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Medieval Academy of America

Estampie and Stantipes Author(s): Lloyd Hibberd Reviewed work(s): Source: Speculum, Vol. 19, No. 2 (Apr., 1944), pp. 222-249 Published by: Medieval Academy of America Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2849072 . Accessed: 15/11/2012 16:05
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ESTAMPIE AND STANTIPES


BY LLOYD HIBBERD

manyproblems stillobscurein the musicof the late Middle Ages,one of is thatofthemusicperformed themostfascinating alone. Thereis by instruments - manyof amplepictorial and literary evidenceofa widevarietyofinstruments - knownin Europe from thembroughtback fromthe Orientby the crusaders about the twelfth and stillin use through the sixteenth century. Yet althoughit is indisputable that thesewerefreely employedforpurposesof duplication, substitution and accompaniment (often probablyimprovised) in theprimarily vocal repertoire, veryfewdocuments of purelyinstrumental music (i.e.,musicwithout - largely, text') are preserved fromthe periodanterior to the fifteenth century no doubt,because the art of musicalnotationwas possessedonlyby the clergy, and thechurch had as yetno acknowledged place forperformance by instruments alone.2 In the earliestextantdocuments of purelyinstrumental music,an important place is held by the estampie, a formvariouslymentionedin connection with voices,instruments, and dancing, in the sourcesof the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Unfortunately someconfusion reigns in theaccountsofmodern musicologistsnot only as to the etymology of the name but as to the characterof the music itself.The principalpoints of uncertainty are: (1) to what extent the estampie represented a vocal, and to what extentan instrumental form of music; (2) to what extentit servedas a dance, and to what extentan instrumental solo piece; and (3) to what extentit is to be identified with a type of music called stantipes, whichis described by themusicaltheorist Johannes de Grocheo. The presentarticleattemptsa reexamination of what appears to be all the knowndata in the hope of clarifying (as far as is now possible) the natureand evolutionof the estampie duringthe two centuries from of its traceableexistence the late twelfth to the late fourteenth century. Apartfrom etymological implications,the data comprise: (1) The composition Kalenda maya (ca 1200), by the troubadour Raimbaut de Vaqueiras,whichis the oldestexampleand the onlyone forwhichboth textand musicare preserved.3
AMONG
I How farearlytextless musicmay represent musicintended forvocalizationratherthanforinstrumentalperformance, it is impossible to say. However,assumptions in favorofthelattermediumseem preferable exceptin the case of part musicin whichsome of the parts have textsand othersdo not (e.g., the early organaand conductus), and in the case of later (sixteenth century)textlesspieces designated 'per cantaree suonare,'etc. Specification forparticular instruments is veryrarebefore the seventeenth century. 2 The appearance of instruments in the churchappears to have occurred(and been protested)on and off from earlytimes.The recognition ofthe organas the sole instrument properto church use (for accompanying the chant) appears to date fromthe thirteenth century (ThomasAquinas,Council of Milan) although theearliest liturgical piecesforthatinstrument alone are notfounduntilthefifteenth century. See. W. Apel, 'Early GermanKeyboard Music,' The Musical Quarterly, xxii (April,1937), 210-237. Both textand musicare found in Paris,BibliothkqueNationale,fondfrangais 22543,fol.62.Thecom222

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(2) Nineteenestampie textswithoutmusic,preserved in the Douce Ms 308 of the Bodleian library at Oxford University; theseseem to have been written by a singleauthorin Lorraineabout 1320. (3) Eight estampies in Ms fonds royales without text,preserved francais844 of theParis Bibliotheque Nationale; theMs belongsto the earlyfourteenth century but therepertoire is probably from the thirteenth. (4) Eight istampite without textin the late fourteenth Add. Ms 29987 century of the BritishMuseum. (5) Discussionsof the estampida in two fourteenth-century on poetry, treatises the Leys d'amorsand the Doctrinade compondre dictatz. (6) Passingreferences in thecontemporary to theestampie elsewhere literature. (7) Descriptionsof the stantipes in the treatiseof Johannesde Grocheo (ca 1300). Of the two mostrecentgeneralhistories of musiccovering the periodin question,thatof GustaveReese makessomedistinction betweenthe estampie and the stantipes,l whilethat of Paul L'ang identifies the two.2In consequenceof thisdiof learnedopinion,it seemswise to deferthe discussion vergence of the stantipes on theearlier has been considered. untilall thematerial Fromtheetymoestampie logicalpointofview thereseemsto be no doubtas to theequivalencebetweenthe the Frenchestampie(hereafter generally employedas the Provengalestampida, mostfamiliar and the Italian istampita, form) whichDiez3 also identifies withthe and whichMeyer-Lllbke Middle High Germanstampenie tracesto the Germanic and estampida The forms stampjan.4 therespective estampie represent past participlesofthejointlyFrenchand Provengal a verbwhich verbestampir, to resound, probably appearedin thelattertonguefirst.5
Chrestomathie (6th ed., Leipzig: plete text (fivestanzas in all) is given in C. Appel, Provenzalische (Berlin: 0. Reisland, 1930), pp. 89-90, as well as in E. Lommatzsch,Provenzalisches Liederbuch Weidmannsche in G. Adler,Handbuch der Buchhandlung, 1917), 173-175. The melodyis transcribed Musikgeschichte (2d ed., Vienna, 1929), 190. 1 GustaveReese, Music in theMiddle Ages (New York: Norton,1940), 226. 2 Paul LAng,Music in Western Civilization (New York: Norton,1941), 107. F. C. Diez, Etymologisches der romanischen Sprachen(5th ed., A. Scheler,Bonn: A. Wdrterbuch Marcus, 1887), p. 576. 4 W. Meyer-Luibke, (3d ed., Heidelberg:C. Winter, 1935,p. Romanisches etymologisches Worterbuch withthe mediaevalLatin stampare or the 679. Diez (loc. cit.),pointsout that ifthiswordis connected form shouldbe estampada. Old High Germanstamphon (to pressorcrush), thentheresultant Provengal The Provengalestampar to music,poetry,or (to emboss) is givenby Diez but with no connection dancing. 5 Paul Meyer,Les derniers troubadours de la Provence (Paris: LibrairieA. Franck,1871), p. 81. Acde la po4sielyrique (Paris: Imprimerie Nacordingto G. Paris, Les origines en France au moyen-dge l'anc. fr.estampie, est aussi [likeespringuier tionale,1892), p. 43, 'Le pr. estampida, d'ou l'it. stampita, fromspringan] d'origine allemande; mais l'allemandn'emploiepas les mots de cette famillecomme to Paul Meyer (op. termesde danse (l'anc. all. stampieou stampenlevient du frangais).'According que la secondemoitiedu xrsi cit.,p. 81) 'le terme m8meestampie ne paraltpas plusancien en frangais siecle.' Usages in the senseof-noise, idle chatter,'etc.,- as in 'estampidase rumorsai qu'en faran entrelor menassanen la taverna,'quoted in F. Raynouard,Lexiqueroman(Paris; Silvestre, 1838) I, in the presas a poeticor musical form 435- shedno lighton the estampida and may be disregarded ent study.

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Generalizations thepoeticform oftheestampie are difficult to make, concerning of structure shownin the fewextant examples, not only because of the variety withwhichthisformis treatedin but also because of the vaguenessand brevity of poetictechnique.'Thus the Leys d'amors, discussions a colthe contemporary of troubadour lectionof rulesforthe composition poetrycompiledunderthe diof GuillaumeMolinierbetween1324 and 1356,remarks rection merely that: 'Estampidasometimes refersto music for instruments, in which case we are not withit. But sometimes it refers concerned not only to the musicbut also to the text,whichis based on love and homage like that of the versand the chanson. And then it may occupya place in this study.Such minorforms may have an envoy (tornada)or not,or one may,in the place of an envoy,repeatthe opening or closingstanza.'2 The otherpoeticsource,theanonymous Doctrinade compondre from the dictatz or earlyfourteenth late thirteenth century, is moredogmaticin asserting that the estampida shouldhave four stanzas (coblas),a refrain (responedor), and one or two envoys,as well as a new melody,3 and adds that the estampida is so named because it takeson more'vigor'in reciting or singing thandoes any othersong.4 Turningto the examplesthemselves (i.e., the texts of Kalenda maya and of Douce 308), we findthat the subject matteris usuallyunrequited love, that the ofstanzas variesfrom number threeto five(ten ofthenineteen in Douce 308 havingfourstanzas), and thattheseare mostoftenbipartite, withthe secondsection eitherof the same lengthor slightly longerthan the first. The stanzas - which may be from about fourto some thirty linesand are often constructed on a single - are rarely rhyme ofidenticalstructure even in the same estampie. The number of syllablesin the linevariesfrom two to about twelve,althoughit wouldappear thatthefouror five-syllable linewas generally chosenas a basic type.5 The most striking feature, however, is the apparentabsence in the preservedspecimens of eitherthe refrain or the envoyspecified by theDoctrina.6
1 It is not even listedin the Reglesd'en Ramon JVidal, as given in P. Meyer, 'Traites catalans de grammaire et de poetique,'Romania,vi (1877), 341 if. 2 'Estampida . . . ha respieg alcunas vetz quant al so desturmens et adonx daquesta no curam.Et alqunas vetz ha respiegno tant solamenal so ans o ha al dictat,quom fa damorso de lauzors a la manierade verso de chanso.Et adonx segonnostrasciensapot haverloc. Aytalsdictatzno principals podonhavertornadao no e pot hom en loc de tornadarepetir la una cobla del comensamen o de la fi.' in A. F. Gatien-Arnoult, Monumens de la littUrature romane[Toulouse,1841],I, 350. (Leysd'amors, a 'Si vols farestampida, potz parlarde qualque faytvulles,blasman o lauzan o merceyan, quit vullus; e deu haver quatre cobles e responedor, e una o dues tornades, e so novell' (P. Meyer,Romania, vi, 357). 4 'Stampida [sic]es dita per co stampidacor prenvigoriaen contano en xantan pus que nullautre cantar.' Ibid., p. 358. 6 The complete textsofthe Douce 308 estampie8 are printed Les estamin W. 0. Streng-Renkonen, pies frangaises(Paris: H. Champion,in the series Le8 clagstques du moyen franQai8 dge,1930). For ofthetextssee ibid.,pp. iii-xiii, further discussion 46 ff. - to whose kindnessthe writer 6 Prof. L. F. Solano of Harvard University is much indebtedfor - pointsout,however, readingthepresent articleand fora number ofhelpful suggestions that somethingof the peroratory function ofan envoyis occasionallyto be foundin the concluding linesof the finalstanza itself, as, forexample,in that of Kalenda maya:

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in Kalenda maya,as wellas in all thepurely As to themusicalstructure, we find a consistent instrumental estampies and istampite, use of what FriedrichGennrich'calls the lai-sequence form, whichcomprises a seriesof double versicles such or punctum), that the first musical phrase (punctus, employedforthe opening portion ofthe text,is repeatedforthe secondportion, the secondpunctum forthe thirdand fourth portions, and so on, producing the musical schemea a, b b, c c, .... In the case ofKalendamaya,thefourteen linesofeach stanza are distributed as follows: the first punctum extendsthrough lines 1 to 3 and is repeatedexactly forlines4 to 6; the secondpunctum is employed forthelongline 7 and again,but witha different termination, forline 8; and a like modification occurswith the thirdpunctum, whichis set first to lines9 to 11 and thento lines12 to 14. UnfortunatelyKalenda maya,as has been alreadypointedout, is the onlycomposition designatedas an estampida forwhichboth text and music have survived,and thereis no way of ascertaining fromthe otherestampie textshow many puncta wouldhave been requiredor how the textwould have been distributed. None of thesetextsexhibits a stanza form whichwouldappear,by regular pairingof lines or repetition of ideas, to be particularly suitedto double versiclesetting. Of the instrumental estampies withouttext,thoseof Paris B.N. 8442 comprise fourto sevenpunctaeach, and strictly observethe first (ouvert) and second (clos) endingsin all puncta, withthe added formal deviceof employing the same ouvert and the same clos for all puncta of a particularestampie, while the istampite of B.M. Add. 299873are each constructed of fouror five puncta (here called 'prima' ... 'quinta pars') which are more extensiveand of a more elaborate melodicstylethan thoseof the Paris estampies but whichshowthe same characofa commonouvert teristic closforall puncta.4 and a common
Dona grazida, Quecx lauz' e crida Vostravalor qu'es abelhida; E qui us oblida, Pauc li val vida, Per qu'ie us azor, don' eyssernida; Quar per gensorvos ai chauzida, E per melhor, de pretzcomplida, Blandida, Servida Genses qu'Erecx Enida Bastida Fenida N'Englas, ai l'estampida (E. Lommatzsch, op. cit.,p. 175). 1 Gennrich'ssomewhatarbitrary einerFormenlehre des classification is set forthin his Grundris8 in Gustave Reese, op. cit.,2191932) and is summarized Liede8(Halle: M. Niemeyer, mittelalterlichen 230. 2 All transcribed 1907). in PierreAubry,Estampie8etdan8e8 royales(Paris: LibrairieFischbacher, Archiv 8 Transcribed, in Johannes severalof themcompletely, Wolf,'Die Tainzedes Mittelalters,' AfMw), i (1918-19), 24-42. fur Musikwig8en8chaft (hereinafter stateof the e8tampie8. We are withoutcontemporary 4A wordneeds to be said about the rhythm

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The factthat no preserved examplesofeither musicor textsforestampies show or theenvoyleads one to suppose that these specifications evidenceoftherefrain as foundin theDoctrina, may have represented a specialand relatively late mutation in the form. From the pointof view of the text,at least, such a mutationis neither norunlikely, impossible for, quiteapart from thesimpleinvention ofthem by the poet himself, the insertion of a refrain fromsome otherpoem borrowed could be made, and such borrowings appear to have been fairly frequent among the troubadours.' And from the pointof view of the musicit shouldbe observed that the borrowing of musical refrains was characteristic of the contemporary chanson avecdes refrains,2 and the motet ente'.3 Whenit used a refrain, theestampie musthave approacheda rondeltypeof structure,4 possiblyone of the morecomplicatedtypessuch as the virelai, or, as it came to be knownto the Italians, the ballata,whichis described by Antonioda Tempo (ca 1332) as possessing a refrain or repilogatio) (represa, that opensand closes each stanza (stantia),the stanza itselfcomprising two verses(pedesor mutationes) whichrhyme and are sungto the same melody, and a volta whichis in thesame meter(and, preferably, rhyme) and whichis sung to the same melodyas the refrain.5
mentsas to the meterofthisform, and although(owingto a certainambiguity characteristic ofmusical notationin the thirteenth century)Kalenda maya has been transcribed variouslyin both duple and triplemeter,the latterseems preferable. The Paris 844 estampies are clearlyin triple, whilein thoseofLondon29987thereis somevariation. The istampite Cominciamento di gioia (AfMw,i, 26-27) and Palamento(ibid.,35-37) are transcribed by Wolfas beingin 6-8throughout all fivepuncta.In the other examples,however,there are various changes from6-8 (divisio senaria imperfecta) to 4-8 (divisioquaternaria) and vicever8a, not onlybetweenpunctabut even withina punctum. There is no reason to questionWolf's transcriptions, and the metricvarietyis perhapsbest explicableas a sign that the istampite hereare concert pieces and no longer actual dances.See below. 1 See, A. Jeanroy, Les origine8 de la poe8ielyrique en France au moyen dge (Paris: E. Champion, 1925), 102-106. 2 See G. Reese, op. cit.,221 3 Ibid., 317-318. 4 On the rondeltypes (rondeau, virelaior ballata,ballade) see Gennrich, op. cit.,61-95, also Reese, op. cit.,221-225. 5 'Ballata quaelibet dividitur in quatuorpartes,scilicetquia primapars est repilogatio quae vulgari terappellaturrepre8a, quod idem est dicerequam repilogatio sive repetitio. Secunda pars appellatur prima mutatio,tertiapars appellatursecunda mutatio. Et appellanturmutationeseo quod sonus incipitmutariin primamutatione, et secundamutatioest eiusdemtonus et cantus,cuius est prima. Vulgariter tamenappellantur pedes. Quarta et ultimapars appellaturvolta, quae habet eandem sonoritatem in cantu,quam habet repilogatio sive represa.Vocaturautem primapars ideo repilogatio, quia de consuetudine approbata a tanto tempore,citra cuius non extat memoria,est quod statim finito cantu alteriusvoltae vel omniumverborum alicuiusballatae cantores reasumunt et repilogant ac repetunt primam partemin cantu et ipsamiterate cantant.Et istaeballatae et omnesaliae possunt fieri cum pluribuspartibuseiusdemqualitatiset quantitatis,quae vulgariter appellanturstantiaeet possuntdiversificare rithimos [sic]inpedibus sive mutationibus, non tameninvoltis.... Mihi magis placet . . . quod omnes ballatae habeant similemconsonantiam in repilogatione et volta simul,et similem in mutationesive pedibusmediissimul' (A. da Tempo, Delle rimevolgari, ed., G. Grion,Bologna,1869,pp. 117-119). Da Tempo makesno mention oftheestampie. An exampleofa (polyphonic) ballata by the chiefcomposerof fourteenth-century Italy, the Que8tafanciulla of F. Landini (ca 1325-97) is to be foundin Reese, op. cit.,p. 368. The schemeis:

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If we modify form themusical scheme ofthedouble versicle previously given for oftheletters x and y to indicate and theestampie by theaddition theouvert closendings, we have the following forthe instrumental scheme of estampies Paris 844 and London 29987:ax, ay, bx,by,cx,cy. . .. This scheme of would, haveto be abandoned, in favor ofa regular rondel orat course, typeofmelody, in order to accommodate a refrain leastmodified, in as required bythedefinition How themodification ofdocutheDoctrina. would be achieved is,in theabsence a matter of speculation. created mentary evidence, On the one hand,a newly ora borrowed for orelsethefirst onecouldbe inserted melody therefrain; puncoftheoriginal - and probably also for tum melody couldbe usedfor therefrain ofthestanzaas had thesamemeter suchparts thevolta of as therefrain (as with - while theballata) for thesecond thecouplets punctum couldbe employed (like oftheballata). thepedes As faras theenvoy sincethisoccurs is concerned, only at theendofthepoemand is usually ofthestanza, abouthalf thelength it could adopta corresponding portion of thestanzamelody, or possibly have its own punctum1. In anycasenotmore thantwoorthree puncta would seemtobe necessaryfortheform as described by theDoctrina unlesssubsequent stanzaswere to newpuncta sung between recurrences oftherefrain. thiswasthecase Whether andthiswhole doesnotappear,2 hypothetical reconstruction oftheestampie from a lai-sequence toa rondel type would be idlefancy didnotsome such attempt seem to be required in order to explain thediscrepancy between therefrainless extant and thedescription examples given in theDoctrina. it is also useful in Moreover, connection withGrocheo's account of thestantipes, as we shallsee. But before proceeding to thataccount, we mustconsider a fewadditional facts aboutthe estampie as revealed by passing mention in thecontemporary literature.
Text: Rime: Music: 1 A a represa 2 b b pedes 8tantia I 8 b b 4 a a volta 5(1) A a represa 6 c b pedes stantiaII 7 c b 8 a a volta 9(1) A a represa

This particular exampledoes not have the verto and chiuso endings forthe pedes (herecalled 'secunda pars,' b b above) shownin otherballate ofLandini. See L. Ellinwood,The Works ofFrancesco Landini (Cambridge:The Mediaeval Academyof America,1939), e.g., p. 40. It may be added that although the commonouverts and c01sforall punctaof an instrumental estampie, as in Paris 844 and London 29987,involvemusicalrecurrence, theyhardlyconstitute a truerefrain of the rondeltype. I The tornada or envoybeingan appendagerather than an integral part ofthe poeticstructure ofa poem,it maybe dismissed from further consideration. According to theLeysd'amors(338), one or two tornadas couldbe added to any poem ('quen tot dictatpot homfaruna o doas ... tornadas'). 2 Regarding the generalproblemof the relationship betweenpoetic and musical structures, H. J. Chaytorpointsout that it is impossible, in the case of troubadour poetry, to draw 'any conclusions as to the construction of the stanza fromthe tune attached to the poem. In a fewcases,a longand symmetrical stanza is conjoined with a tune of corresponding symmetrical development;but we constantly findstanzas whichmiaybe dividedaccordingto rule attached to tuneswhichpresentno melodicrepetition and, on the otherhand,we have tunesdivisible whatever; intopedesand coda upon stanzas whichhave no relationwhateverto this form'(The troubadourof Dante, London: Oxford Press, 1902,xxxi-ii).

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From variouspassages in the writings of the times,we findthe estampie mentionedas a song,as in the quotationfromthe Doctrinaalreadygiven,'reference by theMinnesinger Boppe ('ze doenensingen alle stampenien'),2 and a passage in the Decamerone of Boccaccio (ca 1350).3We also, however, findit treated. as apparently purelyinstrumental music,especially with reference to performance on one4or moreviellas,5 as in the following excerptfromthe Messe des oiseauxby Jeande Conde (ft. 1300-1350): iiiimenestreil de viele Ontuneestampie nouviele Devantla damevi8l6e.6 It even appears in connection of the time.7And, with the keyboardrepertoire finally, it seemsclearlyto have been a dance,as thefollowing passage from Froissart (1337-ca 1410) shows:
1 Whether musicis uncertain. the estampie of poetrywithout was evercultivatedpurelyas a form and Streng-Renkonen (op. Music is clearlyspecified in the Doctrinapassage and in the Leys d'amorm; by a miniature decit.,p. vii) pointsout that the Douce 308 textsare accompaniedin the manuscript la cadencede la musique.' pourmarquer picting 'quatrejeunes filles battantdes mains, probablement he does not mention whether theyappear to be singing. Unfortunately 2 Quoted in H. J. Moser, 'Stantipes und Ductia,' Zeitschrift (hereinafter fur Musikwissen8chaft ZsfMw), ii (1919-20), 197. 3 'L'ora del mangiare... venuta, essendo ogni cosa dal discretissimo siniscalcoapparecchiata, secondo che alla Reina poiche alcuna stampita ed una ballatetta o due furoncantate, lietamente, il presoore conletiziafatto,non dimenticato piacque, si miseroa mangiare.E quello ordinatamente e con le canzoni alquante danzette fecero'(Decamerone dine del danzare,e gli stormenti [stromentil Giornata v, Proemio, ed., Magheri,Florence,1827,iII, 16). 4 In another sono alcuna stampitae 'con una sua vivuola dolcemente passage from the Decamerone: cant6 appressoalcuna canzone' (Giornata decima, novella vii, ed. Magheri,v, 62). 5 The viella (viuola,vivuola, five (normally vielle)was an earlybowed instrument of whose strings in number)one was generally althoughon occasionit too could be employedas a drone (bordunus), ofthe rangeto two and a halfoctaves (G to d") produced.See the descripfingered and an extension de tionby the late thirteenth Scriptorum theorist, Jerome of Moravia in E. de Coussemaker, century musicamediiaevi . . . (Paris: A. Durand, 1864) i, 153. de Baudoin de Cond6etde sonfilsJean de Cond6(Brussels,1866-67), 6A. Scheler,Les ditsetcontes withthe accountofRaimbaut iII, 20. See also the reference to the 'dui joglar di Fransa' in connection de Vaqueirasand Kalenda mayabelow. I In a letter(1388) to the Vicomtede Roda, King Johni of Aragonrequeststhat a musician, John the organ-player, the estampidas and otherpieces whichhe plays bringwithhimthe book containing and on the organ withstrings whoseexact natureis unknown, on the exaquier, a keyboardinstrument los orguens'; les estampides quoted ('lo llibreon te notades [sicle les altresobresque sab sobrelexaquiere Leipzig: Max Hesse, de musique,' RiemannFestschrift, in F. Pedrell 'Jean I. d'Aragon,compositeur reference pieces should be made also to the threefreely-invented 1909, p. 232). In this connection in the Robertsbridge Codex(BritishMuseum, Add. whichare found,along withmotettranscriptions, London: about 1935 (facsimiles in H. E. Wooldridge, Ms 28550), datingfrom EarlyEnglishHarmony, not whollyreliable, B. Quaritsch, ibid.,ii, 89-108). These pieces 1897,I, plates 42-43; transcriptions, so that has theouvert and cos endings, each containfouror fivepunctaofwhichonlythe first punctum on Grocheo'sdiscussionof the stantipes of them 'so (see below), remarks Wolf,in his commentary nur um unseresTraktates identifizieren, kann es sich, will man derenFormennach der Definition der internationalen i, 1899-1900,p. 98). Musikgesellschaft, ductia oder nota handeln' (Sammelbdnde J. Handschin'srondelamplification ofthisform in 'tber Estampie und Sequenz' Cf.,also, however, ZsfMwxII (1929), 8-9.

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Estampie and Stantipes


Ii menestrel, La estoient Qui s'aquittoient bienet bel A piper, et toutde nouvel, Bonesdanses, telesqu'ilsceurent. Et si trestost que cesseeurent Les estampies qu'ilbatoient, Chilet chelles qui s'esbatoient Au danser sansgaires atendre, mains Commenchierent leurs A tendre Pourcaroler.'

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Apart fromthe etymological suggestion that it may have been (or at least as to originated as) a stamping dance,thereappears to be no evidencepreserved the stepsofthe estampie. We do not even,indeed,knowto whichofthetwomain chain or ring categories, accordingto Curt Sachs,2of mediaeval dance-the danse, dance (chorea, carole,carola,corola,Reigen)or the couple dance (ballatio, in nomenclature and in danza, dansa, Tanz) it belonged.From the distinctions structure between theestampies and thedansesroyales ofParis 844,3 it wouldseem that the estampie was not a danse.Yet it is to be observedthat,in additionto its generic use forcoupledance,thename 'danse' (dansa) was also used fora specific ifwe accept thepossibility of somesuch typeof troubadour song.4 Consequently, specialmeaning for'danse' in thisMs, thenwe need notrelyon an ancientcrutch - i.e., thehypothesis ofscholarship thatcontemporaries did not knowhowto use - in our attempt theirown termscorrectly or consistently to relatethe estampie an attempt more closelyto the couple dance than to the ringdance or carole,5 whichreceivessupportfromthe antithesis impliedbetweenthe estampie(as a danse) and the carolein the Froissartquotationgivenabove, fromthe factthat
1 JeanFroissart Brussels:V. Devaux, 1870-73) i, 911. So also in thepassage Poesies (ed., A. Scheler, (anonymous): pastourelle century from theearlyfourteenth

je te prie Et Marot par cortoisie pardonemoi. mon meffait je feraiune estampiesi jolie: balle un petit,je t'an proi. und Romanzen (K. Bartsch,Altfranzosische Pastourellen, Leipzig: F. C. W. Vogel, 1870,p. 153.)
2

although and clos endings, there.Moreover,the seconddanse is lackingin the double ouvert tampies 4 See post,p. 245, note 6. the singleendingis alike forall threepuncta. do not necessarily enumerations that literary 5 A bettercrutchis the 'poetic licence' assumption requisitein the presentcase in orderto an assumption implythat the itemsare mutuallyexclusive, the passage from and dansesuch as is shownin the following of estampie explainthe separatelistings d'Anjouby JehanMaillart (ca 1316): Romandu Comte pastourelles Li auquant chantent Li autre dienten vielles Chanconsroyauxet estampies Dansses, notes,et baleries.

3 The two dansesin this Ms have onlythreepuncta insteadof the fourto seven found in the es-

oftheDance (New York: Norton,1937), pp. 269 ff. Curt Sachs, WorldHistory

(Quoted in AfMwi, 17.)

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Pastourelle(see the verb 'baller' is associated with it in the fourteenth century note1) as wellas from twoother one havingto do with antep. 9299, circumstances, the text,and the otherwiththe music.' In the first seems to have played an important place, the refrain part in the for the estampiein the carole,2and although (as we have seen) it is specified it is absent (as we have also seen) in all the actual examplesof estampie Doctrina, at least textsand music- a circumstance whichwould suggestthat the estampie as a coupleratherthana ringdance. In the secondplace, it is the couoriginated ple dance to which instrumental accompaniment was most proper,perhaps in part because this type seems to have been moregenerally pantomimic than the carole3 to have requiredso much of the dancers' attentionfor and frequently stepand gesture that,even ifvocal accompaniment was used, onlythespectators even could sing.4In the carole,on the otherhand, singingwas characteristic, thoughinstruments were not excluded.' Despite the above emphasison a distinction betweendanse and carole,the typesare hard to differentiate exactlyand werenot freefrom mutualinfluence.6 In fact 'it is certainthat the fourteenth century no longerdistinguished sharply among them,'7 and the whole speculationas to whether the estampie shouldbe a danse or a carolewould be futileif it were not forthe convenient considered explanation it offers forthe factthat the earliestpreserved dance pieces without texts (Paris 844) are estampies. For ifthe estampie was a couple dance, thenthe textless estampies in Paris 844 and London29987 appear to represent that interestingstage wherethe singinghas not merelypassed fromthe dancers to the spectators but has probably been droppedaltogether and thepurelyinstrumental accompaniment has become indispensable.8 One moreitem of information about the estampie seems to be impliedin the
1 PierreAubry ('La musique de danse au moyen Age,'RevuemusicaleNo. 12, June 15, 1904, p. 311) discusses the estampie as a carole, but sincehe apparently recognizes no distinction betweenchain and couple)dance, and citesno specific evidence, we may supposethathe is usingcarole forany typeof dance song. 2 'Ce qui caract6risait surtoutles caroles,c'etait le chant qui les accompagnait.II y avait un des le plus souvent, danseurs, memedans les carolesmixtes, une des danseuses, qui "chantaitavant," et le autres "r6pondaient," c'est-A-dire reprenaient le refrain' (G. Paris, Les origines de la potsielyrique en Franceau moyen dge,p. 45). 3 Sachs, op. cit.,pp. 274-275, 279-280. 4 Ibid., pp. 285-286. 5 Loc. cit.So also G. Paris, whopointsout (op. cit., p. 44) that, 'la carolefrangaise est independante de la ffiteet generalement de tout instrument: c'est essentiellement une danse aux chansonsoil on se tientpar la main.' I 'The dance leader conductsthe Reigen[i.e., carole];he also conductsthe Tanz [i.e., danse].The Tanz is glided,and the Reigentoo; jumping,stepping, movingto and fro- all thesemovements are to be foundin both Reigenand Tanz' (Sachs, op. cit.,p. 270). Ibid., p. 271. 8 The examplesofthe carole, on the otherhand,wouldbe preserved as vocal musicunderthe names of theirtexts,and would not be immediately recognizable as dance music save in rare cases of prescription such as the thirteenth century 'Cantilenade choreasuperillam quae incipitQui grievema comtise. . . ' givenin A. W. Ambros, Geschichte derMusik (2d ed., Leipzig: F. E. C. Leuckart,1880) ii,

241-242.

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statementof the theoristRobert de Handlo (1326)' that, along with other and semibreves (i.e., makes use of all sortsof breves secular forms, the estampie ornamentation shortnotes).2 To whatextenttheseweretheproductofimprovised to say exactly, but thereis ample evidencethatmelodic it is of courseimpossible as well as contrapuntal, was practicedin both vocal and instruembellishment, In this connection mentalmusic.3 to notice that, exceptforthe it is of interest instruments) could ob(bells,organpipes, stringed fact that a fewinstruments as harmonics) tain certainveryhightones (presumably beyondthe rangeof the of the Middle Ages adhuman voice,4the only respectin which the theorists could surpassvoices is foundin a passage in Anonymous mittedthat instruments (rapid notes,i.e., what iv (ca 1280) whichsays that more than three currentes as semibreves and minimae) werenotto be employed werelaterto be systematized voicebut couldbe performed instruments.5 Anonymous by stringed by thehurman is probablyreferring to the viella,whose bowed techniqueapparentlygave it greateragilityin executionthan the voice possessed. the characteristics of the estampie in so faras theyappear Having established - known to fromcontemporary evidence,we may now considerthe stantipes the account of Johannesde Grocheo- in orderto determine us only through how closelyit corresponds to the estampie. In additionto the provocativesimiand stantipes, thereare severalreasonsforbelieving larityof the names estampie thatthesenamesdenotedessentially the same thing. The first oftheseis chronology, for Grocheo's treatise (ca 1300) falls about midwaybetween the earliest and may (Kalenda maya) and the latest (London29987) examplesof the estampie be notmuchearlierthan thetheoretical givenin theDoctrinaand in explanations facts: (1) both the the Leys d'amors.More cogentreasons lie in the following and thestantipes ofsecularmonophonic music; clearly belongto thefield estampie to as appearingin boththevocal and instrumental repertoire; (2) each is referred and (3) as fourteenth-century vocal forms as havinga refrain both are described and thereby of the rondeltypeof structure (like the ballata),whileas partaking instrumental formsthey lack the refrain and possess instead a double versicle and clos endings.Moreover, withpunctahavingouvert (sequencetype) structure formsboth are most frequently as instrumental associated with the viella.
1 With the exception of Grocheo'sdiscussion (see below), the only otherreference of the stantipes in theearly fifteenth is a vague mention in thetheoretical treatises ofthe 'stampaniasive stampetum' LibraryCartIV, Qu. 16 (see J. Wolfin AfMw,i, 336). anonymous Breslau University century Es2 'Ab hoc siquidemmodo proveniunt Hoketi omnes,Rondelli, Ballade, Coree, Cantifractus, que sub coelo sunt, que semibreves, et universenote breviumet semibrevium tampete,Floriture, op. cit.,i, 402). (Coussemaker, brevesatque longe,in hoc modo quintocomprehenduntur' in in this period, -seeE. Ferand, Die Improvisation ornamentation On the subject of improvised derMusik (Zurich:RheinVerlag,1938),pp. 250-257and passim. 4'Ulterio processu [i.e., the extremeextensionof intervalsby octave duplication]quidem raro, organorum, usu se habeat in instrumento diapason,quamvis in communi procedunt usque ad triplex vel prout in cimbalis et hoc numerocordarumvel fistularum; et ulteriusalioruminstrumentorum op. cit.,i, 362). bene sonantibus.'(Coussemaker, verononin ultimi sed hoc rarosolebatcontingere; pro uno breviordinentur, B 'Si quatuorcurrentes Ibid., p. 341. cordarum possuntordinari' voce humana,sed in instrumentis

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The superficial objectionsto identifying the stantipes with the estampieare based in the first place on strictetymological grounds, and in the second place on the questionsof rhythm and of the 'difficulty' attributed by Grocheoto the stantipes, as well as on the possibility that the stantipes may have servedas a concertpiece ratherthan as a dance. For, despitewhat has just been referred to as the 'provocativesimilarity' betweenthe names 'estampie'and 'stantipes,' as it stands,is not satisfactorily nevertheless the latter, to be relatedetymologically to the estampie-estampida-istampita group.There is, ofcourse,thepossibility that metathesis of p and t has taken place producingstantipes as a corruption of *stampites, n before t. This etymology, the m becoming doubtful at best,would if Grocheohad used the form*stantipa be slightly moreconvincing ratherthan stantipes. In any case, the factthat,according to Paul Meyer,' 'il n'y a pas trace d'une forme de poesie latine appelee stampita,' if indeed suggeststhat stantipes, connected withestampie, a Latinizationfrom an origietymologically represents nal in one of the vulgartongues.2 On the otherhand, Curt Sachs, basinghis etyon da Tempo's description of the ballatagivenearlierhere,contends mology that a pes which,because it was irregular, 'Stantipesis ... a pleonasticformation: bore the name stantia.'3 In what way the pes was 'irregular' is not made clearby Sachs, and there is no evidence given eitherby Sachs or by da Tempo that stantia(actuallythe usual termforstanza or strophe)was especiallyapplied to an 'irregular' pes. Sachs's solutionwould not be satisfactory to account forthe ofany word-form origin ofwidespread usage,but since (as has been pointedout) Grocheoseemsto be the onlypersonto have used thisterm,it probablyrepresents his own peculiar rendition of 'estampie' in what Lang calls his 'learned makeshift Latin!'4 and in forming it he may indeedhave been influenced by its structural kinshipto the ballata,a kinshipalready suggested by the Doctrina's oftheestampie description and reencountered in Grocheo'sdiscussion of thevocal as we shall see. As for the remaining stantipes problems, while it is true that Grocheonowhererefers to dancingexplicitly in connection with the stantipes, it is quite possible,as will appear, that dancingis impliedin the classification Cantilenaeunder which Grocheogroups the stantipes. This question,together of the stantipes withthat of the difficulty and that of its possiblefunction as a concert piece ratherthan as a dance, are best treated subsequently in conjunction with a close examination of Grocheo'streatiseto whichwe now turn.
Provence, p. 81. J. Moser's contrary opinionthat 'Estampie (fr.),istampita(ital.), stampenie (mhd) durften also Ableitungen von der mlat. Urform stantipes sein,nichtstantipes umgekehrt die gelehrte Latinisierung einesVolksbegriffes' (ZsfMw,ii, 196) is influenced by his privateetymology (from 'stans' and 'pedibus,'or 'stante' and 'pede') and his specialtheory, which,ignoring the Froissartquotationgiven on the quotations from above and relying the Decamerone and from theMessedes oiseauxas wellas the referred to by Grocheo,claims that, unlikethe ductia,the estampie-stantipes 'difficulty 'kein Tanzsttickgewesenist,' but ratheran instrumental solo piece for 'konzertmassige Vortrag'performed 'stehendes Fusses vor der sitzenden Zuhorerschar des Hofes' (ibid.,pp. 195-196). This etymology has not been accepted and Moser's interpretation is much too narrowto accountforall the data on the estampie and stantipes. 3 WorldHistory oftheDance, p. 290. ' Music in Western Civilization, p. 107.
2 H. 1 Les derniers de la troubadours

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(ca 1300) presents the earliest de Grocheo ofJohannes treatise The musical The attention.' special deserves ofpopular and therefore music discussion extant counin various ofmusicdiffers thattheclassification explaining after author, in the among thecitizens thepractice goeson to statethathe is describing tries, the he discards to mostof his contemporaries, Paris of his day.2In contrast ofthespheres') 'music (thePythagorean ofmusica mundana Boethian concepts of the soul and body3) functioning and musicahumana(the harmonious as music withwhathas laterbeen understood of whichis concerned neither - and simply senseof the term)intothree all music(in the modern divides great fields:(1) Popular Music ('simplexmusic'='musicacivilis'='musica regularis'='musica vulgaris'); (2) Art Music ('musica composita'='musica Music ('musica ecclesiand (3) Liturgical canonica'='musicamensurata'); .4 Of these to thepresent concern are ofno direct and third thesecond astica') has to say aboutPopular to whatGrocheo ourselves and we shallconfine study vocal ('in voce humana')and between distinguishes Music,in whichhe first artificialibus').' music(in instrumentis instrumental are oftwogeneral to Grocheo, ofPopularMusic,according The vocalforms de geste, the cantus or chanson the cantus gestualis types:Cantus(comprising the or vers)and Cantilenae (comprising versicularis and the cantus coronatus,6 - i.e., rondeau - thestantipes and the ductia). or rotundellus rotunda cantilena notby and apparently by theCantilenae ofa refrain thepossession from Apart each otheris made clear the Cantus, the two classesfrom whatdistinguisbes else.According anyone knowledge, writer's nor, tothepresent byGrocheo neither overand dancesongs repeated catchy, were'short, to CurtSachs,theCantilenae at least,by Cantilenae thatin thistreatise, and it is quitepossible overagain,'7 was there which with songs aremeant andthatby Cantus dancesongs aremeant form another describing) lists (without Grocheo no dancing.8 And although
des in Johannes Wolf,'Die Musiklehre 1 The treatise withparallelGermantranslation, is printed, SbIMG), I (hereinafter Musikgesellschaft der internationalen Johannesde Grocheo,' Sammelbdnde In the presentarticlethe quota(1899-1900), 65-130, to whichthe subsequentpage citationsrefer. tions have been emendedin accordancewiththe textual exegesisto be foundin Hermann MUller, de Grocheo,'SbIMG, iv, 361-368. des Johannes 'Zum Texte der Musiklehre 2 SbIMG, i, 84. 4 Ibid., 84-85. 3 Ibid., 82 pp. 90-96, ibid. from are summarized characteristics 6 Ibid., 90. The following 6 'Cantus coronatusab aliquibus simpliciter conductusdictusest' (SbIMG, I, 91). Like conductus seemsto have cantuscoronatus xxvii, April1941, 165 ff.), (see L. Ellinwoodin TheMusical Quarterly, to this passage in Grocheo,says reference generalterm.Indeed Jean Beck, in specific been a fairly Debats, le Sirventois, les Chansonscourtoises, il fautcomprendre 'dans ce genredu Cantus coronatus et Jeuxpartiset les Chansonsde croisade .. . et les Chansonspieuses.' (J. Beck, Corpuscantilenarum Cang6,Philadelphia.1927, ii, [69]). mediiaevi,le Chansonnier 7 World Dance,288. ofthe History airs and standsforcourtly that Cantus,in Grocheo'streatise, the possibility 8 There is, of course, as suitableforworkers forfolksongs. However- sincehe cites (p. 91) the cantusgestualis Cantilenae as beingcultibut the cantuscoronatus et mediocribus') and the middleclasses ('civibuslaborantibus terrae')and, on the otherhand,the instrumental vated by kingsand princes('regibuset principibus impurethoughts in its vocal form)as keepingthe mindsof the richpeoplefrom stantipes (a cantilena between to maintaina theoryof social distinctions (see postp. 238, note 1.) - it would be difficult Cantusand Cantilena.

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called cantusin8ertum velcantilena - in whichparticular excitatal case, at least, any putativedistinction betweena cantu8 and a cantilena is obscuredby the applicationof both names to the same form - nevertheless the hypothesis just suggestedreceives support fromthe fact that it is only in conjunctionwith Cantilenaethat Grocheomentionsdancing. Moreover,when we considerthat the threekinds of Cantilenaeare the rondeau(whichda Tempo speaks of as a dance2), the ductia (which Grocheohimself refersto in connectionwith dancit is difficult ing3),and the stantipe8, not to thinkthat dancingof the last mentionedas well was impliedin its classification withthefirst two.4 For the purpose of ascertaining how closelythe texts of the vocal stantipe8 may have resembledthose of the vocal e8tampie as set forthin the Doctrina, briefattentionmust be given to Grocheo'sreferences to poetic structure. The prosodicterms used by Grocheoare: versiculus, versus, responsorium (refractorium, refractus) and additamenta (parte8).Of these, versiculus obviouslydenotes the singleline,whileversus denotesthe grouping of lines into a stanza.5In the Cantilenaforms, comall of whichbeginwith a respon8orium or refrain,6 the versus prisesboth the refrain and the couplets (additamenta).7 Grocheo'sresponsorium therefore apparentlycorresponds to the represa(repilogatio) of da Tempo and to the responedor of the Doctrina,and his additamenta to da Tempo's stantiae and the Doctrina'scoblas.Unfortunately, Grocheodoes not indicatethe presence of an envoy,nor does he make any distinction corresponding to the pedes (mutationes)and volta, althoughsomething of the sortmay be impliedwhenhe differ- which has the same meter (concordant) entiates the rondeau and rhyme - fromthe stantipes (consonant) forboth additamenta and refrain8 and ductia,
P. 94. 'Possuntetiamappellarirotundelli, quia plerumquecantantur in rotunditate sive balli et corrheae maximeper ultramontanos [i.e., the French],op. cit.,p. 135. 3 'Ductia vero est cantilena... quae in chorisa iuvenibuset puellisdecantatur,' p. 93. 4 Despite the definition of Sachs and the implications of Grocheo'streatise, it must be remarked that if thereis any distinction betweenCantusand Cantilenaas Grocheoemploysthem,it does not appear to represent a universaldistinction. The use of the termcantilenais apparentlyinfrequent; MargareteAppel givesthe following listings and comment:"'c. liet daz men singetet componitur a cantis et lenis"; "c. in genereest omnis modulatiocuiusque mesurae ac modi existat... (et) hoc vocabulo cantilenaeomnium cantationum mensuralium vocabuntur diversitas";"c. est cantusparvus cui verba cujuslibetmateriae sed frequentius amatoriae supponuntur."Allen diesen Beispielenist gemeinsam die Betonungder Verwandtschaft bzw. Identitiat diesesBegriffes mit cantusand der Hinweis darauf dass cantilenain die Hauptsache nicht ftireine bestimmteKompositionsgattung gebrauchtwurde,sondernwie cantuseinen Sammelbegriff darsteiltfUralle mUglichen musikalischen Formen' (including monophonic and polyphonic music,sacred and secular),M. Appel, Terminologie in denmittelalterlichen Musiktraktaten, Berlindiss.,1925,p. 67. 6 ersus. . . ex pluribusversiculis p. 94. efficitur,' vero est, quo omniscantilenaincipitet terminatur,' 'R?esponsorium p. 95. 'In ductiaetiam et stantipede responsorium cum additamentis versus appellatur,' loc. cit. 8 'In rotundello[additamenta] vero consonant et concordant in dictamine cum responsorio' (p. 95). The meaningof thispassage is not quite clear,owingto the use of the wordsconsonant and concordant and the doubt as to whether the former as well as the latteris to be associated with the text (dictamen) as referring to the wordsonly,ratherthan to the music. In a purelymusical sense, Grocheo elsewhere(p. 73) definesconcordantia as melody and consonantia as harmony('Principia
2

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have the same rhymeand meteras in both of which'some of the additamenta it seemspossiblethat in the the refrain and othersdo not." From thisstatement which did have the same meter and ductia,those additamenta vocal 8tantipes to the voltaof da Tempo's ballata,while corresponded and rhymeas the refrain to its pedes. In any case, as in the description those that did not corresponded given in the Doctrina,it appears that thereis some reof the vocal e8tampida and that of the ballata; of the vocal stantipe8 semblancebetweenthe structure examplesor of moreminutespecificaand althoughin the absence of preserved were and vocal 8tantipe8 that the vocal estampie tions we cannot say definitely there is, at least, no real objection on identicalwith the ballata,nevertheless withtheDoctrina'sestampida, Grocheo'sstantipe8 to identifying textualgrounds, numberof is more generousin allowingan indeterminate althoughthe former withthefourcoblasdemandedby the latter. stanzas2as contrasted 'that formof Cantilenain of the vocal 8tantipe8: Grocheogives,as definition and the i.e., additamenta) betweenthecouplets(parte8, whichthereis a difference of the textand with respectto the melboth withrespectto the rhyme refrain, mie ne cuidoie.Moreover damor8 or Certe8 ody, like the French ones Alentrant of youthsand maidenson account of thiskind of Cantilenaholds the attention and keeps them fromimpurethoughts.'3 its difficulty in rhyme(and melody)betweenthecouhere to the 'difference' The reference betweenthetwo, independence if takento meana complete pletsand the refrain, contradictsGrocheo's other statement,already quoted, that in the stantipe8 othersdo not. If, however, -though (and ductia)some of the coupletsdo rhyme, (i.e., in those the presentpassage is taken to mean merelya partial difference are reconcilable whichdo not rhyme)then Grocheo'stwo statements addimenta structo the ballata and e8tampie both witheach otherand with the similarity clarityis obtainablesince turesalready pointedout. In this respectno further or of subject matter Grocheomakes no more mentionof prosodicstructure
quando appellari. Dico autem concordantiam, et concordantiae autem musicae solent consonantiae vel motuscum sicut una pars temporis unus sonus cum alio harmonice[i.e., suitably]continuatur, autem dico,quando duo sonivel pluressimulunitiet in uno tempore est. Consonantiam alia contracta reddunt'); and althoughhis exact meaningwhenapplyingthese terms harmoniam unam perfectam to the text alone is not certain,analogy would suggestthat, as a purelypoetic term,concordantia as to accents and number of syllables (i.e., meter) while (i.e., melody) denotes correspondence to the schemesforthe rondeaugiven by Reese (op. cit.,pp. denotesrhyme.According consonantia But Grocheospecifies usually employthe same music as does the refrain. 222-223) its additamenta melodyforthe partes(additamenta): that he calls a rondeauonlyone whichhas a different elsewhere cancuiuspartesunumhabentdiversum dicimus, vel rotundellum 'Nos autem solumillamrotundam of the word and the use therein (p. 92). From this statement, vel refractus' tum a cantu responsorii to meterratherthan melody. refers cantusit seemslikelythat in the previouspassage concordantia et alia consonant et concordant' 1 'In ductiavero et stantipede quaedam [additamenta] different (p. 95). Cf. also Note 4 below. voluntased secundum non est determinatus 2 'In ductia etiamet stantipede ... numerus[versuum] (p. 95). augmentatur' et copiam sententiae tem compositoris 3 'Illa [cantilena] quam in dictaminis tam in consonantia in partibuset refractu in qua est diversitas mie ne cuidoie.Haec autem facitanimos iuvenumet damorsvel Certes cantu, sicut gallice Alentrant devertit'(p. 93). circahanc stareet eos a prava cognitione sui difficultatem propter puellarum

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Estampie and Stantipes

even to establishany textual difference and the ductia. between the stantipes As to the natureof the 'difficulty' no hint hereascribedto the vocal stantipes, is givenby Grocheoas to whether it is an attribute of the text,or of the music. As we shall see, whenthisauthordescribes the instrumental he specifies stantipes that the latter'sdifficulty has to do withthe melody,and one is temptedto assume that thisis likewisethe difficult feature of the vocal stantipes. It may also, - if we assume that Grocheo'sclassification however, of the stantipes as a Cantilenaimpliesthat it is a dance song- have been trueof the stepsof the dance. Certainlyit seems likelythat involved,and perhaps vigorousdance steps (see above the 'vigoria'ascribedto the estampida by theDoctrina)wouldexerta more hold on the attentionof youth than would reconditeness compelling of text, or melodicand rhythmic elaborationin themselves. One has only to watch the 'jitterbugs'of today to concludethat complication in the steps of a dance can become so absorbingas hardlyto leave room forvagrantor 'impure'thoughts. If thissupposition that the stepsweredifficult be correct, somereathenit offers son forsupposing that the stantipes was a couple ratherthan a chain dance; and further fromthe ductia- whichwas supportis given in its implieddistinction a chain dance (see definition certainly below). In thisrespect the stantipes seems allied to, if not actually indentifiable with,the estampie. Grocheofollowshis definition of the vocal stantipes with that of its fellow, the vocal ductia,whichhe describesas 'a Cantilenawhichis lightand rapid in [melodic?] ascent and descentand whichis sung in ringdances by youthsand maidens,like the Frenchone Chi encorquerezamoretes. This kind of Cantilena governsthe heartsof maidensand youthsand keeps them fromvanity and is said to prevailagainst the passion called love." In the immediatecontextno further distinction is made between stantipes and ductia;and after theinteresting remark thatwithbothCantusand Cantilenae the text is usuallycreatedfirst and then fittedto an appropriatemelody (new or old he does not say),2Grocheomakesthe important announcement that 'these thingsmay be said concerning the musical formswhichare performed by the human voice. Now we may proceed to the instrumental forms.'3 - as well as fromthe reference From this statement in to a text (dictamen) connection with them- it is perfectly clear that what has been said so far by Grocheoconcerning the stantipes and ductiahas to do withthemas vocal forms.
1 'Ductia veroest cantilena leviset veloxin ascensuet descensu, quae in choris a iuvenibus et puellis decantatur, sicutgalliceChi endor querezamoretes. Haec enim ducitcorda puellarum et iuvenumet a vanitateremovet et contrapassionem quae dicitur amor(haec reos) valeredicitur'(pp. 93-94). A footnoteby Wolf(p. 94) to 'haec reos'gives:'He reos.In derLuicke-zwischen beidenW6rtern isteineRasur zu erkennen.' Withrespect to thesame passage,Miller (SbIMG iv, 366) says: 'Die Stelleistim Manuskriptunverstandlich; ich vermute, dass der des Griechischen vielleicht unkundige Abschreiber mit dem Worte"eroticus"(odererotis?)der Vorlagenichtfertig zu werden wusste.' 2 De modo igiturcomponendi cantumet cantilenam nunc dicamus. Modus autem componendi generaliter est unus, quemadmodumin natura. Primo enim dictamina loco materiae praeparatur, postea vero cantus unicuiquedictamini proportionalis loco formaeintroducitur' (p. 95). " 'De formis igiturmusicalibus, haec dicta sint. De instrumenquae in voce humana exercentur, talibus[formis] veronuncprosequamur' (p. 96).

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Estampie and Stantipes

9Z37

In Grocheo'ssubsequentdiscussionof instrumental formswe findthese names again, but withsomewhatdifferent characteristics. Grocheoprecedeshis discussionof the formsof instrumental music with the observationthat, because of theirsuperiority in obtainingaccurate pitch, the stringedinstruments are the best, especiallythe viella, upon which all types of instrumental of musicwereplayed,' and listsas the favorite forms music the cantuscoronatus, the ductia,and the stantipes. Dismissingthe cantuscoronatus fromfurther consideration, Grocheonow redefines the ductiaas follows: Theductia is a textless a proper beat.I say 'textless' becausealpiecewith [i.e., regular?] itmaybeperformed voice itcannot be set andrepresented though bythehuman bynotes, a true ortext. down bytitle [per litteras] since it doesnothavewords But I saywith beat and they measure thestresses oftheperformer, because it and themovement inspire the and they human soulto movegracefully according to thatart which is calleddancing, inductias andchorea8.2 measure itsmovement The statementthat the ductia,thoughtextless,'may be performed by the in notes' is somewhatobscure; but it seems to human voice and represented ductiahad a singablemelmean that,althoughlackingwords,the instrumental ody,3with a simple dance rhythm which could be set down in the two usual and perhapswas and unequivocalnote-values of the period,the longaand brevis, not subjectedto ornamentation with smallernote-valuessuch as the semibrevis and minimawhose value had not yet been establishedwith exactitude.4 There is hereperhapsan impliedcontrastto the 'difficult' melodywhichwe shall find ascribed to the instrumental stantipes.Grocheo further points out that the are termed puncta parts of the ductia (like those of the instrumental stantipes) and that the numberof punctain a ductiais usuallythreealthoughsome 'imperhave four(see post242, fect'ductiae and stantipedes, as wellas theductiaPierron, note 1). is defined -As a piece of purelyinstrumental music,the stantipes by Grocheo
1 'Interquae [instrumenta] obtinent.... In eis enim subtiprincipatum cum chordis instrumenta Et adhuc interomchordarum. abbreviationem et elongationem propter lioret meliorsonidescriptio in viella omchordosavisa a nobisviella videturprevalere.... Bonus autem artifex nia instrumenta musicalem generaliter introducit' (pp. 96-97). et omnemformam et cantilenam nem cantum 2 'Est autem ductiasonus illiteratus Dico autem illiteratus, mensuratus. cum decenti percussione non tamen per litterasscribipotest, representari, possitet per figuras quia licetin voce humana fieri et motum eo quod ictus eam mensurant quia litteraet dictaminecaret. Sed cum recta percussione, et excitantanimumhominisad ornatemovendumsecundumartem,quam ballare vocant, facientis in ductiiset choreis'(p. 97). et eius motummensurant 3 It is, of course,possiblethat Grocheomeans that the textless ductiaactually was vocalized, alcan hardlyhave been the principalone sincethispassage occurs thoughthismethodof performance treatise.Tbat, in thispassage,Grocheo musicin Grocheo'swell-ordered in the section on instrumental betweenthe ductia and the chorea(carole, them separately, by mentioning seems to differentiate, ductiawas no longeritselfa chain imply that the instrumental chain dance) does not necessarily - as was the vocal ductia (see antep. 234, note 3). At all dance - possiblya special type thereof and perhapsalready in Grocheo'stime, century by the fourteenth events,as has been pointedoutI, separatetypes. the chain dance and the couple dance werenot longerentirely 4 Grocheodoes mention portionof the brevis (p. 105). as an unspecified but merely the semibrevis, He does not listthe minimaat all.

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9.38

Estampie and Stantipes

by the puncta. melodyand differentiated as 'a textlesspiece having a difficult it holdstheatetc.,because on accountof its difficulty I say "havinga difficult" and even of the spectator, and oftendivertsthe minds of the performer tention I say "differentiated by the puncta"because thoughts. improper of therichfrom it is lackingin the beat (percussio)whichis in the ductia,and is comprehended its puncta." only by distinguishing Grocheosets at six or seven,specifying The numberof punctain the stantipes pieces of Tassynus,'2and with the remarkthat among the latter the 'difficult withbeats proper is to setout themusicin puncta 'to composeductiaand stantipes he bringshis whole discussionof Popular Music to to the ductiaand stantipes'3 of ArtMusic (motet,organum, to the forms a close in orderto turnhis attention and then LiturgicalMusic, both of which,of course,lie outside and hocket),4 owingto Grocheo'scuriousmethod the scope of the presentstudy.Nevertheless, ductia to the stantipes, explainingthe other formsby reference of frequently of his treatisecontaincertainslight portions the remaining and cantuscoronatus, additions to our knowledgeof the stantipesand ductia. The most significant that the conceptof ecclesiastical are to the effect thereencountered statements chant,does not apply to part musicor to secular properto Gregorian modality, and and ductia).5Again,the stantipes of course,the stantipes music (including,
1 'Stantipesvero est sonus illiteratus per puncta discretionem concordantiarum habens difficilem facitanimumfacienenimeius difficultatem etc.,propter Dico autemhabens difficilem determinatus. animos divituma prava cogitatione et multotiens tis circa eam stare et etiam animumadvertentis, quae est in ductia,caretet solum eo quod percussione, Dico etiamper punctadeterminatus, devertit. (pp. 97-98). cognoscitur' distinctione punctorum res res cum 7 chordisvel difficiles 2 p. 99. The sentence(loc. cit.) 'Huius modi autem dtantipede8 aber sind Stticke mit 7 Saiten oder die schwierigen as 'SolcherArtStantipeden Tassyni' - rendered therewas a 7-stringed by Miller - is obscure.Whether Stiickedes Tassynus'by Wolfand uncorrected by Grocheop. 85?) for citharamentioned of large range (the 15-stringed viellaor otherinstrument we do notknow.As has been said, the usual numwerewritten, difficult 8tantipede8 whichparticularly of Moravia (see antep. 228, note 5) and to another to Jerome was five, according ber of viellastrings ecclesiastcide musica,St Blasien, 1784, Scriptore8 Elias Salomo (in M. Gerbert, close contemporary at hereis to somepiecesby one Tassin, knownto have beea a ministerallus Im, 20). That thereference Vienna, 2d ed., 1929, p. the Frenchcourtchapel in 1288 (G. Adler,Handbuchder Musikgeschichte, to Tassin - the shortmelodiescomprispiecesattributed 256), seemscertain;but the onlypreserved in AfMw i, 22) - could hardlyhave been considered ing only one or two punctaand transcribed withimprovised ornamentation. unlessembelished 'difficult' in ductiaet stantiest sonumper punctaet rectaspercussiones ductiam et stantipedem 8 'Componere (p. 99). pede determinare' 4 'Quid igitur sic sitdictum.In et quae earumparteset quae earumcompositio, sitductiaet stantipes seret regulari composita musicaterminatur. De musicaigitur de simpliciseu vulgari quo propositum monemperquiramus'(loc. cit.). quae de omnicantu in fineiudicat. quidam dicenteseum esse regulam, 6 'Describuntautem tonum peccare.Cum enim dicuntde omnicantu,videnturcantumcivilemet Sed istividentur multipliciter Et vadit nec per eas mensuratur. Cantus autem isteper toniregilas non forte includere. mensuratum (p. 114). non dicuntmodumper quem nec de eo faciuntmentionem' adhuc si per eas mensuratur, ...' ductiam,stantipedem cantumvulgarem,puta cantilenam, 'Non enimper tonumcognoscimus ut excludantur cantus publicuset praecisemensuratus, (p. 115). 'Dico etiam cantumecclesiasticum (p. 116). qui tonis non subiciuntur'

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Estampie and Stantipes

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alteration(musicafalsa). The as makinguse of chromatic ductiaare mentioned whether it is thevocal citations are less clear,and noneofthemspecify remaining to. In additionto analogies or ductiathat is referred stantipes or the instrumental and the punctaof the stantipes forms betweenthe sectionsof certainliturgical whichinforms us that it often of the Antiphon thereis a description and ductia,2 neupmaor cauda like the modumwith whichthe concludedwith a melismatic to an end.3This viella players broughtthe stantipesand the cantuscoronatus along with the remarkthat the relativelyelaborate chants such as statement, ofthe stantipes and cantus the Respondand the Alleluiaweresungin the manner typeof leads one to supposethat the two last possesseda ratherflorid coronatus, melody,apparentlyin contrastto a simpletype foundin the ductia, to whose that of the (syllabic) Sequences and the Credo are here likened.4 performance
1 The following intervals passage in Grocheodiscussesmusicafalsa withrespectboth to harmonic and to the stantipes and ductia,but does not implythat the harmonicintervalsoccur in these two or the ductiawas anything but monophonic forms. Nowheredoes Grocheosuggestthat the stantipes indeed, system]' themoderns, (i.e., a singleline ofmelody): '[To the diatonictonesofthehexachordal else, and ofstantipedes and ductiae, something downofharmonic intervals have added, forthe setting theinterwhichtheyhave called "musicafalsa,"sincethosetwo signsband ~, whichused to designate fourth or tone in the case of b [flat in the hexachord beginas] fa [i.e.,the perfect vals ofthe semitone beginning on g), theynow ningonf; and b naturalor]4 [as] mi [i.e.,the major thirdin the hexachord make to designatethe same on all otherdegreesso that wheretherewas a semitonethey amplify interval maybe created.And likeit to a toneby the use ofh in orderthata goodmelodicor harmonic by the use of a b.' ('Moderni theyreduceit to a semitone wise wherea wholetonewas encountered quod falet ductiarum aliud addiderunt, consonantiarum et stantipedum vero propter descriptionem sam musicam vocaverunt.Quia illa duo signa scilicetb et 4, quae in b fa 4 mi tonumet semitonum hoc designare, ita quod ubi erat semitonus, in omnibusaliis faciunt per h illudad tonum designabant, fiat.Et similiter, ubi tonusinveniebatur, illud per b, vel consonantia ampliant,ut bona concordantia alteration was pri(pp. 88-89). This passage does not mean thatchromatic ad semitonum restringunt' been argued (especiallyby Arnold of instrumental music,as has occasionally marilya phenomenon derFriihrenaissance, Leipzig: C. F. KlahntNachf.,1914,p. Schering, e.g.,Studienzur Musikgeschichte of secularmusic(including 47 and pas8im) but ratherone whichis characteristic and ductia) stantipes chant. See the presentwriter's article'Musica Ficta fromGregorian and all part music,as distinct xxvIa (April,1942), 216-226. Music' in The Musical Quarterly, and Instrumental 2 'Pater noster est cantus habens duas partes ad modum puncti ductiae vel stantipedis(p. 128). 'Communio . . . cantatur. . . quasi ad modumpuncticlausi ductiaevel stantipedis'(p. 129). 3 'Cantus autem iste [i.e., antiphona] post psalmosdecantaturet aliquotiensneupmaadditurputa quepost psalmos evangelistas.Est autem neupmaquasi cauda vel exitus sequens ad antiphonam, appellant' exitus,quem modum viellatores coronatum vel stantipedem in viella post cantum madmodum (P. 122). 4 'Responsorium vel cantu8coronati et devoautem et alleluia decantantur ad modumstantipedis tionemet humilitatem in cordibusauditorumimponant.Sed sequentiacantaturad modumductiae, ad ut ea ducat et laetificat . . . ' (p. 126). 'Credo in deum est cantus leviterascendenset descendens etc., in partibus.Dico autemparumdifferens, modumductiae [cf.antep. 936, note 1] parumdifferens forour clear comprehension eo quod habet plurespartesin cantu consimiles'(p. 127). Unfortunately of these analogies,we findthe ductia,as well as the stantipes, associated withthe cantuscoronatus ('Offertorium ... cantaturad modumductiae vel cantus coronati,'p. 127), whilethe verynatureof to in one place as melodically by beingreferred the cantus coronatus [cf.antep. 233, note6] is obscured plureshabens versus.Dico autem ornatusad modum cantus ornate ('Hymnus est cantus ormatus pulchraset ornateordinatas,'pp. 119-120) and again, as making coronati,qui habet concordantias efficitur,' p. 91. 'Kyrie perfectis use oflongnotes ('cantus coronatus. . . ex omnislongiset [brevibus?] p. 125). ad modumcantuscoronati,' eleison . .. cantaturtractimet ex longiset perfectis

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the limitsof our knowledge references, With these somewhatunsatisfactory stantipes and ductiaare reached.Of the data on the instrumental of the stantipes item (and the most cogentreason foridentifying perhapsthe most interesting with the estampie)lies in the fact that here, as in the textless the stantipes and the formof the lai-sequencetype based on punctawith ouvert estampies, clos endings,'is contrastedwith the rondel type for the vocal stantipes(and text,accordingto the Doctrina).A certainstumalso forthe estampie properly seemsto be presented however, and estampie, stantipes blingblock to identifying to the melodyof the instrumental attributed by the questionof the 'difficulty' unusual Whetherthiswas a matterof awkwardintervals, by Grocheo. stantipes is not explained;and the complexity or rhythmic florid writing, chromaticism, in fact that none of the extant estampies(not even the much later istampite in any of theserespectsthanothercontemporary London29987) is moredifficult and has and estampie, stantipes music,has led to some hesitancyin identifying at least as a sonus to suppose that the stantipes, caused some modernwriters concertpiece.3If one accepts illiteratus,was not a dance2but an instrumental
1 'Punctus [sic]autem est ordinataagregatioconcordantiarum ascendendo harmoniamfacientium qui clausumet apertum et descendendoduas habens partes in principiosimiles,in finedifferentes, duarum linearum appellantur.Dico autem duas habens partes,etc., ad similitudinem communiter a minori,' p. 98). clauditet est finedifferens quarumuna sit maioralia. Maior enimminorem - based, from all one can tell,on no evidencebut Grocheo- that 'Stan2 Curt Sachs's assertion none of these ... whichseems to explain whyapparently difficult tipesand ductiawere considered and ductialwas danced any longer' (WorldHistoryof theDance, p. 290) is unsongs[i.e., stantipes does Grocheoimplythat the ductiawas diffisincenowhere as faras the ductiais concerned, founded as a dance . . . to Sachs (ibid.,p. 991) Grocheo'seems to dismissthe stantipes cult. Again,according whichthe ductiapossesses.This passage is not clear. Grocheo's percussio whenhe deniesto it the recta by the periods,because it lacks the 'is determined sentencein whichhe states that the stantipes in the periods[i.e., onlyby the difference whichwe findin the ductiaand can be recognized rhythm - to has no rhythm mean that the stantipes puncta]"does not seemto make sense.It cannotpossibly carere(withouttime), but non to Grocheo,does not mean percussione according be withoutrhythm, which esse (not in exact measure).All thathe says is that it lacks the rhythm mensuratum ita praecise and the passage immedirecta, is percussio of the ductia,however, we findin the ductia.The rhythm in the but as 'even rhythm' rhythm' not as 'correct thisexpression atelybecomesclearifwe translate accordingto the concept sense of the later mensuraltheory,as expoundedby Grocheo himself, which And indeed,thosesustainedmelodies, recta=twosemibreves. minima[Sachs mustmean brevis] below con[cf.,discussion mustbe and have been called stantipedes to Grocheo'sdefinition according make it obvious that we are cerning the Harley 978 pieces,to whichSachs apparentlyis referring] time.' Quiteapart from in triple nonrecta, in percussio dealingwithdance pieces,whichare,moreover, Sachs's interrectaand non rectaas termsforduple and triplemeter, of percussio the hypothecation Nor is Sachs's suggestion is not convincing. thoughingenious, (op. cit.,p. 291) forconvertpretation, of the London29987 istampite (cf.antep. 225, note 4). On the ing into 12-8meterWolf'srenderings and otherhand, if one accepts 'beat' ratherthan 'rhythm'(or 'meter') as the meaningof percussio, and markedaccent,such as is usuallyfound a relatively regular as denoting recta percussio therewith in dance music, then Grocheo's entirediscussion,does make sense namely that the instrumental - and, ifit was a dance, possiblyeven morespecifically, you can know at can be followed stantipes sincethe beat what point in the steps you oughtto be - onlyby keepingtrackof the phraseology, different Sachs treatsas a somewhat was not so clearand markedas it was in theductia.The estampie of the preceding a fusionof the ductia,nota,and stantipes dance which'perhaps ... developedfrom in Paris 844 and the estampie[i.e.,those preserved that 'rhythmically century'(p. 293), remarking century'(loc.cit.).Some confusion ofthe preceding exactlyto the stantipes London29987]corresponds

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Estampie and Stantipes

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rewas a piecewhich giventhatthe textless already ductia theinterpretation then setdownintheusualnotevalues, a simple capableofbeing melody tamed maywellhavelain, ofthestantipes thatthedifficulty to suppose one is entitled
ofthissorthas alreadybeen referred to in connection Ornamentation mentation. and could have been applied to any of the preserved withHandlo's statement, resTassyni' out oftheunim'difficiles forexample,genuimely creating, estampies, would Codex. How farsuchelaboration pressiveChosesT"ssin ofthe Montpellier Embelwithdancingis uncertain. incompatible or stantipes renderthe estampie in the dance withintricacies of the melody- especiallyin conjunction lishment to thepassingofthemusicalperformance necessitate steps- wouldundoubtedly up ofsingand might lead to thegivimg thanthedancersthemselves, persons other But to assumethat, accompaniment. ofa purely infavor instrumental ingentirely, lead markedbeat as well,thiswould necessarily even withthe loss of a strongly Elaborate melseems unwarranted. of dancingaltogether, to the abandonment ody may be accompaniedby quite simple as well as quite complicateddance And even if the steps as the patronsof the moderndance hall daily illustrate. stantipesdescribedby Grocheo did serve often,if not instrumental difficult solo ratherthan as a dance, thereis good necessarily always,as an instrumental reason, on groundsalready set forth(chronology, name, and rondel formfor piece) for assuming that vocal piece versus sequence formfor instrumental stantipesrepresentsa developmentfrom the older Grocheo's instrumental form. rather thanan independent estampie whichbear the name As has been said earlier,thereare no pieces preserved certain composiHowever,JohannesWolf has attemptedto identify stantipes. ofpunctaprescribed ductiaand notaon thebasis ofthe number tionsas stantipes, from themid-thirteenth compositions Amongtheseare threetextless by Grocheo. centuryBritishMuseum Harley Ms 978.' All are in two parts, and although ofPopular Music as partmusic,there Grocheodoes not treatofany oftheforms and its companionswere subjected,ocis reason to suppose that the stantipes casionallyor often,to the addition of parts, just as were the otheroriginally of the time,such as the rondeauand ballata. forms monophonic on the basis stantipes of these Harley pieces Wolfhas denominated The first a melody of its possessionof six puncta.However,thesehereactuallyrepresent then repeated(puneta of onlythreepunctawhichis placed in thelowerpart and cantu in the superor. The counterpoint 4-6)2 against new note-against-note lower voice (only)although in the and closendings appear foreach punctum ouvert continuous counterpoint out in fullto accommodatethe the punctaare written and explicittrochaicrhythm(firstrhythmic of the upper part. The uniform
in wasalready p. 292),theestampie for(as Sachsobserved, here, seems to be present ofchronology andnota. GrocheoWs before a century ductia, ca 1200)possibly (Kalenda stantipes, existence maya,
3 H. J.Moser in ZsMw, i, 194-206. 1All are transcribed in AfMw,I, 19-20 ofthethird. that from differs punctum 2The dlosofthesixth

ornatimevalues whichmay have been the resultof improvised exact notation,

of in part at least, in its use of smallertimevalues than wereas yet susceptible

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Estampie and Stantipes

mode, transcribedin 3-4 meterIJ j I., etc.) suggeststhat this example has not progressed veryfar towardlosingits dance rhythm. And in no sense could eitherupper or lowermelody,as it stands,be considered even froma difficult, thirteenth-century pointof view. The second piece is identified by Wolf with Grocheo'snota. What this type of composition was is somewhatobscure,forGrocheonowhereclassifies it, and indeedhis onlymention is in the passage on thepropernumber thereof ofpuncta (namelythree)forthe instrumental ductia,wherehe says that 'pieces withfour punctaare sometimes as an imperfect called notae but can be considered ductia or (imperfect) of the form As in the preceding stantipes." piece, extension occurs of the original through repetitions melody;but thistimeit is achievedby trans1 and 2 and employing posingthecantus ofpumcta inferior it,againstnewcounteras cantussuperior poinlt, forpuncta3 and 4. Again the punctaare written out in full.In thefirst punctum the ouvert and closare identicalwitheach other;and so also in the third,in whichit is the beginnings and not the endingswhichare different. The second-andfourth punctaare regular. Although it has onlyfivepuncta, insteadofthesix or sevenproperto Grocheo's Wolfapplies this designation stantipes, to the thirdof the Harley pieces,qualifying it as a stantipes imperfecta.2 Here it is thecantusinferior ofthefirst punctum alone, whichprovidesthe basic materialforthe otherfour,since it is repeated in the lowervoice againstnew counterpoint forpunctum 92, thentransposed and used as cantussuperiorforpuncta 3 and 4, and finally, with slightrhythmic forthelast punctum variants, as well.The recurrence of the closendings; and the - features of the ouverts similarity absent elsewherein these Harley pieces are exhibited betweenpuncta3 and 5 of thislast composition. The foregoing analysishas been deemednecessarybecause of the fairly widespreadassumption that thesepiecesrepresent the stantipes and notaas described by Grocheo. As a matter offact,and quite apartfrom theirrelevant circumstance ofpossessing an added discantpart,theydo not verycloselycorrespond to Grocheo's description. However, the specification of exactly six or seven puncta3 probablyrepresents an arbitrary preference of Grocheo's4 and is hardlya point offundamental importance; and sincethe Harleypieces are quite like the Choses Tassin, etc., the Paris 844 estampies and Kalenda maya in theirsimplemelody,
1 'Sunt tamenaliquando notaevocatae 4 punctorum, quae ad ductiamvel stantipedem imperfectam reducipossunt' (p. 98). ObviouslyGrocheodoes not considerit an important formof music. Elsewherein the literature ofthe periodthe nota (note, a numberoftimesin connecnotula)is mentioned tionwithboth vocal and instrumental performance, and even as a dance (see passage in F. Gennrich, Grundriss . . ., p. 167). In the examplesgivenby Gennrich(ibid., pp. 167-174), the use of the se quence typeofstructure withouvert and closendingsshowsa certainconsanguinity withthestantipes, althoughas Gennrichpoints out 'die von Grocheo angegebeneAnzahl der Abschnitte [i.e., four] stimmt mit der der Denkmltler nichttiberein' (ibid.,p. 174). 2 AfMw,i, 12, 8 The onlyexamples withso manypunctaare the first in Harley978 and the thirdestampie in Paris 844, both of whichhave six,and the fourth estampie in Paris 844, whichhas seven. 4In any case Grocheoapparently regards the numbers 6 and 7 as speciallysignificant (ef.pp. 78, 86

in SbIMG, i).

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Estampie and Stantipes

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thereseems to be no sound objecand clos structure, and ouvertclear rhythm, as fragments themall as possible estampiesor stantipedes, tion to considering fromthem. thereof, or at least as musicallyindistinguishable In attempting to trace, as a concludingsectionto this study,the course of we are immedisimply estampie) ofthe estampie-stantipes (hereafter development a vocal or whether it was primarily atelyfacedwiththe problemof determining at the an instrumental form.The latterview has receivedpreference primarily of the data on the vocal aspect,' a slighting hands of most scholars, partlyfrom ofevidence.Yet it seemsadvisable from whatappears to be theweight and partly to considerthisevidenceagain, and, above all, to bear in mind that althougha may, at a given period,belong predominantly particulartype of composition modern in quite another.A relatively to one medium,it may have originated for apparentlyas a composition whichoriginated case in point is the concerto, (Viadana, G. Gabrieli)but whichin morerecenttimes voices withinstruments pieces. has come to be used forpurelyinstrumental Now accordingto passages already quoted fromthe Leys d'amors,the Messe des oiseaux,fromFroissartand JehanMaillart- all of the middleor late four- as well as on the basis of the following passage in the Glosse teenthcentury the to the Documenti d'amoreof Francesco Barberino (1264-1348) contrasting soni' of the stampita, it 'inventioverborum'in generalwith the 'precompositi an instrumental was principally certain thatby thistimetheestampie seemsfairly form:2'In former times,everyverbal creationwhichwas set to the previouslyor the like,was called a consonium. nota,stampita composedmelodyof a caribus, Nowadays such textsadopt the name of the melodyor its composer.3 thereis the account of the createrminus, And, at the oppositechronological Raimbaut tion of Kalenda maya,whose text was composedby the troubadour which of an to the estampida tune upon request, 1180-1207), de Vaqueiras (fl.
1 Thus Pierre Aubry,for example,in his prefaceto Estampieset danses royales(p. 9) dismisses and the problem of course,the vocal stantipes of vocal music (including, Grocheo'sentirediscussion withthe remark'nous n'en dironsrienici.' And Friedforits rondeltypeof structure) of accounting as theestampie-stantipes mentions (p. 260) simply derMusikgeschichte richLudwiginAdler'sHandbuch a 'sonus illiteratus.' ofLonistampite ofthe textless 2 To theabove one might by the presence add the evidenceafforded of estampie later than the discussions don 29987, datingfromabout 1377 or after,i.e., a generation texts. 8 'Consoniumantiquitusdicebaturomnisinventio que superaliquo caribo,nota, stamverborum sonis.Hodie verba talia nomensonivel sonumfabriprecompositis componebantur, pita,vel similibus iv, defilologia romanza, 'Le glosseai doc. d'amore,'Giornale cantissecuntur'(quoted in 0. Antognoni, the slampita.As to the this is the extentto whichBarberinomentions 1881, p. 96). Unfortunately in the Leys d'amors(p. 350) caribus,littleseems to be knownapart fromthe statement mysterious music,and a vague referthat is was a form(the earliestknown,apparently)ofpurelyinstrumental (Padua: e linguisliche ence in Dante's Purgatorio;see discussionsin L. Biadene, Varieta letterarie (Milan: U. Hoedantesca FratelliGallina, 1896),pp. 47-59, and also in G. A. Scartazzini,Enciclopedia pli, 1896), i, 320. The adoptionof the name ofthe composerseemsto have takenplace in the Choses Tassin discussedabove,

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From thisaccount had just been playedby 'dui joglar di Fransa' on the viella.1 it has been supposed2that the estampieoriginatedas a purely instrumental on so and only later came to be a vocal piece. Such an inference composition place, reasons. In the first slighta basis is open to question forthe following melodyRaimbaut's adoption,forhis Kalenda maya poem, of a pre-existent on others) by instruments on this occasion (thoughnot necessarily performed ofan earliertextto thatestampida theexistence alone - no moredenies,in itself, of a new text to the latest Cole that would the creationby a modernversifier vocal refrain) by the dance band of a Broad(without Portertunejust rendered to that ofKalenda maya way nightclub. As a matteroffact,a melodyso similar as to suggestthat the two are variantsof the same occursin threethirteenthWhich of the versionsis souspire.3 centuryMss with the French text Souvent souspire(or even the older is not known,but it is not impossiblethat Souvent some other) was the originaltext- omittedupon that particularoccasionof All that the description of the tune to whichRaimbaut wroteKalenda maya.4 text was of Kalenda maya reallytells us is that this estampida the composition had just been pertunewhichat the moment to a preexistent estampida written formedby two French viella players- whetherin unison or with an added well have alreadyposdiscantpart we knownot - a tune whichmay perfectly sessed a text,i.e., have been a song. the additionof a text to Indeed, the creationof a vocal dance formthrough if assumed to be customary purelyinstrumental, a dance whichwas originally would reversewhat seems to be the usual evolution in the case of the estampie, research.For, accordingto Curt Sachs, 'time as revealed by anthropological of the dance. Imitasoundaccompaniments beatingand melodyare not the first of emotionby reproexpression and the involuntary tion of animal movements animal soundsprecededall conscioussound formation';5 ducingthe appropriate excessenergy a game forcing motor reaction, as 'a pleasurable its origins and from (e.g., as a objective a special or without with either pattern,'6 into a rhythmic of organism the systematized highly huntingcharm), 'the dance joins up with of in case the the animal a To cries or, it law ofform.'7 the lifeand takesfrom
en langueprovenale(Toudes troubadours 1 The accountis givenin C. Chabaneau, Les bio.graphies by the comment louse 1885), pp. 87-88, and concludeswith the opening of Kalenda maya followed 'Aquesta stampidafofachaa las notas de la stampidaquel joglarfasionen las violas.' On the connecde la poesielyrique. . see A. Jeanroy, Les origines tionofKalenda mayawiththepopularMay fetes, p. 88. pp. 5-7. 2 E.g., by PierreAubry, Estampieset dansesroyales, 3 The five Liesong (Rayn. 1506) are givenin H. Spanke,Altfranz&sische versesofthisanonymous Verlag,1925,No. xxix, K N P X), Halle: Niemeyer Teil derHandschriften (deranonyme dersammiung in Adler,Handbuchder pp. 58-60, along with the music, ibid., 417-418. The music is transcribed p. 191. MIusikgeschichte, would date thisparticusouspire thatthe languageof Souvent 4Professor Solano believes,however, century. lar versionof the textas late ratherthanearlythirteenth by the Andamanese,forexample,one of 5 Curt Sachs, op. cit.,175. The animal dance is cultivated believethat racesin theworldtoday (see ibid.,pp. 12, 15) and 'many ofthetribes themostprimitive animals,'ibid.,p. 79. learnedto dance from theyfirst 6 Ibid., p. 55. 7Loc. cit.

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equally primitiveimagelessdances, the 'dull aspirated and hummingsounds and withfewovertones which,withmysticpower,seem to lead of dark coloring is added, of the rhythm away fromeverydaylife"- percussivereenforcement with the stampingof the foot,clappingof the hand, and graduallyother first music in the full noisemakers (rattles,etc.).2However,'a melodicinstrumental late.... Instrumental sense appears as a dance accompanimentsurprisingly music but rhythmic dance melody is not a developmentfrom instrumental the first songs ofdance songs.In all probability, rather. . . theinstrumentalizing to be instrumentalized are those for which the words have been forgotten.'3 Among always sung.4 to dancingwas at first Indeed the melodicaccompaniment the Andamanese,for example, 'the ordinarydance is always accompaniedby song,and all the songsare composedforthe dance. Indeed thereare no songs exceptdance songs,'and 'althoughthe statementthat every song is composed dance and songnevertrueofthelatercultures, forthedance is no longerstrictly thelessremainveryclose.'5 In view of thisevidenceon the evolutionof dance music in general,it seems the estampiethat at some obscure period in the wisest to assume concerning eitherin Provence or possiblyin northern France Middle Ages, it originated, and subject matterof ('dui joglar di Fransa'), as a dance song, the structure to us. From the scarcity ofreference whoseoriginal and brevity textsis unknown to it in the troubadour from the stamping implication in its name and literature, the vigoria mentioned by the Doctrina,it would seem to have been of popular information ratherthan courtlyorigin.By about 1200, when we findthe first on ocand the oldest example (Kalenda maya), we discoverit to be performed, alone. Whether neverso performed casionat least,by instruments the estampies bond the primitive thelessnormally possesseda text (Rayn. 1506 ?) or whether loosened so that betweensong and dance had in this case become sufficiently pieces to which only estampiemelodies were already primarilyinstrumental Nor can it now be occasionaltextssuch as Kalenda maya wereset, is uncertain. to what extentKalenda maya and Douce 308 resemblein subject determined the originaltype of estampie matterand structure text,or to what extentthe of poetrywithout music. was ever cultivatedas a form estampie which structure Althoughthe Douce 308 texts comprisestanzas of irregular bear no obvious markof eithersequence type of setting(actuallyfoundin Kaor of rondelstructure with refrain, lenda maya and the textlessestampies) yet the vocal estampie to Grocheoand the Doctrina, by the late thirteenth according to have and thereby or earlyfourteenth century appearsto have adopteda refrain to the Italian ballata (Fr. virelai).6 become allied in structure
3 Ibid., p. 181. 2 Ibid.,pp. 177-178. 5 Ibid.,pp. 1&2-183. 6 According to da Tempo, at least some of the ballata8were stilldance songs ('tales ballatae canpassage in the too, thereis an interesting op. cit.,p. 117). In this connection, tanturet coreizantur, dance song,whichtreatedoflove and was sungto a more thedan8a,a merry Ley8d'amor8 concerning damorse deu haverso joyos et alegreper dansarno or chan8on ('deu tractar rapidtempothanthever8 the dan8ais perota lonc coma versni chansosmas un petitplus viacierper dansar,'p. 342). Properly
1 4

Ibid.,p. 175. Ibid.,p. 182.

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but its name implies on the estamp.ie, As a dance,we have no real information a century or morelater, dance, and the attribution, that it was once a stamping the steps?) by Grocheo and of vigoriaby the Doctrina (including of difficulty its livelycharacter. From thisevidence suggestthat as a dance it longpreserved - as well as from with the chain dance that it is contrasted the circumstances ofKalenda mayaits music and thatwiththeexception by Grocheoand Froissart, thana chaindance, - one is inclined it as a couplerather to classify is all textless of the chain dance, whichis a characteristic althoughthe adoptionof a refrain, century may implytheadoptionalso of someotherfeatures in thelate thirteenth from perhaps,that amalgamationof elements of the chain dance, exemplifying, both typeswhichhad takenplace by that time.To the end of its knownhistory occasionally appears to have continued, century)the estampie (late fourteenth passage fromFroissartshows.' at least, in use as a dance, as the oft-cited
as the and threecoupletsendingin the same meterand rhyme piece witha singlerefrain a graceful ('Dansa es us dictatzgraciosque conteun refranh whichis liketherefrain as wellas a tornada, refrain, so es un respose solamen,e trescoblas semblansen la fial resposen compaset en acordansae la tornada deu esser semblansal respos,'p. 340). Like the ballata,the openingof the couplets,however, de cascuna cobla ... devon esserdel tot divers ('el comensamens withthe refrain shouldnot rhyme ofhis timecould not our authorcomplainsthat singers dacordansadel respos,'p. 342). Nevertheless, by adding give the dan8a the [typeof ?] melodyappropriateto it, but changedit into a rondeau[!1 as in motets('Enpero hueyne usa hom mal en nostretempsdaquest so quar li and minimae 8emibreve8 en un propriso di dansa. E quar noy podon endevenir chantreque hueyson no sabon apenas endevir de lors motetz,' han mudat lo so de dansa en so de redondelam lors minimaset am lors semibreus arisesbetweenthe evidenceofthissourceand Sachs's p. 842). It shouldbe added thatsomeconfusion carole) thechainorringdance (chorea, of the couple danse (dan8a,dan8e,ballatio)from differentiation is made betweenthe dan8a and the bal, termsof the choreathe distinction sincein the Ley8d'amor8 passage: to thefollowing is confined stembeingabsent.Discussionofthe bal in theLey8d'amor8 carole and severalstanzas;but the bal is different ofthe dan8a,witha refrain 'Some make bal8in the manner and the and tornada, from thedan8a,forthe dan8ahas no morethan threestanzas besidestherefrain since the bal has a moreprecise bal has ten stanzas or more.Again,theremay be anotherdifference there than thedan8a.In addition, withinstruments and livelymelodyand is moresuitableforsinging composesthe wordsofthedan8aand thenputs themto sinceone commonly difference, is stillanother piece and thenmakes composesan instrumental music; withthe bal it is the opposite,forone first as the authorwishes('Item alqu fan matters thepoem,whichtreatsoflove or praiseor otherworthy bals a la manierade dansa amb un resposet am motascoblas. Pero bals es diversde dansa, quar dansa no ha mays trescoblas estierslo respose la tornada.E bals ha x coblas o mays. Encaras pot haver que quar bals ha so mays minimate viaciere mays apte per cantaramb esturmens autra diversitat fa et ordenalo dictatde dansa e pueyshli quar hom comunalmen dansa. Encaras ha autra diversitat e trobalso amb esturmens, fay hom leumenen bal quar hom primieramen enpauza so. El contrari pueys aquel trobat.Hom fa lo dictat de bal tractandamorso de lauzors o dautra materiahonesta beingallied to segonla volontatdel dictayre'p. 348 f.). From thisit appears that thedansa,farfrom is here perhaps been accordingto Sachs's classification, the bal, as it would seem to have originally imThe passage just cited is followed closerto the carole,by reason of its associationwithsinging. givenearlier,and, althoughit is not made of the garip8and e8tampida mediatelyby the definitions clear in the text,the fact that these last two formsare likewise especially associated with instruleads one to supposethattheymaybe typesof,or at least allied to, the bal. ments, obscure.The word occurs occasionallyin is completely 1 The subsequenthistory of the estampie later times (e.g., 'Der andern Art Balli oder Ballette seynd,welchekeinenText haben: Und wenn zum tantze gespieletwerden,so heist es stampita'in M. oder Pfeiffen mit Schallmeyen dieselbigen E, Bernoullied., Leipzig: C. F 1619; reprint, Teil in, Wolfenbiittel Mu8icum, Syntagma Praetorius,

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From the purelymusicalpoint of view, the estampie on its first appearanceis *associatedwith instruments, usually the viella.' And fromthe Leys d'amors, Barberinoand othersources,as well as fromthe relativelylarge proportion of textless estampies amongthe fewextantinstrumental compositions ofthe period, it would appear that the estampiebecame, toward the end of the thirteenth century an instrumental primarily piece, withthe creationof textsforit (or vice versa) of secondaryimportance. Accordingto the examples preserved,the instrumental estampie retainedthe originalsequence (double versicle)form, comprisingthreeto seven (but usuallyfouror five)puncta,each of whichmade use ofan ouvert and clos formulacommonto all punctaof the estampie. Even though the latest examples (London 29987) possess more extended puncta than the earlierones, it may be said that the instrumental remainsconservative estampie in form. That it apparently did notundergo themutation to rondeltypeof structure as did its vocal homonym may perhaps be explainedby the fact that the refrain is basically a choral (i.e., vocal) manifestation. Moreover,the troubadours were interested in producinga varietyof poetic ratherthan of musical and consequently structures; it wouldbe the vocal ratherthan the instrumental to whichtheywould apply theirinnovations. estampie How soon and how oftenthe estampie of an added part enjoyed the privilege we cannot tell, althoughthe evidenceof Harley 978 fromabout the middle of the thirteenth centuryrendersit not unlikelythat one of the 'dui joglar di Fransa' whoperformed theestampida forKalenda mayawas engagedin providing (improvised?) discant to the other'smelody.2 In any case, the musical interest oftheestampie seemsto lie less in the contrapuntal thanin themelodicembellishments,forit is in the latterthat the 'difficulty' stressedby Grocheono doubt consisted. Unfortunately for modern research,these melodic embellishments appear to have been the result of improvisedornamentation, and the data on such procedure, thoughincontrovertible, are, in so early a period,too vague forus to evaluate them.3But though its exactnatureeludesus, itsgeneralsignifiKahnt, 1916,31). But whether mustbe it standsforanything like the form we have been discussing regardedas doubtful. I But also: Guis dou tabor au flahutel Leur faitceste estampie (JehanErars, Pa8tourelle, in K. Bartsch,Altfranzo-usche und Pastourellen, Romanzen p. 258). 2 It is even possiblethat the two playersperformed of a 8ethe punctaantiphonally, in the fashion quence(see Handschin,ZsfMw,xii, 1). 8 The factthat improved ornamentation was practiced in thisperiodhas alreadybeen pointedout. of the subject But sinceour knowledge of its precisenatureis dependent upon pedagogicdiscussions or upon our possessionof both plain and ornamented versionsof the same piece, and sinceboth of these desiderataare extremely rare beforethe sixteenth century, our efforts to conceivewhat the 'difficult' may perhaps melodyof the estampie was like are seriously hampered.Some idea, however, Codex(see be obtainedfrom the motettranscriptions in keyboard tablaturefoundin the Robertsbridge century De diminuantep. 228, note 7) as wellas from the illustrations (vocal) in theearlyfourteenth tionecontra puncti(Coussemaker,op. cit.,iIa, 62) and in the treatise(1336) of Petrus dicta palma ociosa (SbIMG, xv, 1914,504 ff).As forthe assumption by Wolf (AfMw,i, 12 ff)and othersthat,as notated,the London229987istampite represent alreadyembellished versions, and the consequentatis tempting but temptsto derivea simplified 'original'from each, one must say that the procedure unconvincing.

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comesa there apparently not.For withthismelodic elaboration canceshould transition a Which marks of the rhythmic beat (percussio) obscuring certain piece.1 autonomous concert thefreely dancetypetoward theoriginal awayfrom is the possibility neither most the estampie point about the important Indeed, prominent noritsindisputably form, as an instrumental ofitshaving originated music. Noris it in theeviofearly instrumental repertoire rolein thepreserved a so-called styleof melody.2 toward 'instrumental of progress denceit offers that: (1) it is the lie in the circumstances significance Ratherdoes its chief which literature inboth vocalandinstrumental ofcomposition found earliest type a foreach medium; in structure (2) as apparently difference showsa decided thetraceable it seemsto present ornamentation, danceforimprovised favorite produced of instrumental dancetuneswhich of thatembellishment beginning ofthesixteenth andseventeenth ofinstrumental variations therichcollections - apofa dancefrom which it-is theearliest example centuries; (3) and finally, - there seems dancing (Froissart) usefor itscontinued sidebysidewith parently oftheoriginal ofthemelody and obfuscation a complication to evolve, through the an instrumental concert piece,perhaps approaching dancebeat,something This purpose. thisparticular artistic for intended consistently ofmusic first type in London 29987, by thecompositions last stagemaywellhave beenattained - whether stillintended as or not theywerethemselves wherethe istampite - are indistinguishable from the'descripcompanions, their actualdancepieces di Tristano.3 In the estampie, and the Lamento tive' pieces,La Manfredina of thatprocess of instance we have whatappearsto be the earliest therefore, - which inthecaseoftheallemande exemplified abstraction andstylization later as 'one of our Tanz4and is mentioned aroseout of the late fifteenth-century to be played, in thelate sixteenth but continues century mostancient dances"
1 Moser (ZsfMw,ii, 186-198) sees evidenceof concert in the phrase'devant la dame' performance ('faciens') betweenperformer and in thedistinction theMessedesoiseauxquotationgivenearlier, from ofthe instrumental stantipes (see antep. 238,note 1). and auditor('advertens')in Grocheo'sdefinition chro2 Withoutgoinginto exhaustive argumentsagainst the notion that floridembellishments, of the simplest the melodicprocedures from frequent leaps and all otherdivagations maticalterations, style,'one may pointout the general chantare ipsofactoevidenceof 'instrumental typeof Gregorian and other(vocal) musicofthetime.Indeed,the estampies thethirteenth-century between resemblance tban in vocal two melodicfeatureswhichare, by and large, foundfar more oftenin instrumental of the same noteactivitywithoutpause and the continuousreiteration music,namelypersistent in the thirteenthvalues or motives and/or the same melodic intervals,are relativelyinfrequent a peculiarlyinstrurash to regardKalenda maya as representing It is certainly centuryestampies. mentaltypeofmelodywhenit is by no meanscertainthat thismelody(moreor less as it stands) was or the inferiores thatofa song (Rayn. 1506?). And the same is trueofthe Harley cantus not originally Paris estam pies,any of whichmay one day turnup in an earlierMs witha text.The ChosesTassin, whichare rhythms of intervals and certainmonotonous on the otherhand, showcertainreiterations ofthe same figurations than in vocal music,and the persistence foundin instrumental moregenerally over severalmeasuresis even moretrueofthe London istampite. 3 Strictly as 'descriptive' and La Manfredina di Tristano of the Lamento the designation speaking, of songsbearingthose names,but Curt They may, of course,be arrangements pieces is gratuitous. titles. that as theystand,theyare 8altarelli (i.e., dances) withfanciful Sachs (op. cit.,294) thinks 4Sachs, op. cit.,pp. 331-332. by C. W. Beaumont,London: (1588) translated Tabourot]Orchesography 6 ThoinotArbeau [Jehan C. W. Beaumont,1925, 109.

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thoughnot usually danced any longerin 1636,1and eventuallyloses its dance character entirely (through in J. S. Bachmelodicand rhythmic complication) and even more recently and conspicuously in the case of the courtlyminuetof seventeenth century,2 whichbecomes more rapid and difficult or impossibleto dance to in some of the later worksof Haydn and Mozart (e.g., in the latter's great E-flat major and G minorsymphonies of 1788), and loses its identity in the monumental completely scherzosof Beethoven.
'L'Allemande est une dance d'Allemagne, qui est mesureecommela Pavanne; mais elle n'a pas este si usiteeen France que les precedentes [i.e. presumably and pavanejust described] the passamezzo . . . on se contenteauiourd'huyde la iouer surles instrumens sans la dancer,non plus que la Passemezze, si ce n'est aux Balets.' (M. Mersenne,Harmonieuniverselle, Paris: Seb. Cramoisy,1636, TraitsB de la voix,pp. 164-165; Harvard College Librarycopy). 2 Louis xiv and Lully appear to have been responsible forthe late seventeenth-century transmutation of the primitive minuetinto a courtlydance whosepopularitylasted forabout a century. According to Sachs 'in 1767 the minuetappears forthelast timein the indexofa dance manual ... and was out of favor. ... Nevertheless it was stilltaughtin the nineteenth century'(op. cit.,p. 398).
1

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