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PREFACE

As a pipeline inspection company, Romstar Sdn Bhd (Pipeline Division) is aware of the fact that a wide variety of conditions can influence the internal inspection of pipelines by intelligent pigs. There is a need therefore to clearly understand the basic concepts of pipeline design, construction, operation, and maintenance technologies. This Pipeline Information Manual has therefore been structured as a reference source for practical application in the field, office environments and training of its personnel on all the aspects of pipeline technology.

PIPELINE FUNDAMENTALS

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Pipelines are common means for transportation of fluids from producers to consumers. Fluid hydrocarbons such as oil, gas, and refined products, are often transported by pipelines. Sometimes pipelines transport different fluids sequentially. Contracts, for the sale of products transported by pipeline, normally specify the properties of the product to be delivered to the buyer; random tests are made to ensure that all the product specifications are met. Pipeline design, construction, operation and maintenance, must meet specific requirements set by the pipeline codes, the federal, state and local regulations. The diameter of a pipeline is a function of the volume of fluid to be transported. The wall thickness of a pipeline is a function of the stresses that the pipeline will be expected to withstand during operation. In most cases, gravity alone is not sufficient to make a fluid flow in a pipeline; some extra energy is required for adequate transportation of the fluid. Pump stations and compressor stations provide the necessary extra energy for transportation of liquids and gases, respectively. The portion of a pipeline between pump stations or compressor stations is known as mainline. The mainline route is selected by evaluating factors such as operation requirements, geographic features, environmental impact, permit acquisition, and cost feasibility. The mainline route has a direct effect on the number and location of intermediate pump stations or compressor stations. Pipelines may deteriorate during operation due to a combination of severe service conditions and lack of maintenance. Deterioration translates into low efficiency and high operation costs.

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FLUID VARIABLES

VOLUME Volume is the variable that describes how much space is occupied by a fluid. Fluids have a tendency to shape their volumes according to the shape of their containers. Liquids do not always occupy the full volume of their containers. The uppermost surface of a liquid is known as free surface, and is normally indicated on drawings by an inverted triangle. A given mass of liquid always occupies the same volume. If the volume of the liquid container changes, the volume occupied by the liquid shall remain the same. Gases always take on the full volume of their containers. A given mass of gas does not always occupy the same volume. If the volume of the gas container changes, the volume occupied by the gas also changes to match that of its container. Volume conversions o (m3) - Cubic meters o (oil BBL) - Oil barrels o (ft3) - Cubic feet o (imp. gal) - Imperial gallons o (US gal) - U.S. gallons o (l) - Liters o (in3) - Cubic inches
VOLUME CONVERSIONS m3 1 m3 1 Oil BBL 1 ft3 1 Imp. gal 1 US gal 1l 1 in3 1 0.15876 0.02832 0.00455 0.00378 0.001 0.000016 Oil BBL 6.2899 1 0.17813 0.02859 0.02381 0.00629 0.0001 ft3 35.3147 5.614 1 0.16054 0.13368 0.0353 0.000579 Imp. gal 219.97 34.977 6.2288 1 0.83267 0.21997 0.003604 US gal 264.17 42 7.4805 1.2009 1 0.26418 0.004329 l 1,000 158.983 28.316 4.5459 3.7853 1 0.0164 in3 61,023.74 9,702 1,728 277.42 231 61.025 1

* The capacity of a "barrel" depends on the industry. A barrel of beer holds 31 US gallons, a barrel of wine holds 31.5 US gallons, a barrel of oil holds 42 US gallons, and a barrel of whiskey holds 45 US gallons.

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TEMPERATURE Temperature is the variable that describes how much energy is stored in a fluid due to heat absorption. The Fahrenheit temperature scale and the Celsius temperature scale are relative temperature scales because they measure temperature with respect to the freezing point of water. The relationship between Fahrenheit (TF) and Celsius (TC) is defined by the following equation:

T F = 32 + 1.8 T C
The Rankine temperature scale and the Kelvin temperature scale are absolute temperature scales because they measure temperature with respect to an arbitrary zero. The relationship between Rankine (TR) and Kelvin (TK) is defined by the following equation:

T R = 1.8 T K
The relationships between the relative temperature scales (Fahrenheit and Celsius) and the absolute temperature scales (Rankine and Kelvin) are defined by the following equations: o T R = T F + 459.67 o

T K = T C + 273.15

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PRESSURE Pressure is the variable that describes how much force per unit area is being exerted by a fluid. The pressure at a point inside a fluid has the same magnitude in all directions. The pressure exerted by a fluid on a solid surface is always perpendicular to that surface. The standard atmospheric pressure is 14.696 pounds of force per square inch. A vacuum, also known as a negative gage pressure, is a pressure below atmospheric. Pressure conversions o (atm) - atmospheres o (bar) - bars o (kgf/cm2) - kilograms-force per square centimeter o (lbf/in2 or psi) - pounds-force per square inch o (kPa) - kiloPascals
PRESSURE CONVERSIONS atm 1 atm 1 bar 1 kgf/cm 1 psi 1 kPa
2

bar 1.01325 1 0.980665 0.0689476 0.01

kgf/cm2 1.03323 1.01972 1 0.0703070 0.01020

psi 14.6959 14.5038 14.2233 1 0.14504

kPa 101.325 100 98.00665 6.89476 1

1 0.986923 0.967841 0.0680460 0.00987

Fluid pressures can be measured with respect to zero pressure or can be measured with respect to the atmospheric pressure. Pressure measured with respect to zero pressure is known as absolute pressure. Absolute pressure is written with the letter "a" added to the English units (e.g., 14.696 psia) or with the word "absolute" added to the SI units (e.g., 101.3 kPa absolute). Pressure measured with respect to the atmospheric pressure is known as gage pressure. Gauge pressure is written with the letter "g" added to the English unit (e.g., 29.4 psig) or with the word "gage" added to the SI units (e.g., 202.6 kPa gauge). Most pipeline pressures are read as gage pressures. The word "gage" is still in use even though the readings are taken from a pressure "gauge". The relationship between absolute pressure (Pabs), gage pressure (Pgage), and actual atmospheric pressure (Patm) is defined by the following equation:

Pabs = Pgage + Patm

The partial pressure of a particular gas in a mixture of gases at a certain temperature is the pressure that the gas would exert if it were alone, at the same temperature, occupying the total volume occupied by the mixture of gases.

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The total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressures exerted by each of the individual gases in the mixture.

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STANDARD TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE Standard temperature and pressure (STP), also known as standard conditions (SC) or base conditions, are reference temperature and pressure that have been established for the measurement of the rest of the fluid variables. Commonly quoted values of STP are shown on the following table. STANDARD TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (STP) SYSTEM SI Scientific Canadian Natural Gas Industry U.S. Natural Gas Industry U.S. Engineering TEMPERATURE 273.15 K 0 C 60 F 60 F 32 F PRESSURE 101.325 kPa 760 mm Hg 14.696 psia 14.65 psia, 14.73 psia, or 15.025 psia 14.696 psia

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DENSITY, SPECIFIC VOLUME AND SPECIFIC WEIGHT Density () is the variable that describes how much mass of fluid occupies a unit volume. The density of water at room temperature is 62.4 lbm/ft3. The density of air at 70 F and 14.696 psi is 0.075 lbm/ft3. Specific volume () is the variable that describes how much volume is occupied by a unit mass of fluid. The specific volume of water at room temperature is 0.02 ft3/lbm. The specific volume of air at 70 F and 14.696 psi is 13.3 ft3/lbm. Specific weight () is the variable that describes how much a fluid weighs per unit volume. The specific weight increases with the acceleration of gravity (g).

The specific weight is defined by the following equation: = = g= gc =

=g

gc
where

specific weight, lbf/ft3 density, lbm/ft3 acceleration of gravity, ft/s2 gravitational constant (32.1740 lbm-ft/lbf-s2)

If the acceleration of gravity is 32.2 ft/s2, then the specific weight in lbf/ft3 can be considered to be numerically equal to the density in lbm/ft3. The specific weight of water under 32.2 ft/s2 of gravity at room temperature is 62.4 lbf/ft3. The specific weight of air under 32.2 ft/s2 of gravity at 70 F and 14.696 psi is 0.075 lbf/ft3.

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SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND API GRAVITY Specific gravity (S) is the variable that describes how close the density of a fluid (fluid) is to a reference density (reference). For liquids, the reference density is that of pure water. For gases, the reference density is that of air at standard temperature and pressure. The specific gravity is defined by the following equation:

S fluid = fluid / reference

LIQUID Methane (CH3) NGL at 30 F to 130 F Ammonia (NH3) at saturation pressure and 60 F Gasoline at 30 F to 80 F Jet Fuel at 30 F to 80 F Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) at saturation pressure and 60 F Nitrogen (N2) at normal boiling point Diesel - No. 1 at 30 F to 80 F Air at normal boiling point Diesel - No. 3 at 30 F to 80 F Water (H2O) at 14.696 psia and 60 F

SPECIFIC GRAVITY 0.3 0.5 0.61832 0.73 0.78 0.80144 0.80940 0.83 0.87476 0.88 1.00000

GAS at 14.696 psia and 60 F Methane (CH3) Ammonia (NH3) Water Vapor (H2O) Nitrogen (N2) Air Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)

SPECIFIC GRAVITY 0.5539 0.5580 0.62202 0.9672 1.0000 1.1767

The API gravity is a variable used to describe the specific gravity of liquid petroleum products.

The API gravity is defined by the following equation: API = API gravity, degrees S = Specific gravity @ 60 F (16 C)

API =

141.5 - 131.5 S

where

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COMPRESSIBILITY Compressibility is the variable that describes how the volume of a fluid responds to changes in pressure at a constant temperature. A fluid compression implies an increase in density and a decrease in specific volume. A fluid expansion implies a decrease in density and an increase in specific volume. Liquids have a low compressibility. Relatively small changes in pressure cannot significantly change the volume occupied by a liquid. The fact that liquids have a low compressibility has led to the popular misconception that liquids are incompressible. Liquids can be assumed to be incompressible in some applications, but have to be treated as compressible fluids in other applications. It is the very compressibility of water that allows a pipeline hydrostatic test to be carried out (see PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION). Gases have a high compressibility. Relatively small changes in pressure can significantly change the volume occupied by a gas.

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VISCOSITY Viscosity is the variable that describes how much resistance a fluid offers to motion. The viscosity of liquids decreases with temperature. The pour point is the temperature at which the viscosity of a liquid abruptly decreases. A liquid with a high pour point will thicken in cold weather. Pour point depressants are substances added to prevent the thickening of liquids that have a high pour point. The viscosity of gases increases initially with temperature and then decreases with temperature. The viscosity can be measured as absolute viscosity (), also known as dynamic viscosity, or can be measured as kinematic viscosity (). The relationship between absolute viscosity and kinematic viscosity is defined by the following equation:

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THERMODYNAMIC PHASES The basic thermodynamic phases of a substance are solid, liquid, vapor, and gas. Heat transfer to and from a substance may cause the substance to undergo phase changes. To visualize how heat and phase interact, consider the arrangement shown below, where a substance is contained in a cylinder with a piston that moves freely to allow changes in volume. The weight of the piston applies a constant external pressure to the substance at all times. Heat transfer into the substance is represented by the letter "Q".

If heat is added to a solid as shown in stage (a), the temperature of the solid increases. When the temperature reaches the melting point, some solid molecules start turning into liquid molecules. Further addition of heat causes the solid to continue to liquify at constant temperature. If heat is added to a liquid as shown in stage (b), the temperature of the liquid increases. At this point the thermodynamic state is known as subcooled liquid. When the temperature reaches the boiling point, also known as bubble point, some liquid molecules start turning into vapor molecules and are allowed to escape the free surface. At this point the thermodynamic state is known as saturated liquid. The vapor pressure of a liquid, also known as saturation pressure of a liquid, is the pressure exerted by those molecules that are allowed to escape the free surface. Further addition of heat causes the liquid to continue to vaporize at constant temperature. Liquids that vaporize easily are known as volatile liquids.

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If heat is added to a liquid-vapor mixture as shown in stage (c), the remaining liquid vaporizes at constant temperature. At this point the thermodynamic state is known as saturated vapor. If heat is added to a vapor as shown in stage (d), the temperature of the vapor increases. At this point the thermodynamic state is known as superheated vapor. The critical point is the thermodynamic state defined by the highest temperature and pressure at which a liquid-vapor mixture can exist. At the critical temperature and pressure, the density of the liquid is the same as the density of the vapor.

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CRITICAL POINT SUBSTANCE Nitrogen (N2) Air Propane (C3H8) Methane (CH4) Ethane (C2H6) Ammonia (NH3) Water (H2O) TEMPERATURE (F) -232 -224 207 -116 90 270 706 PRESSURE (psi) 492 547 617 673 717 1,639 3,207

A substance above the critical pressure is known as a gas. A gas is a highly superheated vapor. A gas at a low pressure is known as an ideal gas. An ideal gas behaves in accordance with the ideal gas law, as defined by the following equation, p = absolute pressure, lbf/ft2 V = volume, ft3 m = mass, lbm T = absolute temperature, R R = specific gas constant, ft-lbf/lbm-R

pV = mRT

where

GAS Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) at 68 F Air at 100 F Nitrogen (N2) at 100 F Water Vapor (H2O) at 212 F Ammonia (NH3) at 68 F Methane (CH3) at 68 F

SPECIFIC GAS CONSTANT (ft-lbf/lbm-R) 45.34 53.35 55.16 85.78 90.73 96.32

If heat is removed from a vapor, the temperature decreases. When the temperature reaches the dew point, some liquid starts to condense from the vapor. Further removal of heat causes the rest of the vapor to condense at constant temperature. The water dew point is the temperature at which the water vapor in a gas mixture starts to condense.

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The hydrocarbon dew point is the temperature at which the hydrocarbons in a gas mixture start to condense. The triple point is the thermodynamic state defined by the temperature and pressure at which a solid-liquid-vapor mixture can exist. TRIPLE POINT SUBSTANCE Water (H2O) Ammonia (NH3) Nitrogen (N2) TEMPERATURE (F) 32 -108 -446 PRESSURE (psi) 0.09 0.88 1.87

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To aid in the prediction of the phase behavior of a particular substance, it is possible to develop a three-dimensional graphic known as equilibrium solid. Lines of constant temperature, known as isotherms, and lines of constant pressure, known as isobars, can be shown on the equilibrium solid.

Any two-dimensional projection of equilibrium solid is known as equilibrium diagram or phase diagram.

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ASME CODE FOR PRESSURE PIPING The preparation of a national Code for pressure piping in the United States began in March of 1926 with sole sponsorship from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). Since its first edition in 1935, revisions have been made to the pressure piping Code in order to reflect the new technology developments. The current version of the Code is known as the ASME Code for Pressure Piping, B31, and it consists of the following publications: B31.1 B31.2 B31.3 B31.4 Power Piping Fuel Gas Piping Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia, and Alcohols Refrigeration Piping Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems Building Services Piping Slurry Transportation Piping Systems Manual for Determining the Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines: A Supplement to B31, Code for Pressure Piping Guide Corrosion Control for ANSI B31.1 Power Piping Systems

B31.5 B31.8 B31.9 B31.11 B31G

B31

The sections of the pressure piping Code that are most relevant to pipelines in the U.S. oil & gas industry are ASME B31.4 "Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia, and Alcohols" and ASME B31.8 "Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems." The provisions of ASME B31.4 and ASME B31.8 are not retroactive; they do not apply to those pipelines that were built before the Code was implemented.

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ASME B31.4 ASME B31.4 covers the design, materials, construction, assembly, inspection and testing of piping transporting liquids such as crude oil, condensate, natural gasoline, natural gas liquids, liquified petroleum gas, liquid alcohol, liquid anhydrous ammonia, and liquid petroleum products, between the producers' lease facilities, tank farms, natural gas processing plants, refineries, stations, ammonia plants, terminals (marine, rail, and truck), and other delivery and receiving points.

Liquids Covered by ASME B31.4 Crude Oil is the unrefined petroleum, just as it comes from the reservoir. Crude oil is a very complex fluid consisting of compounds of carbon (C) and hydrogen (H2) which exist in a wide variety of combinations. Condensate is a mixture of hydrocarbons that, due to cooling and various other means, change phase from gas into liquid and separate from the natural gas. Natural Gasoline is a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons, mostly pentane (C5H12) and heavier, extracted from natural gas by various methods and stabilized to obtain a liquid product suitable for blending with refinery gasoline. Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) are those hydrocarbon mixtures which are gaseous at reservoir temperatures and pressures, but are recoverable as liquids by condensation or absorption. Natural gasoline and liquified petroleum gas (LPG) may be constituents of natural gas liquids. Like condensates, natural gas liquids are part of the gaseous phase in the reservoirs. While condensates become liquid on release from the reservoir temperature and pressure, natural gas liquids generally have to be cooled by refrigeration to make them become liquids, and only remain in the liquid phase as long as they are maintained either refrigerated or pressurized at ambient temperature. Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) is natural gas refrigerated and compressed to a temperature and pressure at which it exists as a liquid. The liquefaction of natural gas facilitates the storage and transport of large quantities in a relatively small space. Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) is liquid petroleum composed predominantly of the following hydrocarbons: butane (C4H10), butylene (C4H8), propane (C3H8), propylene (C3H6), and ethane (C2H6). A B-P mix is a liquid hydrocarbon product composed predominantly of butane and propane. An E-P mix is a liquid hydrocarbon product composed predominantly of ethane and propane. All liquified petroleum gases are heavier than air. At ambient temperature, LPG can be stored as a liquid under pressures of approximately 80 psig to 250 psig. At atmospheric pressure, LPG reverts to the gaseous state. LPG stored in a pressure container for distribution to domestic consumers is known as bottled gas. Although LPG is nontoxic, if it is distributed for consumer use or used as fuel in a place of employment, it must be odorized for safety and to facilitate the detection of leaks. Liquid Alcohol is any of a group of organic compounds containing only hydrogen, carbon, and one or more hydroxyl radicals (OH-) which will remain as a liquid in a moving stream in a pipeline. Liquid Anhydrous Ammonia (NH3) is a colorless compound formed by the combination, and compression to a liquid state, of nitrogen and hydrogen. Liquid Petroleum Products include diesel oil, jet fuel, and gasoline.

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Scope Diagram of ASME B31.4

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ASME B31.8 ASME B31.8 covers the design, fabrication, installation, inspection, testing and safety aspects of operation and maintenance of gas transmission and distribution systems, including gas pipelines, gas compressor stations, gas storage equipment (of the closed pipe type, fabricated or forged from pipe or fabricated from pipe and fittings), gas storage lines, gas metering and regulation stations, gas mains, and service lines up to the outlet of the customer's meter set assembly.

Gases Covered by ASME B31.8


Natural Gas is gaseous petroleum composed predominantly of the following hydrocarbons: methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8), butane (C4H10), pentane (C5H12) and hexane (C6H14). Manufactured Gas is gas obtained by the destructive distillation of coal, by the thermal decomposition of oil, or by the reaction of steam passing through a bed of heated coal or coke. Coal gas, coke oven gas, producer gas, blast furnace gas, blue (water) gas, and carburetted water gas are manufactured gases, also known as first family gases. Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) Vapor is a mixture of LPG components that have been allowed to vaporize in order to use them as gaseous fuels.

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Scope Diagram of ASME B31.8

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PIPE MANUFACTURING

The term pipe manufacturing refers to how the individual pieces of pipe are made in a pipe mill; it does not refer to how the pieces are connected in the field to form a continuous pipeline. The terms cold working and hot working refer to whether the pipe is manufactured while the material is below or above its recrystalization temperature (temperature at which the material undergoes a change in the crystalline structure). The recrystalization temperature of a typical pipe steel is about 1,000 F (538C). Above the recrystalization temperature, almost all of the internal defects and imperfections are eliminated. Mill scale is the heavy oxide layer formed during hot working or heat treatment of pipe. Hot-worked pipe has a greater ductility than cold-worked pipe. Each individual piece of pipe produced by a pipe mill is called a joint or a length (regardless of its "actual" length). A pipe mill can manufacture pipe lengths without a weld, or can manufacture pipe lengths with a weld, also known as seam weld. The seam weld can be a longitudinal weld or a spiral weld. Each particular pipe manufacturing process has its own effect on the maximum pressure that the pipe will be able to withstand during service (see PIPE DESIGN PRESSURE).

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SEAMLESS PIPE
Seamless (S) pipe (pipe manufactured without a weld) is a wrought tubular product manufactured by hot-working steel or, if necessary, by subsequently cold-finishing the hot-worked tubular product to produce the desired shape, dimensions and properties.

WELDED PIPE
Welded pipe (pipe manufactured with a weld) is a tubular product made out of flat plates, also known as skelp, that are formed, bent and then prepared for welding. Electric Resistance Welded (ERW) pipe is welded pipe produced in individual lengths, or in continuous lengths from coiled skelp subsequently cut into individual lengths. The longitudinal butt joint is welded by the heat obtained from the resistance of the pipe to the flow of electric current in a circuit of which the pipe is a part, and by the application of pressure. Bell Welded pipe is welded pipe of the furnace butt-welded (BW) type, produced in individual lengths from cut-length skelp. The longitudinal butt joint is forge-welded by the mechanical pressure developed in drawing the furnace-heated skelp through a cone-shaped die (also known as welding bell), which serves as a combined forming and welding die.

Continuous Welded pipe is welded pipe of the furnace butt-welded (BW) type, produced in continuous lengths from coiled skelp subsequently cut into individual lengths. The longitudinal butt joint is forge-welded by the mechanical pressure developed in rolling the hot-formed skelp through a set of round pass welding rolls.

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Electric Fusion Welded (EFW) pipe is welded pipe produced in preformed tubes. The longitudinal butt joint is welded by manual or automatic electric-arc welding; the weld may be single or double and may be made with or without the use of filler metal. Spiral Welded pipe is welded pipe of the electric fusion welded (EFW) type. Spiral welded pipe is obtained by winding and helical welding of a steel strip on rollers. The spiral weld may be a butt joint, lap joint or lock-seam joint. Electric Flash Welded (FW) pipe is welded pipe whose longitudinal butt joint is welded simultaneously over the entire area of abutting surfaces by the heat obtained from the resistance of the pipe to the flow of electric current between the two surfaces, and by the application of pressure after heating is substantially completed. Flashing and upsetting are accompanied by expulsion of metal from the joint. Double Submerged Arc Welded (DSAW) pipe is welded pipe whose longitudinal butt joint is welded in at least two (2) passes, one (1) of which is on the inside of the pipe; the welds are made by heating with an electric arc or arcs between the bare metal electrode or electrodes and the work. Pressure is not used. Filler metal for the inside and outside welds is obtained from the electrode(s).

COLD EXPANDED PIPE


Cold expanded pipe is seamless or welded pipe formed and then expanded in the pipe mill while cold, so that the circumference is permanently increased by at least 0.50 %.

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PIPE MATERIALS AND SIZES Steel Pipe


Steel pipe used for pipelines is commonly called line pipe to distinguish it from steel casing and steel tubing (which are installed below ground in oil and gas wells) and drill pipe (which is used for oil and gas well drilling). Line pipe is manufactured in accordance with API Specification 5L "Specification for Line Pipe." Pipe steels, also known as pipe grades, are designated by their Specified Minimum Yield Strength (SMYS) measured in lbf/in2. Pipe manufactured in accordance with API Specification 5L must be color coded on the inside surface as shown on the following table below. Carbon steel is an alloy of carbon and iron containing up to 2% carbon and up to 1.65% manganese and residual quantities of other elements, except those added in specific quantities for deoxidation (usually silicon and/or aluminum). Carbon steels used in the oil & gas industry usually contain less than 0.8% carbon. Carbon steels lose strength at high temperatures. Low-Alloy steel is steel with a total alloying element content of less than about 5%, but more than specified for carbon steel. MANUFACTURING PROCESS BW, ERW, S ERW, DSAW, S ERW, DSAW, S ERW, DSAW, S ERW, DSAW, S ERW, DSAW, S ERW, DSAW, S ERW, DSAW, S ERW, DSAW, S ERW, DSAW, S ERW, DSAW, S SMYS (psi) 25,000 30,000 35,000 42,000 46,000 52,000 56,000 60,000 65,000 70,000 80,000

PIPE GRADE A25 A B X42 X46 X52 X56 X60 X65 X70 X80

COLOR CODE Black Green Blue Red White Purple Yellow

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Pipe Sizes
The nominal diameter, also known as nominal pipe size (NPS), is the main designator of the pipe size; The nominal diameter is a name, not an actual dimension. The outside diameter (OD) of the pipe is the actual size of the pipe. The pipe perimeter is the length measured around the full circumference of the pipe, as defined by the following equation:

s = D

where

s = pipe perimeter, inches = "pi" (Archimedes number, 3.1415926536) D = pipe OD, inches PIPE DIAMETER PIPE PERIMETER NPS (in) 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 48 (mm) 152 203 254 305 356 406 457 508 559 610 660 711 762 813 864 914 965 1,016 1,067 1,219 (in) 6.625 8.625 10.750 12.750 14.000 16.000 18.000 20.000 22.000 24.000 26.000 28.000 30.000 32.000 34.000 36.000 38.000 40.000 42.000 48.000 OD (mm) 168 219 273 324 356 406 457 508 559 610 660 711 762 813 864 914 965 1,016 1,067 1,219 (in) 20.813 27.096 33.772 40.055 43.982 50.266 56.549 62.832 69.115 75.398 81.682 87.965 94.248 100.531 106.814 113.098 119.381 125.664 131.947 150.797 (mm) 529 688 858 1,017 1,117 1,277 1,436 1,596 1,756 1,915 2,075 2,234 2,394 2,553 2,713 2,873 3,032 3,192 3,351 3,830

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Seamless pipe is manufactured in diameters up to NPS 24 because the seamless manufacturing process is not practical for larger diameters. Spiral welded pipe can be manufactured in diameters up to NPS 100. Pipe manufactured in accordance with API Specification 5L has diameter tolerances as shown on the following tables. NPS (in) 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36 PIPE EXPANSION Nonexpanded and Cold-expanded Nonexpanded Cold-expanded Nonexpanded 38, 40, 42, 48 Cold-expanded TOLERANCE FOR DIAMETER OF PIPE BODY + 0.75 % + 1.00 % + 0.75 % + 1.00 % + 1/4 in (+ 6.35 mm) - 0.75 % - 1.00 % - 0.25 % - 1.00 % - 1/8 in (- 3.18 mm)

NPS (in) 6, 8, 10 12, 14, 16, 18, 20

TOLERANCE FOR DIAMETER AT PIPE ENDS [within 4 in (101.6 mm) of pipe ends] + 1/16 in (+ 1.59 mm) + 3/32 in (+ 2.38 mm) + 3/32 in (+ 2.38 mm) - 1/64 in (- 0.40 mm) - 1/32 in (- 0.79 mm) - 1/32 (- 0.79 mm)

22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 40, 42, 48

Out-of-roundness tolerance is + 1 % of the specified OD for the major axis and - 1 % of the specified OD for the minor axis. On welded expanded pipe, the diameter of one end of the pipe shall not differ by more than 3/32 in (2.38 mm) from that of the other end.

Pipe Ends
Except for spiral welded pipe, which may not be threaded, pipe manufactured in accordance with API Specification 5L can be furnished with plain ends (PE), threaded ends, or bell and spigot ends.

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Plain-End Pipe Lengths


Unless otherwise agreed between the purchaser and the manufacturer, plain-end pipe manufactured in accordance with API Specification 5L is furnished in the lengths shown on the following table. PIPE LENGTHS NOMINAL (ft) 20 40 50 60 80 (m) 6 12 15 18 24 MINIMUM (ft) 9.0 14.0 17.5 21.0 28.0 (m) 2.74 4.27 5.33 6.40 8.53 MAXIMUM (ft) 22.5 45.0 55.0 65.0 85.0 (m) 6.86 13.72 16.76 19.81 25.91

Nominal lengths of 20 ft (6 m) were formerly known as single random lengths. Nominal lengths of 40 ft (12 m) were formerly known as double random lengths.

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Pipe Wall Thicknesses


Unless otherwise agreed between the purchaser and the manufacturer, pipe manufactured in accordance with API Specification 5L is furnished in the nominal wall thicknesses shown on the following table. The terms Standard (Std), Extra-Strong (XS) and Double Extra-Strong (XXS) are specific wall thickness designators. NPS (in) 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26, 28 38, 40 42, 48 NOMINAL WALL THICKNESSES (in)
0.083, 0.109, 0.125, 0.141, 0.156, 0.172, 0.188, 0.203, 0.219, 0.250, 0.280 (Std), 0.312, 0.344, 0.375, 0.432 (XS), 0.500, 0.562, 0.625, 0.719, 0.750, 0.864 (XXS), 0.875 0.125, 0.156, 0.188, 0.203, 0.219, 0.250, 0.277, 0.312, 0.322 (Std), 0.344, 0.375, 0.438, 0.500 (XS), 0.562, 0.625, 0.719, 0.750, 0.812, 0.875 (XXS), 1.000 0.156, 0.188, 0.203, 0.219, 0.250, 0.279, 0.307, 0.344, 0.365 (Std), 0.438, 0.500 (XS), 0.562, 0.625, 0.719, 0.812, 0.875, 0.938, 1.000 (XXS), 1.250 0.172, 0.188, 0.203, 0.219, 0.250, 0.281, 0.312, 0.330, 0.344, 0.375 (Std), 0.406, 0.438, 0.500 (XS), 0.562, 0.625, 0.688, 0.750, 0.812, 0.875, 0.938, 1.000 (XXS), 1.062, 1.125, 1.250 0.188, 0.203, 0.210, 0.219, 0.250, 0.281, 0.312, 0.344, 0.375 (Std), 0.406, 0.438, 0.469, 0.500 (XS), 0.562, 0.625, 0.688, 0.750, 0.812, 0.875, 0.938, 1.000, 1.062, 1.125, 1.250 0.188, 0.203, 0.219, 0.250, 0.281, 0.312, 0.344, 0.375 (Std), 0.406, 0.438, 0.469, 0.500 (XS), 0.562, 0.625, 0.688, 0.750, 0.812, 0.875, 0.938, 1.000, 1.062, 1.125, 1.188, 1.250 0.188, 0.219, 0.250, 0.281, 0.312, 0.344, 0.375 (Std), 0.406, 0.438, 0.469, 0.500 (XS), 0.562, 0.625, 0.688, 0.750, 0.812, 0.875, 0.938, 1.000, 1.062, 1.125, 1.188, 1.250 0.219, 0.250, 0.281, 0.312, 0.344, 0.375 (Std), 0.406, 0.438, 0.469, 0.500 (XS), 0.562, 0.625, 0.688, 0.750, 0.812, 0.875, 0.938, 1.000, 1.062, 1.125, 1.188, 1.250, 1.312, 1.375 0.219, 0.250, 0.281, 0.312, 0.344, 0.375 (Std), 0.406, 0.438, 0.469, 0.500 (XS), 0.562, 0.625, 0.688, 0.750, 0.812, 0.875, 0.938, 1.000, 1.062, 1.125, 1.188, 1.250, 1.312, 1.375, 1.438, 1.500 0.250, 0.281, 0.312, 0.344, 0.375 (Std), 0.406, 0.438, 0.469, 0.500 (XS), 0.562, 0.625, 0.688, 0.750, 0.812, 0.875, 0.938, 1.000, 1.062, 1.125, 1.188, 1.250, 1.312, 1.375, 1.438, 1.500, 1.562 0.250, 0.281, 0.312, 0.344, 0.375 (Std), 0.406, 0.438, 0.469, 0.500 (XS), 0.562, 0.625, 0.688, 0.750, 0.812, 0.875, 0.938, 1.000

30, 32, 34, 36 0.250, 0.281, 0.312, 0.344, 0.375 (Std), 0.406, 0.438, 0.469, 0.500 (XS), 0.562, 0.625, 0.688, 0.750, 0.812, 0.875, 0.938, 1.000, 1.062, 1.125, 1.188, 1.250
0.312, 0.344, 0.375 (Std), 0.406, 0.438, 0.469, 0.500 (XS), 0.562, 0.625, 0.688, 0.750, 0.812, 0.875, 0.938, 1.000, 1.062, 1.125, 1.188, 1.250 0.344, 0.375 (Std), 0.406, 0.438, 0.469, 0.500 (XS), 0.562, 0.625, 0.688, 0.750, 0.812, 0.875, 0.938, 1.000, 1.062, 1.125, 1.188, 1.250

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The inside diameter (ID) of the pipe, also known as pipe bore, is defined by the following equation:

d = D 2t

where

d = pipe ID, in D = pipe OD, in t = wall thickness, in Pipe manufactured in accordance with API Specification 5L has a wall thickness tolerance as shown on the following table. TOLERANCE (% of nominal wall thickness) Grade B or Lower + 15.0 + 15.0 + 17.5 - 12.5 - 12.5 - 12.5 Grade X42 or Higher + 15.0 + 17.5 + 19.5 - 12.5 - 10.0 - 8.0

NPS (in)

PIPE TYPE

6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 40, 42, 48

Seamless and Welded Seamless Welded

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PIPELINE DESIGN

PIPE LONGITUDINAL STRESS


Pipe under internal pressure may be subject to a longitudinal stress acting along the longitudinal axis of the pipe. The longitudinal stress appears when both ends of the pressurized pipe are closed.

The longitudinal stress is expressed mathematically by the following equation: l = P= t= D= longitudinal stress, psi internal pressure, psig nominal wall thickness, in pipe OD, in

l =

PD 4t

where

High pressures, large diameters and thin walls result in high longitudinal stresses. Low pressures, small diameters and thick walls result in low longitudinal stresses. An internal pressure of 1,000 psig generates a longitudinal stress of 2,650 psi in a 6-inch pipe of 0.625" wall thickness. An internal pressure of 1,000 psig generates a longitudinal stress of 19,200 psi in a 48-inch pipe of 0.625" wall thickness.

PIPE HOOP STRESS


Pipe under internal pressure is always subject to a hoop stress, also known as circumferential stress or tangential stress, acting along the circumference of the pipe. The hoop stress is expressed mathematically by Barlow's Formula, as defined by the following equation: h = h = P= t= D=

PD 2t

where

hoop stress, psi internal pressure, psig nominal wall thickness, in pipe OD, in

High pressures, large diameters and thin walls result in high hoop stresses. Low pressures, small diameters and thick walls result in low hoop stresses.

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An internal pressure of 1,000 psig generates a hoop stress of 5,300 psi in a 6-inch pipe of 0.625" wall thickness. An internal pressure of 1,000 psig generates a hoop stress of 38,400 psi in a 48-inch pipe of 0.625" wall thickness.

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PIPE DESIGN PRESSURE


The design pressure is the internal pressure at which the hoop stress reaches the maximum limit allowed by the applicable section of the Code for Pressure Piping.

ASME B31.4 New Steel Line Pipe

P=

2(0.72E S y ) D

( t n - A)

where

P= Sy = E= tn = A= D=

design pressure, psig specified minimum yield strength, psi longitudinal joint factor (0.60 to 1.00) nominal wall thickness, in sum of allowances for threading and grooving, corrosion and additional thickness for protection against unusual external conditions, in pipe OD, in

Except for furnace butt-welded (BW) pipe, whose design pressure may not be higher than 60% of the mill test pressure, the design pressure of the pipe may not be higher than 85% of the mill test pressure.

ASME B31.8 New Steel Line Pipe

P=

2Syt D

FET where

P= Sy = t= D= F= E= T=

design pressure, psig specified minimum yield strength, psi nominal wall thickness, in pipe OD, in design factor (0.40 to 0.80) longitudinal joint factor (0.60 to 1.00) temperature derating factor (0.867 to 1.000)

The design factor F accounts for the fact that not all the areas along the route of a gas pipeline have the same level of probability for a leak to appear. If a combustible gas leak develops into a gas cloud, and the cloud makes contact with a spark, an explosion can occur. If the cost of an explosion in a particular area is expected to be high (as it would be in a highly populated area), then a low design factor F is used for that area. If the cost of an explosion in a particular is expected to be low (as it would be in a remote desertic area), then a high design factor F is used for that area.

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The highest pressure at which a gas pipeline will be operated during a normal operating cycle is known as maximum operating pressure (MOP) or maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP).

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PIPE COLLAPSE PRESSURE


The collapse pressure is the external pressure at which the stress is within the elastic range of the pipe material.

t 3 ) D Pc = 2 E p 1 v2 p (
Pc = Ep = vp = t= D=

where

collapse pressure, Pa modulus of elasticity of the pipe, Pa (2 x 1011 Pa for steel pipe) Poisson coefficient of the pipe (0.30 for carbon steel pipe) nominal wall thickness, in pipe OD, in

Large diameters and thin walls result in low collapse pressures. Small diameters and thick walls result in high collapse pressures. An external pressure of 53,527 psi collapses a 6-inch carbon steel pipe of 0.625" wall thickness. An external pressure of 140 psi collapses a 48-inch carbon steel pipe of 0.625" wall thickness. The collapse pressure is especially important while designing sections of pipe to be laid underwater.

FLANGES
Flanges are connectors used to join pipeline components or to close the end of a pipeline system. Pipeline flanges are manufactured in accordance with ANSI B16.5 "Pipe Flanges and Flange Fittings" and MSS-44 "Steel Pipe Line Flanges." A flanged connection consists of two (2) flanges, one (1) gasket, and one (1) set of bolts, nuts, sleeves and washers. Gaskets are used to make a fluid-resistant seal in a flanged connection. Bolts and nuts are used to tighten the flanged connection.

Flange Sizes
Pipeline flanges manufactured in accordance with ANSI B16.5 are identified by the nominal pipe size that the flange will match when welded to the pipe.

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Flange Types
Weldneck flanges are normally used for high pressure and extreme temperature service. Weldneck flanges are bored to match the ID of the pipe being used. Weldneck flanges are common in mainline connections.

Slip-on flanges are bored slightly larger than the OD of the matching pipe. The pipe slips into the slip-on flange prior to welding both inside and outside to prevent leaks.

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Lap joint flanges have a curved radius at the bore and face to accommodate a lap joint stub end. Lap joint flanges are common in systems requiring frequent dismantling for inspection.

Threaded flanges are normally used in systems not involving high temperatures or high stresses.

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Socket weld flanges have a bore and a counter-bore.

Reducing flanges allow the connection of pipes that are different in diameter

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Blind flanges have no bore. Blind flanges are used to block off the end of a pipeline system.

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Flange Pressure Ratings


Flanges manufactured in accordance with ANSI B16.5 are furnished in Class 150, Class 300, Class 400, Class 600, Class 900, Class 1500 and Class 2500 (see VALVE CLASSES).

Flange Facings
The flange face is the machined surface area of the flange where the gasket is placed. Raised face (RF) flanges have a flat surface protruding 1/16 in (1.6 mm) or 1/4 in (6.4 mm) beyond the outer flange face. The 1/16 in (1.6 mm) raised face flanges are common in Class 150 and Class 300. The 1/4 in (6.4 mm) raised face flanges are common in Class 400, Class 600, Class 900, Class 1500 and Class 2500. Flat face (FF) flanges require a gasket whose outer diameter is equal to that of the flange. Ring-type joint face (RTJ) flanges have faces with a specially shaped groove located between the bolt holes and the flange bore. Ring-type joint flanges are common in Class 600, Class 900, Class 1500 and Class 2500. Lap joint face flanges require a gasket whose outer diameter is equal to that of the lap joint stub end at the point of contact.

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VALVES
Valves are devices designed to permit, obstruct, or regulate the flow of fluid by the full closure or partial closure of an orifice, also known as valve bore if the orifice is circular, or valve port if the orifice is non-circular. The closure member is the part of a valve which is physically positioned in the flow stream to permit, obstruct, or regulate the flow. Block valves are designed to permit or obstruct the flow of fluid. Control valves are designed to regulate the flow of fluid. Pipeline valves are manufactured in accordance with API Specification 6D "Specification for Pipeline Valves (Gate, Plug, Ball, and Check Valves)".

Valve Sizes
Pipeline valves manufactured in accordance with API Specification 6D are identified by a nominal valve size. Nominal valve sizes are the same as nominal pipe sizes. Full opening valves, also known as full bore valves, are valves that are unobstructed in the fully opened position. Conduit valves are full bore valves with a circular hole in the closure member. Full bore valves are specified by the nominal valve size. There is a -1/16 in (- 1.59 mm) lower limit tolerance on the bore size of a full bore valve. There is no upper limit tolerance on the bore size of a full bore valve.

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NOMINAL BORE SIZES FOR FULL OPENING VALVES NOMINAL VALVE SIZE (in) 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 48 (mm) 152 203 254 305 356 406 457 508 559 610 660 711 762 813 864 914 965 1,016 1,067 1,219 VALVE CLASS 150, 300, 400, 600 (in) 6 8 10 12 13.25 15.25 17.25 19.25 21.25 23.25 25 27 29 30.75 32.75 34.5 36.5 38.5 40.25 46 (mm) 152.4 203.2 254.0 304.8 336.6 387.4 438.2 489.0 539.8 590.6 635.0 685.8 736.6 781.1 831.9 876.3 927.1 977.9 1,022.4 1,168.4 (in) 6 8 10 12 12.75 14.75 16.75 18.625 20.625 22.5 24.374 26.25 28.125 30 31.875 33.75 900 (mm) 152.4 203.2 254.0 304.8 323.9 374.7 425.5 473.1 523.9 571.5 619.1 666.8 714.4 762.0 809.6 857.3 (in) 5.75 7.625 9.5 11.375 12.5 14.25 1500 (mm) 146.1 193.7 241.3 288.9 317.5 362.0 (in) 5.25 7.125 8.875 10.5 2500 (mm) 133.4 181.0 225.4 266.7 -

Reduced opening valves are valves that are somewhat obstructed in the fully opened position. Reduced opening valves with circular openings through the closure member are known as reduced bore valves. Reduced bore valves are specified by the nominal valve size corresponding to the end connections and the nominal valve size corresponding to the minimum bore of the closure member (e.g., A 16-inch valve with a 13.25-inch bore is specified as 16 x 14). Reduced opening valves with non-circular openings through the closure member are known as reduced port valves. Reduced port valves are specified by the nominal valve size corresponding to the end connections followed by the letter "R" (e.g., A 16-inch valve with a 15 x 12 inch rectangular port is specified as 16R).

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Valve Types
Plug valves are block valves with a cylindrical or conical closure member (plug) that rotates about an axis perpendicular to the direction of flow. The flow in the pipeline can be stopped by rotating the plug 45. Ball valves are block valves with a spherical closure member (ball) that rotates about an axis perpendicular to the direction of flow. Ball valves have a hole bored through the ball. The flow in the pipeline can be stopped by rotating the ball 45. Gate valves, are block valves with a closure member (gate) that moves in a plane perpendicular to the direction of flow. The flow in the pipeline can be stopped by sliding the gate. The gate can be constructed of one piece (as in a wedge gate valve or a slab gate valve) or constructed of two or more pieces (as in a double disc gate valve). Thru-conduit valves are gate valves that have a hole bored through the gate. In the open position, a thru-conduit valve presents a smooth continuous circular cross section to the flow. Check valves, also known as clapper valves and non-return valves, are block valves with a closure member (clapper) that rotates about a hinge. The clapper opens automatically to permit flow in one direction, and closes automatically to prevent flow in the reverse direction. Swing check valves have a clapper that is suspended from the top and swings out of the way of the flow. Spring-loaded check valves have a spring that can be adjusted to force the clapper to close faster and tighter. The term reversed check valve refers to a check valve that has been intentionally left open in order to enable the passage of a pig in the direction of flow that under normal circumstances would cause the check valve to close.

44

45

46

47

Valve Classes
Valves manufactured in accordance with API Specification 6D are furnished in Class 150, Class 300, Class 400, Class 600, Class 900, Class 1500 and Class 2500. These class designations are the same as the rating designations for ANSI B16.5, and therefore indicate the applicable connecting flanges.

Valve Pressure Ratings


Standard flanged end valves and standard weld end valves manufactured in accordance with API Specification 6D have a maximum operating pressure rating as shown on the following table. VALVE CLASS TEMPERATURE (F) -20 to 100 150 200 250 275 270 260 245 720 705 675 665 960 940 900 885 150 300 400 600 RATING (psig) 1,440 1,415 1,350 1,330 2,160 2,120 2,025 1,995 3,600 3,540 3,375 3,325 6,000 5,895 5,625 5,545 900 1500 2500

CHANGES OF DIRECTION
Changes in the direction of a pipeline are achieved by the use of: o Elbows o Returns o Bends o Miter bends.

Elbows
Elbows are used for direction changes of 90 and 45. Elbows are made by forging at manufacturing shop. Elbows are sometimes trimmed to a lesser degree when required. The elbow radius is measured to the centerline of the elbow in multiples of the NPS. Short-radius elbows have a 1D radius (equal to the NPS of the line). Long-radius elbows have a 1.5D radius (equal to one and a half times the NPS of the line). Reducing elbows are used for direction changes of 90 with simultaneous changes in the NPS. Reducing elbows have a 1.5D radius referred to the larger end (equal to one and a half times the NPS of the line to be attached to the larger end).

48

49

Returns
Returns are for direction changes of 180, thus avoiding the use of two (2) 90-degree elbows. 180-degree returns are made by forging at manufacturing shop. Short-radius returns have a 1D radius (equal to the NPS of the line). Long-radius returns have a 1.5D radius (equal to one and a half times the NPS of the line).

50

Bends
Bends are used for odd direction changes. Bends are made from straight pipe. The terms cold bend and hot bend refer to whether the bends are made while the material is below or above its recrystalization temperature. A field bend is made at the pipeline construction site by taking a piece of pipe and forming it in a bending machine. The bend radius is measured to the centerline of the bend in multiples of the NPS.

51

When possible, a field cold bend is to be made with a radius not less than that shown on the following table. NPS (in) 6, 8, 10 12 14 16 18 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 40, 42, 48 MINIMUM BEND RADIUS (Pipe Diameters) 5D 18D 21D 24D 27D 30D

The outer portion of a bend has a thinner wall than the inner portion. The cross section of a bend has an oval shape.

Miter Bends
Miter bends, also known as miter elbows, are made by cutting and welding the ends of two consecutive pipe joints at an angle. Pipe misalignments of 3 degrees or less are not considered to be miter bends. Miter bends can cause a MFL inspection vehicle to either sustain damage or get stuck. Miter bends are prohibited in ASME B31.4 liquid pipelines intended to operate at a hoop stress of more than 20 % of the specified minimum yield strength. Miter bends not exceeding 12 degrees and spaced at least one (1) pipe diameter are allowed in ASME B31.4 liquid pipelines intended to operate at a hoop stress of 10 % to 20% of the specified minimum yield strength. Miter bends are allowed with no restrictions in ASME B31.4 liquid pipelines intended to operate at a hoop stress of less than 10% of the specified minimum yield strength.

52

REDUCERS
The connection of pipes that are different in diameter may be achieved by the use of either concentric reducers or eccentric reducers. Concentric reducers are shaped like a bell, so that the centerline of the pipe on both sides of the reducer remains aligned through the reducer. Concentric reducers are the preferred option for vertical pig trap design Eccentric reducers have a flat side, so that the centerline of the pipe on both sides of the reducer does not remain aligned through the reducer. Eccentric reducers are the preferred option for horizontal pig trap design when they are installed in the flat side down (FSD) position.

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BRANCH CONNECTIONS
A branch connection is a transition piece from the mainline pipe into a secondary pipe. The run is the portion of the transition aligned with the mainline. The branch is the portion of the transition not aligned with the mainline. Some branch connections may require reinforcement

Tees
Tees are branching fittings whose branch is at a 90-degree angle from the run. Tees do not require reinforcement. Extruded tees are made by pulling dies (hemispherical or conical) through a circular hole from the inside of the pipe. Extruding is generally performed on steel after the area to be shaped has been heated to temperatures between 1,600 F (871 C) and 2,000 F (1,093 C). Straight tees have a branch with the same NPS as that of the run. Reducing tees have a branch with a smaller NPS than that of the run. Bullhead tees have a branch with a larger NPS than that of the run.

54

Bar tees have guide bars that prevent pigs from nose diving into the branch. Guide bars should be installed on all tees where the NPS of the branch is at least 50% of the NPS of the run.

55

Flow tees, also known as sphere tees, are designed to prevent spheres from either entering the branch or remaining at the tee while the flow goes by.

Laterals
Laterals are branching fittings whose branch is normally at a 45-degree angle from the run. Laterals are normally used in systems not involving high pressures. Straight laterals have a branch with the same NPS as that of the run. Reducing laterals have a branch with a smaller NPS than that of the run.

56

Stub-ins
A stub-in is a branch pipe welded at a 90-degree angle directly into a run pipe. Stub-ins requires reinforcement. Saddles are used to reinforce stub-ins. After the branch pipe has been welded into the run pipe, the saddle is placed over the branch pipe, and welded to both the branch pipe and the run pipe.

57

Shaped Nipples
A shaped nipple is a branch nipple welded at a 90-degree or 45-degree angle from the run. Shaped nipples require reinforcement.

Bonney Forge Branching Fittings


Branching fittings manufactured by Bonney Forge are preshaped to the curvature of the run. Bonney Forge branching fittings do not require reinforcement. Among these fittings are the Weldolet (buttwelded outlet), Thredolet (threaded outlet), Sockolet (socket weld outlet), Sweepolet (saddled outlet), Elbolet (to weld to a 90-degree elbow), Flatolet (to weld to a flat surface), Nipolet (with a nipple branch), and Latrolet (45degree outlet).

58

59

CLOSURES
Closures are used to block off the end of a pipeline system.

Caps
Caps are welding fittings bored to match the ID of the pipe being blocked.

Flat Closures
Flat closures are plates cut to block the pipe by welding them to either the inside or the outside of the pipe.

Quick Closures
Quick closures are devices designed to allow temporary access to a pipeline.

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61

62

PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION

WELDING
To form a continuous pipeline, the individual pieces of pipe are connected in the field by circumferential welds, also known as girth welds.

To make a girth weld, the ends of the pipes to be welded are first beveled. The two pipes are aligned, properly gapped, and tack welded. Then a continuous weld is made to complete the girth weld. Figures (a) through (g) below show common girth weld arrangements used on pipelines. Figures (a) through (d) are for pipes of equal OD and unequal ID; figures (e) and (f) are for pipes of unequal OD and equal ID; figure (g) is for pipes of unequal OD and unequal ID.

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Near each weld there is a heat-affected zone (HAZ), which is that part of the pipe metal that has not been melted but has undergone changes in its metallurgical properties due to the heat of welding or cutting. For all pipeline applications, it is assumed that the HAZ will not extend more than 10 mm (0.39 in) from the weld toe or cutting surface. It is also assumed that the welds and their HAZ have less tolerance to damage than the rest of the pipe metal.

Backing rings, also known as chill rings, are sometimes inserted in the adjoining ends of pipes that are to be welded. The backup rings serve as an alignment aid, and prevent spatter and metal icicles from forming inside the pipe. The backup rings become a permanent part of the pipeline. Backup rings are known to have damaged MFL inspection vehicles.

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MAINLINE VALVE SPACING


ASME B31.4 Liquid Pipelines
Either one (1) mainline block valve or one (1) mainline check valve is to be installed at each location where the terrain features could result in pipeline backflow. All mainline valves are to be installed with spacing not more than that shown on the following table: SPACING (mi) Industrial, commercial, and residential areas Major river crossings and public water supply reservoirs LPG Liquid Anhydrous Ammonia Other LPG Liquid Anhydrous Ammonia Other LPG Liquid Anhydrous Ammonia Other 7.5 (km) 12.1

LOCATION

PRODUCT

As needed to minimize damage caused by third parties. Upstream: One (1) block valve. Downstream: One (1) block valve or one (1) check valve. As needed to minimize the damage caused by accidental discharge of the pipeline, and as needed in order to facilitate maintenance of the pipeline.

Any other area

ASME B31.8 Gas Pipelines


Except for offshore pipelines, all mainline block valves are to be installed at the time of construction, and with spacing not more than that shown on the following table. LOCATION CLASS 1 2 3 SPACING (mi) 20.0 15.0 10.0 (km) 32.2 24.1 16.1

LOCATION Wastelands, deserts, mountains, grazing land, farmland, and sparsely populated areas Fringe areas around cities and towns, industrial areas, and ranch or country estates Suburban housing developments, shopping centers, residential areas, and industrial areas Areas where multistory buildings (4 or more floors above ground) are prevalent, and where traffic is heavy or dense and where there may be numerous other utilities underground

5.0

8.0

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HYDROSTATIC TEST
After construction is completed, and before placing in operation, pipelines are to be subjected to a pressure test to demonstrate that the strength meets the design conditions and to confirm that no leaks are present. Water is a common test fluid for hydrostatic tests. Water can be compressed to a point where it can exert a high internal pressure on a pipeline. To visualize how much water is needed to pressurize a pipeline, consider a 5-mile flat section of 10inch pipe of 0.279" wall thickness. This section can be filled up with 111,888 gallons of water at 0 psig. Calculations show that an internal pressure of 2,430 psig can be generated by adding only 1,211 gallons (1.08% of 111,888 gallons) of water at 50 F (10 C). This is also the amount of water that at 0 psig would fill up a 285-ft section of 10-inch pipe of 0.279" wall thickness.

ASME B31.4 Liquid Pipelines


Pipelines to be operated at a hoop stress of more than 20% of the SMYS are to be subjected at any point, for not less than 4 hours, to a hydrostatic test equivalent to not less than 1.25 times the internal design pressure at that point.

ASME B31.8 Gas Pipelines


Pipelines to be operated at a hoop stress of 30% of the SMYS or more are to be subjected at any point, for not less than 2 hours, to a hydrostatic test equivalent to not less than 1.10 to 1.40 times the MOP (depending on the location class of the pipeline).

MINIMUM DEPTH OF COVER


Rock excavation is excavation that requires blasting or removal by equivalent means.

ASME B31.4 Liquid Pipelines


All buried pipelines are to be installed below the normal level of cultivation and with a minimum cover not less than that shown on the following table.

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EXCAVATION LOCATION PRODUCT LPG Liquid Anhydrous Ammonia Other River and stream crossings LPG Liquid Anhydrous Ammonia Other Drainage ditches at roadways and railroads LPG Liquid Anhydrous Ammonia Other Any other area LPG Liquid Anhydrous Ammonia Other NORMAL (in) 48 36 48 48 48 36 36 30 ROCK (in) 24 24 18 18 24 24 18 18

Industrial, commercial, and residential areas

ASME B31.8 Gas Pipelines


Except for offshore pipelines, all buried pipelines are to be installed below the normal level of cultivation and with a minimum cover not less than that shown on the following table. EXCAVATION LOCATION NORMAL (in) ROCK (in) NPS 6 to NPS 20 12 18 24 24 24 NPS 22 to NPS 48 18 18 24 24 24

Wastelands, deserts, mountains, grazing land, farmland, and sparsely populated areas Fringe areas around cities and towns, industrial areas, and ranch or country estates Suburban housing developments, shopping centers, residential areas, and industrial areas Areas where multistory buildings (4 or more floors above ground) are prevalent, and where traffic is heavy or dense and where there may be numerous other utilities underground Drainage ditches at public roads and railroad crossings

24 30 30 30 36

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CLEARANCE FROM UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES


ASME B31.4 Liquid Pipelines
Any buried pipeline is to be at least 2 in (51 mm) clear from the extremity of any drainage tile and, if possible, at least 12 in (305 mm) clear from any other underground structure.

ASME B31.8 Gas Pipelines


If possible, any buried pipeline is to be at least 6 in (152 mm) clear from any other underground structure.

CASINGS
The purpose of a casing pipe is to protect the mainline, also known as carrier pipe, from the external loads imposed at railroad and highway crossings. By the ID of the casing pipe being greater than the OD of the carrier pipe, the casing pipe can fully encircle the carrier pipe. Casings may be detected by a MFL inspection vehicle if the gap between the casing pipe and the carrier pipe is not too wide. The carrier pipe is to be coated and insulated from the casing throughout the cased section. No direct contact must be allowed between the casing pipe and the carrier pipe; otherwise the casing may become a safety hazard. To prevent water ingress, casings ends are to be sealed using a durable, electrically nonconductive material. Casing vents are sometimes installed at each end of a casing to prevent any pressure build-up in the area between the casing pipe and the carrier pipe. A carrier pipe of sufficient wall thickness to absorb external loads is an alternative to a casing. Some pipeline operators have already discontinued the practice of installing casings.

68

PIPELINE OPERATION

STATIC CONDITION
A stationary fluid in a pipeline creates a static condition in the pipeline. When the pipeline is in a static condition, the fluid exerts a hydrostatic pressure that varies linearly with depth. The hydrostatic pressure is defined by the following equation Ph = hydrostatic pressure, psi Zh = depth, ft = specific weight, lbf/ft3

Ph = Z h

where

It would take 2.31 ft (0.70 m) of water at 68 F (20 C) to generate 1 psi of hydrostatic pressure, 33.95 ft (10.35 m) of water at 68 F (20 C) to generate 14.696 psi of hydrostatic pressure, 150.15 ft (45.77 m) of water at 68 F (20 C) to generate 65 psi of hydrostatic pressure.

DYNAMIC CONDITION
A moving fluid in a pipeline creates a dynamic condition in the pipeline. The fluid in a pipeline moves in accordance with the amount of energy available, and in the direction that offers the least resistance to flow. Elevation, pressure, and velocity are some of the forms of energy that can be present in a fluid. With the proper amount of energy, the fluid starts moving down the pipeline. The pipeline then transports the fluid efficiently over a certain distance, until a point is reached where an additional supply of energy is required in order to keep the fluid moving. Pumps supply additional energy to liquids. Compressors supply additional energy to gases. The fluid velocity is defined by the following equation V= Q= A= fluid velocity, ft/s fluid flow rate, ft3/s cross sectional area of the pipe ID, ft2

V=

Q A

where

Velocity conversions between meters per second (m/s), miles per hour (mph), feet per second (ft/s), and kilometers per hour (km/hr) are shown on the following table.

VELOCITY CONVERSIONS m/s 1 m/s 1 mph 1 ft/s 1 km/h 1 0.4470 0.3048 0.2778 mph 2.2369 1 0.6818 0.6214 ft/s 3.2808 1.4667 1 0.9113 km/h 3.6000 1.6093 1.0973 1

69

The fluid flow rate is also known as throughput. The flow rate can be measured in the field by orifice meters, turbine meters, and positive displacement meters. Each type of meter is best suited for a particular application. o The orifice meter works with an orifice plate that is held perpendicular to the flow by flanges or by a special fitting; the geometry of the orifice induces a change in fluid pressure, and the pressure change is then correlated to a specific flow rate. The turbine meter works with an impeller whose rotary axis is held parallel to the flow by low-drag bearings; a magnetic transducer counts revolutions as the flow passes, and the speed of rotation is then correlated to a specific flow rate. The positive displacement meter works with a cyclic mechanism that takes a volume of fluid in and moves it out; the sum of the cycles over a period of time is then correlated to a specific flow rate.

Several flow rate equations have been developed for pipeline design purposes. The flow rate equations are empirical in nature, and involve a series of simplifying assumptions directed to fit idealized applications. The successful application of a flow rate equation requires compensation for discrepancies through the use of an adjustment factor known as efficiency factor. The efficiency factor is determined by comparing the theoretical flow rates (calculated from the flow rate equation) with the actual flow rates (measured in the field). The efficiency factor is then the number that will correct the flow rate equation to make it predict the field data with an acceptable level of accuracy. Therefore, efficiency factors are specific to particular flow rate equations and particular field conditions. In any case, the behavior of flows can be better predicted by using of computer simulation programs that take into account the thermodynamic nature of fluids. Pipeline operators that are serious about their business will have taken the time to acknowledge these facts, and will have set up the necessary facilities to be able to predict the response of their pipeline systems to changes (both unforeseen and planned) in operating conditions.

70

BERNOULLI'S THEOREM
To visualize how the different variables interact during fluid flow, consider a pipeline of internal diameter df and length L between a point "1" and a point "2". Points "1" and "2" are at elevations Z1 and Z2, respectively. The pipeline is located in a region where the acceleration of gravity is g. From point "1", a fluid of density 1 at a pressure P1 is moving at a velocity V 1 towards point "2". As the fluid moves from point "1" to point "2", regardless of whether the motion is uphill or downhill, some of the initial energy is lost due to friction against the pipe wall. Small diameters, long distances and high velocities result in big energy losses. Large diameters, short distances and low velocities result in small energy losses. If no other energy is added to or taken from the fluid, then the fluid finally arrives at point "2" with a density 2, a pressure P2 and a velocity V2. This process is described by Bernoulli's Theorem, as defined by the following equation,

Z1+

144 P1

2 fL V 2 144 P 2 V 2 V1 ( + ) = Z2+ + 2 2g 2g 2 d f 2g

where

df = pipe ID, ft L= pipeline length, ft g= acceleration of gravity, ft/s2 Z1 = elevation upstream, ft Z2 = elevation downstream, ft P1 = pressure upstream, psia P2 = pressure downstream, psia 1 = fluid density upstream, lbm/ft3 2 = fluid density downstream, lbm/ft3 V1 = fluid velocity upstream, ft/s V2 = fluid velocity downstream, ft/s f= Moody friction factor conditions Completely filled pipeline No energy added to the fluid by pumps or compressors No energy taken from the fluid by turbines The terms Z, 144P/, and V2/2g are known as elevation head, pressure head and velocity head, respectively. The Moody friction factor is in general a function of the fluid velocity, the fluid density, the fluid viscosity, the pipe ID, and the pipe roughness. New and clean carbon steel has a roughness of approximately 0.0018 inches. Age and use can increase the roughness of carbon steel up to 0.0072 inches. Sometimes the friction factor used is the Fanning friction factor, which is 0.25 times the Moody friction factor. Components such as valves and fittings cause the flow pressure to drop locally. The length of pipe that would cause the same pressure drop caused by a certain component in known as the equivalent length of that component. The local pressure drops caused by valves and fittings can be accounted for by adding the corresponding equivalent lengths of those valves and fittings to the actual pipeline length.

71

ONE-PHASE FLOW
One-Phase Flow is the type of flow where the flowing fluid always stays entirely as a liquid or as a gas. The nature of one-phase flows is described the Reynolds Number, as defined by the following equation,

Re =

dfV

where

Re = V= = = df =

Reynolds number, dimensionless fluid velocity, ft/s fluid density, lbm/ft3 fluid absolute viscosity, lbm/ft-s pipe ID, ft

If the Reynolds number is less than 2,000 then the flow is known as laminar flow. Laminar flow is characterized by little mixing of the flowing fluid. In a laminar flow pattern, the velocity of the fluid particles that travel close to the pipe centerline is significantly higher than the velocity of the fluid particles that travel close to the pipe wall. If the Reynolds number is more than 4,000 then the flow is known as turbulent flow. Turbulent flow is characterized by complete mixing of the flowing fluid. In a turbulent flow pattern, the velocity of the fluid particles that travel close to the pipe centerline is almost the same as the velocity of the fluid particles that travel close to the pipe wall. If the Reynolds number is in between 2,000 and 4,000 then the flow is known as laminar-turbulent transition flow. Transition flow may be either laminar or turbulent. Regardless of the Reynolds number, the velocity of the fluid particles that are in contact with the pipe wall is zero.

72

For liquids, the Reynolds number can be calculated from the following equation, Re = 92.1
where

Ql S d cp

Re = Ql = d= cp = S=

Reynolds number liquid flow rate, BPD pipe ID, in fluid absolute viscosity, cp specific gravity of flowing liquid

For gases, the Reynolds number can be calculated from the following equation, Re = 20,100 where Re = Qg = d= cp = S= Reynolds number gas flow rate, millions of CFD @ STP pipe ID, in fluid absolute viscosity, cp specific gravity of flowing gas @ STP 520 R and 14.7 psia

Qg S d cp

Flow improvers, also known as drag reducers, are chemicals whose viscosity decreases with the flow rate; therefore, drag reducers can increase the capacity of a pipeline by reducing the resistance of the fluid to turbulent flow. When a fluid is treated with a drag reducer and laminar flow is established, the pressure drop is the same as that of the untreated fluid at the same flow rate. However, when a fluid is treated with a drag reducer and turbulent flow is established, the pressure drop is smaller than that of the untreated fluid at the same flow rate. A drag reducer must be injected on the discharge side of pump stations because the drag reducing properties degrade badly if the chemical is put through pumps. A drag reducer must be effective in small concentrations, must be able to resist degradation in transit and storage, and must be compatible with the pipeline fluid and materials.

Liquid Flow
In most liquid flow applications, the density can be assumed to be constant. Liquid flow rate conversions between liters per second (l/s), imperial gallons per minute (imp. gpm), U.S. gallons per minute (US gpm), oil barrels per hour (Oil BPH), liters per minute (l/m), and oil barrels per day (Oil BPD) are shown on the following table. LIQUID FLOW RATE CONVERSIONS l/s 1 l/s 1 Imp. gpm 1 US gpm 1 Oil BPH 1 l/m 1 Oil BPD 1 0.07576 0.06309 0.04416 0.01667 0.00184 Imp. gpm 13.20 1 0.83268 0.58289 0.21997 0.02429 US gpm 15.85 1.20094 1 0.7 0.26417 0.02917 Oil BPH 22.64339 1.71559 1.42857 1 0.37739 0.04167 l/m 60 4.546 3.7584 2.64978 1 0.11041 Oil BPD 543.44134 41.17415 34.28571 24 9.05736 1

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The letter "M" added to the liquid flow rate units stands for "thousands" (e.g., 1 MBPD = 1,000 BPD) The letters "MM" added to the liquid flow rate units stand for "millions" (e.g., 1 MMBPD = 1,000,000 BPD). Liquid Velocity Equation V =

0.012 Ql d2

where

V = liquid velocity, ft/s Ql = liquid flow rate, BPD d= pipe ID, in General Liquid Pressure Drop Equation Ql = 295 ( P1 P 2 ) Ql = d= L= f= P1 = P2 = S= liquid flow rate, BPD pipe ID, in pipeline length, ft Moody friction factor pressure upstream, psi pressure downstream, psi specific gravity of flowing liquid

d5 where fLS

Conditions Constant elevation In the equation above, the term P1 - P2 represents the differential pressure in a liquid pipeline. The flow rate in a liquid pipeline is a function of the differential pressure established in the pipeline. High flow rates, small diameters, long lengths and high specific gravities result in high pressure drops. Low flow rates, large diameters, short lengths and low specific gravities result in low pressure drops.

Hazen-Williams Equation H1 = H2 = Ql = d= L= C=

H1 H2 =

0.015Q1.85 L l d 4.87 C1.85

where

head upstream, ft head downstream, ft liquid flow rate, BPD pipe ID, in pipeline length, ft discharge coefficient (140 for new steel pipe, 90 to 100 for used steel pipe)

Conditions Water @ 60 F (16 C) Turbulent flow

74

Gas Flow
In gas flow applications, the density cannot be assumed to be constant. The density of flowing gases is a function of temperature and pressure. When gas is flowing in a pipeline and the pressure drops at some point along the pipeline, the gas expands causing a decrease in density. This expansion, in turn, causes a decrease in temperature with a subsequent increase in density. If the temperature of the flowing gas is significantly different from the temperature of the environment surrounding the pipeline, some degree of heat transfer is also established across the pipe wall, affecting the balance of energy and the properties of the flowing gas. The average pressure in a 2 P1 P 2 ) where P avg = ( P1 + P 2 3 P1 + P 2 gas pipeline is defined by the following equation:

Pavg = average pressure, psia P1 = pressure upstream, psia P2 = pressure downstream, psia The average temperature in a gas pipeline is defined by the following equation:

T avg = 0.5( T 1 + T 2 ) where


Tavg = average temperature, R T1 = temperature upstream, R T2 = temperature downstream, R The average density in a gas pipeline is defined by the following equation: where

avg = 0.5( 1 + 2 )

avg = average density, lbm/ft3 1 = density upstream, lbm/ft3 2 = density downstream, lbm/ft3
The average compressibility factor in a gas pipeline is defined by the following equation: 1 where Z avg = 10 1.785S 2 (1+ 344,400 avg ) ( T avg )3.825 Zavg = gas average compressibility factor S= specific gravity of flowing gas Tavg = average temperature, R avg = average density, lbm/ft3 Gas flow rate conversions between cubic meters per hour (m3/h), cubic meters per day (m3/day), cubic feet per hour (CFH), and cubic feet per day (CFD) are shown on the following table.

75

GAS FLOW RATE CONVERSIONS m3/h 1 m /h 1 m3/day 1 CFH 1 CFD


3

m3/day 24 1 0.67960 0.02832

CFH 35.315 1.47146 1 0.04167

CFD 847.56 35.315 24 1

1 0.04167 0.02832 0.00118

The volume occupied by a given mass of gas varies with the temperature and pressure. Gas flow rates can be measured at the actual flowing temperature and pressure, or can be measured at the standard temperature and pressure. The letter "S" added to the gas flow rate units stands for "standard" (e.g., 1 SCFD = 1 CFD @ standard temperature and pressure). The letter "M" added to the gas flow rate units stands for "thousands" (e.g., 1 MSCFD = 1,000 CFD); The letters "MM" added to the gas flow rate units stand for "millions" (e.g., 1 MMSCFD = 1,000,000 SCFD). Gas Velocity Equation Consider a point along a pipeline of internal diameter d where gas is flowing at a rate of Qg, and where the gas pressure and temperature are P and T, respectively. If the gas compressibility factor is Z, then the gas moves at a velocity that can be calculated from the following equation,

V=

60 Q g TZ d2 P
where V = gas velocity, ft/s Qg = gas flow rate, MMSCFD (STP 520 R and 14.7 psia) d= pipe ID, in P= pressure, psi T= temperature, R Z= gas compressibility factor

High flow rates, small diameters, high temperatures and low pressures result in high velocities. Low flow rates, large diameters, low temperatures and high pressures result in low velocities (see SPEED EXCURSIONS). For air, methane, and nitrogen, the gas compressibility factor Z as a function of the pressure and temperature can be read from the following table.

76

COMPRESSIBILITY FACTORS P (bar) Gas Air T (F) 170 80 -10 170 Methane 80 -10 170 Nitrogen 80 -10 1 1.0000 0.9999 0.9992 0.9988 0.9982 0.9972 1.0001 0.9998 0.9992 5 1.0002 0.9987 0.9957 0.9954 0.9915 0.9841 1.0007 0.9990 0.9960 10 1.0004 0.9974 0.9911 0.9905 0.9828 0.9678 1.0011 0.9983 0.9924 20 1.0014 0.9950 0.9822 0.9821 0.9663 0.9356 1.0029 0.9971 0.9857 40 1.0038 0.9917 0.9671 0.9657 0.9342 0.8694 1.0069 0.9964 0.9741 60 1.0075 0.9901 0.9549 0.9513 0.9042 0.8035 1.0125 0.9973 0.9655 80 1.0121 0.9903 0.9463 0.9390 0.8773 0.7403 1.0189 1.0000 0.9604 100 1.0183 0.9930 0.9411 0.9293 0.8548 0.6889 1.0271 1.0052 0.9589 150 1.0377 1.0074 0.9450 0.9226 0.8280 0.6953 1.0810 1.0559 0.9067

For natural gases of low molecular weight, the gas compressibility factor Z as a function of the specific gravity, pressure, and temperature, can be read from the charts on the next three (3) pages.

77

78

79

80

General Gas Pressure Drop Equation w g = [

144g A2 P2 P2 2 ][ 1 ] where fL P1 P 1 1 ( + 2 log e ) df P2

wg = df = A= L= f= P1 = P2 = 1 = g=

gas mass flow rate, lbm/s pipe ID, ft cross sectional area of the pipe ID, ft2 pipeline length, ft Moody friction factor pressure upstream, psia pressure downstream, psia specific volume upstream, ft3/lbm acceleration of gravity, ft/s2

Conditions Constant elevation No energy added to the gas by compressors No energy taken from the gas by turbines Constant temperature Constant flow rate Constant Moody friction factor throughout the pipeline In the equation above, the term P12 - P22 can also be written as (P1 - P2)(P1 + P2), where (P1 - P2) represents the differential pressure in a gas pipeline. The flow rate in a gas pipeline is not only a function of the differential pressure established in the pipeline, but also a function of the magnitude of the pressures themselves upstream and downstream. High flow rates, small diameters, long lengths and high specific volumes result in high pressure drops. Low flow rates, large diameters, short lengths and low specific volumes result in low pressure drops.
2 Simplified Gas Pressure Drop Equation Q g = 0.20 ( P1 P2 2)

d5 where fL SZ avg T Qg = gas flow rate, MMSCFD (STP 520 R and 14.7 psia) d= pipe ID, in L= pipeline length, ft f= Moody friction factor P1 = pressure upstream, psia P2 = pressure downstream, psia T= temperature, R S= specific gravity of flowing gas Zavg = gas average compressibility factor
Conditions Constant elevation No energy added to the gas by compressors

81

No energy taken from the gas by turbines Constant temperature Constant flow rate Constant average compressibility factor Constant Moody friction factor throughout the pipeline 2 loge (P1 / P2) << fL/df (see GENERAL GAS PRESSURE DROP EQUATION)

Isothermal (constant temperature) Flow Equation Q g = 38.77( where Qg = d= Lm = E= ff = P1 = P2 = Pavg = Tavg = Tb = Pb = S= Zavg = gas flow rate, SCFD pipe ID, in pipeline length, miles pipeline efficiency factor Fanning friction factor pressure upstream, psia pressure downstream, psia average pressure, psia average temperature, R base temperature, R (520 R per ANSI 2530) base pressure, psia (14.73 psia per ANSI 2530) specific gravity of flowing gas gas average compressibility factor

1 d5 Tb 2 )E ( P1 P2 2) Pb ff L m SZ avg T avg

Conditions Constant flow rate Constant average pressure Constant average temperature Constant average compressibility factor AGA Equation for Fully Turbulent Flow Q g = 38.77( where Qg = d= D= = Lm = E= Re = P1 = P2 = Pavg = Tavg = Tb = Pb = S= Zavg = gas flow rate, SCFD pipe ID, in pipe ID, ft pipe roughness, ft pipeline length, miles pipeline efficiency factor Reynolds number pressure upstream, psia pressure downstream, psia average pressure, psia average temperature, R base temperature, R (520 R per ANSI 2530) base pressure, psia (14.73 psia per ANSI 2530) specific gravity of flowing gas gas average compressibility factor

3.7D Tb d5 2 P2 )E(4 log10 ( )) ( P1 2) Pb L m SZ avg T avg

82

Conditions Constant flow rate Constant average pressure Constant average temperature Constant average compressibility factor Fully turbulent flow AGA Equation for Partially Turbulent Flow

Q g = 38.77(

Tb R d5 2 )E(4 log10 e 0.6) ( P1 where P2 2) 1 Pb L m SZ avg T avg ff Qg = gas flow rate, SCFD d= pipe ID, in Lm = pipeline length, miles E= pipeline efficiency factor ff = Fanning friction factor Re = Reynolds number P1 = pressure upstream, psia P2 = pressure downstream, psia Pavg = average pressure, psia Tavg = average temperature, R Tb = base temperature, R (520 R per ANSI 2530) Pb = base pressure, psia (14.73 psia per ANSI 2530) S= specific gravity of flowing gas Zavg = gas average compressibility factor
Conditions Constant flow rate Constant average pressure Constant average temperature Constant average compressibility factor Partially turbulent flow

Weymouth Equation Q g = 433.5(

Tb d 5.33 2 )E ( P1 P2 ) where 2 Pb L m SZ avg T avg Qg = gas flow rate, SCFD d= pipe ID, in Lm = pipeline length, miles E= pipeline efficiency factor P1 = pressure upstream, psia P2 = pressure downstream, psia Pavg = average pressure, psia Tavg = average temperature, R Tb = base temperature, R (520 R per ANSI 2530) Pb = base pressure, psia (14.73 psia per ANSI 2530) S= specific gravity of flowing gas Zavg = gas average compressibility factor

83

Conditions Constant flow rate Constant average pressure Constant average temperature Constant average compressibility factor Pipe ID up to 11.8 inches Short length of pipe with high pressure drop Fully turbulent flow
2 Simplified Weymouth Equation Q g = 1.11 ( P1 P2 2)

Qg = d= L= P1 = P2 = T1 = S= Z=

d 5.34 where LSZT 1 gas flow rate, MMSCFD (STP 520 R and 14.7 psia) pipe ID, in pipeline length, ft pressure upstream, psia pressure downstream, psia temperature upstream, R specific gravity @ 14.7 psi and 520 R gas compressibility factor

Conditions Constant elevation No energy added to the gas by compressors No energy taken from the gas by turbines Constant temperature Constant flow rate Constant average compressibility factor Constant Moody friction factor throughout the pipeline 2 loge (P1 / P2) << fL/df (see GENERAL GAS PRESSURE DROP EQUATION) Pipe ID up to 11.8 inches Short length of pipe with high pressure drop Fully turbulent flow Panhandle A Equation Q g = 435.87( Qg = d= Lm = E= P1 = P2 = Pavg = Tavg = Tb = Pb = S= Zavg =

T b 1.0788 E ) Pb

1.85

2 ( P1 P2 2)

d Lm S

5.24

0.853

where

Z avg T avg

gas flow rate, SCFD pipe ID, in pipeline length, miles pipeline efficiency factor pressure upstream, psia pressure downstream, psia average pressure, psia average temperature, R base temperature, R (520 R per ANSI 2530) base pressure, psia (14.73 psia per ANSI 2530) specific gravity of flowing gas gas average compressibility factor

84

Conditions Constant flow rate Constant average pressure Constant average temperature Constant average compressibility factor Long length of pipe Smooth pipe Partially turbulent flow 5,000,000 < 1.934 Qg S / d < 11,000,000 Efficiency factor of about 0.90 Panhandle B Equation Q g = 737( Qg = d= Lm = E= P1 = P2 = Pavg = Tavg = Tb = Pb = S= Zavg =

T b 1.02 E ) Pb

1.96

2 ( P1 P2 2)

d Lm S

5.06

0.961

where

Z avg T avg

gas flow rate, SCFD pipe ID, in pipeline length, miles pipeline efficiency factor pressure upstream, psia pressure downstream, psia average pressure, psia average temperature, R base temperature, R (520 R per ANSI 2530) base pressure, psia (14.73 psia per ANSI 2530) specific gravity of flowing gas gas average compressibility factor

Conditions Constant flow rate Constant average pressure Constant average temperature Constant average compressibility factor Long length of pipe Fully turbulent flow Efficiency factor of about 0.88 to 0.94
1.96

Simplified Panhandle B Equation

Q g = 0.028E

2 P2 ( P1 2)

d 0.961 Lm S ZT 1

5.06

where

Qg = d= Lm = P1 = P2 = T1 = S= Z=

gas flow rate, MMSCFD (STP 520 R and 14.7 psia) pipe ID, in pipeline length, miles pressure upstream, psia pressure downstream, psia temperature upstream, R specific gravity @ 14.7 psi and 520 R gas compressibility factor

85

Conditions Constant flow rate Constant average pressure Constant average temperature Constant average compressibility factor Long length of pipe Fully turbulent flow Efficiency factor of about 0.88 to 0.94

Oliphant Equation Q g = 42(24)( Qg = d= Lm = P1 = P2 = T= Tb = Pb = S=

(0.6) (520) T b 14.4 2 ) ( P1 )( P2 2) S T 520 P b gas flow rate, SCFD pipe ID, in pipeline length, miles pressure upstream, psia pressure downstream, psia temperature of flowing gas, R base temperature, R (520 R per ANSI 2530) base pressure, psia (14.73 psia per ANSI 2530) specific gravity of flowing gas

( d 2.5 +

Lm

d3 2 ) 30 where

Conditions Minimum pressure lower than 14.696 psi (1.01 bar) Maximum pressure lower than 100 psi (6.89 bar) Spitzglass Equation Q g = 24(3550) ( P1 P 2 ) Qg = d= L= P1 = P2 = S= gas flow rate, SCFD pipe ID, in pipeline length, ft pressure upstream, psia pressure downstream, psia specific gravity of flowing gas

0.03613 d 5 where 3.6 LS(1+ + 0.03d) d

Conditions Constant temperature of 60 F (16 C) Pressure lower than 1 psi (0.07 bar) Pipe OD up to 10.750 inches

86

TWO-PHASE FLOW
Two-Phase Flow is the type of flow where the flowing fluid is a mixture of liquid and gas. In a two-phase flow, the liquid and the gas move at different speeds. Fluid coming out of a production well will most likely be flowing as a mixture of liquid and gas. One-phase flow may develop into two-phase flow if the fluid undergoes changes of pressure and temperature that make it separate itself into two different liquid and gas phases. Two-phase flow can be predicted by plotting the expected flowing pressures and temperatures on the phase diagram of the fluid. The behavior of two-phase flow is mostly a function of the magnitude of the liquid flow rate and the magnitude of the gas flow rate.

Two-Phase Flow in Horizontal Pipe


A mixture of liquid and gas tends to separate upon entering a horizontal pipeline, with the liquid falling to the bottom of the pipe. If the gas flow rate of the phase mixture is small, gas rises to the top of the pipe in the form of bubbles, and horizontal bubble flow develops. If the gas flow rate of bubble flow increases, larger bubbles combine to form plugs, and horizontal plug flow develops. If the gas flow rate of plug flow increases, the plugs combine to form a continuous body of gas, and horizontal stratified flow develops. If the gas flow rate of stratified flow increases, waves are created on the liquid surface, and horizontal wavy flow develops. If the gas flow rate of wavy flow increases, the crest of the waves start making contact with the top of the pipe creating slugs of liquid that get pushed by the gas, and horizontal slug flow develops. If the gas flow rate of slug flow increases, centrifugal forces start acting on the liquid, and horizontal annular flow develops. If the gas flow rate of the phase mixture is high, the liquid is dispersed into the gas stream, and horizontal spray flow develops.

Two-Phase Flow in Vertical Pipe


If the gas flow rate of the phase mixture is small, gas exists within the liquid stream in the form of bubbles, and vertical bubble flow develops. If the gas flow rate of bubble flow increases, larger bubbles combine to form plugs nearly the size of the pipe diameter that are separated by slugs of liquid, and vertical slug flow develops. At this

87

point the gas plugs move upward faster than the liquid slugs. Some of the liquid may be entrained in the gas plugs. Some of the liquid in contact with the pipe wall may even move downward, creating a liquid holdup. If the gas flow rate of slug flow increases, the gas plugs start combining to form a continuous body of gas, and vertical slug-annular transition flow develops. At this point a significant portion of the liquid is entrained in the gas plugs. If the gas flow rate of the phase mixture is high, most of the liquid is entrained in the gas stream, and vertical annular-mist flow develops.

API RP 14E Two-Phase Pressure Drop Equation P 1 P 2 = wg = d= L= f= P1 = P2 = m = mixture mass flow rate, lbm/hr pipe ID, in pipeline length, ft friction factor pressure upstream, psia pressure downstream, psia density of the mixture, lbm/ft3

2 0.0000034fLwm

md5

where

Conditions Constant elevation Constant temperature Bubble flow or mist flow P1 - P2 < 0.1P1 Pressure Drop Equation for Uphill Segments P1 P 2 = l P1 = P2 = Z1 = Z2 = l = pressure upstream, psi pressure downstream, psi elevation upstream, ft elevation downstream, ft liquid density, lbm/ft3

( Z 2 Z1 ) where 144

Conditions Bubble flow Uphill segment filled with liquid

SOUR SERVICE
Sour environments are those fluids containing water as a liquid and H2S exceeding the limits established by ANSI/NACE Standard MR0175-95. The limits established by ANSI/NACE Standard MR0175-95 were developed from data derived from low-alloy steel. Sour gas is gas containing liquid water, exerting a total pressure of 0.4 MPa (65 psia) or greater, and containing H2S at a partial pressure greater than 0.0003 MPa (0.05 psia).

88

A gas exerting a total pressure of 1,000 psia and containing 100 ppm of H2S at a partial pressure of more than 0.05 psia would be represented by point "A" in the "Sour gas systems" diagram shown below; provided that liquid water is present, this would be a sour gas condition. A gas exerting a total pressure of 100 psia and containing 50 ppm of H2S at a partial pressure of less than 0.05 psia would be represented by point "B" in the "Sour gas systems" diagram shown below; regardless of the presence of liquid water, this would not be a sour gas condition. Sour oil is oil exerting a total pressure of 1.8 MPa (265 psia) or greater, containing 5,000 SCF of gas or more per barrel of oil, containing 15% H2S or more in the gas phase, at a partial pressure greater than 0.07 MPa (10 psia).

89

OPERATING LIMITS
Temperature
ASME B31.4 Liquid Pipelines. The design temperature (metal temperature expected during normal operation) shall be between -20 F (-29 C) and 250 F (121 C). ASME B31.8 Gas Pipelines. The metal temperature shall be between -20 F (-29 C) and 450 F (232 C).

Pressure
ASME B31.4 Liquid Pipelines. The maximum pressure to which a liquid pipeline may be subjected is known as the maximum steady state operating pressure. o The maximum steady state operating pressure is the sum of the static head pressure, the pressure required to overcome friction losses, and any required back pressure. o The maximum steady state operating pressure must be higher than 15 psig and lower than the internal design pressure. o Overpressures due to variations from normal operations may not exceed the internal design pressure by more than 10%. ASME B31.8 Gas Pipelines. The maximum pressure to which a gas pipeline may be subjected is known as the maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP). o An overpressure due to variations from normal operations may not exceed the MAOP by more than 10% or cause a hoop stress higher than 75% of the SMYS.

OPERATING PROBLEMS
Slack Flow in Liquid Pipelines
When the liquid flowing in a pipeline reaches a high elevation point and the flow rate is too low, the portion of the pipeline downstream of that point may continue to flow only partially full in a cascade condition, also known as a slack-line condition. Although a pipeline system can be designed to operate successfully with slack flow, the condition is generally not desirable. Slack flow can cause a pig to stop.

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Cavitation in Liquid Pipelines


When the pressure of the liquid flowing in a pipeline drops below the vapor pressure, small pockets of vapor start to form within the liquid stream. These vapor pockets eventually reach a point along the pipeline where the pressure is higher, and then collapse by implosion. The implosions result in metal loss from the inside of the pipeline and associated equipment.

Water Hammer in Liquid Pipelines


When the liquid flowing in a pipeline suddenly comes to a stop due to the fast closure of a mainline valve, a shock wave known as water hammer originates on the upstream side of the valve. The shock wave causes a significant increase in pressure on the upstream side of the valve, and then moves away from the valve at a speed equal to the speed of sound in the liquid. The pressure increase at the valve can be calculated from the following equation,

Pa P b = l

El t m Ep

l ( t m E p + Dm E l )

(V b V a ) where

Pb = Pa = Vb = Va = l = El = Dm = tm = Ep =

pressure before closing the valve, Pa pressure after closing the valve, Pa liquid velocity before closing the valve, m/s liquid velocity after closing the valve, m/s (zero for worst case scenario) liquid density, kg/m3 (1,000 kg/m3 for water) modulus of elasticity of the liquid, Pa (2 x 109 Pa for water) pipe ID, m nominal wall thickness, m modulus of elasticity of the pipe, Pa (2 x 1011 Pa for steel pipe)

In long pipelines, the pressure increase at the valve does not depend on the time it takes to close the valve. Once the shock wave dissipates, a rarefaction wave travels from the point of dissipation of the shock wave towards the valve at a speed equal to the speed of sound in the liquid. The pressure at the valve remains at its maximum from the time that the shock wave originates to the time that the rarefaction wave reaches the valve. The pressure elsewhere along the pipeline depends on the time it takes to close the valve, and attenuates as the shock wave moves away from the valve. Water hammer can cause mechanical damage to pigs.

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Wax Deposition in Crude Oil Pipelines


When the temperature of a crude oil falls, eventually a point is reached where wax crystals, also known as paraffin, start building up in the pipeline. The cloud point is the temperature at which wax crystals form. Excessive cooling of waxy crudes may generate enough wax to plug the pipeline. The application of heat may cause the deposited wax to melt and flow away; this option must be studied with caution because wax is known to have had high melting points such as 180 F (82 C). Chemical additives such as pour point depressants, flow improvers, wax inhibitors and wax crystal modifiers may be used to treat the crude; this option requires precise selection and injection of the chemical. Staged pigging may be used to progressively restore the pipe ID. Wax can cause mechanical damage to pigs.

Liquids in Gas Pipelines


When the temperature of the natural gas flowing in a pipeline drops below the dew point, liquids start to condense within the gas stream. These liquids, which are generally a mixture of hydrocarbons and water, accumulate at low points in the pipeline, obstructing the flow of gas. The pressure in the blocked gas rises until it blows out the accumulated liquid as a slug. The arrival of long liquid slugs at downstream facilities can result in severe damage to equipment or at least cause erratic plant operation. The presence of liquids in a gas pipeline increases the differential pressure required to drive a pig because the weight of the liquid downstream of the front cup is an additional force that opposes motion.

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Hydrates in Gas Pipelines


When the natural gas flowing in a pipeline carries liquid water and the temperature drops below the dew point, solid crystalline particles known as hydrates start to form within the gas stream. Hydrates resemble dirty ice, and are a chemical compound of light hydrocarbons (such as CH4, C2H6, C3H8, and i-C4H10) embedded in a water lattice. For any particular composition of natural gas at a given pressure containing liquid water, there is a temperature below which hydrates will form. As the pressure increases, the hydrate formation temperature also increases. Hydrates may form at temperatures well above 32 F (0 C) if the gas is at high pressure. Hydrates accumulate in the pipeline, obstructing the flow of gas. The arrival of hydrates at downstream facilities can result in severe damage to equipment or at least cause erratic plant operation.

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PIPELINE PIGGING

DYNAMICS
A pig in a pipeline is subject to one system of forces parallel to the longitudinal axis of the pig and another system of forces perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the pig. The system of forces parallel to the longitudinal axis of a pig is expressed mathematically by the following equation, A( P rc P fc ) F f Prc = Pfc = A= Ff = m= = g= a= gc =

mg ma sin = where gc gc

pressure upstream of the rear cup, psia pressure downstream of the front cup, psia cross sectional area of the pipe ID, ft2 friction force, psi mass of the pig, lbm pipeline inclination angle (0 to 90) acceleration of gravity, ft/s2 acceleration of the pig, ft/s2 gravitational constant (32.1740 lbm-ft/lbf-s2)

Effect of Pressure
The fluid pressure produces opposing forces PrcA and PfcA that are proportional to the cross sectional area of the pipe. An internal pressure of 10 psig generates a force of 226.9 lbf on a fully sealing pig inside a 6-inch pipe of 0.625" wall thickness, and generates a force of 17,165.4 lbf on a fully sealing pig inside a 48inch pipe of 0.625" wall thickness. Upstream of the rear cup the pressure tends to make the pig move forward. Downstream of the front cup, the pressure tends to make the pig move backward. In the equation above, the term Prc - Pfc is known as the differential pressure (P) across a pig. Pipeline operators are often concerned about the P that will be required to drive a pig. Some vendor "Metal Loss Inspection Tool Technical Data" catalog states that the P normally required to drive an MFL inspection vehicle is approximately 0.8 bar (11.60 psi) for 6-inch thru 18inch vehicles, and approximately 0.5 bar (7.25 psi) for 20-inch to 48-inch vehicles. However, the field experience is that this P not only may need to be much higher at the time of launch, but is not always measurable by conventional means. Therefore, pipeline operators should be reminded that the P required to drive a pig is not the same as the -more easily measurable- differential pressure in the pipeline. Pipeline operators should be advised to disregard the P that will be required to drive the pig, and instead concentrate on establishing a flow rate that is compatible with the temperatures, pressures and velocities indicated in the contract specifications. If such conditions exist in the pipeline at the

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time of launch and throughout the run, only a mechanical or electrical malfunction from either party can prevent a successful inspection. Speed excursions of MFL inspection vehicles in gas pipelines are very often associated with low pressure conditions. Typical cases are those of gas pipelines that are used as pneumatic reservoirs instead of gas transmission pipelines. These pipelines are not fed continuously, and are most likely impossible to inspect because, under normal conditions, a flow rate can only be established by burning gas from the downstream end of the pipeline. The burning of gas creates a low pressure condition in front of the vehicle, and eventually results in a higher P than is required to drive the vehicle. The velocity in a gas pipeline is much easier to control when the pressure in the pipeline is high. Speed excursions in gas pipelines can be minimized by running the vehicle at the best allowable combination of high pressure and low temperature.

Effect of Friction
The friction force Ff only appears in response to a disturbing force in order to resist motion. The friction force is a function of the reaction force coming from the pipe wall to the pig, and the coefficient of friction between the pig and the pipe wall. The friction force that resists impending motion is known as static friction. When a pig is in the horizontal position just about to be launched, the force produced by the differential pressure across the pig is in equilibrium with the static friction. Motion begins when the force produced by the differential pressure across the pig overcomes the static friction. Once the pig is set in motion, the coefficient of friction drops slightly, and so does the friction force. The friction force that resists ongoing motion is known as dynamic friction.

Effect of Weight
The portion of the weight of the pig parallel to the longitudinal axis of the pig, (mg/gc)sin, resists motion if the pig travels uphill and facilitates motion if the pig travels downhill.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FORCE AND VELOCITY


No net force acts on a stationary pig or on a pig that moves at a constant velocity. As no change of velocity takes place, there is no acceleration and therefore no net force acting. Individual forces may act on the pig, but the combination of those forces cancels out in every direction. A net force does act on a pig that moves at a variable velocity. As a change of velocity takes place, there is acceleration and therefore net force acting. Individual forces act on the pig, and the combination of those forces does not cancel out in the direction of flow.

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LAUNCHING AND RECEIVING PROCEDURES


In the field it is common to see that there are substantial differences in configuration and operation among pig handling facilities that have been designed for the same purpose. Therefore, the launching and receiving procedures outlined here are general in nature, and do not overrule the specific field procedures established for each particular project. However, regardless of the procedure, no attempt should ever be made to open a trap that is under pressure.

Launching in Liquid Lines


Open the mainline bypass valve. Close the mainline valve. Close the kicker valve. Open the drain valve. Open the vent valve. Wait for the trap to be completely drained. Ensure that the pressure gauge on the trap reads zero pressure. Open the trap closure. Insert the pig far enough into the trap for the front cup to make a seal between the reducer and the mainline valve, and for the rear of the pig to clear the trap closure.

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Close the trap closure. Close the drain valve. Slowly allow liquid into the trap by opening the kicker valve. Open the equalizing valve, if any. When the trap is filled with liquid (no air inside), close the vent valve. Close the equalizing valve, if any. Ensure that the pressure gauge on the trap reads the same as the pressure gauge on the mainline. Open the mainline valve. Slowly close the mainline bypass valve and wait for the pig to launch. NOTE: The pig may launch before the mainline bypass valve is fully closed; continue to close the mainline bypass valve. Ensure that the full length of the pig has cleared the mainline bypass connection. Open the mainline bypass valve.

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Receiving in Liquid Lines


Close the drain valve. Open the vent valve. Slowly allow liquid into the trap by opening the trap bypass valve (bridle valve). When the trap is filled with liquid (no air inside), close the vent valve. Open the mainline valve. Close the mainline bypass valve. Wait for the pig to come into the trap. Ensure that the full length of the pig has cleared the mainline valve. Open the mainline bypass valve. Close the mainline valve. Close the trap bypass valve (bridle valve). Open the drain valve. Open the vent valve. Wait for the trap to be completely drained. Ensure that the pressure gauge on the trap reads zero pressure. Open the trap closure. Retrieve the pig. Close the trap closure.

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Launching in Gas Lines


Open the mainline bypass valve. Close the mainline valve. Close the kicker valve. Open the drain valve. Open the vent valve. Wait for the trap to be completely drained and vented. Ensure that the pressure gauge on the trap reads zero pressure. Open the trap closure. Insert the pig far enough into the trap for the front cup to make a seal between the reducer and the mainline valve, and for the rear of the pig to clear the trap closure. Close the trap closure. Close the drain valve. Slowly allow gas into the trap by opening the kicker valve. Open the equalizing valve, if any. When the trap is filled with gas (no air inside), close the vent valve.

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Close the equalizing valve, if any. Ensure that the pressure gauge on the trap reads the same as the pressure gauge on the mainline. Open the mainline valve. Slowly close the mainline bypass valve and wait for the pig to launch . NOTE: The pig may launch before the mainline bypass valve is fully closed; continue to close the mainline bypass valve. Ensure that the full length of the pig has cleared the mainline bypass connection. Open the mainline bypass valve.

Receiving in Gas Lines


Close the drain valve. Open the vent valve. Slowly allow gas into the trap by opening the trap bypass valve (bridle valve). When the trap is filled with gas (no air inside), close the vent valve. Open the mainline valve.

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Close the mainline bypass valve. Wait for the pig to come into the trap. Ensure that the full length of the pig has cleared the mainline valve. Open the mainline bypass valve. Close the mainline valve. Close the trap bypass valve (bridle valve). Open the drain valve. Open the vent valve. Wait for the trap to be completely drained and vented. Ensure that the pressure gauge on the trap reads zero pressure. Open the trap closure. Retrieve the pig. Close the trap closure.

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PIPELINE DEFECTS
Pipeline defects are imperfections that may impair the ability of a pipeline to operate safely. Pipeline defects of sufficient magnitude warrant corrective action. To establish a minimum margin of safety during the excavation, examination and repair of a defect, it is advisable to lower the operating pressure of the pipeline by at least 20%. If the defect may be subjected to stresses other than those due to internal pressure alone, then a pressure reduction larger than 20% should be considered. If calculations show that a defect may fail only if the operating pressure of the pipeline is raised by more than 20%, then the defect can be assumed to constitute no immediate threat.

MANUFACTURING DEFECTS
Hard spots are local changes in the hardness of the pipe steel resulting from non-uniform quenching procedures during manufacture, or resulting from changes in chemistry of the steel. Hard spots, when stressed, are subject to failure from mechanisms such as hydrogen stress cracking (HSC). According to API Specification 5L, any hard spot having a minimum dimension greater than 2 in (50.8 mm) in any direction and a hardness greater than or equal to 35 HRC (327 Brinell) shall be rejected, and the section of the pipe containing the hard spot shall be removed as a cylinder. Inclusions are particles of non-metallic compounds such as oxides, sulphates, and silicates that are present in a metal. Laminations are internal separations that create layers that are usually aligned parallel to the worked surface of a metal. According to API Specification 5L, any lamination or inclusion extending into the face or bevel of the pipe and having a transverse dimension exceeding in (6.35 mm) is considered a defect; pipe containing such defects shall be cut back until no lamination or inclusion is greater than in (6.35 mm). Slivers, also known as laps, are surface defects seen in pipelines normally as fins or tongues of metal folded over the plate, but not welded to the metal during plate rolling operations. Although slivers are innocuous defects, their appearance can resemble a more serious crack defect.

WELDING DEFECTS
Arc strikes are surface depressions caused by an electric arc between a welding electrode or other component in the welding circuit and the pipe metal. Lack of fusion is the incomplete melting and fusion between weld passes or between weld metal and pipe metal. Lack of penetration is the failure to achieve fusion of the pipe metal to the desired depth. Porosities are voids in the weld metal which are normally filled with gas.

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MECHANICAL DEFECTS
Buckles are partial collapse of the pipe due to excessive bending associated with soil instability, landslides, washouts, frost heaves or earthquakes. Buckles not exceeding a height of 0.094 in (2.4 mm) may be left in service as long as they do not involve the seam weld of the pipe. Cracks are planar, two dimensional defects with displacement of the fracture surfaces. Dents are local depressions in the pipe surface that produce gross disturbances in the curvature of the pipe. o o o o Plain dents are dents that are not associated with seam welds, girth welds, additional metal loss or mechanical damage. The depth of a dent is measured as the gap between the lowest point of the dent and the prolongation of the original contour of the pipe. According to ASME B31.4 and ASME B31.8, any dent affecting the curvature of the pipeline at the seam welds or at the girth welds shall be removed. According to ASME B31.4, any dent having a depth greater than in (6.4 mm) in pipe NPS 4 and smaller, and any dent having a depth greater than 6% of the NPS in pipe greater than NPS 4, shall be removed or repaired. According to ASME B31.8, any dent having a depth greater than in (6.4 mm) in pipe NPS 12 and smaller, and any dent having a depth greater than 2% of the NPS in pipe greater than NPS 12, shall be removed if the pipeline is intended to operate at 40% of the SMYS or more.

Gouges are the mechanical or forceful removal of metal from a local area of the surface on the pipe that may work to harden the pipe and make it more susceptible to cracking. Cracks may be present in gouges with depths greater than 12% of the nominal wall thickness. According to ASME B31.4, any gouge having a depth greater than 12 % of the nominal wall thickness shall be removed or repaired. Spalling is the severe chipping, fragmentation or separation of the surface of the pipe. Wrinkles are ripples that develop on the inner radius of a cold bend. Wrinkles not exceeding a height of 0.094 in (2.4 mm) may be left in service as long as they do not involve the seam weld of the pipe.

CORROSION DEFECTS
Corrosion is the result of an electrochemical reaction between a metal and its environment, causing a measurable reduction in the thickness of the metal. In the case of ferrous pipe, the end product of corrosion is usually a form of iron oxide known as rust. General corrosion is corrosion resulting in metal loss over a large area. Pitting corrosion is corrosion resulting in metal loss only in a small area. Corrosion is considered to be a pit when its length and width are not greater than 3t (three times the wall thickness).

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When placed in an electrically conductive environment, also known as electrolyte, metals assume an electrical potential with respect to such environment. The electrical potential can be measured with respect to a reference electrode, such as the Cu/CuSO4 (copper / copper sulfate) half cell. o o o Different metals placed in the same electrolyte will assume different electrical potentials. The same metal placed in different electrolytes will also assume different electrical potentials. Metals are often classified according to their position in the galvanic series for a given electrolyte. GALVANIC SERIES IN A NEUTRAL SOIL METAL Magnesium Zinc Aluminum Steel (uncorroded) Steel (corroded) Copper Electrical Potential with Cu/CuSO4 half cell (V) -1.75 -1.10 -0.80 -0.50 to -0.80 -0.20 to -0.50 -0.20

Differences in electrical potentials cause an electric direct current (DC) to flow from the anodes to the cathodes. o Metal loss occurs at the points where the electric current is discharged by the anodes into the electrolyte. o Then the electrolyte conducts the electric current from the anodes to the cathodes. o No metal loss occurs at the points where the cathodes take the electric current back from the electrolyte. o The cathodes stay protected from corrosion at the expense of the anodes. o The amount of metal loss is directly proportional to the magnitude and duration of the electric current flowing between the cathodes and the anodes. o In a steel pipeline, the discharge of 1 ampere DC will cause a metal loss of approximately 20 lbm per year. o Alternating current (AC) is not considered a significant cause of corrosion. External corrosion is the loss of metal from the outside of the pipe. o In an underground pipeline, imperfections in the coating let electric currents discharge into the surrounding soil. o External corrosion of underground pipelines is often found at the 06:00 position because poor construction practices often lead to failure of the coating at the 06:00 position, and because the areas where oxygen has been restricted, such as those at the 06:00 position, have a tendency to develop anodic characteristics in relation to other areas where oxygen is more freely available, such as those at the 12:00 position. o In an aboveground pipeline, imperfections in the paint let electric currents discharge into the surrounding moisture film.

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External corrosion of aboveground pipelines is also often associated with contact with salt particles and industrial pollutants such as sulphates and chlorides carried by the wind and rain.

Internal corrosion is the loss of metal from the inside of the pipe. o Internal corrosion may be caused by cavitation, erosion, hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide, chlorides, oxygen, and water settlement.

CRACK DEFECTS
Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is the cracking of metal produced by the combined action of corrosion and residual or applied tensile stress. o Stress corrosion cracks are microscopic in the early stages of their development, and have a tendency to give no warning before failure. o Heat, pressure, alkaline (high CaCO3) soils, and basic (high pH) soils contribute to stress corrosion cracking. Sulfide stress cracking (SSC) is the brittle failure by cracking under the combined action of tensile stress and corrosion in the presence of H2S and water. Chloride stress corrosion cracking (CSCC) is the failure by cracking under the combined action of tensile stress and corrosion in the presence of chlorides and water. Hydrogen induced stepwise cracking (HIC) is a stepped type of cracking that tends to arise in sour environments at locations of laminations or large inclusions. o Hydrogen blisters are subsurface voids that develop into surface bulges, due to the absorption of hydrogen. o Hydrogen embrittlement is the process of of a metal becoming less ductile and more brittle due to the absorption of hydrogen.

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PIPELINE MAINTENANCE CORROSION CONTROL


External Corrosion Control of Underground Pipelines
External corrosion of aboveground pipelines may be controlled by properly coating the pipeline, and by blocking the discharge of DC through any coating defect. The process of injecting DC into an underground pipeline in order to counteract the discharge of DC through the coating defects is known as cathodic protection (CP). In a pipeline cathodic protection system, an anodic structure known as ground bed is allowed to corrode by letting it release the necessary DC to protect the pipeline. Proper coating application is necessary for a cathodic protection system to work efficiently. Poorly coated steel may require 0.1 mA/ft2 to be cathodically protected. Very well coated steel may require 0.0003 mA/ft2 to be cathodically protected. Pipe-to-soil potential measurements are made to determine the effectiveness of cathodic protection. The most popular criterion for the cathodic protection of steel pipe is a pipe-to-soil potential of -0.85 V as measured between the pipe and a saturated Cu / CuSO4 half cell while the protective current is applied.

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Galvanic Cathodic Protection System In a galvanic cathodic protection system, a natural DC circuit is established through the soil between a galvanic anode ground bed, also known as sacrificial anode ground bed, and the pipeline. o The ground bed discharges relatively low DC that flows through the soil and enters the pipeline at the coating defects. o The DC then flows along the pipeline wall towards the connection of the ground bed cable and returns through the cable back into the ground bed to complete the circuit. Impressed Current Cathodic Protection System In an impressed current cathodic protection system, a forced DC circuit is established through the soil between an impressed anode ground bed and the pipeline. o A transformer/rectifier unit takes in AC from a power line and sends out DC through the positive cable towards the ground bed. o The ground bed discharges relatively high DC that flows through the soil and enters the pipeline at the coating defects. o The DC then flows along the pipeline wall towards the connection of the negative cable and returns through the negative cable back into the rectifier to complete the circuit. In remote areas where power lines are unavailable for the cathodic protection of a natural gas pipeline, electric current may be produced by taking gas from the pipeline and feeding a gas turbine connected to a generator. Electric current may also be produced by batteries, wind-powered generators, and solar panels.

External Corrosion Control of Aboveground Pipelines


External corrosion of aboveground pipelines may be controlled by utilizing metal alloys that are resistant to corrosive environments, by properly painting the pipeline, and by minimizing surface contamination.

Internal Corrosion Control


Internal corrosion of pipelines may be controlled by removing the water, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide from the fluid transported, by utilizing metal alloys that are resistant to corrosive environments, by properly coating the inside of the pipeline, and by injecting corrosion inhibitors. Weight loss coupons, also known as corrosion coupons, are pieces of steel that can be inserted, removed and periodically weighed to detect evidence of internal corrosion.

CRACKING CONTROL
Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) Control
SSC may be controlled by utilizing metal alloys that are resistant to alkaline and basic environments, by reducing the stresses within the metal, and by properly coating the pipeline.

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Sulfide Stress Cracking (SSC) Control


SSC may be controlled by using the materials and processes described in ANSI/ASME Standard MR0175-95 "Sulfide Stress Cracking Resistant Metallic Materials for Oilfied Equipment", by controlling the sour environment, and by isolating the pipeline from sour environments. ANSI/NACE Standard MR0175-95. Publication No. 1375-12 establishes a no action zone, a risk zone, and a high risk zone on the diagrams of total pressure versus H2S concentration. o If the fluid conditions fall in the "no action zone", then the standard operating procedures can be used. o If the fluid conditions fall in the "risk zone", then preventive measures and a degree of inspection after each run have to be implemented. o If the fluid conditions fall in the "high risk zone", then preventive measures and the replacement of certain parts after each run have to be implemented.

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ON-LINE INSPECTION
The term on-line inspection, also known as in-line inspection, refers to the inspection of pipelines by intelligent pigs. The "intelligence" is often described as the capability of a pig to record and store information about the condition of a pipeline, although valuable clues about the condition of a pipeline can also be obtained from visual examination of pigs that do not have the ability to store information.

Gauge Plate
With a gauge plate pig it is possible to infer the presence of a bore restriction. The gauge plate consists of a series of segments that get deflected (bent back and down) upon contact with anything that may have caused a significant bore restriction. A MFL Technical Data Sheet would list the local bore restriction as the remaining pipe ID, not the magnitude of the restriction itself. A conservative estimate of the local bore restriction can be obtained from the following equation, x where Brest = (D 2t) 0.5[(D 2t) D gp ] x 180 arcsin Ls ) tan( 2 Brest = D= t= Dgp = Ls = x= o local bore restriction, in pipe OD, in nominal wall thickness, in diameter of the gauge plate, in radial length of the plate segment (measured from the pivoting point), in axial deflection of the plate segment, in

On the right side of the equation above, the first term is the pipe ID, the second term is the gap between the edge of the gauge plate and the internal wall, and the third term is the radial deflection as a function of the axial deflection and the radial length of the plate segment. If the radial deflection can be accurately measured, then there is no need to compute the third term; sometimes it is easier to measure the axial deflection than it is to measure the radial deflection at all.

If the axial deflection occurs in the direction of flow, a rarefaction wave (see WATER HAMMER IN LIQUID PIPELINES) may have been the cause.

Caliper
With a caliper inspection system it is possible to locate and characterize mechanical anomalies such as dents, buckles, enlarged or restricted diameter, and partially closed mainline valves.

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Magnetic Flux Leakage


With a magnetic flux leakage (MFL) inspection system it is possible to locate, characterize and analyze metal loss defects associated with corrosion and mechanical interference. The principle of operation is the disruption of the magnetic field by physical discontinuities of the steel. Longitudinally oriented defects are invisible to MFL inspection.

ASSESSMENT OF CORRODED PIPELINES BY ASME B31G-1991


Destructive tests done in the late 1970s showed that there is a relationship between the size of a corrosion defect in a pipeline and the level of internal pressure that will cause the defect to develop into a pipeline failure. The larger the defect, the lower the pressure at which a failure will occur. ASME B31G-1991 "Manual for Determining the Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines" provides a semiempirical method to assist pipeline operators in making a decision as to whether a corroded region may be left in service or whether it needs to be repaired or replaced. o The ASME B31G-1991 method includes the calculation of the safe maximum pressure of a corrosion defect. o If the safe maximum pressure is lower than the operating pressure of the pipeline, then either the operating pressure has to be reduced to a level below the safe maximum pressure, or the corroded pipe has to be replaced or repaired.

Maximum Allowable Axial Length of Corrosion


A corroded pipe is capable of containing pressure that will produce a stress level of 100% SMYS if the measured metal loss of the corroded area is more than 10% but less than 80% of the nominal wall thickness of the pipe, and the measured axial length of the corroded area is equal to or less than Lmax, as defined by the following equation,
2 d/ t ) 1 Dt Lmax =1.12 ( (1.1d / t) 0.15

where

Lmax = D= d= t= or,

maximum allowable axial length of the corroded area, in pipe OD, in depth of the corroded area, in nominal wall thickness, in 0.175 < d/t < 0.800 or less than Lmax, as defined by the following equation,

equal

to

Lmax = 4.48 Dt

where Lmax = maximum allowable axial length of the corroded area, in D= pipe OD, in

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d= t=

depth of the corroded area, in nominal wall thickness, in 0.100 < d/t 0.175

Safe Maximum Pressure of Corroded Pipe


If the measured metal loss of the corroded area is more than 10% but less than 80% of the nominal wall thickness of the pipe, and the measured axial length Lcorr of the corroded area is greater than Lmax, then the relative size of the corroded area must be established as per the following equation,

A = 0.893(

Lcorr ) where Dt

A = dimensionless constant Lcorr = measured axial length of the corroded area, in t= nominal wall thickness, in D= pipe OD, in If A < 4.0, then the safe maximum pressure of the corroded pipe is defined by the following 2 d 1 ( ) 3 t where equation, P safe = 1.1 P p 2 d 1 ( ) 3 t A2 +1 Psafe = safe maximum operating pressure of the corroded area (not to exceed the value of Pp), psi Pp = the greater of either the design pressure or the maximum steady state operating pressure (ASME B31.4 Liquid Pipelines), psi, or the greater of either the design pressure or the maximum allowable operating pressure (ASME B31.8 Gas Pipelines), psi d = depth of the corroded area, in t = nominal wall thickness, in If A > 4.0, then the safe maximum pressure of the corroded pipe is defined by the following d equation, P safe = 1.1 P p (1 ) where t Psafe = safe maximum operating pressure of the corroded area (not to exceed the value of Pp), psi Pp = the greater of either the design pressure or the maximum steady state operating pressure (ASME B31.4 Liquid Pipelines), psi, or the greater of either the design pressure or the maximum allowable operating pressure (ASME B31.8 Gas Pipelines), psi d= depth of the corroded area, in t= nominal wall thickness, in

REPAIR TYPES AND METHODS


Temporary repairs are repairs that can make a pipeline safe to function at its normal operating pressure range for a limited period of time, normally two (2) years, or repairs that can make a pipeline safe to function at a reduced operating pressure range.

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Permanent repairs are repairs that can make a pipeline safe to function continuously at its maximum operating pressure for more than five (5) years.

Grinding
Grinding is the removal of metal from a nonleaking defective pipe in order to eliminate the stress concentration caused by defects such as gouges. Grinding must be done with smooth contours, without introducing cracks or grooves, and without reducing significantly the pressure containment capability of the pipeline. A hand file or a power disc of less than 460 watt may be used. Research shows that grinding should not be attempted on pipes with a remaining wall thickness of less than 0.160 in (4.1 mm), or to repair cracks deeper than 40% of the pipe wall thickness.

Metal Filling
Metal filling is the depositing of weld metal on a nonleaking defective pipe in order to replace the metal lost to defects such as external corrosion. The weld metal must be deposited without introducing discontinuities such as HAZ hydrogen induced cracking. Research shows that metal filling should not be attempted on pipes with a remaining wall thickness of less than 0.125 in (3.2 mm).

Patches and Half Soles


A patch is a plate that covers a small area of a defective pipe (whether leaking or not). A half sole is a patch of up to 10 ft (3.05 m) in length that covers half the circumference of a defective pipe (whether leaking or not). Research shows that patches and half soles should not be used for repairing high pressure pipelines.

Reinforcing Sleeves
A reinforcing type "A" sleeve, consists of two (2) halves of a cylinder of pipe that are placed around a nonleaking defective pipe and welded along the sides in order to restrain the bulging of a radially oriented defect. A type "A" sleeve must be installed with no gap in the area of the defect. Epoxy and polyester compounds may be used to fill the gaps between the sleeve and the pipe. If calculations show that the defect may fail at or near the operating pressure of the pipeline, then it is advisable to lower the operating pressure of the pipeline by at least 33 1/3% before a type "A" sleeve is installed.

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Since a type "A" sleeve is not welded to the pipeline, it cannot contain pressure or restrain the longitudinal stress on a circumferentially oriented defect. A type "A" sleeve should be at least 4 in (101.6 mm) in length, and extend at least 2 in (50.8 mm) beyond the ends of the defect. A Clock Spring sleeve is a fiberglass composite sleeve that is placed around a nonleaking defective pipe in order to provide circumferential reinforcement and local reduction in stresses at the defect. A Clock Spring sleeve must be installed with no gap in the area of the defect. Two-component methacrylate filler is used to fill the gaps between the sleeve and the pipe. If calculations show that the defect may fail at or near the operating pressure of the pipeline, then it is advisable to lower the operating pressure of the pipeline to at least 50% of the safe operating pressure before a Clock Spring sleeve is installed. The length of a Clock Spring sleeve should extend at least 2 in (50.8 mm) beyond the ends of the defect. An MFL inspection system would not notice the presence of a Clock Spring sleeve.

Pressure Containment Sleeves


A type "B" sleeve, consists of two (2) halves of a cylinder of pipe that are placed around a defective pipe (whether leaking or not), butt-welded along the sides, and fillet-welded to the pipe (a fillet weld is a weld of approximately triangular cross section joining two surfaces approximately at a 90-degree angle to each other). Since a type "B" sleeve is welded to the pipeline, it can contain pressure and restrain the longitudinal stress on a circumferentially oriented defect. A type "B" sleeve should be at least 4 in (101.6 mm) in length, and extend at least 2 in (50.8 mm) beyond the ends of the defect. The fillet-welded end of one type "B" sleeve should be at least D apart from the fillet-welded end of another type "B" sleeve. A sleeve-on-sleeve arrangement, consists of two (2) sleeves installed to cover the defective fillet welds (whether leaking or not) of an existing type "B" sleeve. Each of the two (2) sleeves is buttwelded along the sides, fillet-welded to the type "B" sleeve, and fillet-welded to a ring installed on each side of the type "B" sleeve. Since the rings are fillet-welded to the pipeline, the sleeve-onsleeve arrangement can contain pressure and restrain the longitudinal stress on a circumferentially oriented defect. A girth weld sleeve, consists of two (2) bulged halves that are placed around a defective girth weld (whether leaking or not), butt-welded along the sides, and fillet-welded to the pipe. Since a girth weld sleeve is welded to the pipeline, it can contain pressure and restrain the longitudinal stress on a circumferentially oriented defect. A coupling sleeve, also known as pumpkin sleeve or balloon sleeve, consists of two (2) oversized halves that are placed around a defective coupling or around a mechanical defect (whether leaking or not), butt-welded along the sides, and fillet-welded to the pipe. Since a coupling

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sleeve is welded to the pipeline, it can contain pressure and restrain the longitudinal stress on a circumferentially oriented defect. An epoxy-filled sleeve consists of two (2) halves that are placed around a nonleaking defective pipe with a standoff distance of several millimeters, centered by bolts, welded along the sides, and sealed at the ends. An epoxy-filled sleeve must be installed with no gap in the area of the defect. Epoxy is pumped into the annular gap between the sleeve and the pipe. Since an epoxy-filled sleeve is bonded to the pipeline, it can contain pressure and restrain the longitudinal stress on a circumferentially oriented defect.

Pressure Containment Clamps


A bolt-on clamp consists of two (2) halves that are placed around a defective pipe (whether leaking or not), and forced together by large bolts. Since a bolt-on clamp can be equipped with elastomeric seals or can be welded to the pipeline, it can contain pressure. The end of one bolt-on clamp should be at least 1D apart from the end of another bolt-on clamp. A leak clamp consists of a band of metal that is placed around a leaking defective pipe and tightened with a bolt in order to stop the leak from an external corrosion pit. Since a leak clamp has a neoprene cone that can be forced into the leaking pit, it can contain pressure.

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Hot Tapping
Hot tapping is the installation of a branch connection to a pipeline under pressure. By hot tapping the pipeline, the portion of the pipe containing an unindented defect (whether leaking or not) can be removed as a coupon. It is advisable to lower the operating pressure of the pipeline before a hot tapping operation is undertaken. Stopple is the trade name of the hot tapping technology introduced by T.D. Williamson, Inc. A Stopple fitting is a special tee split in two (2) halves; the branch is furnished with a Lock-ORing flange. The hot tapping operation starts with the Stopple fitting being welded to the pipeline, and a Sandwich tapping valve being bolted to the Lock-O-Ring flange. A tapping machine is then bolted to the Sandwich tapping valve, making a pressure tight connection. The Sandwich tapping valve is opened, and the drilling mechanism is advanced until contact is made with the pipe. As soon as the drill has cut the coupon, fluid from the pipeline enters the cavities of the hot tapping assembly, at which time a bleed valve is opened to allow the pipeline pressure to purge out any air trapped in the cavities; when the pipeline fluid begins to come out the bleed valve is closed. The drilling mechanism is retracted, Sandwich tapping valve closed, and the tapping machine removed. The Lock-O-Ring flange is used to recover the Sandwich tapping valve after the hot tapping operation is completed. The Stopple fitting becomes a permanent part of the mainline.

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Cut-out
A cut-out is the complete replacement of defective pipe (whether leaking or not), with suitable pretested pipe. Hot tapping technology can be used to install a temporary bypass around the defective pipe, isolate the defective pipe, and perform the cut-out while the pipeline continues to be pressurized and flowing. Stopple plugging machines serve as a temporary block valves for isolation of the defective pipe. A Stopple plugging machine has a plugging head that can be lowered into the pipeline and positioned to make a seal against the pipe wall, blocking the flow. Thread-O-Ring fittings are used during plugging operations as purge and equalization fittings.

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Freeze plug technology can be used to isolate the defective pipe and perform the cut-out without having to do a hot tap. A chamber is installed on the pipeline, and liquid nitrogen is introduced into the chamber. Water is then pumped into the pipeline to displace the pipeline product. When the water comes in contact with the low temperature area, it starts converting to a solid plug. As the temperature is lowered below freezing, the plug expands, blocking the flow. When the repair is made, the plugs are thawed and the pipeline operation is resumed. A cut-out should be at least 3D in length, and extend at least 4 in (101.6 mm) beyond the ends of the defect.

REPAIR WELDING PROBLEMS


Many pipeline repairs that involve welding are routinely undertaken while the pipeline is pressurized. This represents an inherent risk for the safety of the workers and the integrity of the pipeline.

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Burnthrough
Burnthrough, also known as blowout, is the penetration of the pipe wall by a welding arc, along with simultaneous overheating of the pipeline and its contents. The danger associated with a burnthrough is that certain hydrocarbons such as ethylene can react violently when heated under pressure. A low-hydrogen welding process in conjunction with a low heat input level results in the least amount of penetration. Special precautions must be taken to prevent the internal temperature of the pipe from reaching a dangerous level. A steady flow rate does not result in a low internal temperature, nor does a low pressure result in a reduced risk of burnthrough. Research shows that burnthrough will not occur unless the internal temperature of the pipe exceeds 1,800 F (982 C) when using low-hydrogen electrodes. Research also shows that an internal temperature 1,800 F (982 C) is unlikely to be reached unless the wall thickness is less than 0.250 in (6.4 mm).

Hydrogen Cracking
Welds made onto pipelines in operation cool at an accelerated rate as a result of the ability of the flowing contents to remove heat from the pipe wall. Fast cooling promotes the formation of hard weld microstructures that are susceptible to hydrogen cracking. The danger associated with hydrogen cracking is that it can develop into a leak. Hydrogen cracking of welds can be prevented by eliminating the hydrogen sources (such as moisture, grease, and hydrocarbons), by applying procedures (such as heat input control) that prevent the formation of crack-susceptible microstructure, or by eliminating superfluous tensile stresses (such as those caused by improper pipe supporting).

Internal Combustion
When air is allowed to ingress into a pipeline that carries a combustible product, there is the possibility of an explosive mixture being present inside the pipe. The danger associated with welding under such conditions is that the heat of welding can lead to an internal combustion of the pipe contents. Internal combustion can be prevented by maintaining positive flow through flare lines and by prohibiting welding on lines that may contain explosive mixtures.

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REFERENCES
1. American Petroleum Institute, "Specification for Line Pipe, API Specification 5L," American Petroleum Institute, 41st Edition, April 1, 1995. 2. American Petroleum Institute, "Specification for Pipeline Valves (Gate, Plug, Ball and Check Valves), API Specification 6D (Spec 6D)," American Petroleum Institute, 21st Edition, March 31, 1994. 3. Ken Arnold and Maurice Stewart, "Surface Production Operations, Volume 1, Design of Oil-Handling Systems and Facilities," Gulf Publishing Company, March 1991. 4. Ken Arnold and Maurice Stewart, "Surface Production Operations, Volume 2, Design of Gas-Handling Systems and Facilities," Gulf Publishing Company, July 1993. 5. British Gas, "Gas Glossary: Terms Used in the Gas Industry," British Gas Corporation. 6. British Gas, "Inspection Systems," British Gas plc. 7. British Gas, "Metal Loss Inspection Technical Data," British Gas plc. 8. British Gas, "Procedures for Inspection and Repair of Damaged Steel Pipelines Designed to Operate at Pressures Above 7 bar," British Gas Engineering Standard BGC/PS/P11, December 1983. 9. British Gas, "Version 3 Pipeline Report Examples," British Gas plc. 10. Jim Cordell and Hershel Vanzant, "All About Pigging," On-Stream Systems Ltd. and Hershel Vanzant & Associates, August 1995. 11. Gas Processors Suppliers Association, "Engineering Data Book," Gas Processors Suppliers Association, 10th Edition, 1987. 12. John L. Kennedy, "Oil and Gas Pipeline Fundamentals," PennWell Books, 2nd Edition. 13. J.F. Kiefner, R.W. Hyatt and R.J. Eiber, "In-line Inspection - 1, Tools Locate, Measure Dents and Metal Loss," Oil & Gas Journal, April 17, 1989. 14. J.F. Kiefner, W.A. Bruce and D.R. Eiber, "Pipeline Repair Manual," Kiefner and Associates, Inc., December 31, 1994. 15. R.R. Lee, "Pocket Guide to Flanges, Fittings, and Piping Data," Gulf Publishing Company, 2nd Edition. 16. Michael R. Lindeburg, "Engineering-In-Training Reference Manual," Professional Publications, Inc., 8th Edition. 17. G.R. Marshall, "Cleaning of the Valhall Offshore Oil Pipeline," Offshore Technology Conference, May 25, 1988. 18. E.W. McAllister, "Pipe Line Rules of Thumb Handbook," Gulf Publishing Company, 3rd Edition.

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19. Mohinder L. Nayyar, "Piping Handbook," McGraw-Hill, Inc., 6th Edition. 20. NACE International, "Sulfide Stress Cracking Resistant Metallic Materials for Oilfield Equipment, ANSI/NACE Standard MR0175-95," January 1995. 21. David R. Sherwood and Dennis J. Whistance, "The Piping Guide for the Design and Drafting of Industrial Piping Systems," Syentek Inc., 2nd Edition. 22. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, "Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia, and Alcohols," ASME B31.4 - 1989 Edition. 23. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, "Manual for Determining the Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines," ASME B31G - 1991, June 17, 1991. 24. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, "Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems," ASME B31.8 - 1989 Edition. 25. J. Vincent-Genod, "Fundamentals of Pipeline Engineering," Gulf Publishing Company, 1984. 26. B.C. Webb, "Pipeline Pigging - 1, Guidelines Set Out for Pipeline Pigging," Oil & Gas Journal, November 13, 1978.

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