(very bad weather)
1986-01-18 - 1986-01-25 (7 nights) 146
1986-07-08 - 1986-07-14 (6 nights) 167
1986-12-10 - 1986-12-16 (6 nights) 71 -
723 140
Time given for period 39:
1987-07-12 - 1987-07-16
1987-07 -20 - 1987-07-25 (9 nights)

lines with H a, the sulfur doublet around all, to separate "true" planetary nebulae ments in the literature, that 196 are sure-
672 nm, and the green [0111] doublet. As from misclassified ones. In two recent Iy misclassified planetary nebulae, and
the instrumental profile is not gaussian, papers (Stenholm and Acker, 1987; 60 others are possibly not planetary
the total area A of the observed lines is Acker, Chopinet, Pottasch, Stenholm, nebulae. About one fourth of the mis-
larger than the sum S of the calculated 1987) we have shown, through our sur- classified planetary nebulae are in fact
gaussian components. We have found vey and IRAS data, and following com- symbiotic or possible symbiotic stars;
the following mean value of the ratio
NS = 1.038 ± 0.05.
We have corrected the calculated
blended area for this effect.

3. The Nonlinearity of the lOS System


M. Rosa (1985) and E.J. Wampler
(1985) pointed out that the response of
the IDS system shows a dependence
with the value of the input-intensity.
Our measurements (Table 3) show
that the observed and theoretical line
ratios are equal for the [N 11] lines, but
differ for the [0111] doublet, in an identi- DIAGRAM SHOWING THE
cal way as that given by Rosa. However, NUMBER OF PLANETARY
this author proposed that the theoretical NEBULAS OBSERVABLE FROM
ratio is likely to be around 3.03. On the LA SILLA (ö < +25"> DIVIDED
INTO l h INTERVALS OF RIGHT
other hand, for a few very bright nebulae ASCENSION
(NGC 5315, 6210, 6891, IC 4997), the
very intense lines of [0111] flux > 2.10- 13 PN..S Wl'H 'C o·

W/m 2/nm) show a ratio equal to [<. j :..~~~.~~~!


~ FRACll()N OO$[AV[O
2.9 ± 0.2.
We have also compared our results
with those of Gutierrez-Moreno et al.
(1985). The ratio of our intensities to
those of Gutierrez-Moreno has the
following values:
NGC 5873 (16 lines): 0.91 ± 0.21
NGC 5882 (17 lines): 1.21 ± 0.32
IC 1297 (14 lines): 1.03 ± 0.24
In conclusion, we calculate the line
intensities relative to I (Hß) = 100, with-
out correction in a first step. Later we
will refine this study with a larger
number of reduced spectra.
RA 0 1 2 23 :)4 RA
TOTAl.
2 0 1 1 3 6 13 62 50 57 43 4. 31 38 3' 65 87 3'92'3 28 1 3 1 0 1096
IV. First Astronomical Results
N..UlER
wrTH 0<+25· 3 0 1 2 .. 16 32 69 52 59 43 41 32 38 31 65 89322244125 12 6 1 0 1287
1. Misclassified Planetary Nebulae 06SERVE0
,983__ ,988 3 0 • 2 3 12 27 45 28 34 28 20 .9 20 13 31 52 199 146 38 5 4 , 0 727
The qualitative analysis of the now
850 observed spectra permits, first of Figure 1.

17
lSlr---,3~6:....-~57:"':'c...:l'--...,.-----r-_-,-_ _-'-_ _r-_-r_ _...,.---_ _r-_-r__-'-__r-_-r~
lSl
('Il

lSl
lSl
N

lSl
lSl
4'flJ·l::flJ=flJ-----L------:4-::15=flJflJ=--.L--""'5flJ::!:flJ::;flJ~~L..----;5::;5,1;;flJ;;:;flJ---'--~6;;;flJ!;;flJflJ;:;---'--~6;f.5flJ:;;;flJ;;--'---------:7:;;flJ~flJ;;:;flJ,-----'--...J

1 -0°3
~
a d
~

~
.-J ....... ,~
I ~

.~

..~ .,..
- . - '" ,. ~ . ,'" ... .,. '00

2BO-2~1 34B-0?1
~
b e
I· •
~

..~ .",

37-4~1
- .'" .,. '00 ~ .,. - ... - 0:>0 700

~
C f
~

Ilill.
.I'I'~' ,,.

Figure 2: As examples only we present here some objects, previously catalogued as planetary nebulae, but dismissed as such in this paper.
(a) and (b) show symbiotic stars, the latter with [0111) lines (as in planetary nebulae) but otherwise characteristic of a symbiotic star; (c) is a late-
type star showing broad molecular absorption bands; (d) is a Ha emission star; (e) is a H 11 region; and (f) is a galaxy, onlya faint, red-shifted Ha-
line seen. Compare with the spectrum of a typical planetary nebula at the top.

18
results concerning nine of these stars Table 3:
are given in Acker, Lundstrom,
Lines Theoretical line ratio Observed line ratio
Stenholm (1987). Other objects are
galaxies (19), H 11 regions (22), plate [0111]5007 2.88 3.04 ± 0.27 (185 PN)
faults (10), reflexion nebulae, late-type 4959
stars, emission-line stars, etc. [Nil] 6583 2.94 2.9 _ 0.5 (146 PN)
The misclassified objects are found 6548
mainly in the following discovery lists:
Kohoutek (43 objects), Henize (He -2:
31 objects), ESO (30 objects), Wray (23),
Haro (H 2: 15 objects).
Figure 2 presents some objects com- "Centre de Calcul de Strasbourg, References
pared to a classical planetary nebula. CNRS".
From the first sam pie of about 200 Acker, A., Lundström, 1., Stenholm, S.: 1987,
spectra, it seems that for 27 objects the Astron. Astrophys., submitted.
2. Determination of Physical Properties Acker, A., Chopinet, M., Pottasch, S. R.,
abundances are weil determined; for 46,
of the Planetary Nebulae Stenholm, S.: 1987, Astron. Astrophys.,
the data could be better, and for the submitted.
(in collaboration with J. Köppen and
other spectra, the parameters are poorly Gutierrez-Moreno, A., Moreno, H., Cortes,
G. Jasniewicz)
determined. Say one third of all ob- G.: 1985, PAS.P. 97, 397.
Some of the measured line ratios served objects can be used for further Lundström, I., Stenholm, S.: 1984, The
allow, after reddening correction, the work. Messenger, 37,35.
determination of the electronic tempera- This very homogeneous and reliable Rosa, M.: 1985, The Messenger, 39, 15.
ture and density ([0111] 4363/5007, [N 11] material will be treated statistically, with Stenholm, S.: 1986, Report VIII, Journee de
Strasbourg "Les nebuleuses planetaires" ,
6583/5755, [SII] 6716/6731). In addition, the collaboration of G. Jasniewicz, re-
Publ. Observatoire de Strasbourg p. 25.
if a sufficient number of lines are avail- garding galactic gradients and problems
Stenholm, S., Acker, A.: 1987, Astron. Astro-
able, it is possible to estimate ionic of stellar evolution. The first results of phys. Suppl. Sero 68, 51.
abundances, computed through a this kind will be be presented at lAU Stenholm, S., Acker, A.: 1987, Proc. of the
theoretical model. J. Köppen has written Symposium 131, devoted to planetary workshop on planetary nebulae in Frascati,
a programme called "HOPPLA", used nebulae, and held in Mexico in October Sept. 1986 (in press).
on the IBM 3081 K computer at the 1987. Wampler, E.J.: 1985, TheMessenger, 41, 11.

ESO Exhibition in Brussels Visited by King Baudouin


An exhibition about the European The exhibition was opened by two Education on Friday, June 5, in the pre-
Southern Observatory was organized delegates of the Belgium Ministry of sence of the members of the ESO Coun-
in a collaboration between ESO, the
Brussels Planetarium and the Belgian
National ESO Committee. It was shown
on television and was visited by a large
public. The exhibition was originally
scheduled to last from June 6 to 15,
1987, but due to the large interest (more
than 1,500 visitors in two days!), it was
prolongated until June 26.
It was a particular honour to receive a
visit on June 9 by the Belgian Head of
State, King Baudouin I, and by the Bel-
gian Ministers of Education, Messrs. D.
Coens and A. Duquesne. They were
shown around by Prof. C. de Loore,
President of the Belgian National ESO
Committee. The King, who since long
takes an active interest in astronomy,
was informed about ESO and its future
projects, especially about the Very
Large Telescope, and expressed ap-
preciation of the pictures and models on
display. The King was presented with
some large colour pictures of spectacu-
lar objects in the southern sky which
had been specially prepared by ESO for
this occasion. The King's visit was given Dr. J. -Po Swings and Prof. C. de Loore explain the ESO VL T model to King Baudouin and the
wide coverage in the media. Belgian Ministers of Education, Messrs. D. Coens and A. Duquesne.

19
eil, who had met in Brugge the day
before. The brief ceremony, with pre-
sentations by the delegates, by the Oi-
rector-General of ESO, Prof. L. Woltjer,
and by Prof. C. de Loore, was followed
by a well-attended Press Conference.
More than 100 large colour photos
(including many beautiful exposures of
nebulae, galaxies, etc.) illustrated the
scientific and technical activities of ESO
and were accompanied by comprehen-
sive texts. Recent results were shown,
including Comet Halley and, not the
least, the bright supernova in the Large
Magellanic Cloud. The exhibition also
featured large-scale models of ESO's
ND and VLT projects.
This year marks the 25th anniversary
of the European Southern Observatory,
which was founded in 1962 to foster
cooperation in astronomy and to pro-
vide European scientists with a major
modern observatory.

OPTOPUS Observations of Quasar Candidates


S. CRISTlA NI, ESO, and Istituto di Astronomia della Universita di Padova

CCO detector at the 3.6-m telescope. been reported by Lund and Surdej
1. Introduction
The system has been described in detail (1986, The Messenger 43, 1). Here
OPTOPUS is a fiber-optic instrument by the Optical Instrumentation Group another "classical" use of multiple-ob-
for multiple-object spectroscopy with (1985, The Messenger 41,25). Its appli- ject spectroscopy is presented: follow-
the Boiler & Chivens spectrograph and a cation for observing Halley's comet has up observations of quasar candidates.

OPTOPUS FIBER RELATIVE SENSITIVITY


o I I I I i
I i
I i
I I
o
5
7
18 3

-
>- 47 13
10
4
I- 8
H
Cf) 48 22
Z 38 12
Wo
1-10 -
Z 34
30 25 24
H 21 15

W
46 43
37
2
23 I
>
H 31 27
40 17
32 19
I- 28 14
<{IO 20
41
-lC\J 33 -
W
0:

42
o
o
..nJl ---'- ltI L.-J ~ I..........J l...- ....L
5 50 85 140 1B5 230 275 320
WAVELENGTH (A)
Figure 1: A plot ot the relative sensitivity ot the tibers, as derived trom tlat field exposures. Fiber 41 corresponds to a "bad" column on GGO 3.

20
2. Searching for Quasars ",:rr~O~PT~O~PU~S~'.,_~_ _r-_~_....,_.-';!EF:.c:F~IC~I5fEN~Cc!..Y_~_.-_~_--r_~~

Colour anomalies (especially ul-


traviolet excess), variability and pres-
ence of strong emission lines in the
spectrum are the optical criteria mostly >-'"

used to distinguish quasar candidates z
W
from stars. Automated techniques, de- H
U
veloped in the last years and applied to H
l.L.
photographic plates or CCD transit sur- l.L.
ru
W.
veys, yield a considerable number of W
quasar candidates, potentially providing >
H
the basic information to solve many I-
«
questions about the universe. Slit spec- --.J
w~
troscopy, however, is required to con- a:.
firm those candidates and obtain reli-
able measurements of their redshifts.
This is the true boUle-neck of the pro-
cess: the great discrepancy between L+:7---'----;-:±:'.".-~---=!",'=--~--=!'=-_~__::,.}I=_-~--=~I
=--.~......l...--
4000 4750 5500 6250 7000 7750 6500
the two hours at a Schmidt telescope WAVELENGTH (Al
needed to expose a good objective-
prism plate, which will provide some Figure 2: The absolute efficieney ot OPTOPUS. It takes into aeeount losses due to tiber/objeet
hundreds of quasar candidates, and the misatignment and material absorption in the tibers.
about 100 hours required with a 4-m-
class telescope, in order to check them servable field. In other words, one needs ter, in which a maximum number of 47
spectroscopically one by one. adecent number of interesting objects fibers can be plugged for spectroscopy
in the observable field, in order to justify with some topological restriction. The
both the observing time spent in chang- limiting magnitude is a function of the
3. Observing with OPTOPUS ing templates and plugging fibers and a dispersion and will be discussed below.
The possibility of taking spectra of careful preparation of the observations Around Christmas 1986 OPTOPUS
many objects at the same time may (measuring accurate positions of the was used to observe some quasar can-
mitigate the problem. As a matter of targets, finding the guide stars, having didates in the SA 94 field (see Barbieri
fact, the advantage of using a multi- ready the observing plan weil in ad- and Christiani, 1986, Astron. Astrophys.
object spectrograph depends on the vance). Suppt. Sero 63, 1; and Barbieri, Cristiani,
combination of two factors: efficiency In the case of OPTOPUS the observ- lovino, Nota, 1987, Astron. Astrophys.
(Iimiting magnitude) and size of the ob- able field is a circle of 33 arcmin diame- Suppt. Sero 67, 551). In order to max-

Q 02f5!StOOOB l!f>TOPIJS

e IV eIn 8=19.7 Z=1.500

X
::l
..J
U.
UJ
>
~
I-

'"
..J
UJ
a:

~
.eooo ..000 !HOO ~l:lO 0200 071:10 7300
041:11:10
WAVELENGTH (Al WAVELENGTH (AI

0
o 02tS4"OOOO OPTOPUS o,r·~·~"'~+2!!00!j!!2B
__ --r_ _--r_-.-!!l!f>2!T0PU9~_ _- , - - _ - r - _ - - , - ,
0
N
~

Ly" 8=19.0 Z=0.922


8=18.4 Z=2.244
IJ

x
::l
..J
u.~ X o
::l.
UJ~ ..J~
>
~
U.
I-

'"
..J
UJ
a:~

.04000 ..eco 1:1000 l:l!:lOO 8000 -41500 1:1000 EmOO 0000 01500 7000 '000 8000
WAVELENGTH (Al WAVELENGTH (Al

Figure 3: Speetra ot tour quasars obtained with OPTOPUS.

21
imize the efficiency of the system, a accomplished by offsetting the tele- quasars are missed by the usual UV
dispersion of 450 Almm was chosen. scope about one arcmin away from the excess criteria.
Not all the fibers have the same sensitiv- actual field (at high galactic latitudes the The performances of the instrument
ity, as shown in Figure 1, therefore faint- probability of getting another object in turned out to be better than expected:
er objects were assigned better fibers. the aperture corresponding to the fiber from these observations it appears
As a by-product of the observations, is negligible) and exposing for a conve- possible to reach B = 20 with a spectral
the absolute efficiency of OPTOPUS nient time. However, it is weil known resolution of 25 A and a S/N > 5, by
was derived. From the spectro- that the sky emission is neither constant taking two exposures of one hour for
photometric calibration of some objects during the night, nor uniform all over the each field (in order to filter out cosmic
in the observed SA 94 fields it was sky. A better estimate can then be ob- rays) and properly subtracting the sky
possible to obtain the system response tained by combining different sky expo- background as described above. At this
curve, which, compared with the one sures taken during the night, say one at limit, about ten quasars per template are
previously derived for the Boiler & Chiv- the middle and one at the end of the expected. Using an efficient slit spectro-
ens spectrograph in the normal slit con- night, and using a few fibers to monitor graph like EFOSC, assuming a success
figuration with the same grating and de- the sky during the "object-exposure". rate of 50 per cent (required for an hon-
tector, provides the result of Figure 2. est completeness) and 15 minutes ex-
posure time per candidate, it would re-
quire about 5 hours of frantic work to do
4. Data Reduction 5. Results and Final Considera-
what can be accomplished in 3 hours of
tions
The reduction of OPTOPUS data is more relaxed OPTOPUS observations.
carried out very much in the same way Sixty objects, down to B = 19.7 were Of course EFOSC allows much greater
used for slit spectra. Only the sky sub- observed in two fields during the De- flexibility and OPTOPUS observations
traction requires some additional care, cember 1986 run. Seven of them turned have to be carefully planned with large
especially at magnitudes fainter than out to be quasars; four are shown in advance, nevertheless, the fiber-optics
B = 18. Figure 3. The result is not at all dis- spectrograph offers a valuable possibili-
An evaluation of the sky background appointing, since the experiment mainly ty wh ich should not be neglected by the
corresponding to each fiber can be aimed at checking that no low-redshift observers.

An efficient aid in preparing observing proposals and runs, as weil as the papers which follow:

SIMBAD, the CDS Database


A. HECK and D. EGRET, C. 0. 5., Observatoire Astronomique, Strasbourg, France

These tasks are made much easier by to designate the objects it gathers. In
Preparing an Observing
a tool such as SIMBAD, a database the past, this has already led a few times
Proposal ...
providing all basic astronomical data to the situation where two astronomers
... has become an increasingly available on the proposed targets, as studied the same object under different
challenging exercise. With an ever high- weil as the corresponding bibliography. identifiers without ever noticing it!
er pressure on space experiments and More and more proposal writers are us- Most of us also remember the great
on large ground-based telescopes (and ing it, as weil as an increasing number of difficulty of searching for various data
in particular those of ESO), it has be- selection committee members. spread over different catalogues for a
come imperative to present extremely The usefulness of SIMBAD does not sam pie of stars or even for a single star.
well-prepared documents to selection stop at the writing of the proposals for The only common point between these
committees to get the observing time observing time. The preparation of the catalogues was generally the appear-
sought for. observing runs themselves can also be ance of the coordinates, often imprecise
In fact, scientists are now complain- greatly facilitated. Once these are com- and relative to different epochs. Subse-
ing that writing a good observing pro- pleted, the reduction of the observa- quently, how was an exhaustive survey
posal requires as much time, care and tions, their comparison with already of the papers relevant to the objects
energy as a paper for a refereed journal. published results and eventually the under study obtained? The available
The rationale has not only to be scientifi- writing of new papers is significantly compilations were subject oriented, and
cally justified, but often a description of helped by getting the fundamental as- when object designations were used as
previous related work and of the tronomical data and the relevant bib- key words, generally no synonymity re-
methodology that shall be used for re- liography from SIMBAD. Never again lations were provided.
ducing and exploiting the data, have to should referees reject manuscripts for The situation began to improve by the
be included. Reasons for additional and/ the reason of overlooked published pioneering work undertaken in France at
or repeated observations have also to papers! the beginning of the seventies by the
be explained. More and more frequent- astronomers of the Strasbourg Data
Iy, combined or simultaneous (ground/ Centre (CDS) and of a few collaborating
Astronomical Quiz
space or multi-wavelength) observa- institutions who started to establish, as
tions are solicited and must be appro- It is no secret for the readers of this modern Benedictines armed with com-
priately requested and subsequently or- journal that practically every astronomi- puters, correspondences between the
ganized. cal catalogue uses a different notation various catalogues. Since its founda-

22
tion, CDS has maintained its c1ear lead- This catalogue has been complemented
ership in the field of astronomical data by the Bibliographical Star Index (BSI) Some Basic Data on SIMBAD
banks. giving, for each star and from the major (April 1987)
astronomical periodicals from 1950 on- 700,000 Objects
wards, the bibliographical references to 100,000 non-stellar objects
A Little SIMBAD History
the papers mentioning this star. On the 2,000,000 cross-correlated identitica-
In 1972, the French National Institute average, a star is cited in five publica- tions
of Astronomy and Geophysics (INAG, tions, but some stars are quoted in more 1,000,000 on-line measurements
now the National Institute of the Sci- than five hundred papers. 600,000 bibliographical object-indexed
ences of the Universe - INSU) decided Taking advantage of the fact that, reterences trom
90 astronomical periodicals
to create a Centre de Donnees Stellaires through the CSI, any identification can
scanned
with the following aims: give access to all connected cata-
- to compile the most important stellar logues, and thus to their data, a user-
data available in machine-readable friendly conversational software system
form (positions, proper motions, has been built around it, leading to the
Present Status
magnitudes, spectra, parallaxes, col- present dynamic configuration of the
ours, etc.), SIMBAD (Set of Identifications, Mea- Thus SIMBAD represents much more
- to improve them through critical surements and Bibliography for As- than a mere accumulation of cata-
evaluation and comparison, tronomical Data) base accessible from logues. Presently, it is most likely the
- to distribute the results to the as- remote stations. largest base of basic astronomical data
tronomical community, and Subsequently, data on non-stellar in the world. It contains about 700,000
- to carry out its own research. galactic and extragalactic objects were objects including about 100,000 non-
This centre has been installed at included, together with their biblio- stellar objects (mostly galaxies) for
Strasbourg Observatory and is headed graphical references (from 1983 on- which more than 2,000,000 identifica-
by a Director (presently C. Jaschek) who wards). Taking account of this, and in tions have been recorded. More than
is responsible to a Council composed of order to retain well-known abbreviations 1,000,000 measurements are provided
six French and six foreign astronomers. like CDS, CSI and BSi, the word stellar on-line. These figures will be quickly out
Besides collecting astrometrie, appearing in them has been replaced by of date with the planned inclusion of the
photometrie, spectroscopic and other Strasbourg. Guide Star Catalogue of the Hubble
catalogues, the first important accom- Space Telescope (of the order of 20
plishment of the CDS has been to con- million objects).
struct an enormous dictionary of stellar The table of synonyms and the con-
synonyms called the Catalogue of Stel- nected catalogues can be accessed
r
lar Identifications (CSI). Some stars have through any object designation (about
more than thirty different designations. 400 different types) or by object coordi-

I.@ " . .. .,
\

'iP
....J .

The maps (as ofApril 1987) represent the loeations of SIMBAO user stations (e) in Europe and in the rest of the world. Collaborating data eentres
(*) are also indieated. The STARLINK eentre at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory aets as a distributing node for its own network.

23
nates, equatorial, ecliptic (at any cooperating persons in other institu- Interest in CDS work is also shown by
equinox) or galactic. In the latter mode, tions. All the catalogues available at the growing number of astronomers vis-
one may request to get all objects within CDS have been produced by special- iting it, either to get to know the CDS or
a rectangle or a circle of given dimen- ists, so that their high quality is guaran- to set up a collaborative project. CDS
sions around a given position. Criteria teed. Some catalogues, prepared at stays in touch with its users and other
can also be specified on parameters CDS itself and available as CDS Special interested persons by a six-monthly
such as magnitude, existence of various Publications, are made in fields where Bulletin distributed free of charge. Apart
types of data, etc. With this information, the Strasbourg personnel has specific from keeping readers updated on CDS
maps can be produced, making SIM- qualifications. Thus the Catalogue of services and the latest developments,
BAD a precious auxiliary for creating Stellar Groups lists some 30,000 stars it contains also general papers and
identifying fields and preparing ground according to their spectral peculiarities. news about other data centres' activi-
or space observing runs or pro- Collaboration with other institutes ties.
grammes. having specialization in specific fields is In its Special Publication series, CDS
The bibliographie index contains re- then a natural consequence. This is par- also publishes directories gathering all
ferences to stars from 1950 to 1983, and ticularly the case for Bordeaux, Meudon practical data available on, on the one
to all objects outside the solar system and Paris (bibliography), Geneva and hand, astronomical associations and
from 1983 onwards. Presently there are Lausanne (photometry), Heidelberg (as- societies (IDAAS) and, on the other
more than 600,000 references taken trometry) and Marseille (radial ve- hand, institutions employing profession-
from the 90 most important astronomi- locities). al astronomers or researchers in as-
cal periodical publications. To encourage exchanges with other tronomy (IDPAI).
SIMBAD is accessible through data countries, formal agreements have been The research activities of the scientific
networks, inciuding the French TELE- signed, in particular with NASA (USA), statt (currently eight persons) are essen-
TEL public service. The European the Astronomical Council of the USSR tially centred on statistical methodology
Space Agency (ESA) IUE Ground Obser- Academy of Sciences and the Potsdam and its applications to astrophysics, on
vatory in Madrid was actually the first Zentralinstitut für Astrophysik (German classification problems, on distance and
foreign station connected to SIMBAD Democratic Republic). CDS is also col- luminosity determinations, as weil as on
which was used operationally for check- laborating with Japan (Kanazawa Insti- studies of peculiar objects.
ing target coordinates and as an open tute of Technology) and the United
service to visiting astronomers. It has Kingdom (STARLINK). The goal of these
Finally
been followed by other space centres agreements is to allow all astronomers
like the Space Telescope Science Insti- in the world to have access to all exist- If you want to have access to SIMBAD
tute in Baltimore and NASA Goddard ing catalogues. or, more generally, if you are interested
Space Flight Center in Greenbelt. The in the CDS services, you can get in
Space Telescope European Coordinat- touch directly with us at:
Other CDS Activities
ing Facility in Garehing is also con-
C.D.S.
nected through its host, the European On a much larger scale, CDS takes
Observatoire Astronomique
Southern Observatory. Other stations also an active part in space projects like
11, rue de l'Universite
with access to SIMBAD inciude piaces HIPPARCOS and TYCHO wh ich are
F-67000 Strasbourg
Iike the STARLINK node at Rutherford heavily dependent on SIMBAD for the
France
Appleton Laboratory, Caltech at preparation of their respective input
Pasadena (CA), the Center for Astrophy- catalogues. The Space Telescope Telephone: +33-88.35.82.00
sics at Cambridge (MA), the Very Large GSSS team is collaborating with the Telex: 890506 starobs f
Array in Socorro (NM), the Canada- CDS for the inclusion of the stellar cross EARN/BITNET address: U01117 at
France-Hawa'l Telescope in Kamuela identifications from SIMBAD in the sr FRCCSC21.
(HI), the Anglo-Australian Observatory in Guide Star Catalogue. CDS acts also as
Epping, the South African Astronomical the European disseminator of the IRAS
Observatory in Capetown, etc. (see observational material and has been re-
maps). quested by ESA to homogenize the IUE
To the present, there are more than a log of observations.
hundred centres in sixteen countries CDS plays a role also in the various ESO Press Releases
regularly interrogating SIMBAD. The fig- discussions wh ich should lead in the
ures are rapidly increasing. Apart from a near future to the setting up of a Euro- The following Press Releases have been
simple terminal, the only requirement for pean astronomical data network. Ideal- published since March 12, 1987, the date
accessing SIMBAD is obtaining an Iy, SIMBAD could be connected through when Messenger 47 was distributed.
PR 06/87: The Unusual Sehavior of Super-
account number from CDS which will be such a network with the observing logs
nova 1987 A in LMC (31 March); with colour
used for invoicing. Astronomers without of the main ground and space obser- photo of the supernova and the Tarantula
access to a data network can mail their vatories. Specific colloquia have been Nebula.
requests to the Data Centre which will organized by CDS on this matter. PR 07/87: Important Events in the South-
then return a printout with the corre- Apart from smaller scale CDS scien- ern Sky (14 May); with one S/W photo of
sponding data. In the same way, copies tific meetings taking place twice per Comet Wilson.
of individual catalogues (from a list of year, Strasbourg Observatory has or- PR 08/87: ESO Exhibition at the Heysel
more than 500) can be obtained on ganized several important colloquia on Planetarium in Srussels (25 May).
magnetic tapes. Some of them (about data collection, dissemination and PR 09/87: A New Edition of the ESO Publi-
50) are also available on microfiche. cations and Picture Catalogue is now avail-
analysis, as weil as on statistical
able from the ESO Information and Publica-
Data transfer is also possible via the methods in astronomy. All these meet-
tion Service.
major computer networks. ings were great successes and revealed PR 09/87: Hunting the Slack Hole (16
SIMBAD is continuously growing and the importance that the astronomical June). with one S/W photo.
kept up-to-date, not only by the Stras- community attaches to this type of PR 10/87: Is the Universe Younger than
bourg CDS statt, but also by many work. Previously Thought? (3 July)

24
A Study of the Neutral and lonized 10 Tori
R. PRANGE, Laboratoire de Physique Stellaire et Planetaire, France
A. VIDAL-MADJAR, Institut d'Astrophysique Paris, France
J. C. GERARD, Institut d'Astrophysique Liege, Belgium

brium of the sodium cloud (such as den- the mutual phenomena, see Schneider
1. Introduction
sity and temperature, loss mechanisms et al., 1986. The second method em-
Historically, the discovery and the first in various cloud regions, lifetimes of the ploys mapping of the near surface envi-
observations of the neutral clouds, and neutrals, mass loss rate, mass loading ronment of 10 with a very narrow band
then of the plasma tori near 10 were rate) for which we now begin to obtain filter and very good spatial resolution
made by ground-based spectroscopic the first answers through observations and stability, in order to improve the
observations about a decade aga (Na I: of the extent of the cloud, its east-west contrast between the diffused light from
Brown, 1974; KI: Trafton, 1975; SII: and north-south asymmetries, its lon- 10 and the cloud line. This is one of the
Kupo et al., 1976). The neutral emission gitudinal and temporal variations and its purposes of our present programme
lines are due to resonant scattering of velocity fields, by means of imaging and "Study of the ionized and neutral 10 tori"
allowed transitions from the solar lines, high resolution spectroscopic methods. at La Silla.
while the optical emissions from the However, much remains unknown in a The potassium cloud is about 15
ionized tori are excited by collisions with region close to the satellite itself, within times fainter than the sodium cloud, and
electrons (the lines from 3000 A to a few arcseconds, where the observa- it obeys the same physical laws, except
10000 A, including the visible, arise tions are very difficult due to the high for the lifetime. Therefore, it has not
from forbidden transitions, while the far surface albedo of 10 near the resonant been thoroughly studied. No imaging at
U. V. lines later observed from space- lines of Na (5890-96 A). We must recall all has been done of the oxygen cloud.
craft are due to electron-excited, that the first images were obtained with As for the ionized tori, only one sys-
allowed transitions). The lines studied in a -17 aresec and later with a -10 tematical spatial/temporal survey has
the 10 tori emissions are listed in arcsec coronographic mask. In this re- been achieved up to now (Pilcher et al.,
Table 1, together with their reported in- gion, the presence of an unknown 1985) in the S 11 6731 A line. Few other
tensity. atomic sink is suspected (Brown, 1983). images exist in S 11 and Sill, but they
Images of the emitting areas have There are presently two ways to get give rather contradictory results, espe-
been obtained significantly later (Na I: access to this region. The first one is cially what concerns longitude depen-
Matson et al., 1978; SI: Pilcher et al. , spectroscopic in nature and is based on dence of the emissions, and they seem
1985). registration of the solar spectrum re- to testify to temporal variations, not yet
There are quite a number of questions flected by Jupiter or one of its sattellites: understandable due to the limited data.
concerning the thermodynamic equili- provided the incident ray has crossed
the 10 Na cloud before reflection, we
2. Our Observing Programme at
observe the absorption Na line in the
La Silla
0r---..,......---r---~----. reflected solar Fraunhofer line with con-
tamination by the continuum from 10. Most of us are interested in the study
This method had been proposed by of Jupiter's environment, and especially
s some of us (R. Prange, R. Ferlet, A. of the magnetosphere/atmosphere
Vidal-Madjar and C. Emerich) for the coupling. F. Paresce, J. C. Gerard and A.
?
w
39th ESO observing period, but time Vidal-Madjar have al ready been allo-
U was not allocated. It has once been cated observing time on the GTO pro-
~ 0
J1 successfully applied on Europa during gramme of the Hubble Space Telescope
Ci

.5 .

'<S~~~~~N:a CLOUD
TABLE 1: Neutral and ionized emissions ot the 10 tori.
10: 2000
UT GROUND-BASED FROM SPACE
"010~"""""'~-:-5~~----:0~~~'~5 ----'.10 trom Durrance et al. (1983)
a DISTANCE IR)
Species Wavelength Intensity Species Wavelength Intensity

Nal 5890 A up to 01 1304 A 3R


5896 A 30 KR
KI 7665 A 500 R SI 1296 A 1.3 R
7699 A 1425 A 2.5 R
01 5577 A 200 R SII 1256 A 4 to 40 R
Cal 4227 A ~5 kR Sill 1199 A 15 to 60 R
1729 A 17 to 47 R
SII 6717 A 400 R 0111 1664 A 3 to 12 R
Figure 1: Sehematie geometry ot the plasma 6731 A
and neutral tori iIIustrating the neutral eloud 4069 A 50 R
shape and how the ionized partieles ean kiek Oll 3726 A 50 R SIV 1406 A 2R
the neutral speeies out. (A) Projeetion onto 3729 A
the plane ot the eeliptie (adapted trom Ba- Sill 6312 A 50 R
genal and Sullivan, 1981). (B) Perspeetive 3722 A
edge-on view (adapted trom Trafton, 1980).

25
Energetic portieie flux investigated the neutrals and concluded
::::::::====:::::=::....-- that a spectrai resolution of 5 Ä or better
was desirable. We have therefore used a
5 Ä sodium interference filter, centred at
5890 Ä and lent to us by the Service
d'Aeronomie (C. N. R. S., France) in or-
der to obtain the sodium cloud image
shown in Figure 6.
Moreover, the efficiency of the occult-
ing mask critically depends on the actu-
al spatial resolution and the image sta-
bility during the exposure, which usually
lasts from 20 minutes to a few hours.
This includes the seeing and the tele-
scope guiding accuracy.
We obtained a reasonable measure-
ment of the image widening by the over-
all seeing parameters from the measure-
ment of the FWHM of a nearby stellar
image. Ouring the September and
November runs, we found values of the
order of 0.5 to 0.9 arcsec. Compared to
the -1 arcsec diameter of the object,
these were indeed excellent observing
conditions. We were therefore able to
Figure 2: Schematic meridian section o( the Jupiter/lo magnetospheric coupled systems, use 3.5 arcsec for the mask width.
showing the cold and hot tori. 10 is on the - 6 RJ shell close to the peak of the hot torus (from The second point has turned out to be
Thorne 1981). much more critical. As previously noted,
once we had acquired a narrow band
(HST). Included in this programme is a The images were obtained with the image of lo's continuum plus the
high spatial (Iatitude-Iongitude) resolu- 2.2-meter telescope at La Silla in the sodium cloud emission, we had to elimi-
tion (and then temporal survey) study of imaging mode, coupled with the RCAI nate the conti nu um contribution. We
the H Ly a and H2 We-Ly U. V. emissions CCO detector. then imaged the diffuse light from 10
excited by the precipitation of mag- The strong emission from lo's con- through a broadband ESO filter, with 10
netospheric particles along field lines. tinuum (illustrated in Figure 3) was sig-
Since these precipitations are (totally or nificantly decreased by the use of an
partially) monitored by the 10 tori, we occulting mask in the telescope focal 10154
plane and centred on the image of 10. .....
had long aga suggested that a corre- CD
lated study of the Jovian aurorae and of This coronographic mask, specially de-
the 10 tori would give a clue to these signed and built at the Space Telescope
questions (Vidal-Madjar et al., 1982). Science Institute in Baltimore to be
There is currently no spacecraft which is mounted on the 2.2-m telescope, has
able to observe simultaneously the au- been described in detail by Paresce and
roral zone of Jupiter and the 10 orbit, and Burrows, 1987. It basically consists of a
we have therefore proposed to add movable wedge, the angular width of
ground-based observations of the 10 tori which can be continuously varied from 2
in the visible to the U.V. auroral data arcseconds to 10 arcseconds and
expected from the HST. In order to pre- centred anywhere in the field of view.
pare this programme, we have obtained The positional angle can be changed, 3.5'
two observing nights at ESO in Sep- depending on the direction of the faint
tember 1986 and then three more at the features to be observed. The associated
end of November 1986. optics introduce a magnification of 5,
This type of observations is only the resulting beam aperture is f140,
possible within about two months of a leading to negligible "beam aperture
1 2
Jovian opposition (most recently on effects" in the very narrow band filters
September 10, 1986; the next will be in used. The pixel size on the sky is 7.23 x CCl} PIXEl. NUHI\ER
mid-October 1987) and during intervals 10 2 arcsec and the field of view is about Figure 3: Cuts through simultaneous images
of 3 to 6 successive nights, due to the 23 by 37 arcsec, both weil adapted for (exposure 1 minute) of 10 and Europa on
42.5-hour period of 10, which must be high-resolution imaging close to 10. November 24, 1986. The angular diameters
observed near the greatest elongation The use of the occulting mask centred are very similar and the signals have been
on either side of Jupiter. The length of on the bright source does not in itself normalized to 10. The image was acquired
the sequence as weil as the amount of eliminate the diffuse continuum close to with the 5 A bandpass Na I filter and without
available observing hours per night de- the surface, as seen on Figures 4a and the occulting wedge. The small difference
between the profiles - 100 pixels lett of the
creases as one moves away from 4 b. It is necessary to further decrease
maximum (-7.5 arcsec) is due to lo's sodium
opposition, from about 9 to 10 hours on the transmitted continuum by means of cloud and gives an idea of the small contrast
September 1, 1986, i. e. close to the very narrow band filters. Sophisticated with the reflected continuum. The 3.5 arcsec
centre of the best period, down to - 2 interference filters or Fabry Perot inter- wide arrow corresponds to the size of the
hours per night at the latter period in ferometers can be used. Ouring the runs mask which was used to obtain Figures 4
November. of September and November 1986, we and 6.

26
Figure 6: 20-minute exposure obtained on
November 27, 1986, with a 5 Ä bandpass
Figure 4: 1-minute exposures obtained on September 4, 1986, with the standard broadband V filter centred on the 5890 Ä Na I emission
filter. 10 is behind the occulting wedge, the width of which is 3.5 arcsec. One sees the wings of fine. The circularly symmetrie contribution of
the distribution of the diffused continuum reflected by 10 (Io's size = 1 arcsec), which must be lo's continuum (cf. Figure 4) is easily distin-
subtracted by suitable image processing from the narrow band filter Na images of the neutral guishable from the elongated sodium cloud.
clouds. Figure b is shifted by about 0.3 arcsec from Figure a, perpendicular to the wedge. The The orbit of 10 is nearly in the NE-SW plane.
observed difference in the diffused light distribution emphasizes the need of a very high Jupiter is outside the image in the SW direc-
pointing stabifity during long exposures. tion.

being carefully located in the same (narrow band + reference broadband - Second, the scaling factor between
place, and we must subtract this refer- image). This constraint on the guiding of the input parameters and the real (actu-
ence image from the first one, as de- the telescope is very severe for several ai) d a/dt, d b/dt of the line of sight on the
scribed by Paresce and Burrows. Fig- reasons: sky must be perfectly known and regu-
ures 4 a and 4 b illustrate the difference - First, the relative motion of 10 in the larly controlled. This was one by acquir-
introduced in the reference broadband sky, which must be introduced into the ing astar, introducing a standard motion
images when the centre of 10 is shifted telescope computer for guiding, is fast drift in the computer and directly cali-
by only 0.3 arcsec perpendicularly to the and rapidly variable. For example, it can brating on the CCD the displacement of
wedge. This means that the location vary from 0 to ± 20 arcsec in a and ± 10 the star during the exposure time.
accuracy and the spatial stability of the arcsec in Cl during the same night. It is - Third, the motion of the telescope
images must be of the order of a few therefore necessary to adjust the guid- monitored by this calibrated "motion
tenths of arcsec « 0.5 arcsec) during ing input parameters, approximately ev- drift" must be uniform at the needed
the active experimental sequence ery 15 minutes. accuracy. Figure 5 wh ich represents the
photometric signal from the star during
10088 X-MOTIOO 20A 100 the above procedure shows that it is not
perfectly regular, and probably intro-
duces some "positional blur".
This delicate calibration study is obvi-
ously not a standard one, and it had to
be done with the active support of the
Operations Group at La Silla. It is good
to report that the achieved results are
already much better than those ob-
tained by the procedures used by other
groups, who report stabilities of 1 to 2
arcsec during an exposure, see Pilcher
et al., 1985. The efforts at ESO should
therefore be continued.
At the end of the November 1986 run,
we obtained our first image of lo's
sodium cloud, shown in Figure 6. The
Figure 5: Galibration of the guiding motion of the telescope: A constant drift velocity da/dr = 20
occulting mask was only 3.5 arcsec
arcsec per hour and d bldt = 10 arcsec per hour is introduced and the signal from a star near 10 wide and the exposure lasted 20 min-
is acquired during a 20-second exposure. The two-dimensional trai! on the GGO detector utes.
provides the velocity scalings in a and b. The intensity cut along the X-axis shows that the The data processing is now in pro-
motion is not entirely uniform. gress with the use of reference broad-

27
lo's Tori and their role in the Jovian magnetosphere/atmosphere dynamics
10 is the innermost Galilean satellite of Jupiter. It travels along an 50 km/s, giving evidence of charge-exchange with fast ionized
orbit at the distance of 5.9 RJ from the centre of Jupiter (RJ is the species of the ionized tori.
Jovian radius) which corresponds approximately to an angular
distance of 2 arcminutes as seen from the Earth. Its angular 2. lonized tori, which are caused by the pick-up of the newly
diameter is about 1 arcsecond (-3,600 km) and its visual bright- created ions by the magnetosphere. Since the magnetic field lines
ness mv =5.1. are rigidly rotating with the planet, their velocity at the 10 jovicentric
Contrarily to most other "moons" which look like telluric planets distance is about 4 times that of 10 (76 ± 6 km s-' between 5.5 RJ
01' icy bodies, 10 has a very special surface due to the fresh lava and 6.5 RJ , and - 17 km S-I respectively), and the ions are immedi-
spread by its active volcanoes over the mineral crust. It is presently ately accelerated by the differential velocity. Oue to this shortel'
supposed to be mainly composed of a mix of silicate regoliths, rotation period and their longer lifetimes (from one hundred hours
basalts, with frozen S02, S20, polysulfur oxydes and alkali sulfides for SII to one thousand hours for SII/ and Oll; Pilcher et al., 1985)
(Gradie, 1985; Hapke, 1986; McEwen et al., 1986). A continuous, they give rise to closed tori of SII, Sill, SIV and Oll, 0111 in the
significant ejection of materials is observed, either by direct vol- magnetic equatorial plane of Jupiter, which differ by - 10° from
canic emissions 01' by sputtering of the surface compounds by the geographie one (Figure 1b). The low ionization level species
energetic magnetospheric partie/e impact. It results in an atmo- Oll and SII are mainly observed inwards of lo's orbit, while the
sphere which mainly consists of oxygen, various sulphur moleeules higher ionization level ones are almost exclusively observed out-
(S, S2' S:JJ, S02 and metallic species (Na, K) with a 51 % mixing side of it, giving rise to the so-called "cold" and "hot" tori (Fig-
ratio. Its size could be a few 10 radii according to recent models and ures 1a and 2).
observations (Chrisey et al., 1986; Summers et al., 1985; Schneider Ho we ver, differences in the longitudinal dependence of the
et al., 1986; Ballestel' et al., 1986). densities of the various ions seem to be present in the small data
Additionally, 10 is embedded in the Jovian magnetosphere and sets now available. For example, the shortel' lifetime SII species
the neutral species which have been sputtered out are rapidly exhibits a significant, two maxima longitudinal variation, while most
dissociated and ionized by the ambient hot plasma and give rise to of the time S 11/ does not. This is tentatively attributed to local
ions which are immediately trapped by the magnetic field lines and plasma sources which are related to the Jovian magnetic anomaly,
are the major source of feeding of the inner Jovian magnetosphere. to the interseetion with the orbits of the neutral clouds 01' to
This produces two classes of features: collisions with magnetospheric electrons of given energy (Pilcher et
al., 1985). As in any plasma" the ratio of the intensity of selected
1. Neutral clouds (Na, K, 0, S) escaping from lo's atmosphere at emission lines can give information on the electronic temperature
low velocity (-2 to 3 km s-~, which roughly accompany it in its and density (Ta, no) as a function of the location.
motion in the geographie (rotational) equatorial plane of Jupiter Finally, these rotating ions interact with the Jovian magneto-
(Figure 1). The shape and size of these clouds depend on the sphere, for which they constitute the major source of energy and
ejection parameters related to the gravitational interaction of 10 and mass loading, thus playing a key role in the dynamics of the
of Jupiter, on the solar flux pressure (which is suspected to induce magnetosphere and, beyond it, of the Jovian atmosphere. Here are
east-west asymmetries depending on the phase of 10) and on some of the processes by which 10 may control the Jovian environ-
particle interactions, the more effective being ionizing collisions ment (summarized in Figure 2):
with electrons and ions of the magnetosphere and charge - by diffusion in pitch-angle, the ions from the tori are a significant
exchange with the ions trapped in the ionized tori when they source of auroral emissions in the upper atmosphere of Jupiter,
intersect the geographie equatorial plane (see later). Oepending on competing with the solar wind input;
their lifetimes against such processes and diffusive rates, the - secondary electrons are created and are mirrored back towards
neutral clouds can look like limited areas extending essentially the equator to populate the magnetosphere of a warm electron
forward 10 along its orbit (for lifetimes of the order of a few tens of component;
hours, i. e. the typical "banana shape" sodium cloud schematically - plasma instabilities are expected to appeal' along the magnetic
drawn on Figure 1a), 01' like complete tori as in the model-predicted flux tube of 10, again accelerating partie/es; and
ones for 01, for lifetimes of hundreds of hours (Smyth and - radial diffusion of the ions also takes place (rapidly outwards,
Schemansky, 1983) 01' SI (Ourrance et al., 1983). Escaping acceler- slowly inwards), thereby feeding a large region in the magneto-
ated jets are also occasionally observed with velocities greater than sphere.

band images such as those shown in References Kupo, 1., Mekler, Y., and Eviatar, A., 1976,
Figure 4. Astroph. J. Lett., 205, L 51-53.
Bagenal, F., and Suliivan, J. 0., 1981, J. Geo- Matson, D. L., Goldberg, BA, Johnson, T. V.,
phys. Res. 86,8447. Carlson, R.W., 1978, Science 199, 531.
Baliester, G. E., Moos, H. W., Strobel, D. F., McEwen, A.S., Soderblom, L.A., Johnson,
Acknowledgements Summers, M. E., Feldman, P.D., Skinner, T.V., 1986, Bull. Am. Astr. Soc. 18,774.
1. E., Bertaux, J. L., Festou, M. C., Lieske, Paresce, F., and Burrows, C., 1987, The
We are greatly indebted to Francesco Messenger, 47, 43.
J., 1986, Am. Astr. Soc. 18,774.
Paresce and Christopher Burrows who Pilcher, C. B., Fertel, J. H., and Morgan, J. S.,
Brown, RA, 1974, in Exploration of the
designed, built and operated the excel- Planetary System, Woszczyck and Iwanis- 1985, Astroph. J., 291, 377.
lent occulting mask without wh ich these zewska, Ed. p. 527. Schneider, N. M., Welis, W. K., Hunten, D. M.,
observations would not have been Brown, R.A., Pilcher, C. B., Strobel, D. F., Trafton, L.M., 1986, Bull. Am. Astr. Soc.,
possible. They participated in the mea- 19~3, in Physics of the Jovian Magneto- 18,775.
surements as coinvestigators. sphere, A.J. Dessler, Ed. Cambridge Uni- Smyth, W. H., and Shemanski, D. E., 1983,
We are also grateful to Daniel Hof- versity Press, p.197. Astroph. J., 271, 865.
Chrisey, D. B., Johnson, R. E., McGrawth, Summers, M. E., Strobel, D. F., Yung, Y. L.,
stadt and to the Operations Group at La
M.A., Phipps, J.A., and Boring, J.M., 1985, Bull. Am. Astr. Soc., 17, 692.
Silla, and especially to Paul Le Saux, Thorne, R. M., 1981, Geophys. Res. Lett., 8,
1986, Bull. Am. Astr. Soc., 18,775.
whose efficient support was crucial for 509.
Durrance, S. T., Feldman, P. 0., and Weaver,
the difficult problem of the image stabili- H.A., 1983, Astroph. J., 267, L 125-129. Trafton, L., 1975, Nature, 258, 690.
ty. We also want to thank Gerard Gradie, J., 1985, Bull. Am. Astr. Soc., 17, Trafton, L., 1980, Icarus, 44,318.
Thuillier and Jacques Porteneuve wo 692. Vidal-Madjar et al., 1982, Magelian Report on
lent us the narrow band sodium filter Hapke, B., 1986, Bull. Am. Astr. Soc., 18, the Phase A Study, ESA Report SCI (82) 4,
used in this experiment. 774. November 1982.

28
MCCP: Photometry Through Clouds!?
H. BARWIG and R. SCHOEMBS, Universitäts-Sternwarte München

guiding
1. Rapidly Variable Objects -
aChallenge to Photometry
The investigation of cataclysmic vari-
ables (CV) has almost become a tradi- graphie
tion at the Universitäts-Sternwarte Mün-
chen. CVs form a large group of close
binary systems as for example novae,
dwarf novae, X-ray bursters and polars.
These objects normally exhibit orbital
periods of up to a few hours, and some
of them, additionally, show very rapid ~
light variations at time scales of even
I
local
C=J
less than seconds. In particular eclipse plone commond
display
light curves of such systems ofter a
large amount of information allowing to
derive fluxes and other relevant parame- fiber co 10 ur detector data acquisition
input separation unit monitoring
ters separately for the individual compo-
nents. Figure 1: Block diagram of the three-channel five-colour photometer (MCCP).
For years such photometric observa-
tions with the required high time resolu-
tion have been performed using con- (object, nearby comparison star and sky Iy any telescope that ofters oftset
ventional single-channel photometers background) in 5 colours (UBVRI), all facilities. For operation, the MCCP only
wh ich for this purpose sufter from simultaneously and with high time reso- needs 220 V, 50-60 Hz, 4 Amps
essential disadvantages: lution. Photometry relative to a cali- stabilized power and a telescope which
- Multiband measurements are fairly in- brated comparison star can be per- can support 100 kp at its Cassegrain
eftective due to the sequential exchange formed with this instrument even during focus. The instrument has now been
of filters. The non-simultaneous mea- quite variable atmospheric conditions used many times at La Silla and other
surements may seriously aftect the cal- and spectral distributions can be mea- observatories as weil. Guest groups
culation of colours (e.g. U-B, B-V). sured even for erratic variable objects. have also used the MCCP with success.
Additionally, large errors arise due to the The instrument is equipped with a In its present state at least one well-
unavoidable deadtime. data-acquisition and monitoring system trained and experienced user must
- Continuous photometric monitoring that is fully independent of other com- accompany the instrument to guarantee
of variables could be done only during puter support. Furthermore, it contains proper installation, operation and
photometric nights, when comparison power supplies, a cooling system and a packing.
star and sky brightness had not to be meteorological station to measure the
checked too often. Non photometric atmospheric conditions in the dome.
3. Scene 01 Action: La Silla
nights caused considerable loss of ob- The photometer has a built-in auto-
serving time or resulted in annoying dis- guider system which can be interfaced Whenever the MCCP has arrived at La
cussions about the reliability of data ta- via the handset connectors to practical- Silla after a long journey from Europe, it
ken under poor weather conditions.
This inefticiency and inability of sin-
gle-channel photometers after many
useless nights initiated plans to develop
a more appropriate photometric in-
strumentation.

2. MCCP - The New Photometer


Concept
The instrumental development began
in 1982. It ended with the prototype of
the Multi-Channel Multi-Colour Photo-
meter (MCCP) schematically displayed
in Figure 1. A detailed description is gi-
ven by Barwig et al. (1987).
The instrument consists of 3 separate
fiber optic input channels, each splitting
the light into 5 colours by means of
highly efticient prism spectrographs. 15
photomultiplier tubes are used as
photon-counting detectors. Hence the
MCCP allows to measure three sources Figure 2: ESO experts mounting the MCCP at the 3.6-m telescope.

29
on the effective cooperation between
.0+5 OY CAR astronomers and observatory staff: Dur-
':':':";::::;;'~':.:.- 85 Ct5/5
ing the laboratory test the 15 detectors
had to be cooled, and as known to all
405 users of photomultiplier tubes, they
.030 I---l don't like changes very much and easily
>-
I-
V> get unstable when temperature or high
:z:
w
I-
voltage variations occur. Thus the aim is
:z:
to restart cooling as fast as possible
.015 (within less than 5 minutes) after switch-
w
>
I-
ing off in the lab and moving to the
<.:
telescope floar. This problem has al-
w
...J
a::
-':<""-/-.:.,•. _-.,J _ 8 Ct 5/5
ways been solved, thanks to the efforts
.000
PHASE
of the experienced ESO staff (Fig.2).
-.030 -.015 0.000 .015 .030 .0+5 .060 .075 After mounting and balancing, the whole
equipment is rechecked. In the follow-
Figure 3: Averaged eclipse Iightcurve in B of the short period (P = 91 min) cataclysmic binary
OY Gar, showing ingress and egress of white dwarf and hot spot. The data were obtained from ing, all electrical operations eventually
25 orbital cycles observed with the MGGP during 7 nights at the ESO 1-m telescope. Time necessary during observations at night
resolution: 2 s. The indicated count rate of the very eclipse minimum corresponds to approx- must be tested for electric pickup (e. g.
imatively 18 mag. dome rotation, light switches in the
dome building, shutters, elevator and
is generally stored in the telescope comparison the same tests had run be- platform operations, radio transmitters,
building, waiting for the observers to fore shipment. The consistency of the etc.). When satisfying results are ob-
drop in weil in advance for operational results, proper storage of the data, tained, the time until start of observa-
tests and preparation. They start with proper reading, plotting and reduction tions is used to continuously monitor the
the installation of a laboratory setup to of them together with a 24-hour stability dark currents of all 15 multipliers run-
check the complete system. First a test of dark current and sensitivity ning an appropriate test programme.
calibration measurement is performed guarantee the readiness for mounting at First-night observing activities gener-
by means of artificial light sources the telescope. ally are quite stressing: For this special
simulating star and sky radiation. For This procedure essentially depends instrumentation usually the telescope

,.
START: 011416860210 3A0729+103
I
TU 0.166
~ :
:', ...
":.,:. ~
',; ..~.
"
I,
i
-+ BO.077
.~

~ ~ :',
)
iuo.o
* . -; ' ..
i
a. '-j .......
~ I

1
o
u
~ ~ V .. ~ p
V 0.050
u ." \~;.:;.J "." ". ;,:~. :-; -'.
~..."":.:." -:.,~_.~.". ,'"...~
:"",1
w ,l. ..... j '\:.:. :1- :•••••.;. "'. ; • • - - - - :80.0
··'·'.L •.. ·'1·"'.· (... 'y i '
:.: I.
""'1
.... '"
J • - - " ..... :\.

:g .!.~.. ~ :1/ ~/~ '•./'::''';''\~ " \,,: ') ~/ i


I
< 20min i

-'-l
lRo.038
VO O
'

I '. IIO.033
.... '.; .:..~.;.; , :~ ' . .. :: "~.,.•:~ :.<· :: :·: :o :i·:.~: .;. \..~..·..·.. ~'~.~:.~ : '..
'~' ~
'. :'.~. "._ .._ ;. _:0.
'.'
-----t R 0.0
'-..<:.:.::.. . ) -:: .:. '::~::",:' .~:.'.:.:,.:>:~ . ~.:.~: ..... . ..'
• I' • '.' .' .",.:." • ( ' ....: .: • • : ••• : •.•'•••: ':','• •': :.'.'. "':
: ~. .:.:. .. .'.
,.
:

. ...' .~ . . '..:''': ·><:·~·:t>· ' . .


' - - - - -_ _-.L.. ..L.- --.J._._
•. ....l- ~ I 0.0
o 0.0694 0.138 0.208 0.277
TIME - 0.056695(d]

Figure 4: UBVRllightcurves of the intermediate polar 3 A 0729 +x 103 (BG GMi) showing short periodic variations (15 min) related to the rotating
primary white dwarf. The amplitude is modulated with the orbital period of 3/1 14 m.

30
focus is completely off at the beginning, are displayed. The MCCP has also been ped with computer-controlled position-
and the photometer coordinate system successfully applied to the investigation ing of the fiber optic channels it will offer
does not match to the local star acquisi- of optical pulses (timescale of 3 observing modes:
tion system. Consequently, initialization milliseconds) from the X-ray burster - 4-star multicolour photometry which
takes more time. Then with dome lights MXS 1636 + 53. For this purpose the allows to simulate different photo-
off and photometer shutters open, the multichannet photometer had been metric systems (Strömgren uvby,
amount of straylight from indicator attached to the 3.6-m telescope (See Geneva system, etc.) by means of
lamps, Cermet clock, TV displays, etc. also Fig. 2). In order to investigate the software;
be checked. extremely fast events produced by the - 8-channel spectral photometry with
The orientation and scale of the tele- neutron star of this object, a time resolu- resolution of about 500;
scope field in the photometer guiding tion of 40 ms had to be used. Prelimi- - Multistar spectroscopy of up to 20
system must be verified, the limiting nary results are given by Schömbs et al. objects.
magnitude of the autoguider must be (1987 b). Figure 5 finally displays the Each mode can be applied with a time
checked as weil as its proper adaption lightcurve of the eclipsing cataclysmic resolution of 1 ms. A sophisticated soft-
to the telescope control system to avoid binary SO Pav, observed during a night ware package shall optimize the observ-
guiding oscillations. so cloudy that even spectroscopists ing routine in accordance with actual
After all this, a mask plate has to be discontinued observation. SO Pav was atmospheric conditions while complete
produced wh ich holds the three fibers measured as long as we could see our reduction and preliminary analysis may
and a guiding diaphragm at their precise guiding star and as long as the obser- be performed automatically during day-
positions in the focal field. Of course, vatory regulations permitted open time, when the astronomer hopefully
the preparation of the mask could also domes. After reduction we found that for has already fallen asleep.
be done at home, but due to uncertain- atmospheric absorptions of less than
ties of the correct scale and orientation 80 % the accuracy of the reduced data References
of the focal field it has proven safer to was only degraded according to the
Barwig, H., Schömbs, R., Buckenmayer, C.:
use an option of the photometer which photon statistics. 1987, Astron. Astrophys. 175,327.
allows to drill a precise mask, live on the In the near future the MCCP will be Schömbs, R., Dreier, H., Barwig, H.: 1987a,
telescope. sent to La Silla for several additional Astron. Astrophys., in press.
Finally: Fibers are inserted - calibra- observing programmes while at its Schömbs, R., Pfeiffer, M., Häfner, R.,
ti on - start measuring object - auto- home institute work has al ready started Pedersen, H.: 1987 b, The Messenger, 48,
guiding on. Now everything goes auto- for a next generation instrument: Equip- 6.
matic, for hours, since this photometer
is mainly used for variables which are
monitored normally the whole night.
When the results are looking good, the
observer has time to go through a
;
checklist to make sure that everything is I
r
really o. k.: Oata are weil presented on !Ti
the graphic screen, there is regular stor-
:r
u SKY ~.;",r-~ . ..-t.~~"l! . J
age on disk, autoguider regulation holds
I.~
~~ ....... 'I.
,.~~
~ ......:.~ ~- -. ~f"':"

the star image within the errorbox indi-


cated at the TV monitor, no oscillation,
no drift, actual counts of object and
comparison are consistent, programme
parameter o.k.? .. Yes! Observer can N
relax and watch the growing light curves :r
u
on the monitor, check the transparency
of the sky by following the comparison
star on the graphic ...

4. Performance - Present ....


and Future :r
u

A large amount of photometric data üi


t-
could be gathered at La Silla until now, Z
:::J
data that could have never been ob- o
U
SO PAV
tained with classical photometers. One .0.0.--------------------------
example, presented by Schömbs et al. >-
(1987 a), concerns the monitoring of the ~o. 67. __..•.. .:~ . .-'.~'.,: _..:I: :.. ..-:...;-.: ;.:;:~:.~.:, •.,.,...,., .::;.:: ':-;:~;.:>.:.~ :.,:.:. '.\,.:~::, :;.' '
short-period CV system OY Car during ~ ,~ .
primary eclipse. The ingress and egress Z
H
phases of the white dwarf last some 30
-l
seconds only (Fig. 3). From colour varia- 1lJ
~ 0.36. '--- SO PAV (r ducedl
>-- ---;>-- ---
tions within similar short time intervals
the spatial temperature distribution of 0.000. O. 125. TIME W] . 0.250. 0.375.
the eclipsed accretion disk can be de-
rived. Another example is demonstrated Figure 5: Simultaneous observations of BD Pa v, nearby comparison star and sky during a non-
in Figure 4, where the light variations of photometrie nigl1t. The reduced lightcurve (V-colour channels displayed only) demonstrates
the intermediate polar 3 A 0729 + 103 the ability to compensate highly variable atmospheric absorption.

31
View of the Special Astrophysical Observatory. To the right the 6-m dome (about 45 m diameter, 50 m high) and the service crane; the
guesthouse is in the background to the lett.

ESO VLT Delegation Visits 6-rn Telescope


At the invitation of the Special As- enormous bearings and the Nasmyth were pleased to share their extensive
trophysical Observatory (SAO) of the foci platforms, gave useful hints to the experience, gained during more than 15
USSR Academy of Sciences, a small ESO engineers. Their SAO counterparts years, and to point out those particular
ESO delegation (Enard, Schneermann,
West and Wilson) recently visited the 6-
metre telescope which is installed near
Zelenchukskaja, in northern Caucasus.
It is at present the world's largest optical
telescope and constitutes an interesting
reference for those who are planning the
construction of the VLT, the world's
largest telescope of the future. The ESO
delegation was warmly received by the
Director of SAO, Dr. V. L. Afanasiev and
the vice-Director, Dr. L.1. Snezhko, and
was lodged in the guesthouse, near the
6-m building, about 2100 metres above
sea level.
Detailed discussions were held about
the construction and use of large tele-
scopes. The ESO people gave com-
prehensive talks about the European
Southern Observatory and its Very
Large Telescope project and were in
turn informed about various technical
aspects and scientific programmes at In front of the SAO main building at Nizhnyj Arkhiz, below the mountain and about 17
the 6-m telescope. A detailed inspection kilometres from the 6-m telescope by road. From lett to right: V. F. Afanasiev, M. Schneermann,
of the alt-az telescope, including the R. Wilson, L.I. Snezhko, R. M. West, 0. Enard.

32
problem areas wh ich must be con-
sidered, when ESO embarks on the con-
struction of its VLT.
The weather was cooperative and
there was ample opportunity to watch
the astronomical observations wh ich
concentrated on IDS spectroscopy of
the nuclei of active galaxies. SAO has
recently adopted a flexible scheduling
system, in wh ich several programmes
with different seeing requirements are
on simultaneous standby. This system
appears to have contributed to a more
efficient exploitation of the available ob-
serving time.
The ESO delegation was interested to
learn about the Soviet plans in connec-
tion with future large telescopes and the
desire to continue the exchange of ex-
perience in such matters. There is little
doubt that with the development of new
astronomical sites in the USSR, in par- The azimut/1 drive wheel.

ticular in the high mountains of central


Asia, astronomy in this country can look
forward to a large observational poten-
tial.
After the stay at the 6-m telescope,
the ESO people travelled to the other
side of Caucasus and during abrief visit
to Tbilisi, they had talks with colleagues
from the Abastumani Astrophysical Ob-
servatory of the Georgian Academy of
Sciences. Under the directorship of
Academician E. K. Kharadze, plans are
now under way for the installation of a
large optical telescope at this observat-
ory. Although the time was short, the
ESO people were also given the oppor-
tunity to experience the legendary Geor-
gian hospitality.
We owe sincere thanks to our hosts
for making this visit so useful and pleas-
At the foot of the 6-m service crane. ant. R. M. W.

Major Film About Astronomy to be Produced


A major film about astronomy, telling sessions at the La Silla observatory and world and they would greatly appreciate
the story of this science from Antiquity also at the Headquarters in Garching. any material (brochures, photos, etc.) at
to our days and including a detailed The project aims at a 6-hour series the following address: Mr. R. Pansard-
overview of modern astrophysical re- which will be shown on television in Besson (Les Productions Berthemont),
search, is now being prepared by a several countries. An associated, large 47, rue de Rennes, F-75006 Paris,
French producer, with the support of the (travel) exhibition and a comprehensive France.
French Ministry of Education, La Villette, written documentation (book) will also
French television and other organiza- be prepared. The work of astronomers,
tions. In view of the importance of this their celestial discoveries and the life at
The editors regret that the wrong insti-
ambitious international project, wh ich is astronomical institutions, with buildings
tute was indicated after the name of
carried out with the active collaboration and instruments will be described. D. Heynderickx (The Messenger No. 47,
of several well-known European as- In order to bring this project to a suc- March 1987, p. 28). The correct affiliation
tronomers, the European Southern Ob- cessful conclusion, the film people are is: Astronomisch Instituut, Katholieke
servatory has offered to provide advice now in the process of establishing con- Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.
and services during extensive shooting tacts with observatories all over the

33
Discovery of a Binary Quasar
G. MEYLAN, ESO
S. OJORGOVSKI, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
R. PERLEY, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, and
P. McCARTHY, Berkeley Astronomy Oepartment

The radio source OM-076 was first a number of about 5 exposures free of
1. Introduction
identified with a blue, 17.5m stellar ob- bright and/or very extended objects are
The discovery of quasars, about 25 ject on the Palomar Sky Survey by obtained during the night. It is of course
years ago, was one of the most exciting Radivich and Kraus (1971). and then ideal if the chosen fields have in addition
events in the history of recent as- "rediscovered" as PKS 1145-071 by a scientific content!
tronomy. Oespite the slow growth in our Bolton, Shimmins, and Wall (1975), who At La Silla, last Oecember, we took
understanding of their physical nature, confirmed the optical identification. The frames for sky median in regions ex-
these objects, wh ich have the highest spectroscopy of the object by Wilkes tremely poor in stars but carefully
known redshifts, still provide the best (1986) identified it as a aso with z = selected for containing quasars which
available probe of the most remote ob- 1.345. VLBI measurements of the radio could be possible Jens candidates. Our-
servable regions of the universe. Not- source were published by Preston et al. ing the first night, the pair of quasars
withstanding the numerous observa- (1985). There was no mention by any associated with the radio source PKS
tional and theoretical difficulties (few if author of the source's binary structure. 1145-071 was discovered. The aso
any of the simplest and most basic was selected on account of a marginal
questions about quasars can be ans- elongation visible on the finding chart!
wered with certainty), the enthusiasm of
2a. The Imaging CCO Observa- We obtained initial images of the field
tions
astronomers for the study of quasars on the night of UT 1986 Oecember 29,
has not declined. It is weil known that one of the com- using the RCA 320 x 512 CCO # 5
Though long discussed and predicted mon ways of obtaining the flatfields for mounted at the Cassegrain focus (fl
by Eddington, Einstein, and Zwicky (e. g. an observation night (or even run) con- 8.01) of the ESO 2.2-m telescope, at La
see lAU Symposium # 119 and refer- sists of taking sky median frames. Then Silla. The effective pixel size was 0.363
ences therein). the still recent discovery
of the gravitational lensing phenomenon
is one of the most vigorous and growing
subjects in modern extragalactic as-
tronomy. A natural expectation, based
on the observed degree of galaxy clus-
tering at low redshifts and on reason-
able extrapolations to large redshifts,
indicates that some of the claimed
"gravitational lens" systems are actually
physical pairs of quasars with small sep-
arations (Bahcall et al. 1986). There are,
in fact, several pairs of quasars known,
with projected angular and redshift sep-
arations indicative of membership in N

E~
large clusters or superclusters (e. g.,
1146+111,0952+698, and 1037-271).
However, there are no definite close
physical quasar pairs currently known at
any redshift. Finding such a aso pair
would be very interesting, as it would
provide diagnostics of processes and
A
insight into phenomena which are not
probed by the gravitational lensing: e. g.
the nature of c1ustering at large red- B
shifts, the role of gravitational interac-
tions in triggering and fueling of galaxian
nuclear activity.

2. The Observations
We report here the discovery of a pair
of quasars with a redshift of 1.345,
separated by 4.2 arcsec in projection,
apparently associated with the radio Figure 1: We report here the discovery of a pair of quasars with the redshift of 1.345, separated
source PKS 1145-071. It could be the by 4.2 arcsec in projection, apparently associated with the radio source PKS 1145-071. Being
first binary quasar known (Ojorgovski et the first image showing the binary character of this object, this figure displays the B-band eeo
al. 1987). frame of the PKS 1145-071 field, obtained at ESo. The two QSO's are labeled as "A" and "B".

34
2000 Ol

-
~
If)

~ Ol
QQ 1145-071
3+4 Jan 1987 ur MMT
1500
u
0
-
0
Ol

-
~ ~
CIleo eo

Vl
.....,
--
00
~~

+
C') .--.
Ol~
::::
v
::r:
u

Ol
Ol
l::: 1000 C')
-0
1"-
;:::l CIl
0
U
~':; ::::
.~ t:: tlD
Vl tIl ::s

500 A
+400

o
3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500
Wavelengthj'A..
Figure 2: The spectra ot the two quasars, obtained at the MMT: QSO A on the top, 8 on the bottom. The spectrum ot the QSO A was shifted up
by 400 units tor clarity. 80th spectra were rebinned to 3 A bins (- the instrumental resolution). The relative flux scale is arbitrary.

arcsec. The meteorological conditions flux calibration of the data. The spectra we obtain ZA-B = 0.001 ± 0.003, inde-
were not of great quality: marginally confirmed immediately that both objects pendently for both nights, corre-
non-photometric and with a seeing A and B are quasars, at apparently the sponding to the rest-frame velocity
FWHM = 1.5 arcsec (the next night same redshift. The total integrations for difference v1. B = 300 ± 800 km s-'. A
quite a few frames had FWHM = 0.6 the QSO's A and B were 600 sand more accurate method, cross-correla-
arcsec!). One 8 and one V exposure of 2000 s respectively on 3 January, and tion using complete spectra in
300 s each were obtained. The 8 frame 960 sand 2160 s on 4 January. wavelength range 3200- 7000 A, gives
4
is shown in Figure 1. The total spectra are shown in Fig- t.ZA - B = (9.3 ± 2.7) x 10- , or V1.B =
The separation of the two compo- ure 2. They appear similar at a first 280 ± 80 km S-1 for the 3 January data,
nents is: glance. But they exhibit significant and t.ZA - B = (6.5 ± 3.8) x 10-4 , or V1.B
aA-B = -3.3 ± 0.1 arcsec differences. The C IV 1549 line clearly = 200 ± 110 km S-1 for the 4 January
t.ÖA_B = +2.6 ± 0.1 arcsec has a larger equivalent width in the QSO data, wh ich have somewhat more reli-
wh ich corresponds to a total separation A. In the A component, the He 11 1640 able wavelength calibration and a better
of 4.2 _ 0.1 arcsec in the direction PA = appears stronger than in B, and with an signal-to-noise ratio. Similar numbers
128°. Our magnitude zero points are absorption feature. The Mg II 2799 is are obtained if one uses the wavelength
uncertain (approximate magnitude of only marginaly existant in B. The line range 3200-4800 A. However, if we
the QSO A is - 18), but we can derive widths also seem different. exclude the portion dominated by the
accurate intensity ratios for the two im- The redshift of this quasar, based on C IV line, and use the data in the range
ages, IA/IB = 2.15 ± 0.15 in the 8 band, the C IV line alone is ZA = 1.345 ± 0.001. 3800-7000 A, the difference drops to
t.ZA _ B = (4.1 ± 3.1) x 10- , or
4
and 2.7 ± 0.1 in the V band. The measurements of the C IV 1549 and V1-B =
Because of the equatorial position of He II 1640 lines for the QSO Bare 120 ± 90 km S-1 for the 4 January data
this object, it can also be observed from difficult because of blending. (the 3 January data do not have enough
the northern hemisphere: this was the Considerable care was given to the signal to do this test).
beginning of a cascade of observations! measurement of velocity difference
between the two QSO's. We did
2c. Radio Observations
wavelength calibration in two different
2 b. The Spectroscopic Observa-
ways. We measured redshift difference Short observations of PKS 1145-071
tions
fram the strong C IV line, and from the were obtained with the Very Large Array
Spectra of the two components were cross-correlation of spectra, for the two (VLA) on the night of UT 1987 January 9.
obtained on the nights of UT 1987 Janu- nights separately, using different por- In view of the configuration available
ary 3 and 4, by using the Reticon spec- tions of the spectra, and employed two ("C"), only the data taken at 2 and
tragraph on the Multiple Mirror Tele- different centring methods for the emis- 1.3 cm had sufficient resolution to clear-
scope at Mt. Hopkins. We used the low sion lines and cross-correlation peaks. Iy determine whether the object con-
resolution (300 lines mm- 1) grating, and Different methods and variation of para- tained two points of emission, or one. All
2 x 3 arcsec entrance apertures. The meters enabled us to estimate our inter- the data were calibrated by short obser-
seeing was fairly good, but transparen- nal errors. vations of nearby point sources. Subse-
cy variable, wh ich prevented adequate From the centring of the C IV line only, quently, the standard self-calibration

35
1145 IPOL 14914.900 MHZ tection of any lens object is of course
15 = - - - - , . - - - - - , . - - - - - . - - - - - - , - - - - - - , - - - - - - = = l not equivalent to the non existence of
such object! Nevertheless these two last
cases could be regarded also as tenta-
tive true pairs of physically distinct
quasars.
10 In the case of PKS 1145-071, the im-
aging and spectroscopic data are mar-
ginally consistent with the interpretation
of the pair as a gravitational lens. The
crucial evidence comes from our radio
maps: the intensity ratio on cm
5
wavelengths is at least several hundred,
0 which should be compared to the opti-
cal intensity ratio of - 2.5. In order to
salvage the gravitationallens hy-
A pothesis, we would require dramatic
R
Lop/LRadio variability on the time scales
C
° corresponding to the path delay (-1
S year), a variability never before observed
E
C
B+ for an extragalactic source. We thus
conclude that the QSO pair 1145-071 is
most likely a genuine binary quasar. The
-5
above pair has the smallest angular sep-
aration known for this kind of objects.
It is tempting to compare this system
with the two other QSO pairs,
1635 + 267 and 2345 + 007, both of
-10
which are radio-quiet, and for both of
which the spectroscopic and imaging
evidence for gravitational lensing are
about equally good as in the case of
1145-071 here. For these two systems
-15 there is no obvious lensing cluster and/
er galaxy to very faint magnitude levels.
Pending further studies, we should
leave these two cases open, as they

10 5
ARC SEC
-5 ° -10
may be interpreted either way.
A physical binary quasar should be an
CENTER AT RA 11 45 18.300 DEC -07 08 1.00 interesting object to study, as it may
PEAK FLUX - 6.4447E-01 JY/BEAM provide us with some clues about the
LEVS - 6.4447E-03· ( -0.100, 0.100, 0.200, origin and the fuel of QSO activity. Evi-
0.300, 0.500, 0.750, 1.000, 2.000, 3.000,
5.000, 7.500, 10.00, 20.00, 30.00, 50.00, dence for tidal interactions is often indi-
75.00) cated in the low-redshift QSO-galaxy
associations, and even proposed as a
Figure 3: Radio map of PKS 1145-071, obtained at VLA at 2 cm, in the C configuration. The
possible trigger of the QSO activity (cf.
position of the aso B is marked with the cross. The residual noise in this map is 0.23 mJy.
Stockton 1986, and references therein).
Tidal shocks may facilitate a runaway
gravitational collapse of the central clus-
ter in participating galaxies, and thus
routines were applied, and the resulting to establish the coordinate system. The actually form the central "engine", or
maps have excellent dynamic range, final mean position (epoch 1950.0) is: feed more stars and gas into it if it
-2700:1 at 2cm and 6cm, and a = 11 h 45 m 18.30 5 al ready exists. Galaxy collisions also
- 200: 1 at 1.3 cm. The 2 cm map is o 0
= -07 08' 01.05" provide plausible means of transporting
shown in Figure 3. The source is unre- with errors of 0.6 arcsec in each coor- the ISM fuel to the central engines. In
solved at all frequencies, and there is no dinate. There is thus no doubt that the 1145-071 A + B system we may be
trace of a secondary image. the radio source is associated with the seeing such fateful interaction occurring
The best-fit radio position of the QSOA. at an early epoch when the comoving
source (epoch 1950.0) is: density of quasars was considerablay
a = 11 h 45 m 18.29 5 larger than it is today. In any case, the
o 0
= -07 08' 00.56"
3. Discussion and Conclusions
projected separation and the velocity
with errors of 0.05 arcsec in each coor- There are only a few systems for difference between the two QSO's are
dinate. We obtained the optical position wh ich the gravitational lensing interpre- consistent with a tidal encounter.
of the brighter of the two QSO's from tation is now reasonably weil estab- To interpret our data in terms of phys-
the independent measurements of both lished, viz., 0957+561, 1115+080, ical scales, we note that in a Friedman
red (E) and blue (0) prints of the Palomar 2016+ 112, and probably 2237 +030. To cosmology (with Ho = 100 km S-I Mpc- 1 ,
Sky Survey, by using the Center for As- this date there is no detection of lens A o = 0, and qo = 0), the distance mod-
trophysics dual axis measuring objects in two other possible cases, ulus to the system is (m-M) = 44.1, and
machine. Some 20 SAO stars were used 1635+267, and 2345+007. The non de- the projected separation of 4.2 arcsec

36
eorresponds to 25.0 kpe. If we substi- 1010 1038-27 is of the order of 4 Mpe. galaxy evolution at large look-back
tute qo = 1/2, these numbers beeome Thus the absorption line systems in times. Oeep imaging and spectroseopy
43.44, and 18.1 kpe respeetively. these two quasars could give the largest are needed to pursue this potentially
From the knowledge of the projeeted distance over wh ich correlated absorp- highly rewarding possibility, an ideal
separation a of the two eomponents and tion quasar spectra has been reported proposal for the VLT!
from the (signifieant) differenee in veloe- to date (Ulrich 1986). In the case of PKS It is a pleasure to thank T. Courvoisier
ity between A and B, it is possible to 1145-071 A+B, the absorption feature for extremely stimulating discussions
determine a direet estimation of the total in the He 11 1640 of the A component and advice.
mass of the system, under the hy- only could give the smallest distance
pothesis of orbital motions of the two (Iess than 25 kpc) known so far over
eomponents around their eentre of wh ich differential absorption is ob-
References
gravity of the system. Using Kepler's served, the intervening material being
third law, we have: only at a very small distance from the Baheall, J., Baheall, N., and Schneider, D.
1986, Nature 323,515.
eoncerned object.
Bolton, J., Shimmins, A., and Wall, J. 1975,
(MA + MB) sin 3i = Another exciting possibility is that this Austr. J. Phys. Suppl. 34, 1.
2.89 105 ...E.-- pair is situated towards a high-redshift Djorgovski, S., Perley, R., Meylan, G., and
(1 )
kpc galaxy cluster: if quasars are rare MeCarthy, P. 1987, Astrophys. J. Lett.
events, then two quasars eould be sug- submitted.
If we take a = 25.0 kpe and V = 250 km/s gestive of a high galaxy density. Mere Preston, R., Morabito, D., Williams, J., Faulk-
(mean of the determinations using the existence of rich clusters at such large ner, J., Jauneey, D., and Nieolson, G.
eomplete speetra, i. e. 3200-7000 Ä), redshifts provides an interesting timing 1985, Astron. J. 90, 1599.
far sini = 1, the total mass of the system eonstraint for the theories of large-scale Radivieh, M., and Kraus, J. 1972, Astron. J.
76,683.
equals MA + MB = 4.5 10 11 M0 (Iower strueture formation. No such rich envi-
Stockton, A. 1986, Astrophys. Space Sei.
bound). ronment is visible on our short exposure 118, 487.
Coneerning absorption lines, it is frames. Studies of "normal" galaxies in Ulrieh, M.-H. 1986, in proe. 01 Second ESOI
worth mentioning that, with an angular this hypothetical cluster (i. e., those not GERN Symposium, G. Setti and L. van
separation of 17.9 aremin, the projected selected by their large radio power, or Hove, eds., p. 87.
distance between the lines of sight to strong line emission) should be ex- Wilkes, B. 1986, Monthly Notices Royal As-
the two quasars Tololo 1037-27 and To- tremely valuable for the investigations of tron. Soc. 218, 331.

Preliminary Abundances in Three Cool Supergiants


of the SMC
M. SPITE and F. SPITE, Observatoire de Paris, Seetion de Meudon

Introduction
used the ESO ECHELEC spectrograph able). Moreover, these stars, even when
It is quite weil known that the objects and the electronic camera (Baranne, not known as variable, may still be
of the Magellanic Clouds (even the 1976) for the analysis of cooler super- slightly variable. Finally, the spectral
younger objects) have lower abun- giants. lines could be affected by non-LTE
danees of heavy elements than similar effeets.
objeets of our Galaxy (see for example The best way to tackle this problem
Lequeux, 1983). The whole history of the New Observations and Analysis was to select rather cool supergiants for
ehemical evolution of the Magellanie As soon as the CASPEC spectro- observation. The spectra of cool stars
Clouds is not yet fully understood. Stel- graph with its CCO detector became display numerous absorption lines: faint
lar spectroscopy can contribute to a available (O'Odorico et al. , 1983) it and strong lines, Iines originating from
better knowledge of the abundances in appeared that it was perfeetly suited für low and high excitation levels, Iines of
the MC. The pioneering work of Przy- the determination of stellar abundances various elements. From the accurate
bylski was begun a long time aga (LMC, (O'Odorieo et al., 1985; Spite et al., measurements of these Iines, a number
1968, SMC, 1972) using photographic 1985; Spite, 1986). M. Oennefeld called of constraints are found for the model
plates at the coude spectrograph of the our attention to the subjeet of the atmosphere, so that, by iteration, a
1.88-m (74-inch) telescope at Mount abundances in the Magellanic Clouds, model can be adjusted, from which
Stromlo. Subsequent work was made and we decided to try to improve the reliable abundances can be derived.
by other astronomers, especially by B. previous knowledge about the abun- The best accuracy of the measurements
Wolf (1972, 1973) using similar tech- dances in the Clouds by careful obser- of the equivalent widths of Iines is
niques at the ESO 1.5-m spectrographie vations and analysis of a few super- achieved when using the red part of the
telescope. The use of photographic giants. Some difficulties in this task are spectrum, where the continuum is more
plates (the only detector available for obvious. The determination of the tem- easily determined, and this is made
such a problem at that time) pushed the perature of such stars is affected by possible by the good sensitivity of the
astronomers towards the observation of uncertainties (the calibration of the col- CCO detector in the red.
blue (hot) stars, since the sensitivity of ours of the supergiants is not complete- Observations of supergiants were be-
photographic emulsions is at maximum Iy reliable, the reddening of the stars is gun at the ESO 3.6-m telescope with the
in the blue part of the spectrum. Foy not aecurately known and the profiles of CASPEC spectrograph, but the pro-
(1981) and Thevenin and Foy (1986) the hydrogen lines are not always reli- gramme was severely disturbed by

37
Dufour (1983) and by Peimbert (1983)
for the SMC and LMC. Taking into
account the errar bars, the mean
metallicity of the SMC supergiants and
the "metallicity" of the SMC gaseous
objects may be considered as being in
fair agreement.

Relative Abundances of the


Metals
If we concentrate now on the pattern
ll1 of the relative abundances of the ele-
ci ments, it appears that the light metals
are less deficient than iran: this is what
is normally found in the metal-deficient
stars of the Galaxy. However, some ex-
ceptions are to be noted: (1) magnesium
SMC - AZ197 (essentially 24Mg), wh ich is less deficient
than iron in the Galaxy, seems to be as
deficient as iron in the three super-
OL--I--~--'----'_~--+ --'-_-'--~_+---'-_~--'----'_-+---'- --'--'
giants. (2) Sodium (essentially 23Na),
5430 5440 5450 5460 which has the same deficiency as iron in
the Galaxy, has a smaller deficiency
A
than iran in the three supergiants. In
Figure 1: A (smalI) part of the spectrum of a supergiant field star of the Small Magellanic Cloud, other words, magnesium and sodium
obtained at the ESO 3.6-m telescope, using the CASPEC spectrograph. have, in the three SMC stars, a be-
haviour which is the opposite of their
behaviour in the Galaxy. (3) Yttrium and
barium (89 y and 138Sa) seem to be less
cloudy weather. A few good spectra of Table 1 provides: (1) the iron abun- deficient than iron. These peculiarities
stars in the LMC and SMC were ob- dances relative to the Sun (i. e. iran de- have, of course, to be checked, in order
tained, as weil as one spectrum of a star ficiencies) found for the three super- to find if they are real abundance effects
in a young globular cluster of the SMC giants (they are remarkably similar), (2) or artefacts introduced by the imperfec-
(Spite et al., 1986). An example of one of the mean of these deficiencies, (3) the tions of the model and/or imperfections
the spectra obtained in the SMC is mean oxygen deficiencies praposed by in the adjustment of the model.
shown (Fig.1). Preliminary results are
now available for the three field stars
observed in the SMC. The curve of
::r
grawth of iron of the star AZVI 197 is
shown in Figure 2. The curve and the
abscissae were computed by using the
LOG,"/~r
models of Gustafsson et al. (1975). The . AZ 140
scatter of the measured lines is rather
small and, more importantly, there is no FE 1.
apparent stratification of the lines Lfl
I
originating from low or high excitation
levels: this is an evidence that the
choice of the model temperature was
correct.

Global Metallicity <.D


I
Let us recall that the iron abundance
may be considered as adetermination
of the global metallicity of the star (we
will come back later to refinements such
as the variations in the relative abun- o KIEX .LE. 1.5
x KIEX .LE. 3.0
dances of the elements), as weil as the + KIEX • GT. 3.0
oxygen abundance may be considered
as adetermination of the global L ALPH + L GF + L GAM
"metaliicity" (heavy element content) of
the gaseous objects such as H II regions 0.76 I. 10 -0.70 0.100 SOLAR AB 7.67
and planetary nebulae. Let us also recall
Figure 2: Curve of growth of neutral iron lines in the star AZVI140 (a supergiant of the SMC).
that the metaliicity of the Sun is re-
The abscissa is an auxiliary quantity, computed from the model and from atomic data. The
presentative of the metallicity of the ordinate is the logarithm of the measured quantity W/). the experimental values are rep-
(young) Population I of the Galaxy and resented by symbols related to the lower level of the corresponding atomic transition. No
is universally adopted as the standard stratification of the symbols is observed, at variance with the stratifications clearly observed
for intercomparisons of metallicities. when the effective temperature of the model is not correctly adjusted.

38
Conclusion OSJECT Fraction 01 [Fe/H] [O/H]
It is hard to derive a firm conclusion solar metallicity
from preliminary results. However, let us
star AZVI 140 0.19 -0.72
note that the cool supergiants analysed 0.22 -0.66
star AZVI 197
here are not very different from the star AZVI 369 0.18 -0.74
luminous giants of globular clusters, Mean (SMC stars) 0.2 -0.7
which we have analysed previously, and SMC H11 (Dulour) 0.16 -0.8
for wh ich we found abundances similar SMC H11 (Peimbert) 0.10 -1.0
to the ones found by other authors. SMC PN (Peimbert) 0.16 -0.8
Przybylski and Foy have already argued LMC H11 (Dulour) 0040 -004
that the abundances found in the super- LMC HI1 (Peimbert) 0.32 -0.5
LMC PN (Peimbert) 0.25 -0.6
giants of the Magellanic Clouds should
be reliable. Let us recall the classical notation: [X] = log X. - log Xo
Therefore, if it is accepted to have

(provisionally) a very optimistic and


naive view of the results here presented,
it could be admitted that the metallicity
of all the young supergiants in the SMC
agree, within determination errors, with
the "metallicity" (i. e. oxygen abun-
dance) of young gaseaus objects such
as H 11 regions and planetary nebulae.
Q With same further optimism, it could be
guessed that the agreement found for
~ b--€>-~ the SMC holds also for the LMC, and
~or-~~---~~-----~----------&-­ that therefore the global metaliicity of
~
young stars in the LMC will be the one
found for oxygen in the gaseaus ob-
jects. As a consequence, the best
choice for the progenitor of the super-
nova 1987 A would be the metaliicity
found for the gaseaus objects in the
Typicol Goloctic !ltor with [Fe/H]=-0.7 LMC, i. e. about '!3 of the solar metalIici-
ty (see Table 1).

Acknowledgements
20 40 60 80 100 120 140
We are indebted to P. Franc;:ois for
taking part in this work and to M. Oen-
nefeld for calling our attention to the
problem of abundances in the
Magellanic Clouds. We are also in-
debted to 1. Richtler who measured V,
R, I colours for the stars observed spec-
troscopically. We thank R. Cayrel for
useful comments. We are grateful to S.
• 9 ..... _ -0
I ..... 8 ..... D'Odorico for helpful advice about the
v I.<'v - - -- use of the CASPEC + CCO system.
~ 0 +-__;r-- -l..-€~........=-::......=-=--------e--------------____!
~ (!)

References
AZV = AZVI = AzV = Azv = AZ see Azzopardi
and Vigneau, 1982.
Azzopardi, M., Vigneau, J.: 1982, A & A
Suppl. 50, 291.
~
SMC (field F stor)
I Saranne, A.: 1976, Advanees in Eleetranies
and Eleetran Physies 40 S, Proceedings 01
the 6th Symposium on Photoelectronic Im-
age Devices, eds. S. L. Morgan, R. W.
20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Airey, D. McMullan, p. 641.
Denneieid, M.: 1985, private communication.
A D'Odorico, S., Enard, 0., Lizon, J. L., Ljung,
Figure 3: Patterns of elemental abundanees in Galaetie dwarfs (upper part) and in SMC S., Nees, W., Ponz, 0., Ruffi, G., Tanne,
supergiants (Iower part). The abseissa is the atomie number, the ordinate is the (Iogarithmie) J. F.: 1983, The Messenger 37, 24.
ratio of the abundanee of the element relative to iran. In both eases, a sma/ler defieieney of the D'Odorico, S., Gratton, R. G., Ponz, 0.: 1985,
light metals is apparent, but the two metals Sodium 23Na (fi/led eireles) and Magnesium 24Mg A & A 142, 232.
(open eireles) have opposite behaviours. Dulour, R.J., 1984, see Van den Sergh, S.

39
and Oe 80er, 1983, p. 353. Przybylski, A.: 1968, M.N.R.A.S. 139,313. T., Spite, F.: 1986, A & A 168, 197.
Foy, R.: 1981, A & A 103, 135. Przybylski, A.: 1972, M.N.R.A.S. 159, 155. Thevenin, F., Foy, R.: 1986, A & A 155, 145.
Gustafsson, 8., 8ell, R. 2A., Eriksson, K., Spite, F.: 1986, ESO-OHP Workshop, J. P. Van den 8ergh, S., Oe 80er, K.: 1983, eds. of
Nordlund, A.: 1975, A & A 42, 407. 8aluteau and S. O'Odorico eds. Garehing, the lAU Sympos. 108: Structure and Evolu-
Lequeux, J.: 1983, see Van den 8ergh, S. and p.251. tion of the Magellanic Clouds, Reidel, Oor-
Oe 80er, 1983, p. 67. Spite, F., Franc;:ois, P., Spite, M.: 1985, The drecht.
Peimbert, M.: 1983, see Van den 8ergh, S. Messenger No. 42,14. Wolf, 8.: 1972, A & A 20, 275 (LMC).
and Oe 80er, 1983, p. 363. Spite, M., Cayrel, R., Franc;:ois, P., Richtler, Wolf, 8.: 1973, A & A 28, 335 (SMC).

Distant Clusters of Galaxies


A. CAPPI 1, G. CHINCARINI 2 ,3, P. CONCONI 3, I. MANOUSSOYANAKI 4, and G. VETTOLANI 5
1Bologna; 2 Universita
degli Studi di Milano; 3 Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Milano; 41stituto di Fisica Cosmica
e Technologie Relative, CNR, Milano; 51stituto di Radioastronomia deI CNR, Bologna

The information we receive from as- pendent of the particular cosmological


tronomical objects is, thanks to the finite model. It is striking, indeed, to consider
speed of the electromagnetic radiation, what Figures 1 and 2 tell USo At z ~ 0.5
related to their past status. Such and depending on the values of qo and
differentiation between past and pres- Ho we may look at the Universe before
ent becomes meaningful only on a large cluster formation, or we may look only at
scale or, equivalently, over long times. extremely rich clusters of galaxies (since
The c10ck and time unit are set by the these have a much shorter collapse
stellar evolution and by the dynamical time). To us seem fundamental not only
time. the fact that the observations of distant
A glance at Figure 1 shows indeed clusters of galaxies give information on
that at z = 0.5 the look back time for Qo the evolution of galaxies but also the
= 1.0 and Ho = 50 km sec- 1 Mpc- 1 is awareness that searches and statistics Figure 3: CCO image (3.6 m telescope +
about 6 . 109 years, a time which is long on distant clusters may give constraints EFOSC) of a cluster at z = 0.69.
enough to allow the evolution off the on the geometry of the Universe in a
main sequence of some stars and com- simple and straightforward way. This
parable to the free-fall time of large and observational work must be allowed and The standard candle for these tests is
massive clouds of gas. The collapse must be done since it is within the state generally taken to be the first ranked
time of a cluster of galaxies (Gunn and of the art of modern observations. cluster galaxy. This is, however, the one
Gott, Ap. J. 176, 1, 1972) is of the same The geometry of space, indeed, re- galaxy that is most affected by statisti-
order of magnitude, however, it is inde- mains one of the fundamental tasks of cal fluctuations and luminosity and/or
observational cosmology. The classical dynamical evolution. Often it is a radio
tests: magnitude-redshift and angular source and it is unclear yet to what
140
diameter-redshift, need to be investi- extent we are dealing with a weil defined
gated up to z = 0.9/1.0 and the evolution and low intrinsic dispersion standard
effects must be understood before any candle. As stressed also by Tammann,
conclusion can be drawn. the use of the 5th brightest galaxy is a
V1
flo=O.O better choice, and we must try to mea-
a:
«
..., sure more, and fainter, magnitudes.
>- 14. The deep knowledge we have today
on stellar evolution and the present and
12.0 planned instrumentation allows a realis-
tic approach to the fundamental and
40 10.0 fascinating field of cosmic evolution.
V1
a:
«
..., Signs of detection can be found in the
20 >- early work by Butcher and Oemler
(Ap. J. 219, 18, 1978) and by Dressler
6 .8 10 1.2
and Gunn (Ap. J. 270, 7, 1983). Such
Z signs are however inconclusive and only
mark the beginning of a set of new ob-
Figure 1: Cosmic time as a function of red- servations which can now be done in a
shirt for Ho = 50 km sec-I Mpc- I and values
systematic way.
of Qo as marked (continuous fine). The
dashed fines mark the cluster collapse time To detect evolution means to evaluate
for a cluster which is 5 times less dense than .2 10 12 the differences between the same ob-
Coma (tc =
11.2 10 9 years, top line), as dense ject at two different epochs. The as-
as Coma (tc = 5 10 9 years, central line) and Figure 2: Same as Figure 1 for Ho = 100 km tronomical equivalent is to observe what
10 times denser than Coma (tc = 1.6 10 9 sec-I Mpc- I. For Qo = 0.0 a cluster like Coma we believe to be the realization of the
years, bottom dashed lines). would form at about z = 0.9. same object (or even better the realiza-

40
BACKGROUND FORMA nON OF A CLUSTER MOVE CLUSTERS AT VARIOUS Z

SEARCH AREA, H", Go, Z, "', BANOS

LUHINOSITY
FUNCTlON
r.:-::=J;:~~~====='--I EVOLUT.
ISOTMERHAL

FROH KNOWN
CLUSTERS
STOP

STOP
FOR CLUSTER

I - - - - - - - - - j EVOLUT M,- Mz =COLOR STOP

m=M.25. 510g <\.K 121. el21 Figure 4 b: Flow diagram for the creation of a
Figure 4 c: Flow diagram for the creation of a
cluster of galaxies.
cluster at aselected z superimposed on a
Figure 4 a: Flow diagram for the creation of "background" of galaxies.
non-cluster galaxies ("background").
plete for clusters at z > 0.3 but forms, ti on - motivated the search conducted
however, a fundamental listing for de- by Gunn, Hoessel and Oke (Ap. J. 306,
tion of the same class of objects) at two tailed and statistical studies of the near- 30, 1986), who observed a limited reg-
different epochs. Such an approach, by present epoch universe. George ion of the northern sky detecting 418
therefore, requires a good morphologi- Abell was not able to complete the sur- galaxy clusters in the redshift range 0.15
cal knowledge, in the context we are vey of the southern sky he initiated in ~ z ~ 0.92, We observed one of these
dealing with, of nearby and distant clus- collaboration with Harold Corwin (AbeIl, clusters, at z = 0.69, with the EFOSC
ters of galaxies. The first step is the G., and Corwin, H., 1983, in Early Evolu- attached to the Cassegrain focus of the
availability of fair sam pies; that is catalo- tion of the Universe and its Present 3,6-m ESO telescope at La Silla. The
gues. Structure, p. 179, edited by G. Abell and analysis of the data has just begun; a
G. Chincarini, Reidel). The catalogue of preliminary and not yet fully corrected
the southern Sky is now being com- CCO image is reproduced in Figure 3.
Catalogues of Clusters
pleted (AbeIl, Corwin and Olowin, in pre- We do not know yet wh ich kind of a
of Galaxies and the Detection
paration). This catalogue will be similar cluster we are dealing with, indeed be-
of Distant Clusters
in various aspects to its northern coun- fore we know it we must have a sizeable
The northern sky has been searched terpart and therefore practically useless sampie so that we can study the charac-
systematically for clusters of galaxies by for studies of very distant clusters, teristics of clusters at high redshifts. A
George Abell and the result is his per- z > 0.4. The need for deeper surveys - first hint, however, of the kind of objects
used catalogue (Ap. J. Suppl. Series 3, as we have said we must study the log we can observe at high z is given (a) by
211, 1956). The catalogue is very incom- Ne - cz relation and the effects of evolu- the considerations related to cluster for-
mation (see Figures 1a, 1b) and (b) by
the probability of detecting a cluster at a
given z,
The eye, or any devised algorithm,
recognizes a cluster of objects as a den-

D.
D.
D. + ~
D. + x<t
D. +
D. + ~ 1100
D. + '"
N D. + u..
0
+ es
+ <0
>:
900
:::>
z
;:--' 600
~
01 0' 06 08
REOSHIFT
Figure 6: "Background" galaxies (triangles)
and total number of cluster galaxies (crosses)
18 20 22 24 expected in a 10' x 10' field. The magnitude
limit is J = 25 and the cluster is of richness
J class R = 2 (R2) and population type E do-
Figure 5: Counts of galaxies by Jarvis and Tyson (crosses) and by Koo (triangles). minant (T 1).

41
2000 over a small area of the sky. Non-
+
+ +
cluster galaxies were added, with the
+ 0 + constraint given by the observed
~
1500 0
o + counts, up to z = 2.0.
4. The cluster galaxies were assumed
+
z 1000 t to satisfy an isothermal distribution.
"-
V1 The population (galaxy type) was
assigned according to a mean de-
500
*8 + rived from observations of nearby
+ clusters.
til... It is clear that at large z we may face a
000 , , ,
,+
, , different distribution (clusters may be
000 + •
000 020 0,0 060 080 L'_ _--:-'::'" .-_--'_ _-..,.L',..--_-' forming) and population (galaxy may
000 075 150 225 300
Z show signs of cosmic evolution). But
S/N I 250 MPCI
Figure 7: Signal to noise ratio (searching area this is, indeed, the scope of the simula-
with diameter 0.250 Mpc) as a function of tions. The difference between what we
redshift (z) tor an R2, T1 cluster (without + (OMPUTEO FOR Z=O 6 expect and what we observed should be
evolution) for 2 simulations. o 3000 SIMULATIONS FOR VARIOUS RAND T due (assuming we have full control of
06< Z<07
the observational effects) to the
Figure 9: Probability ot detection as a tunc- phenomena we want to understand: (1)
tion of s/n. Open circles as derived numeri- geometry, (2) formation epoch and (3)
cally using 3000 simulations, crosses as
sity enMncement over a background of cosmic evolution.
computed analytically.
objects. The probability of detection is On a 10' x 10' area the number of
therefore a strong function of the signal background and cluster galaxies (R 2
to noise ratio, s/n. The problem has deed, to know the far ultraviolet ener- richness class 2, T 1 rich in elliptical/
been studied by simulating the universe gy distribution of a statistically valid lenticular galaxies, J 25 mj = 25.0) as
using our present knowledge. The ingre- sam pie of spiral and elliptical a function of redshift is illustrated in
dients are illustrated in Figure 4 a for the galaxies. Figure 6. The definition of a search area
creation of the background, in Figure 4 b 3. For the non-cluster galaxies we (0.250 Mpc diameter for instance)
for the creation of a cluster and in Figure placed the galaxies at random. We allows then a measure of the ratio s/n as
4c for what should simulate an area of believe this is a reasonable approxi- a function of the redshift z, Figure 7.
the sky observed (1) in a selected pass- mation for the galaxy distribution Note that due to various realizations of
band (for now we have used J and F
colours), (2) to a given limiting mag-
nitude (we have used mf (J, K) = 23 and
25, and (3) without taking into consider-
ation the detector noise (wh ich will be
·
•• .
.. : t .. .. 1~. ..
:
...
. ..... :-....
.. ..
+-: -. • .- .. . .
..
., ~.
.... :!"'".. • ••••
:. . . .: t
........
.. • t . . . ... 41.
: "".. ••
+-:
+.
~

:
--
..
.,..
~
the next ingredient). Naturally we are ......
a __ .. : ••• ... -._.t." .:-."'.• :
_ .. _ I '
~c •• ~: ~ ..
' •••.•:~_ ."
..
faced with various uncertainties and ap-
proximations, some of which are:
,.. ': •... ..,; ..... ~=. : :.... J:.\.. ·~_::;.;.r<· .: ... : .... ~;. ~
- " .. 'V.'. ..
'.'
"I' ..
." .:,,:,.
~.~
+...q.::..... '" -..••:-.+..
.. 4) .'. '" .." T • -

..... -q
1. At very faint magnitudes the galaxy o +...
+ .. .:
••••.•
....
.•• '0'·
+.
".- '0'·
+.. _••

...
0 ... ..
counts are uncertain by about a fac- .. I' • . . . " : .0)" . _" ~.
.. •Q-"
tor 2 (Koo, Ph. D. thesis, Univ. of • •~
......
•0 , :. • . : ~
• • • • • • ",,-"
...
: .,.
..
:-
\10-·

..

••••
I

·1.,......." ~\~:.~ .
•••••••
• ,
~-.

• . . ° :-
~t. .... . • ~
..'
.. :
,. • " • • •": • -• • e ·
°
. . t·:..•
11 .0 • • • " 11 . . . . . . ."'-. • ••
California, 1981; Jarvis and Tyson, #+ ..

A.J. 86,476,1981), Figure 5. o·o :..: _.,. ... •..' .•.v: ••;.• •.. ;t ." ••. . .,db.. ~•••• :?
=
~
.'
. ~...
' . ' : . ' t'"
: . 0·. ~
J' •

..·fT .
11. " -" ' • • • ...... • • .. . . "'. .,. - . - . ..

2. At large redshifts the K correction .. ". . I


.....0-. .rt0 " .. .::... ....- " v
i'.. ..
:t" ... • I
v
,. *•
"'p
. " . c t ' " :.
plays a dominant role and may in- • .fII;.I.. • • •• 't "" I * _: • .fII;.o.. • " •
,,! +- • .o. ...... ':I:) • f ••••• .:'.. ".
deed completely bias the observed .•.. _. ~ :. " .• :.. . •.. _...f... .......
population in the clusters and in the .- .l!I,..... ... ö .. ". : :. .*• • " . • k···
t

background. We urgently need, in- " •


• :- • 1- ~ .... : .
... y... .... .'.
. ' " ,. "
,
G*::···
- .o. "•.• ~ +"0y"' .••.•; ° " '" ,..... . ~
*:J ,,+ •• ~ . . :

.. .
.. : jI". .."' .. + p•• ; .'
~
r"l,

- -.... .. . ..
"l".,!."r" ,'T", "I"'" "r.,!""", "," ,~, ,.,t"I.'"
-...- .. " ""
*,0• . •
. " ... ~ :
t
."" .,." .,.,., "r., ,T, ." ",.", "r, •. """ "",~",r'l "I
:
11

020
• .;-t .. :--. ....* .... ~~ : • .o ... * ••• ~ ~
•....
• "~ ~ ••
* . .:..."111 •
~... ~.
• • •. '~C:

015 .. .•.
• ....
. .. ,
.<0°.... .. ..!.q :
-
~. ,",.o
.
". \. .....
• +., .'
.,:
'.=
~
z
Q
..... 010
• •• 6 . • ' .
••• '
\0

,

." ... .. .
0·. • .." . ".. . ~,·o·
•• • • ....
.'. '0'·

. 0... .o", : _ .' .


. '~.:~.
:::>

..'- "
co • " :. • • .o ." ; +",,:
•. - .... 0 ~• .o'. ". ••
r,." \: ~
0:: o • • '. ... :
..... ',,"
V1
Ci ,e ~:~••~;. :.~ .;,. . '. ~ , • ~: .:.
... •.....: ~t'.. • . ~


.fII;"..
t
.....,-
'. . ..
.(f10.: •

300

S/N (250 MPC Z=O 61

Figure 8: Distribution ot the s/n ratio derived Figure 10: Background simulation at J = 25 (bottom left), cluster simulation (bottom right) at z =
tor a cluster R2, T2 (spiral-poor). The histo- 0.7, cluster + background without evolution (top right) and cluster + background with evolution
gram is based on 800 simulations. according to model C of Bruzual (top left). Cluster of richness class R2.

42
.... +-- ~."
.; .•.••: .... .- ." t: -.. ...
...... "
~
"'. .... :....
:
":
......
+;.:;:.
. . : 0- ; .... ~. .:' '.+!~. >." .: .'. '..... :..~ ";. ._ tector noise will make detection even
morre difficult) is that even unevolved
.... : ;•. - _+ •• " •• -0- •• :..: • • • • • • <> " .. t. +. ' .- ••• ~-1 clusters of richness c1ass 4 are hardly
.... . !• . • . . •
• • .... ... .,' ." 1. " .. ~. ....
"""'-+
.. .. ' .,. ,
-
~... ..
.;
~ ," detectable for z ~ 0.6/0.7 (there is some
•.••• o·~' ,.-:. t! •.•• ~ o· "", • . ~ • . • • • .",;.
.. .. • • <9
+.
0..
Q.
~ . .-. 0
.. .. ;.+
..... - . '" .0..
.... . . . . + .
+
'0'-"
.!. -q •
difference between elliptical dominated
clusters [T 1] and spiral rich clusters
:+ :.. ': ..:+
• 0 .......

o .. '''• • • ' . . . . . . . 0 .. ',. . .... +. . . .

•.+"''t;:.,'; .~. ?...


[T3]). Since clusters have been detected
.. ~ ,0·' .,.+, .. : •~ ';• .. ~.. .. ,0·' .-.-+." :~
••'J"~\~~": ': ?..., ..
••~ .:. .." .-:.. ;. ,.. ..... " ; ••+: ••! .:.: • ' • .-. .." . • . ."."+;'. at z > 0.8, then either we are detecting
•0

l. ,. ~..
..
. 0

: ..
';\. "'r-"
.."
~ ~ . . . . t ..
_..
~
.: i . .
..: •0
:.f- •••• _
..:0. •
~ ..............+
~
O· •••

t " " ,:
. ..

t :~
...
. only extremely rich clusters or evolution
.. _.. ., • . a. 0
tA.
..". ~..... ':"!.
0+
...~..
.. "
...
: ..
0
-. •
.. A
..
0 . . • db • plays an important role in making a clus-
-.,..- ., . - ~ • -. . 0 • ..;- .~ . - ~ • •• ~.
.. • • "J ~ • ;p , -• ':... • ... "·0·.
J ~ ~" • ter more visible at large z. We may be
.0-. • • • •. :% ••
l:

•... J'.. ,... •

r" t. ,. . . . - • .. • •
Cf • •
. • '\ ,.
••
• •

dealing with a combination of the two
I.!

. ..!.-.. •
.. .. . _.e. :.Ö •••• ~.
..... .•'.:,p.!
:.. ... ........
:. l!'.... t'. :.
o.'
-.... . . ~..... . effects. (Note that some detection could
• ••.• "0
~
" . . . '. ~"~". ...... ."0.... ... 0 .. . ....
y

,
be due to a projection effect, that is an
.-. • t. + y _. .' •• . :. • t .. ~..... , • .
enhancement of density when two clus-
~ ('l ••• I I
!J
I : st .~.
'T,."."."., I '! " " " , . " " ,f"" "'.' ""'"
_. •• . " . 4 0. ' . • :: l': :.sf . ~ .' - -6.
","l"""", r. "'T,,., ••• ,,
:. _' 0... -... •
ters are seen along the same line of
.•.. '.... . ... .. .....
IT', •• I ' •• 1' . , . , " " " " , , " , , , I l l f ' l l ' 1"
• ........ • -. • ..... .. • • • ,tJ- -lJ! :
... . '~ . - sight).
~• • : : t .. ~. • t. •• : ....: -. .. .- .. •• . ~ An idea of how the evolution may
~a ~ C
.... .. -- ... increase the probability of detection is
. . . . . . . . . . . a. . -.. •••• 11. •

.. a · · .• • •.••
'\.. \. ... • •:,: .•• =,:
depicted in Figures 10 and 11. In each
............
.......

,,' .•4°...
• (lo

..: • ... I . ". -..' ••• ...: \ :


figure is reproduced the simulated

.'.
"0
o .. .. ... . . . . \ ·0·-..
. . "....... ... • • .- ~

.... ,. :
background (bottom left) , the simulated

'\
;. 0 - . . .
" .', .. ••
'"
..-
.~ ~
...
-:
·0:
:
• ••• : +••::
..
.- . ~1lt~ !'.:"
'\ cluster (bottom right), the cluster
superimposed on the background (top
.0.. 0 ~_.:.-." _.. ~ :~. ~ _. . : ........~4!5:. right) and the evolved cluster superim-
t. ~ -:.. • .. • .... t . - .. __ r~· ..- " ••

• _:. ,.. - O. • f;;.. ...." - +-. : posed on the background (top left). In
'- i:.~ . • . • . • . • ,:

·, ..
~ .. '! .,..-.......
-c:.. ,.. •..
~:
.
. ~'. r
.~.':
:~:
. . ~ .. ...
~
each case the evolution has been illus-
trated by using model C of Bruzual
(Ap. J. 273, 105, 1983); that is a burst of
• ..
....
~. . . . . ~ ~ ..a
+- •
; - 0
~
.. ~
••
....
.-- +---
..,,;. star formation lasting about 109 years .
y.. •. • • .. • •
.. _
...
-t ..
...,Ff'" ~ _...... : •••_ 0.-.. .:, The limiting magnitude of the simulated
sampie is J = 25 and the area 10' x 10'.
Figure 11: Same as (ar Figure 10 (ar a cluster a( richness class R4. Each galaxy point is coded, even if not
marked in the figure to avoid confusion,
in magnitude, colour, galaxy type, posi-
the same model we have a dispersion of The probability of cluster detection tion and redshift. Figure 10 refers to a
s/n at a given z, an effect wh ich is illus- has been computed as a function of the spiral-poor cluster (T2) of richness class
trated in Figure 8 for a cluster at z = 0.6 signal to noise s/n (and therefore as a 2 (R2) at a redshift z = 0.7 while Fig-
(the histogram has been derived from function of z) both analytically and using ure 11 refers to a spiral-poor cluster of
the analysis of 800 simulations). Such 3,000 simulations for clusters of various richness class 4 (R 4) at a redshift z =
dispersion must be accounted for when richness and population. The result is 0.7.
we determine the probability of detect- illustrated in Figure 9 where the agree- The evolution of galaxies enhances
ing a cluster at a certain z, and indeed it ment between theory and numerical ex- the cluster visibility!
may reflect the statistics playing in the periments is excellent. As we have said The new evolutionary models which
real universe in the process of cluster earlier, however, such probability of de- are being completed by Buzzoni (Brera
formation. A first important result is that, tection is a curve of mean values wh ich Astranomical Observatory, Milano) and
without taking into account any form of should be convolved, at each s/n, with the observations and analysis of a fair
evolution, a cluster (in this case of rich- the dispersion histogram of Figure 8. sam pie of clusters of galaxies will cer-
ness c1ass R = 2) is al ready lost in the The result of what we have described tainly allow important cosmologiccal
background at z = 0.6. so far (note that the addition of the de- conclusions to be drawn.

The Giant Luminous Are in the Centre of the A 370 Cluster of


Galaxies
G. SOUCA/L, Observatoire de Tou/ouse, France

Recently, people have been very ex- galaxies and extend over a out from the dense Intra-Cluster Medium) or
cited by the announcement of the dis- 100 kpc. Their origin is still unknown eventually a gravitational lensing config-
Covery of two giant luminous arcs in the and controversial, and their nature can uration.
centre of distant clusters of galaxies, be understood in terms of strong star Indeed, the arc in A 370 was first dis-
namely A 370 and CI 2242-02 (1). These formation in the cluster core (by galaxy/ covered by a team fram the Toulouse
structures lie in the praximity of giant E galaxy interactions or by cooling flows Observatory (B. Fort, G. Mathez, Y.

43
20

I2

o
s

~ .._... , 37

Figure 2: Schematic diagram of the lensing


configuration in a three point mass model:
2.25 10'4 M(!) for the cluster core (point 0)
3 . 10'2 M(!) for galaxy # 20 and 0.7 10'2 M(!)
for galaxy # 37. 11 and 12 are the two images
of a circular source which would appear in S
Figure 1: Image of the core of the cluster of galaxies A 370 (z = 0.374), dominated by two giant without lensing. Note the large break to the
galaxies (* * *
20 and 35). The are is located southward galaxy 35 and has a linear size of right of 11. The details of such a configuration
- 8 kpc wide and 160 kpc lang. In the lensing hypothesis it is an image of a galaxy at redshift will be given in a paper submitted to Nature.
z = 0.59. Note the galaxies superimposed on the are, especially the brightest one (I~ 37) whose
influence has been taken into account in the lensing model.

Mellier and G. Soucail). during an ob- leading to the geometry observed in ery is very important because if the lens-
serving run in September 1985 at CFHT. A 370. Moreover, we have studied the ing model is confirmed, it leads to the
With multi-colour photometry, we have influence of the brightest galaxy determination of masses in a very origi-
shown that the structure is very thin and superimposed on the arc, and it is then nal way. For example, in the case of
blue (2). without being able to determine possible to explain the enlargement of A 370, we are able to "measure" the
its physical origin. It was then reob- the arc eastwards this galaxy, where the mass crossed by the light along the line
served in November 1986 at CFHT and spectrum was obtained (see Figure 2). of sight, containing mainly the mass of
at ESO with EFOSC, where the spec- All the details of this model have been the cluster core, with a good accurary:
trum of the Eastern end of the arc was presented in a paper submitted to Na- M - 1 or 2 .10 14 M0
obtained. After the data reduction, we ture in April (4), with a discussion of
found that the light probably comes several other possible mechanisms able Moreover, the model can lead to the
from a galaxy at a redshift of 0.59. So to create such a structure. In order to determination of the Mass-to-Light ratio
our best interpretation of the phenome- confirm or disprove the lensing hy- in the cluster core (M/LR - 200 in A 370)
non is that we are observing an excep- pothesis, we need to obtain the spec- and inside the individual galaxies (MI
tional configuration of gravitational lens- trum of the entire structure and to test LR - 20). The existence of the dark mat-
ing, with the whole cluster as the deflec- whether the redshift of the light is ter can be confirmed without any physi-
tor and a galaxy at z = 0.59 as the z = 0.59 or not. We are waiting for this cal assumptions such as the virial
source, both objects nearly perfectly summer when the cluster will be observ- theorem, and it is possible to study the
aligned on the same line of sight. able again ... repartition of the dark matter in the uni-
In collaboration with F. Hammer from In the case of the other arc discovered verse.
Meudon, we have modelIed this config- in CI 2242-02, actually both the red-
References
uration using a simple multi-point mass shifts of the cluster and of the arc are
(1) Paczinski, S.: 1987, Nature 325,572.
model, and compared the predictions unknown so that it is not possible to
(2) Soucail, G., Fort, S., Mellier, Y., Picat,
with the observed geometry of the arc. If model a lensing configuration. However, J.P.: 1987, Astron. Astrophys. 172, L 14.
the system source/deflector is perfectiy this cluster will be observable this sum- (3) Zwicky, F.: 1937, Phys. Rev. 51, 290.
aligned, the theory predicts the forma- mer too, and we can hope that these (4) Soucail, G., Mellier, Y., Fort, S., Hammer,
tion of a circular ring as it has been data will soon be available. F., Mathez, G.: 1987, submitted to Na-
discribed by Zwicky in 1937 (3). But if It should be noted that such a discov- ture.
the source lies at 1" from the cluster-
centre, one can predict the formation of
two symmetric arcs. Only one is ob- Latest News about SN 1987 A
served in A 370, but the second one After a relatively rapid decline in brightness during the first half of June, the rate
should be located near a very bright levelled off at about 0.01 mag/day in V after June 24. Radio emission at 22 GHz was
*'
galaxy, 20 (cD type, see Figure 1), and detected on June 20-22 with the 13.7-m millimetre-wave antenna at Itapetinga, Srazil.
The signal strength was 500 ± 70 mJy. From IUE observations it is seen that emission
the model must take into account the
lines are developing in the ultraviolet spectral region. This would indicate lIlat it is now
influence of that massive galaxy as a
possible to look inside the expanding shell. Infrared speckle observations at ESO
secondary deflector. If its mass is high
appear to show a light echo; the size seems to be smaller than expected (June 29,
enough it is possible to predict the 1987).
quasi-total fading of the second arc,

44
Comet Wilson .
Photographed
trom La Silla
This contrast-enhanced photo of
Comet Wilson was obtained with the
ESO 1-m Schmidt telescope on March
28, 1987 (30-minute exposure on Ila-O
emulsion with a GG 385 filter; obser-
vers: H.-E. Schuster and G. Pizarro).
This was three weeks before perihel ion
and the development of a long, straight
ion tail can be seen. It measures about 3
degrees, corresponding to approxi-
mately 11 million km (prajected) and
points towards southwest. Note also the "
streamers near the coma. A short,
stubby dust tail is seen towards north (to
. ,
'.

the left in this picture).


On this day, the distance to the Earth
...
," .' ~
.........
,

was 210 million kilometres. The comet


was situated in the constellation
Sagittarius and moving rapidly south
while approaching the Earth. The mag-
nitude was estimated at about 6.5. In
"
early May, when the comet came within
90 million kilometres fram the Earth, the
magnitude was about 5. At that time,
observations were made with several
telescopes on La Silla; it is expected
..
that some of the results will be reported
in the next issue of the Messenger.
Thereafter, it became fainter as it rapidly
receded, and by early June 1987 the
magnitude had dropped to about 7.

The Strange Supernova 1987 A Passes Maximum


The bright Supernova 1987 A in the Due to its southern position. February 28. During the next few days,
Large Magellanic Cloud, about wh ich SN 1987 A cannot be observed fram the the brightness dropped slightly, but af-
initial reports were included in the northern hemisphere. A rather weak ter March 5, it increased again, reaching
Messenger No. 47, appears to be diffe- radio emission was detected in Australia visual magnitude 4.0 in late March. The
rent fram all others observed so far. during the first days after the explosion, ultraviolet light was nearly constant after
That is the unanimous conclusion of but otherwise all astronomical observa- March 10, while the intensity increased
astronomers who have observed this tions until now have been made in UV, in all other spectral regions. In the in-
rare object with ESO telescopes since visual and IR light. Despite repeated frared, the rate of brightening was about
the explosion in late February. After efforts by satellite- and balloon-based 5 % per day in late March. The visual
much hard work to meet a late March instruments, no X-ray or gamma-ray brightness also continued to rise and by
deadline, the collective, preliminary re- radiation has been detected. Therefore May 10 it attained magnitude 2.8, that is
sults from the ESO La Silla observatory the interpretation of this exceptional about half the intensity of the Polar Star.
of no less than 38 astronomers event rests heavily on measurements at A plateau was then reached which
appeared in six "Letters to the Editor" in a few optical southern observatories, lasted until about May 20, whereafter
the May (I) 1987 issue of the European among them the European Southern the supernova began to fade slowly. By
journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. They Observatory. early June, it is still too early to make
covered astrametry, optical and infrared predictions about the future rate of de-
photometry, polarimetry, optical and in- c1ine.
Light Maximum by Mid-May
frared spectroscopy and high-resolution The time from the initial rise to the
spectrascopy. These articles have been More than three months of observa- maximum, almost 3 months, is unex-
bound together in a special Reprint tions have now been made of pectedly long and has never been ob-
wh ich can be obtained by request to the SN 1987 A. Measurements of its bright- served for any other supernova. At the
ESO Information and Photographic Ser- ness showed an initial increase to a distance of the Large Magellanic Cloud,
vice (address on last page). maximum near visual magnitude 4.5 on and taking into account the measured

45
foreground absorption of about 0.6 23, 1987. The first event was detected sec), but the weather conditions were
magnitudes, the maximal absolute mag- at 02 : 52 UT in the Mount Blanc tunnel not optimal for this kind of work. How-
nitude of the supernova was about -16. between France and Italy and a second ever, speckle observations in visible
This is somewhat fainter than anormal event was seen at 07 : 35, simultane- light with the MT and Cerro Tololo 4-m
Type II supernova. From the light curve ously in Japan and in the USA and pos- telescopes in late April and early May
alone, SN 1987 A would therefore sibly also by an experiment in the USSR. indicated the presence of an (emission
appear to belong to a hitherto unknown Could it be that the first neutrino shower line?) object, only - 0.06 arcsec almost
class. was emitted at the time of the initial due south of the supernova, and - 3
collapse of the core, when a heavy neut- magnitudes fainter. The nature of this
ron star was formed, wh ich was too object is still unknown and a detailed
A B Supergiant Exploded heavy to be stable, and that it collapsed investigation must await the time when
into a black hole, some 4 12 hours later? the supernova has become significantly
Accurate astrometry at ESO in late
To solve this question, observations of fainter.
February wh ich was confirmed by mea-
the left-over central object and its In the beginning, the spectrum of the
surements in other places, indicated
surroundings are needed. In any case, supernova changed rapidly, in fact
that SN 1987 A's position in the sky was
the spread in arrival times of the ob- much faster than any other supernova
less than 0.1 arcsecond from where a
served neutrinos have already led to observed so far. Only 20 days past max-
12th-magnitude star, Sanduleak
refined estimates of the neutrino mass. imum, the optical spectrum already re-
-69 202, was seen before the explo-
This measurement in turn has direct sembled that of a Type 11 supernova,
sion. It was found that this star had two
compact on cosmology, because of the when it is 100 days after maximum light.
nearby companions, at distances of
(predicted) enormous numbers of neu- Also for this reason, most astronomers
about 3.0 and 1.4 arcseconds, respec-
trinos in the Universe. expressed doubt whether SN 1987 A
tively. None of these could therefore
In this connection, the very early can be classified as Type 11. From early
have been be the progenitor of the
sightings of SN 1987 A have become May onwards, the spectra showed more
supernova. A new reduction of the IUE
extremely important, in order to estab- and more features, suggesting that the
(International Ultraviolet Explorer)
lish the accurate lightcurve (and thereby surrounding envelope was breaking up
satellite data in early April indicated that
the temperature and expansion rate) into smaller pieces and filaments.
these two companions were still there,
during the first 24 hours. More photo-
but also that the central star of San-
graphs by Australian amateurs have re-
duleak -69 202 had disappeared. Thus
cently been found and are being Intervening Clouds
there is now general agreement that it
studied. The non-sighting of the super-
must have been this star that exploded. No less than 24 narrow absorption
nova in the morning of February 23 by
However, its spectral type was mea- line systems were detected in very-high
Mr. A. Jones, an experienced amateur
sured at ESO in the mid-1970s as B 3 Ia, resolution spectra of SN 1987 A, ob-
astronomer in New Zealand, has taken
that is a hot supergiant, and according tained with the Coude Echelle Spec-
on new significance and the corre-
to current evolutionary theories it should trometer at the 1.4-m CAT at La Silla.
sponding upper limit to the brightness
not yet have reached the critical phase. They originate when the light from the
may be crucial for the correct interpreta-
Most theories predict that the superno- supernova passes through interstellar
tion of the neutrino events. It is interest-
va precursor should have been a more clouds in the LMC and in our Galaxy,
ing to note how amateur observations
evolved, cool supergiant of spectral and also through clouds in intergalactic
with simple and inexpensive means
type M. For some time it was thought space between them. The presence of
contribute to the highly sophisticated
that an M supergiant might also have Calcium, Sodium and Potassium was
and expensive particle physics experi-
been present in the Sanduleak system, observed and also Lithium-7. This is the
ments!
but photometry of old plates in different first time ever that neutral Lithium, Cal-
spectral regions soon ruled this possi- cium und Potassium have been de-
bility out. Theoretical astrophysicists are tected in interstellar space outside the
therefore now confronted with the prob- The Envelope Expands Galaxy.
lems of why and how the hot B star blew
Infrared observations showed that the
up at this stage of its evolution.
temperature of the expanding envelope
ESO Workshop on July 6-8,1987
was 5,800 K on March 1; on this day,
the diameter was 5,600 times the The observations at La Silla will con-
Neutron Star or Black Hole?
diameter of the Sun, that is almost equal tinue as long as possible. It is of course
Continued monitoring by fast photo- to the size of the orbit of planet Nep- not possible to predict how rapidly the
metry at La Silla has not yet shown the tune. Ten days later, the temperature brightness is going to decline, but no-
existence of a pulsar in SN 1987 A, that had dropped to 5,200 K and the diame- body doubts that SN 1987 A will be
is a rapidly spinning neutron star, ter of the envelope had grown to 9,100 followed as long as possible. In this
supposed to be created in a supernova times that of the Sun. The expansion connection, however, observations will
explosion of Type 11. If there is such an velocity fell from initially 18,000 km/sec become difficult when the brightness
object at the centre of SN 1987 A, its· to about 10,000 km/sec in late March drops below magnitude 13, because of
light must still be obscured by the and to 5,000 km/sec by mid-May. interfering light from the close compan-
surrounding, rapidly expanding en- In late March there were signs of ions, mentioned above.
velope of material. However, some as- some extra light in the far infrared Meanwhile ESO is now preparing for
tronomers think that the neutron star (12 Ilm), possibly because the strong the first full-scale international meeting
which was created at the supernova ex- light from the supernova was being re- about "SN 1987 A in the LMC", wh ich
plosion may have been transformed into radiated by surrounding interstellar dust will take place at the ESO Headquarters
a black hole within a few hours. ("infrared echo"). However, infrared in Garching bei München, on July 6-8,
This might explain why two bursts of speckle interferometry with the ESO 1987. More than 100 supernova special-
neutrinos were observed by particle de- 3.6-m telescope on May 8 and 9 did not ists from all continents intend to partici-
tectors, early in the morning of February show any extended emission (~ 0.3 arc- pate. The topics will include all aspects

46
of supernova research, from the precur- and interaction with the surrounding in- important meeting will be reported in the
sor star to the evolution of the envelope terstellar medium. The outcome of this next issue of the Messenger. The editor

This colour photo is a composite of three black-and-white photos taken with the ESO 1-m Schmidt telescope on February 27, 1987, four days
after the explosion of SN 1987 A. The supernova is the bright star to the right; the cross is an optical effect in the telescope, caused by the
platelwlder support. Most of the fainter stars in this picture belong to the Large Magellanic Cloud. The bright nebula left of the supernova is 30
Doradus, also known as the Tarantula Nebula, due to its shape.

47
Figure 1.

Recent NTT Pictures


Substantial progress has been made
in the preassembly of the NTT telescope
at INNSE at Brescia.
Figure 1 shows the status of the fork
at the end of May. The azimuth axial
hydrostatic bearing has been tested at
full load. The tube has been preasem-
bled and will shortly be integrated into
the fork.
Figure 2 shows in the background
other components of the telescope
(wooden boxes containing prime mirror
cover and the two toothed altitude
wheels on top of the dummy simulating
the mirror plus the mirror cell) ready for
the preassembly. It is expected to termi-
nate the mechanics assembly with full
integration by July 1987.
M. Tarenghi (ESO) Figure 2.

48
Infrared Spectroscopy of Supernova Remnants
A. F. M. MOORWOOD and I. J. DANZIGER, ESO
E. OL/VA, Arcetri Observatory

Infrared emission lines of [Fell] and unobscured remnant agrees with that as weil as N 49, N 63 A and N 103 B in
molecular hydrogen (H2l falling in the expected from the latest ratio of transi- the LMC. The highest surface bright-
atmospheric windows between 1 I-tm tion probabilities (Nussbaumer and ness is exhibited by RCW 103 in which
and 5 Ilm ofter great potential for the Storey, private communication). Be- the 1.644 ~Lm line could be "peaked-up"
study of moderate to low velocity cause remnants in the LMC subtend and a region of - 30 x 70" mapped with
« 100 km S-1) shocks, particularly smaller angular sizes than those in the 5" resolution by stepping the telescope
those propagating in relatively dense re- Galaxy they can be mapped more easily to produce the false colour [Fe 11] image
gions where optical lines may be either and, for N 49 and N 63 A, we have de- reproduced in Figure 2. An H band
not excited or obscured by dust. Such termined the total [Fe 11] (1.644 Ilm) (1.5 ~Lm-1.8 Ilm) spectrum on the peak
regions include the surroundings of luminosities to be in excess of 200 ~, a is shown in Figure 3. In addition to the
forming stars, galaxy nuclei and super- result of particular relevance to separate prominent 1.644 Ilm line this also reve-
nova remnants. The new infrared grat- observations and interpretation of this als several other lines attributable to
ing/array spectrometer IRSPEC (Moor- line in galaxy nuclei which are beyond [Fe 11] including the 1.60 I-tm line wh ich is
wood et al. , 1986) at the ESO 3.6-m the scope of this article. shown at higher s/n ratio in the insert
telescope is weil suited to such obser- Exploratory spectra have confirmed spectrum, made with a longer integra-
vations and we report here some pre- that the 1.664 ~Lm and 1.256 Ilm lines tion time in order to determine the de-
Iiminary results for SNR's obtained with are the brightest [Fe 11] lines observable nsity sensitive 1.60/1.64 line ratio. From
this instrument. from the ground between 1 Ilm and this and the 1.26/1.64 ratio we obtain
For diagnostic purposes, Fe+ is of 5 Ilm. IRSPEC is more sensitive at values of Ne = 4.103 cm-3 and Av = 6
particular interest because of the possi- 1.644 Ilm and this line has been de- mag. respectively which are somewhat
bility of determining Ne, Te and Av, in tected in all the galactic SNR's observed higher but still consistent within the un-
addition to its relative abundance, from so far (Puppis A, Kepler and RCW 103) certainties with earlier estimates by
lines of a single ion. The first detection
of [Fell] lines in the infrared in a SNR
was reported by Seward et al. (1983)
who observed the 1.644 I-tm and
1.600 Ilm transitions in the high density
remnant MSH 15-52 with a low resolu-
tion filter spectrometer.
Figure 1 shows IRSPEC spectra of the
[Fe 11] 1.644 Ilm and 1.256 Ilm lines on
the Large Magellanic Cloud remnant
N 49. These lines originate from the
same upper level and the observed
1.256/1.644 ratio of 1.3 in this relatively

60

). 40 N49

3
~ 20
u..-<
o
71~24-';:-5~-':"1-;'25;O:O~--'-c:'12:-:5';:-5~"':-1=-:2670~--':1-:-26:-:5

'3-
')'. 10
§
..
:i
~ 0-- ........ ~ ___
u-~ - - ----"'../

162 163164 165166167


A(lJ m)
Figure 1: Lines of [Fe 11] at 1.256 {Im and
1.644 {Im in the Large Magellanie Cloud
supernova remnant N 49. These lines origi- Figure 2: An [0/11] (0.5007 {Im) "TAURUS" image of the most prominent optieally emitting
nate from the same upper level and their ratio region of the galaetie supernova remnant RCW 103 and, below, an [Fell} (1.644 f.1m) image of
is thus a measure of the extinetion. the portion indieated, obtained by mapping with IRSPEC.

49
;1'" I I , I I f I
ratio we derive Fe+/W = 5.10-5 assum-
50.000
ing a Case B recombination hydrogen
• [FeIT] RCW 103 spectrum. Further interpretation of this
40.000 quantity is model dependent due to the
unknown ionization structure. Simple
..,E models however give Fe+ = Fe and

~J
30.000
::::L H+ ~ 0.1 H implying Fe/H :::: 5.10-6 or a
'l"E 20.000 • depletion factor of > 0.8 for Fe and
hence relatively little grain destruction.
::3 Of great interest in the future therefore is
..,
.\
..j

~
0
10.000 to see how this ratio varies from rem-
~
nant to remnant.
LL
-< • We consider these first results to be
0.000
encouraging both from the point of view
of demonstrating the detectability of
-10.000 useful infrared lines and as an observa-
1.450 1.500 1.550 1.600 1.650 1.700 1.750 1.800 1.850 tional test of the available Fe+ atomic
data. Further attempts to exploit their
>'(fJ m) astrophysical potential are clearly
Figure 3: An H band spectrum on the position of peak [Fell} (1.644 {im) emission in RCW 103 warranted as is their inclusion in future
(white in Fig. 2). Several other [Fell}lines are present including one at 1.60 {Im whose intensity theoretical shock models.
relative to the 1.644 11m line is density sensitive. The insert spectrum shows a better measure-
ment of this line made with a longer integration time. References
Leibowitz, E. M., and Danziger, I.J.: 1983,
Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., 204, 273.
Moorwood, A. F. M., Biereichei, P., Finger, G.,
Leibowitz and Danziger (1983) based on at 2 % and 6 % respectively of the
Lizon, J.-L., Meyer, M., Nees, W., and
optical [S 11] lines and the Balmer decre- 1.644 J..lm line intensity. To our know- Paureau, J.: 1986, The Messenger, 44, 19.
ment. ledge, H2 has only been detected previ- Seward, F. 0., Harnden, Jr., F. R., Murdin, P.,
In addition to [Fe 11], lines of H I (Bry at ously in IC 443 which is known to be and Clark, D. H.: 1983 Astrophys. J., 267,
2.165 J..lm) and H2 (1-0 S(1) at 2.12 J..lm) associated with a molecular cloud 698.
have also been detected in RCW 103 (Treffers, 1979). From the 1.644/Bry Treffers, R.R.: 1979,Astrophys. J., 233, L 17.

F/35 Infrared Photometer at the 2.2-m Telescope


An infrared system consisting of an
infrared photometer/adaptor, detector
units and an F/35 chopping secondary
mirror was installed and tested on the
2.2-m telescope in March 1987 in a col-
laboration with Heidelberg's Max-
Planck-Institut für Astronomie.
MPIA developed and built the chop-
ping mirror and its associated functions
for focus and rotation. As can be seen in
Figure 1, this infrared secondary is
mounted in the original Coude ring and,
therefore, a change from visible (F/8) to
infrared (F/35) observing requires a
change of top rings.
The infrared photometer is a duplicate
of that at the 3.6-m telescope, as de-
scribed in the Messenger No. 39 by A.
Moorwood and A. van Dijsseldonk. It is
equipped at present with bolometer and
InSb detector units which are basically
identical to those offered at the 1-m and Figure 1: FI35 infrared chopping secondary mirror mounted on the 2.2-m telescope. The mirror
3.6-m telescopes. is only 21 cm in diameter. Behind is the "normal" FIß front ring which has just been exchanged
This new instrument has been offered with the coude ring used to support the infrared secondary.

50
to visiting astronomers as of October
Band J H K L M N Q
this year. Preliminary limiting mag-
nitudes (1 a in 30 minutes integration Centre
time through a 7':5 diameter diaphragm) wavelength (~lm) 1.25 1.65 2.2 3.8 4.8 10.3 18.6
are given in the table. Limiting
These limits are consistent with those magnitude 19.6 19.3 18.4 13.8 11.0 6.8 3.3
achieved at the 3.6-m telescope, after
scaling for the difference in telescope the only measurements possible at the A. van Dijsse/donk, A. Moorwood, ESO
diameters, except at A ~ 10 ~m where 2.2-m were affected by thin cloud. D. Lemke, MP/A, Heide/berg

Progress Report on DISCO:


A Project tor Image Stabilization at the 2.2-m Telescope
F. MAASWINKEL, S. O'OOORICO and G. HUSTER, ESO
F. BORTOLETTO, Istituto di Astronomia, Universita di Padova, Italy

1. Introduction
It is weil known that the resolution of scope, and it is called DISCO, acronym exposures at the Cassegrain focus of
earth-bound large telescopes is normal- for Direct Image Stabilized Camera Op- the telescope US, (image scale of 0.35"/
Iy limited by the atmosphere, and not by tion. A similar stabilizer has been pixel for a RCA CCD) to stabilized expo-
diffraction. The astronomical image operating at the 2.2-m telescope of the sures with 0.14"/pixel. The possibility of
formed by a large telescope consists of University of Hawaii for some time 4 • The a quick changeover in the observation
a number of speckles, caused by the main task of DISCO will be to enable the mode is considered an advantage, since
atmospheric refractive index variations. observer in case of good seeing to periods of good seeing might be limited
Every speckle is defined by a coherence switch within few minutes from "normal" to a fraction of the night and in any case
zone over the pupil of size ro , also
known as the seeing parameter. These
coherence zones cause a blurring of the
image and also a motion of the centre of
gravity of all the speckles. In addition,
image motion can have local origins
(dome seeing, tracking and guiding
errors). As a result, short-time expo-
sures, where the motion is frozen, may
have a higher resolution than long expo-
sures.
Until recently, little was known experi-
mentally about the temporal behaviour
of image motion. A theoretical model,
originally proposed by Kolmogorov, de-
scribes the decrease of the power spec-
trum of image motion with temporal fre-
quenci. Recently, experimental data
on power spectra of image motion have
been published in the context of site
testing 2 and speckle interferomet ry 3. In
cases of good seeing, which we define
somewhat arbitrarily as ro ~ 15cm =>
FWHM = 0.7", the frequency depen-
dence of the power spectra was indeed
observed 2 (if the seeing is bad, the
number of speckles is too large and
image motion is averaged out). A typical
time constant of the image motion is
estimated from these data as 200 msec.
~nder such conditions, an imaging facil-
Ity wh ich corrects the image motion may
I~prove the resolution of long integra-
tions. Such a device is presently under Figure 1: Three-dimensional CAD view o( the new 2.2-m telescope adapter. The stabilizer
construction at ESO for the 2.2-m tele- mirror is visible in the centre on its linear translation stage.

51
may expect an additional advantage in
~ TELESCOPE FLANGE the angular resolution by switching to
the stabilized mode. To this aim the fast
mirror unit (see Fig. 3) is remotely in-
serted into the main beam (under 45°).
It consists of a high-quality (surface flat
::5 A/10) mirror which can be re-
positioned within 1 msec around 2 axes;
its dynamic range is 8 x 10-4 rad; this
covers a field of 4.5" on the sky. From
the mirror the beam is reflected onto a
dichroic beamsplitter (also under 45°).
TELESCOPE I(CO
GUIOING
The blue beam (light ::5 560 nm) is im-
TV (AHERA aged onto an ICCD camera, and is used
H/(ROPRO(ESSOR for the acquisition of the centre of gravi-
FO(AL ty. The red part (light ~ 580 nm) is re-
ELONGATOR
flected from the beamsplitter, passes
through a focal elongator and forms (via
2 additional 45° mirrors) an image onto
the CCD camera: this is available as
stabilized image.
=l==~='= = The signals to drive the mirror are
FIL TER WHEELS
calculated every 20 msec by a fast mi-
croprocessor. This is done as folIows: at
the beginning of a stabilized run the
observer selects a suitable guide star on
the ICCD camera by placing a subframe
of 16 x 16 pixels around it (the camera
(CO
covers a field of 1.5' x 1', correspond-
ing weil with the isoplanatic patch). Then
this subfield is digitized after integration
Figure 2: Optical diagram af the adapter. every 20 msec; in the present configura-
tion the system is limited to TV rates by
the camera electronics. For astronomi-
cal applications this means a limiting
the high resolution mode might be re- not in the beam path. If the seeing is magnitude for the guide star mB = 13
quired for apart of the observing pro- good (ro ~ 10-15 cm), the observer within l' x l' from the object. Initially
gramme only. Finally, image stabiliza-
tion is a first natural step towards a fully
adaptive optics system and one may
expect to gather valuable experience
and useful data on the image quality on
La Silla from DISCO observations.

2. The Design and Operating Con-


cept of DISCO
To realize DISCO, a new lightweight-
ed adapter for the 2.2-m telescope was
designed and is now under construction
(Fig. 1). The adapter will be used with
the direct image CCD camera and with
spectrographs. It includes an offset
autoguider based on a SIT camera. The
offset guider XYZ motion units are using
the ESO standard DC motors; this
makes it possible to position the guide
probe accurately (::5 0.3'') within the
acquisition field which may be a help for'
automatical acquisition or remote con-
tro!. The field for guiding is 30' x 30',
comparable to the present camera. The
new adapter has been prepared to in-
clude in a later stage spectrographic
calibration units, and Risley prisms (in
the focal elongator). The optical diagram
is drawn schematically in Figure 2. The
conventional imaging mode is the f/8
focus. In this case the stabilizer mirror is Figure 3: The stabilizer mirrar unit.

52
3. Present Status of the Project, of gravity in x and y direction. Compar-
Results from the First ing the upper and the lower picture, a
Laboratory Tests significant improvement in the y-histo-
gram is noticed. The microprocessor
The fast moving mirror was delivered also gives the number of centres of
to ESO in September 1986; in dynamic gravity, wh ich would be contained in a
tests in the opticallab it was verified that circle with apreset radius ("energy con-
the surface remains flat during the fast centration"). Taking a radius of 1/4 pixel
motion. The microprocessor was the stabilized image has 570 out of
acquired; all the software was written in 1,023 sampies in the circle, the non-
assembler language to obtain maximum stabilized has 190 out of 1,023 sampies.
speed in calculations. In the mean time We notice that these simulations were
the structure and the mechanical func- made with high S/N ratio, and on one
tions of the adapter are being manufac- axis. Under such conditions the centre
tu red by extern al European firms, and of gravity can be calculated with an
these will be delivered in the summer of accuracy of 1/10 of a pixel. Further tests
1987. to simulate different observing condi-
In the laboratory, first tests of the DIS- tions at the telescope will be carried out
CO fast loop have been made. Atmo- in the next months.
spheric image motion was simulated It is planned to have a first test of the
using a galvanometer scanner mirror, instrument at the telescope towards the
wh ich was excited with electrical noise end of 1987. Provided that the seeing
having apower spectrum similar as in conditions will be appropriate, we hope
2.3. A pinhole source was imaged with
to demonstrate that DISCO can be a
this mirror and the stabilizing mirror onto valuable tool for those aiming at high-
a CCD camera. In this way, apparent resolution imaging. The full implementa-
image motion along one axis was simu- tion of the facility is expected to take
lated. The results of the stabilization are place during 1988.
shown in Figure 4: it contains photo-
graphs of the video display of the VME References
control system. The upper photograph (1) Roddier, F., Progress in Optics, XIX, ed.
Figure 4: non-stabilized (upper) and E. Wolf (North-Holland, Amsterdam),
is the non-stabilized case: in the upper
stabilized (Iower) runs with the fast loop. The 281-376.
arrows below the y-histograms indicate a
right box is the momentary ("real-time")
(2) Merill, K.M., Favot, G., Forbes, F. and
width of 1/2 pixel. image of the reference star in the
Morse, 0., S.P.IE, 628, 125, 1986.
selected subframe (in this case 16 x 16). (3) Aime, C., Petrov, R.G., Martin, F., Ricort,
The upper left box shows a zoomed G. and Borgnino, J., S.P.IE, 556, 297,
display of the centres of gravity, as cal- 1985.
culated by the microprocessor. The low- (4) Thompson, LA and Ryerson, H.R.
er curves are histograms of the centres S.P.IE, 445, 560, 1984.
the imaging in stabilized mode will be
possible only at wavelengths ;::: 580 nm.
A second dichroie reflecting the blue
light will be ordered soon; then also
wavelengths :5 580 nm can be
stabilized, although one has to be aware
that the seeing parameter scales as ro
oe ".1'2, therefore the stabilization is more MIDAS Memo
effective for longer wavelengths.
The digitalization and the display of ESO Image Processing Group
image information is performed by a fast
video digitizing VME card. The centre of
gravity within the subframe and the new 1. Application Developments tion between the different packages are
mirror coordinates are calculated with a being designed to make combined use
68010 microprocessor (also VME The Inventory package for detection easy.
based). The entire operation: reading and classification of objects has been The Time Series Analysis package for
out of the subframe, digitalization, cal- significantly improved by Dr. A. Krus- unequally spaced data developed by
culation of new coordinates and reposi- zewski. He will in the coming month the ST/ECF was fully implemented and
tioning of the mirror takes 4 msec for a integrate these modifications in MIDAS. will be released in the 87 JUL 15 release
16 x 16 subframe or 2 msec for an 8 x 8 In order to provide a high-quality of MIDAS. It includes different methods
subframe. The total cycle time is then crowded field photometry system, the for calculation of Power spectra and
24 msec; two sampies (i. e. 50 msec) are ROMAFOT, package (Buonanno, R., periodicity determination of data in
needed to acquire a frame (Shannon Buscema, G., Corsi, C. E., Ferraro, 1., MIDAS tables.
sampling theorem). Therefore the lannicola, G.: 1983, Astron. Astrophys. As a result of the collaboration with
stabilization starts to be effective if the 126, 278) has been adopted by MIDAS the Image Processing Group in Trieste,
atmospheric coherence time is longer as the standard system for this purpose. two new commands for interactive
than 50 msec. It was mentioned earlier The implementation of this package is analysis of spectra developed by F. Pa-
that good seeing has a typical time done in close collaboration with Dr. R. sian and G. Sedmak, are under testing.
scale for image motion of 200 msec; Buonanno and is expected to be termi- The commands, being the nucleus for
therefore under such conditions DISCO nated during the summer. General future interactive developments, will be
is expected to improve the resolution. MIDAS tables for exchange of informa- available in the 87 JUL 15 release.

53
2. MIDAS Hot-Une Service STAFF MOVEMENTS Departures
As announced in the last issue of the Europe:
Arrivals
Messenger, a MIOAS Hot-Une service AURIERE, Michel (F), Fellow
Europe: AZZOPARDI, Marc (F), Associate
has been started. Questions and prob-
lem reports concerning MIOAS can be BROCATO, Enzo (I), Student BORTOLETTO, Favio (I), Fellow
sent to the Image Processing Group by HEYER, Hans (D). Laboratory Technician (Astronomical Detector)
(Photography) CAVAZZINI, Egildo (I), Associate
Telex (52828222 eso d, attn.: MIOAS
JOHANSSON, Lennart (S), Fellow MALASSAGNE, Serge (F), Designer/
HOT-UNE) or electronic mail (SPAN: NEUVILLE, Helene (F), Adm. Clerk Draughtsman
ESO MC1:: MIOAS or EARN/BITNET: Purchasing STAHL, Otmar (D), Fellow
MIOAS OGAESO 51). POSTEMA, Willem (NL), Mechanical
A MIOAS Support telephone exten- Design Engineer
sion was created with the number + 49-
89-32006-456 (note: the number was
misprinted in the last MIOAS Memo).
This extension can be used in urgent
cases to obtain help with MIOAS-related
New ESO Posters and New Edition of ESO Publica-
problems. tions and Picture Catalogue Available
Eight beautiful colour posters (60 x 80 cm) have just become available. They show
the most recent aerial view of the ESO observatory La Silla, a model of the ESO 16-m
3. New MIDAS Very Large Telescope, the Supernova 1987 A in the Large Magellanic Cloud, Messier
Directory Structure 104 - the Sombrero Galaxy, the barred spiral galaxy NGC 1365, Comet Halley and the
Milky Way, the Large Magellanic Cloud, and the Eta Carinae Nebula.
In anticipation of the portable MIOAS, If you want to know more about prices and how to obtain the posters or any other
a new directory structure will be intro- material- Iike slide sets, colour prints, postcards, video tapes, brochures, books, etc. -
duced for the MIOAS system. The gen- please apply for the new edition of the ESO Publications and Picture Catalogue. It is
free of charge and will be sent to you on written request to the ESO Information and
eral structure has been based on the
Photographic Service, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-8046 Garching b. München.
AlPS model but adapted to the special
needs of MIOAS. It will allow a clear
separation of the released version of
MIOAS and of the local code wh ich has
been developed for the MIOAS environ-
ment. Special directories will be created The Chilean Consul General Visits ESO
for calibration data, tutorials and test
procedures. The structure will also be The Chilean Consul General in various ESO projects, including the Very
used for the portable version and thus Munich, Mr. Hans Zippelius, visited the Large Telescope. From left to right at
support different operating systems ESO Headquarters on May 12, 1987. the VLT model: the Consul General, Or.
(e.g. VAXNMS and UNIX). This will After an introductory stroll through the R. West (ESO) and the Chilean Consul in
make it possible to maintain support of building, the discussion focussed on the Munich, Mr. Rodolfo Berlinger.
old releases of VAXNMS.

4. Status of the
Portable MIDAS
The development of the portable ver-
sion of MIOAS is now weil under way
and still on schedule for release in the
spring of 1988. The new version of the
ST routines wh ich interface application
programmes to the system has been
written in C and based on a set of
operating system dependent OS
routines. The ST and OS levels have
been tested successfully on the beta-
test sites. These tests included a
number of different UNIX implementa-
tions on computers such as Bull SPS 9,
Apollo ON 570, ON 3000, OSP 9000
(Alliant FX), Sun 3/160 and HP 9000. .
The new set of TB routines for table
access will be tested in May-June. It is
expected that a VAXNMS version of the
OS routines will be made during the
summer after which performance of the EI C6nsul General Chileno visita ESO
implementations can be compared. Also
EI C6nsul General de Chile en Munich, Sr. Hans Zippelius, visit6 la sede de la ESO el dia 12
during the summer, a conversion of the de mayo de 1987. Despues de una visita de introducci6n por el edificio, la discusi6n se
application code from VAX-Fortran to concentr6 en los varios proyectos de Ja ESO, incluyendo el Gran Telescopio (VLT).
standard Fortran-77 with five well-de- Oe izquierda a derecha con el modelo dei VL T: EI C6nsul General, Or. R. West (ESO) y el
fined extensions will be started. C6nsul Chileno en Munieh, Sr. Rodolfo Berlinger.

54
Tiempo para un cambio usara corno «telescopio de zenith.. para estu-
dios cosmologicos. Lo que realmente valdra
la pena cambiar de ahora en diez aAos mas,
En la reunion celebrada en diciembre dei dores. Par eso se decidio que Paranal seda debera verse entonces.
aAo pasado informe al Consejo de mi deseo presentado corno la opcion mas probable EI ND presenta un problema particular.
de terminar mi contrato como Director Gene- para ubicar el VLT, a pesar de que no habra Dentro de un aAo estara Iisto para ser instala-
ral de la ESO una vez que fuera aprobado el que decidirse definitivamente antes de tres do en Chile. Si realmente se elige el Paranal
proyecto dei VLT, que se espera sucedera aAos. corno el lugar para el VLT, no seda entonces
hacia fines de este aAo. Cuando fue renova- Paranal es un alejado lugar en uno de los mas razonable ubicarlo alla? Mientras las
da mi designacion hace tres aAos, el Consejo desiertos mas secos dei mundo. Mientras un ventajas de aprender a manejar un telescopio
conocia mi intencion de no completar los buen camino de ripio pasa cerca, no existe moderno en Paranal antes de la lIegada dei
cinco aAos dei contrato debido a mi deseo de ninguna poblacion en muchos kilometros a la VLT serian importantes, existen serios pro-
disponer de mas tiempo para otras activi- red onda. Por 10 tante la completa infraestruc- blemas con respecto al plazo; tode esto se
dades. Ahora, una vez terminada la fase pre- tura debera ser construida por la ESO. Seda esta analizando actualmente. En caso que la
paratoria para el VLT, Y habiendose presen- caro y tomada mucho tiempo construir Para- ubicacion en el Paranal presentara atrasos
tado el proyecto formalmente al Consejo el nal al estilo de La Silla, pero afortunadamente imprevistos, el ND sera ubicado en La
dia 31 de marzo, y esperando su muy proba- esto no es necesario. Silla.
ble aprobacion antes dei termino de este Actualmente se esta usando control remo- Los astronomos estan acostumbrados a
aAo, me parece que el 10 de enero de 1988 to en La Silla en una forma experimental. ver los telescopios corno instrumentos de
presenta una excelente fecha para que se Para el VLT sera el principal modo de uso. uso casi eterno. Quizas esto fue razonable en
produzca un cambio en la administracion de Sin duda le seguiran diagnostico y manten- un tiempo cuando se necesitaba poca man-
la ESO: cion a control remoto. Con estas tecnologias tencion y la instrumentacion era relativa-
En la proxima decada el proyecto dei VLT tendria que ser posible hacer funcionar el mente simple. Hoy en dia, sin embargo, los
afectara todas las actividades de la ESO y Paranal con un reducido numero de personal costos de operacion e instrumentacion de un
tendra un efecto reciproco en la comunidad calificado. Otro factor que acentua esta telescopio moderno en un lugar alejado y el
cientifica de los paises miembros. EI VLT no conclusion es que el VLT - como tambien el procesamiento de los datos excede en mu-
tan solo es un gran proyecto en terminos ND - operaran con muy pocos cambios de cho el capital invertido, calculado a traves de
financieros, sino tambien la mayoria dei per- instrumentacion. una 0 dos decadas. Ello implica que la adqui-
Sonal de la ESO tendra que dedicarle una Supongamos que el VLT fuera ubicado en sicion de nuevos telescopios significa auto-
gran parte de su tiempo. Lo mismo vale el Paranal, que pasara con los otros teles- maticamente el cierre de los telescopios
para muchos cientificos e ingenieros en los copios de la ESO? Con un diametro equiva- existentes.
paises miembros, ya que esta previsto iente a 16 m, el VLT representaria un 85 % dei EI VLT representa el futuro a largo plazo de
que gran parte de los instrumentos cienti- total dei area colectora de fotones de los la ESO. Sin €lIla Oranizacion no podria sobre-
ficos sean desarrollados en laboratarios telescopios de la ESO. Seda dificil imaginar vivir mucho tiempo mas. Sin embargo, La
europeos. que la ESO continuada operando otro lugar a Silla continuara proporcionando datos esen-
Mientras la ESO tendra que dedicar gran un alto costo por los restantes 15 %. A la ciales para el trabajo cientifico de una vasta
parte de sus resursos al VLT, se presentaran larga parece existir solo una solucion: Si el comunidad por mas de una decada. Par eso
al mismo tiempo otras necesidades esen- VLT se ubica en el Paranal, tod os los teles- esta claro que, incluso si el Paranal lIega a
ciales: el SEST esta comenzando a funcio- copios de la ESO tendran que funcionar alla. desarrollarse, tendra que hacerse tode para
nar, el ND esta casi terminado y necesita ser Esto implicaria cambiar algunos telescopios garantizar la continuacion dei funcionamiento
equipado completamente con instrumenta- de la Silla. EI 2.2 m, el CAT, e11.5 m danes y de La Silla en su presente estado de alta
cion, y esperamos que el ST-ECF tenga el el SEST no presentarian mayores problemas; calidad.
Telescopio Espacial por el cual preocuparse. seda dificil cambiar el 3.6 m, excepto si se L. WOL TJER, Director General
Todo esto abre una era de grandes oportuni-
dades a los astronomos europeos, pero
mientras continua la construccion dei VLT, se
requirira de un gran esfuerzo para utilizar
los nuevos instrumentos de una manera Dos nuevas series de diapositivas de la ESO
efectiva.
ESO anuncia la aparicion de dos nuevas series de diapositivas, que se podran
Un aspecto particularmente importante se obtener a partir dei 10 de julio de 1987:
refiere al funcionamiento de La Silla, el cual,
naturalmente, sigue teniendo la mayor priari- Objetos en el cielo austral
dad. Es aqui, mas que en cualquier otro Supernova 1987 A en la Gran Nube Magallanica
lugar, donde la comunidad astronomica eu-
ropea encuentra los frutos de las grandes Ambas series incluyen 20 diapositivas de 5 x 5 cm de al ta calidad, acompaAadas por
un detallado texto explicativo y presentadas en un cuaderno con una Iinda cubierta. La
inversiones que se han hecho.
primera serie contiene espectaculares vistas en color de seleccionados objetos dei
Hace algunos aAos decidimos averiguar si
cielo austral, fotografiadas con los telescopios de la ESO en los ultimos aAos. La
se poddan encontrar lugares para el VLT con
segunda serie, que contiene algunas diapositivas en color y otras en blanco y negro,
aun mejores cualidades que las que presenta resurne las mas importantes observaciones de la supernova mas brillante desde hace
La Silla, a pesar de que La Silla ya cuenta 383 aAos. Ademas de imagenes tomadas dei campo de la Nube Magallanica antes y
entre los mejores lugares en el mundo. Inves- despues de la explosion, incluye escogidos espectros y otros resultados de observa-
tigaciones demostraron que Paranal presen- ci on de La Silla.
ta una frecuencia de nubes bastante menor y Para obtener las series, que tambien son utiles para fines educacionales, envie
hay menos humedad. Se estan efectuando DM 35,- (precio de costo incluyendo gastos de franqueo) a:
mediciones de visibilidad y los primeros re-
ESO Information and Photographic Service
Sultados, aun inconclusos, son promete-
Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2
D-8046 Garching bei München
Federal Republic of Germany

• EI dia 4 de junio el Consejo designo unBnima- No olvide indicar su nombre y direccion detallada. Rogamos considerar que el envio
menle al Prof. H. van der Laan como nuevo podra tomar algunas semanas.
Direclor General por un periodo de cinco arios a
partir dei 10 de enero de 1988.

55
EI Telescopio Sueco-ESO Submilimetrico
Durante los ultimos dos aiios se han pro- investigar las nubes moleculares de la Via
ducido importantes cambios en la parte sur Lactea austral y otras galaxias cercanas, pro-
de la hilera de telescopios en La Silla, y porcionando informaci6n sobre la evoluci6n
donde antes se encontraba una estaci6n estelar y la dinamica galactica. Les dara la
meteorol6gica, se encuentra ahora un teles- posibilidad de investigar las propiedades dei
copio submilimetrico de 15 metros (ver foto- continuo de radio de las estrellas, las re-
grafia en pag. 3). EI telescopio, diseiiado giones H 11 Y el polvo interestelar en esta
por ingenieros de IRAM, fue construfdo por nueva regi6n de longitud de onda, y propor-
cuenta dei Consejo Sueco de Investigaci6n cionara nuevos valiosos datos sobre los qua-
de Ciencias Naturales (NFR) y la ESO. Sera sares y radio galaxias en el regimen de longi-
operado en conjunto por ESO y el NFR tud de onda submilimetrico.
(a traves dei Observatorio Espacial de On- Finalmente, con el SEST no se descuida-
sala). ran los objetos dei sistema solar. En efecto,
EI Telescopio Sueco-ESO Submilimetrico, quizas ya el pr6ximo mes sera posible obser-
SEST, representa un importante avance en el var el cometa Wilson. Seran de gran interes
dominio milimetrico-submilimetrico. Es el las observaciones de atm6sferas planetarias
unico telescopio de esta especie en el hemis- y de la emisi6n continua desde planetas y
ferio austral y entre los primeros de su genera asteroides en ondas submilimetricas.
en el munda entero. Estamos a la espera de estos interesantes
SEST extendera la parte observacional dei descubrimientos que han sido posibles gra-
espectro de radio hacia el infrarrojo y dara la cias al esfuerzo de las muchas personas
posibilidad a los astr6nomos europeos de involucradas.

Contents
L. Woltjer: ATime for Change 00000000 000 0.. 00. 000
RoSo Booth, MoJo de Jonge, PoA. Shaver: The Swedish-ESO Submillimetre
Telescope 00 00 .. 0 00000000000000 00000. 00. 000000 2
List of ESO Preprints. 00. 00.. 0 000000000. 0. 000. 000. 00000000. 5
Ro Schoembs, M. Pfeiffer, Ro Haefner, Ho Pedersen: High Speed Multicolour
Photometry of the X-ray Burster MXB 1636-53 . 0000000. 00000000.... 00 6
Two New Slide Sets From La Silla 0. 000.. 00. 00000000000000. 0000000. . . . 9
So di Serego Alighieri: Line and Continuum Imaging . 0.. 000000000000000000 10
D. Bettoni, G. Galletta: Velocity and Velocity Dispersion Fields of NGC 6684: An
SB 0 Galaxy with a Ring o. 0.. 00. 000. 00000. 00000. 0 000 0 13
A. Acker, Bo Stenholm: lOS Spectroscopy of Planetary Nebulae 0000000. . . . .. 16
ESO Exhibition in Brussels Visited by King Baudouin 00000. 0000.. 000. 000. 0 19
S. Cristiani: OPTOPUS Observations of Quasar Candidates 00. 00000... 0 20
A. Heck, D. Egret: SIMBAD, the CDS Database 00... 00 000. 00. 0. 000o. 22
ESO Press Releases 0000000 000. 0000. 000000.. 0000. 0. 00000000 24
R. Prange, A. Vidal-Madjar, Jo Co Gerard: A Study of the Neutral and lonized 10
Tori 0000 .. 00. 00. 0.... 00.00 ... 00. 000. 0. 0000.. 00000. 000000000. 25
Ho Barwig, R. Schoembs: MCCP: Photometry Through Clouds!? 00. 000 29
Ro Mo Wo: ESO Delegation Visits 6-m Telescope 00000000 .... 0.. 0. 0. 000000 32
Major Film About Astronomy to be Produced 00. 0000. 0.. 0. 000000000000o. 33
Go Meylan, So Djorgovski, Ro Perley, P. McCarthy: Discovery of a Binary Quasar 0 34
Mo Spite, F. Spite: Preliminary Abundances in Three Cool Supergiants of the
SMC 000000.00.00.00.000.00000000000000. 00000.. 00000000. 0.00 37
Ao Cappi, G. Chincarini, Po Conconi, I. Manoussoyanaki, G. Vettolani: Distant
Clusters of Galaxies .. 0. 00..... 00. 00.. 0000.. 0000000000000000000 40
Go Soucail: The Giant Luminous Arc in the Centre of the A 370 Cluster of
Galaxies 0. 0000000. 000. 0.... 00. 0000. 0000. 00. 0000000000000... 0 43
Latest News about SN 1987 A . 0.. 0... 0. 000000000000000. 000000000. 00 44
Comet Wilson Photographed from La Silla . 0000. 0. 0. 0000000000000000000 45
The editor: The Strange Supernova 1987 A Passes Maximum 0000. 00. 0. 0000 45
Recent ND Pictures 0000000. 00. 00. 00. 000. 0000.. 0000.... 0000... 0. 00 48
A. F. Mo Moorwood, I. J. Danziger, Eo Oliva: Infrared Spectroscopy of Supernova
Remnants .... 00. 0000000.. 0.. 00... 00000000000000000000. 0. 0. 00 49
NEWS ON ESO INSTRUMENTATION
A. van Dijsseldonk, Ao Moorwood, D. Lemke: F/35 Infrared Photometer at the
2.2-m Telescope 0. 00. 00. 00.. 00000. 000. 000000000. 00000000000000 50
F. Maaswinkel, S. D'Odorico, G. Huster, F. Bortoletto: Progress Report on
DISCO: A Project for Image Stabilization at the 202-m Telescope ... 000. .. 51
ESO Image Processing Group: MIDAS Memo .. 000. 00000000000000000000 53
Staff Movements 0. 00. 00. 00.. 0. 00. 00.. 00.. 000... 00.... 00.. 000000.. 54
New ESO Posters and New Edition of ESO Publications and Picture Catalogue
Available 000000. 00. 0000000000000000000. 000000. 00000. 0.. 000. 00 54
The Chilean Consul General Visits ESO o. 00.. 0000.. 0000 00 00.. 54
Aigunos Resumenes . 0.. 0. 00. 0.. 0... 00. 00.. 0. 00. 000. 0000000. 00. 0o. 54
56