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SDL/ QST

Concrete Annexure

Sobha Developers Ltd.

Department of Quality Safety & Technology

(Valid from 01-Aug-2009, until further notice)

Prepared by Mr. Venkatesh M Manager QSD

Approved by Mr. Olaf Wagner SVP - QST

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CONTENTS
S.No Description Page No.

CONCRETE
A I 1 2 3 4 5 II 1 2 III 1 2 3 4 5 6 IV 1 V 1 INGRADIENTS OF CONCRETE Cement Types of Cement Ordinary Portland Cement Blended Cement Storage of Cement Test of Adulteration Mineral Admixtures Limits of Mineral Admixtures to be used with Cement Requirements of fly ash for use as pozzolana and admixture Aggregates Classification of Aggregates Grading of Aggregates Quality of Aggregates Deleterious materials Bulking of Sand Storage of Aggregates Water Typical limits for solids in water Chemical Admixtures Physical requirements for accelerating, retarding, Water-reducing and air entraining admixtures

5
5 5 5 6 7 9 9 10 10 11 12 12 12 13 15 15 16 17 17 18 19

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B 1 2 3 I 1 II III 1 IV 1 V 1 VI 1

DURABILITY OF CONCRETE Environmental exposure conditions Minimum cement content, Maximum water Cement ratio, Minimum grade of concrete for Different Exposures with normal weight aggregates of 20mm nominal maximum size Limits of Mineral Admixtures to be used with cement Maximum Cement Content Adjustment to Minimum Cement content other than 20mm Nominal Maximum size. Grade of Concrete Carbonation and Chlorides in concrete Limits of Chloride content of concrete Sulphates in Concrete Requirements for Concrete Exposed to Sulphate Attack Cover to Reinforcement Nominal cover to meet durability requirements Cover for Fire Resistance Nominal cover to meet specified period of Fire Resistance

20 20 21 21 22 22 22 23 23 23 24 25 25 26 26

C 1 I 1 2

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN Slump suitable for different placing conditions Guidelines for Concrete Mix Proportioning Data for Mix Proportioning Target strength for Mix proportioning

27 27 28 28 28 29 29 30 30 30 31 31 31

a
1 2

Selection of Mix proportions


Selection of Water Cement Ratio Selection of Water content

b
1 2 3

Calculation of Cementitious Material Content


Estimation of Coarse Aggregate proportion Estimation of Fine Aggregate proportion Combination of Different Coarse Aggregate Fractions

Trial Mixes

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D E

AN ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE OF CONCRETE MIX PROPORTIONING MAKING GOOD CONCRETE

32 36

F I

LABORATORY MANUAL FOR QUALITY CONTROL OF CONCRETE List of Laboratory Testing for Quality concrete

37 37 38 38 39 41 44 47 47 49 51 52 53 56 57 58 61 61 63

a
1 2 3 4

Cement
Specific Gravity of Cement Fineness of Cement Standard Consistency and Setting time Compressive Strength of Cement

b
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Aggregates
Specific Gravity & Water Absorption of Fine Aggregate Specific Gravity & Water Absorption of Coarse Aggregate Unit Mass of Concrete Aggregate Moisture Content of Concrete Aggregate Fineness Modulus & Grain Size distribution Silt Content Bulking of Fine Aggregate Flakiness & Elongation indices of Coarse Aggregates

c
1 2

Concrete
Slump test Strength of Cement Concrete

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CONCRETE
The concrete is the most important construction material, which is manufactured at site. It is a composite product obtained by mixing cement, water and an inert matrix of sand and gravel or crushed stone. It undergoes a number of operations such as transportation, placing, compacting and curing. The distinguishing property of the concrete is its ability to harden under water. The ingredients of the concrete can be classified into two groups namely, active and inactive. The active group consists of cement and water whereas inactive group comprises of fine and coarse aggregates. The cement commonly used is Portland cement, and the fine aggregates and coarse aggregates, are those obtainable, usually from nearby sand, gravel or rock deposits. In order to obtain a strong, durable and economical concrete mix, it is necessary to understand the characteristics and the behavior of Ingredients.

A. INGRADIENTS FOR CONCRETE


I. CEMENT
Portland cement is a hydraulic binder and a finely ground inorganic material. When mixed with water, it forms a paste which sets and hardens by means of hydraulic reactions. 1. TYPES OF CEMENT There are various types of cement in use and as per IS 456:2000, Indian Standard code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete permits the use of 10 different types of cement. SL NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 TYPES OF CEMENT 33 Grade ordinary Portland cement 43 Grade ordinary Portland cement 53 Grade ordinary Portland cement Rapid hardening Portland cement Portland Slag Cement Portland Pozzolana cement (fly ash based) Portland Pozzolana cement (Calcined clay based) Hydrophobic cement Low heat Portland cement Sulphate resisting Portland Cement REFERENCE IS 269 IS 8112 IS 12269 IS 8041 IS 455 IS 1489 (part 1) IS 1489(part 2) IS 8043 IS 12600 IS 12330

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2. ORDINARY PORTLAND CEMENT Ordinary Portland cement is a product obtained by intimately mixing together calcareous (limestone, chalk, etc) and argillaceous (clay, shale,etc) materials, with or without other materials containing silica, alumina, or iron oxide, burning them at a high temperature, and grinding the resulting intermediate product, clinker with gypsum. After burning, no material other than gypsum is added. Grades of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) The Bureau of Indian Standards has classified OPC into three grades for producing different grades of concrete to meet the demands of the construction industry. The classification is made on the basis of Compressive strength at 28 days as: 33 grade Ordinary Portland Cement 43 grade Ordinary Portland Cement 53 grade Ordinary Portland Cement The grade indicates compressive strength of the cement in N/mm2 at 28 days. Since higher grades of concrete necessitate the use of higher strength of cement at 28 days, use of 33 grade cement has dropped during the last decade. Both 43 grade and 53 grade cement can be used for producing higher grades of concrete.

Table 1: Physical and Chemical properties of various grades of Ordinary Portland cement TYPE OF CEMENT PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Minimum compressivestrength,N/mm2 3 day 7 day 28 day Fineness Minimum specific surface, m2/kg Setting time, minutes Initial, minimum Final, maximum Soundness, expansion (Le chatelier test, mm), maximum Autoclave test MgO, percent, maximum CHEMICAL PROPERTIES Loss on ignition, percent, maximum Insoluble residue, percent, maximum Magnesia Mgo, percent Maximum Lime saturation factor (LSF) Ratio, AF, minimum 16 22 33 225 30 600 10 0.8 5.0 4.0 6.0 .66-1.02 0.66 23 33 43 225 30 600 10 0.8 5.0 2.0 6.0 .66-1.02 0.66 27 37 53 225 30 600 10 0.8 4.0 2.0 6.0 0.8-1.02 0.66 33 GRADE 43 GRADE 53 GRADE

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3. BLENDED CEMENTS Blended cements or composite cements are those cements in which a mineral additive has been added to Portland cement. Blended cement is a hydraulic cementitious product, similar to ordinary Portland cement, but due to the addition of blending material it has certain improved properties compared to OPC. Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC) Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC) is manufactured either by grinding intimately together Portland cement clinker, gypsum and a pozzolana such as fly ash, or by intimately and uniformly blending Portland cement and fine pozzolana. The BIS has differentiated PPC based on the pozzolana added to the mix. Thus IS 1489 (part 1) is Portland pozzolana cement (fly ash based).According to the latest amendment in July 2000, the proportion of fly ash as a pozzolana used can vary between 15 and 35 percent by weight of cement, as stipulated by IS 1489 (part 1) 1991. Increased impermeability, lower heat of hydration, lower plastic shrinkage, reduced alkali-aggregate expansion and improved resistance to aggressive chemical agents and corrosion are some of the major benefits to be derived from the use of PPC. The use of PPC is, thus desirable for enhancing durability in different construction jobs, specially for structures subjected to aggressive environments. In mass concrete construction, PPC concretes have shown rather better behavior in respect of cracking than OPC concretes because of lower heat of hydration. Portland Blast furnace Slag Cement (PBSC) Portland blast furnace slag cement is an intimately ground mixture of Portland cement clinker and granulated blast furnace slag, either inter ground or ground separately and blended together. The granulated blast furnace slag is a non-metallic product obtained by rapidly chilling or quenching in water the molten tapped from the blast furnace of a steel plant. As per the latest amendment to IS 455 in May 2000, the slag constituent should not be less than 25 percent nor more than 70 percent of the Portland cement. PBSC generally has higher fineness, lower heat of hydration, lower permeability and better resistance to chemical attack and corrosion than OPC. Portland slag Cement can be used for all construction jobs in place of ordinary Portland cement, but its special properties render its adoption highly desirable fro marine structures involving large masses of concrete such as dams, retaining walls, and bridge abutments, and for structures exposed to sulphate bearing soils such as foundations and roads. Benefits of Blended Cements The use of blended cement improves the properties of both, fresh and hardened concrete. These can be as a result of the extended hydration of the cement-pozzolana mixture, reduced water demand, and due to the improved cohesion of the paste. Another important benefit is the improvement in durability resulting from the lower permeability and improved microstructure of the concrete. This arises from the reduction in pore size of the cement paste and the refinement of pore structure of the cement paste as well as improvements in the properties of the interfacial zone between he cement paste and the aggregate/inerts.

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Table 2: Physical and Chemical properties of blended cement Type of cement Physical properties Minimum compressivestrength,N/mm2 3 day 7 day 28 day Fineness Minimum specific surface, m2/kg Setting time, minutes Initial, minimum Final, maximum Soundness, expansion (Le chatelier test, mm), maximum Autoclave test MgO, percent, maximum Additives, percent by weight of cement Fly ash GGBS Chemical properties Loss on ignition, percent, maximum Insoluble residue, percent, maximum Magnesia Mgo, percent Maximum Sulphur, percent, maximum as sulphuric anhydride (SO3) PPC PBSC

(PPC and PBSC)

16 22 33 300 30 600 10 0.8 15-35

16 22 33 225 30 600 10 0.8

25-70 5.0 # 6.0 3.0 5.0 4.0 8.0 3.0

# - x + (4.0(100-x)/x) where x is the declared percentage of pozzolana in PPC.

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4. STORAGE OF CEMENT Since cement is a very finely ground hygroscopic material: i.e. it readily absorbs moisture every precaution should be taken to ensure that the cement is kept free from contact with moisture in any form. The storage shed should have a pucca floor raised at least 150mm above ground level, and it should be provided with air tight doors and windows. It is a good practice that cement is moved in and out of the godowns in the first-in-first-out method. The drainage systems on the roof and around the godown should be well maintained, specially during the monsoon months. At site, the cement bags should be kept on a raised platform and covered with a tarpaulin. Cement stored for a long time tends to deteriorate and an indicative rate of its deterioration is given. Table 3: Possible reduction in strength of concrete made with stored cement PERIOD OF STORAGE OF CEMENT Fresh 3 months 6 months 1 year 2 years MINIMUM EXPECTED REDUCTIONS IN STRENGTH AT 28 DAYS (%) 0 20 30 40 50

5. TEST FOR ADULTERATION A sample of doubtful cement should be burnt for about 20 minutes on a steel plate heated on a stove. An adulterated sample will change in colour; unadulterated cement, on the other hand, will remain unchanged. Small pats of about 50 X 50 X 20 mm size should be made. If the cement is adulterated, the pats can be broken easily with the pressure of fingers the next day. It is, however, always advisable to send a sample to a laboratory for analysis and tests whenever there is doubt regarding the quality of cement.

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II. MINERAL ADMIXTURES


Mineral Admixtures are finely divided siliceous materials which are added to concrete in relatively amounts. They can be broadly divided into two groups, namely, 1. Reactive mineral admixtures, which could be either pozzolonic(for example, low calcium fly ash, silica fume), or cementitious (for example, ground granulated blast furnace slag), or both cementitious and pozzolonic (for example, high calcium fly ash) 2. Inert mineral admixtures, which have no cementitious or pozzolonic value and are generally added as a filler material (for example, silica flour, limestone powder, etc.). When the materials from the first group comprising of reactive mineral admixtures are used to partially replacement, they react with the calcium hydroxide in the hydrated cement paste to form complex compounds which result in a reduction in permeability, improvement in the ultimate strength, water tightness and durability, besides imparting economy to the mix. However, these admixtures need to be uniformly blended while mixing the concrete. Incidentally, blended cements such as PPC and PBSC contain mineral admixtures as per relevant Indian standards. They are manufactured under controlled conditions in a factory and contain these admixtures uniformly. These cements are most suitable for site as well as ready mixed concrete. The IS 456:2000 permits the use of the following mineral admixtures, provided uniform blending with cement is ensured: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Fly Ash Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS) Silica Fume Rice Husk Ash Metakaolin.

The use of mineral admixtures directly at site in concrete is still in its infancy in India and is mainly restricted to the ready mixed concrete. Excepting silica fume, none of these admixtures are readily available commercially in the market. While the specifications of silica fume, rice husk ash and metakaolin are yet to be formulated by the Bureau of Indian Standards, fly ash conforming to Grade I of IS 3812 and GGBS conforming to IS 12089 may be used as part replacement of ordinary Portland cement provided uniform blending with cement is ensured.

1. Limits of Mineral Admixtures to be used with cement : Table 4 Sl NO. 1 2 3 MINERAL ADMIXTURE Fly Ash (PFA) Slag (GGBS) Silica Fumes % TO BE USED 15 - 35 25 - 70 05 - 10 REFERENCE IS 1489 (Part 1) 1991 Amendment No.3, July 2000 IS 455 -1989 Amendment No.4, May 2000 IS 456 - 2000

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2. Requirements of Fly Ash for use as pozzolana and Admixture : Table 5 Characteristic Physical Requirements Fineness, minimum specific surface, m2/kg Lime reactivity, average compressive strength, N/mm2, Minimum Minimum compressive strength, at 28days, N/mm2, minimum Drying shrinkage, percent, maximum Soundness expansion, Autoclave test, percent, maximum Chemical Requirements Silicon dioxide(Sio2) plus aluminium oxide(Al2O3)plus iron oxide(Fe3O2), percent by mass, minimum Silicon dioxide(SiO2), percent by mass, minimum Magnesium oxide(Mgo), percent by mass, maximum Total sulphur as sulphur trioxide(SO3), percent by mass, maximum Available alkalis as sodium oxide (Na2O), percent by mass, maximum Loss on ignition, percent by mass, maximum 70.0 35.0 5.0 2.75 1.5 12.0 320 4.0 Not less than 80 percent of the strength of corresponding plain cement mortar cubes 0.15 0.8 Requirement of Fly Ash Grade I

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III.

AGGREGATES
Aggregates constitute nearly 70 to 75 percent of the total volume of concrete and are essentially inert in nature. A large number of properties of concrete are governed by them. Aggregates have two prime functions: namely, to provide concrete with a rigid skeletal structure and reduce the void space to be filled by the cement paste. The characteristics of aggregates are dependent upon three main features, namely, the mineralogical composition of the parent rock, exposure conditions to which the rock has been subjected to and the type of equipment and processes used in producing aggregates. Most natural rocks, whether massive or broken down by nature, are suitable for making concrete. In India, the rock types that are most generally used in concrete include: Basalt, Granite, limestone, Sandstone, etc. Crushed rock is the commonly used coarse aggregate in the country, although gravel is also used wherever available economically. For fine aggregate, river sand is used on a large scale. IS 456:2000 specifies that aggregates shall comply with the requirements of IS 383. Preference shall be given to natural aggregates. 1. Classification of Aggregates Aggregates are commonly classified into two sizes, fine and coarse; the dividing line being the 4.75 mm IS sieve. Where, however, the aggregate is a mixture of fine and coarse particles as it comes from the pit, riverbed, foreshore, quarry or crushing plant it is termed as all-in aggregate. Aggregates can also be classified into two more ways. Depending on the source, they could either be naturally occurring (gravel, pebbles, sand, etc) or synthetically manufactured (bloated clay aggregates, sintered fly ash aggregates, etc). Further depending on the bulk density, aggregates can either be normal weight (1400 to 1600 kg/m3), light weight (less than 1200 kg/m3), or heavy weight (above 2000 kg/m3). 2. Grading of Aggregates The distribution of the sizes of aggregate particles is called grading. Grading is an important property of aggregate for concrete in view of its effect on the packing, and thus voidage, which will in turn influence the water demand and cement content of concrete. Uniformity of grading within and between consignments is most vital. Grading is usually described in terms of cumulative percentage by mass of aggregate passing particular IS sieves. As mentioned earlier, aggregates are classified into two sizes, Fine and Coarse; the dividing line being the 4.75 mm IS sieve.

Coarse Aggregates are described either as graded, that is having more than one size of particles, or single
sized, that is mainly retained between two adjacent sieves in the upper part of the list. Table 6: Grading limits for single-sized coarse aggregates (Ref: Clause 4.1 and 4.2 of IS 383:1970) Percentage passing for single sized aggregate of nominal size IS Sieve 63 mm 80 mm 63 mm 40 mm 20 mm 16 mm 12.5mm 10 mm 4.75mm 100 85-100 0-30 0-5 0-5 40 mm 100 85-100 0-20 0-5 20 mm 100 85-100 0-20 0-5 16 mm 100 85-100 0-30 0-5 12.5mm 100 85-100 0-45 0-10 10 mm 100 85-100 0-20

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Fine Aggregate, depending on its fineness modulus (FM), is divided into three categories, namely,
Table 7: Fineness modulus Fine Aggregate Fine Medium Coarse Fineness modulus (FM) 2.2 to 2.6 2.6 to 2.9 2.9 to 3.2

Table 8: Grading Limits for Fine Aggregates (Ref: Clause 4.3 of IS 383:1970) Percentage Passing Zone I 90 - 100 60 95 30 70 15 34 05 20 0 - 10 Zone II 90 - 100 75 100 55 90 35 59 08 30 0 - 10 Zone III 90 - 100 85 100 75 100 60 79 12 40 0 - 10 Zone IV 95 - 100 95 - 100 90 100 80 100 15 50 0 - 15

IS Sieve designation 4.75 mm 2.36 mm 1.18 mm 600 micron 300 micron 150 micron

Note: 1 for crushed stone sands, the permissible limit on 150-micron IS sieve is increased to 20 percent. Note: 2 it is recommended that fine aggregate conforming to Grading zone IV should not be used in reinforced concrete unless tests have been made to ascertain the suitability of proposed mix proportions. 3. Quality of Aggregates The aggregates used to make concrete must be clean, dense, hard, durable, structurally sound, capable of developing good bond with cement, weather-resisting, and unaffected by water. Most of the aggregates available in country have adequate strength and other properties for using in concrete. The properties of the concrete depend upon the quality of the aggregates- their strength, water absorption, shape and texture, the maximum size of aggregate, etc. Typical Bulk density, specific gravity, approximate water absorption of different types of aggregates and the limiting value of its mechanical properties are mention below.

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Table 9(a): Aggregates: Bulk density and Specific gravity Bulk Density, Kg/m3 River Sand Fine Medium Coarse Beach or river shingle Broken stone Stone screenings Broken Granite Specific Gravity Trap Granite Gravel Sand

1440 1520 1600 1600 1600 1440 1680 2.9 2.8 2.66 2.65

Table 9(b): Aggregates: Limiting values of mechanical properties (Ref: IS 383:1970) Properties Crushing value Impact value Abrasion value For wearing surfaces (%) 30 30 30 Other than for wearing surfaces (%) 45 45 50

Table 10: Approximate water absorption of aggregates, by weight Average sand Pebbles and crushed limestone Trap rock and granite Porous sand stone Very light and porous aggregates may absorb as much as 1.0 percent 1.0 percent 0.5 percent 7.0 percent 25 percent by weight

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4. Deleterious Materials Impurities in aggregates are undesirable as they may hinder the hydration of cement and prevent adhesion of the aggregates with the cement paste, reducing strength and lower durability. The limits of allowable deleterious materials as given in IS: 383:1970 Table 11: Limits of Deleterious Materials (Ref: Clause 3.2.1 of IS 383:1970) Fine aggregates Uncrushed 1.00 1.00 3.00 1.0 5.0 Crushed 1.00 1.00 15.00 2.00 Coarse aggregates Uncrushed 1.00 1.00 3.00 5.00 Crushed 1.00 1.00 3.00 5.00

Deleterious substances Coal and lignite Clay lumps Material finer than 75-micron IS sieve Shale Total of percentages of all deleterious material 5. Bulking of Sand

Sand as delivered sometimes contains moisture which causes a film of water on the surface of the particles, fluffing them apart. This is called bulking which will have to be taken into account while batching the mix. Tables show the bulking of sand for various moisture contents and the approximate quantity of surface water in a kilolitre of average aggregates. The values given in the table are applicable to nominal mixes only, particularly when no data about the surface water is available. Table 12: Bulking of sand for various moisture content Moisture, percent 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 15 17 20 27 Percentage bulking in Fine sand Medium sand Coarse sand 16 8 6 26 16 12 32 22 15 36 38 37 35 32 28 22 18 9 0 27 29 28 26 22 19 12 7 0 0 17 18 18 16 12 8 2 0 0 0

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Table 13: Surface water carried by aggregate Approximate quantity of surface water Percent by mass 7.5 5 2.5 1.25 - 2.5 Litre/m3 120 80 40 20 - 40

Aggregate Very wet sand Moderately wet sand Moist sand Moist gravel or crushed rock

6. Storage of Aggregates Storage on dusty, muddy, and grassy spots should be avoided. Dumps must be protected from exposure to dust. Aggregates should be place in stockpiles in individual units not larger than a truckload and in suitable layers to prevent segregation. They should not be allowed to run down slopes.

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IV.

WATER

The purpose of water in concrete is three-fold. Water distributes the cement evenly, so that every particle of the aggregate is coated with it and brought into intimate contact with it and brought into intimate contact with its neighbor. It reacts chemically with cement, the reaction being called hydration of cement, and brings about the setting and hardening of cement. Water also lubricates the mix and gives it the workability required to place and compact it properly. Ponding of the freshly hardened concrete with water is a widely prevalent practice in the country. Water used for mixing concrete should be free from Oil, acids, and alkalis, salts, sugars, organic materials, or any other substances that may be deleterious to concrete. Generally it should be of potable quality. The PH value of water shall not be less than 6. Sea water is not recommended for reinforced and pre-stressed concrete, but can be used only under unavoidable circumstances for plain concrete. It is well known that the Chloride and Sulphate contents of water have a major influence on the durability of concrete. In the latest revision of IS 456:2000, the permissible limits of these harmful agents have been made stringent. The Permissible limits for solids in water are given in the table. 1. Typical Limits for solid in water : Table 14 (Ref IS 456:2000 clauses 5.4)

Solids
Organic Inorganic Sulphates (as SO3) Chlorides (as Cl) For plain concrete For reinforced concrete Suspended matter

Permissible limits, max, mg/l


200 3000 400 2000 500 2000

In case of doubt regarding the development of strength the following test are specified in IS 456:2000. 1. Average 28 day compressive strength of at least three cubes (150mm) prepared with the water proposed to be used shall not be less than 90 percent of the average strength of cubes prepared with distilled water as per IS 516. 2. The initial setting time shall not be less than 30 min and shall not differ +/- 30 min from that of the cubes cast with distilled water as per IS 4031 (part V).

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V.

Chemical Admixtures

Chemical admixtures are sometimes called the fifth ingredient of concrete, other than cement, coarse and fine aggregates and water. They are inorganic or organic materialssolid or liquidwhich when added to the normal components of a mix (either concrete, mortar or paste), interact with the cementitious system through chemical, physical or physico-chemical means, modifying one or more properties of the mix in the fresh, setting, hardening or hardened state. A number of advantages can be derived with the use of admixtures. For example, in the fresh state of concrete, depending on the type of admixture used, they can increase the workability without increasing the water content, reduce or prevent settlement, modify the rate and /or capacity of bleeding, reduce segregation and reduce slump loss, retard or accelerate the time of initial/final setting. Aside from altering the properties of the fresh mix, they can retard or reduce heat evolution during early hardening, accelerating the rate of strength development at early ages, increase the compressive strength of concrete, improve durability, control alkali-aggregate reactivity, produce aerated concrete, improve bond between old and new concrete, inhibit corrosion of reinforcement, produce coloured concrete/mortar, etc. Chemical admixtures can be classified according to the purpose they are used, or according to the type of materials constituting them. Commonly-used admixtures are: 1. Water reducing /plasticizing admixtures 2. Set controlling admixtures, or retarders 3. Air entraining admixtures 4. Accelerating admixtures 5. High range water reducing, or super plasticizing admixtures. Besides the above, other types of admixture are also used. These include Grouting admixtures, pumping aids, bonding admixtures, expansion-producing admixtures, fungicidal, germicidal and insecticidal admixtures, etc. Commercially available admixtures may contain materials that separately belong to one or more groups. For example, a water-reducing admixture may be combined with a retarding admixture, and so on. The effectiveness of an admixture depends upon such factors as type, brand and amount of cement; water content; aggregate shape, grading and proportions; mixing time; slump; and temperatures of concrete and air. Trial mixes should be made with the admixture and the job materials at temperatures and humidity anticipated on the job. In this way the compatibility of the admixture with other job materials, as well as the effects of admixtures on the properties of the fresh and hardened concrete, can be observed. The amount of admixture recommended by the manufacturer, or the optimum amount determined by laboratory tests should be used.

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1. Physical requirement for the main types of admixtures as given in IS 9103:1999 are given in the table: Table 15

Requirement
Water content, percent of control sample, maximum Time of setting, allowable deviation from control sample, hours: Initial Maximum Minimum Final Maximum Minimum Compressive strength, percent of control sample, minimum: 1-day 3-day 7-day 28-day 6-month 1-year Bleeding, percent increase over control sample, maximum Loss of workability Air content, percent, maximum, over control

AA
-

RA
-

WRA
95

AEA
-

NSA
80

RSA
80

-3 -1 -2 -1

+3 +1 +3 +1

+/-1 +/-1 -

+1.5 +/-1.5 -

+4 +1 +/-3 -

125 100 100 90 90 5

90 90 90 90 90 5

110 110 110 100 100 5

90 90 90 90 90 5

140 125 125 115 100 100 5

125 125 115 100 100 5

* 1.5

** 1.5

Notes: AA: Accelerating admixture; RA: Retarding Admixture; WRA: Water-reducing admixture; AEA: Air entraining admixture; NSA: Super plasticizing admixture (normal); RSA; Super plasticizing admixture (retarding) *At 45 min the slump shall not be less than that of control mix concrete at 15 min **At 2 hour, the slump shall not be less than that of control mix concrete at 15 min.

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B. DURABILITY OF CONCRETE
Durable concrete can be defined as one that is designed, constructed and maintained to perform satisfactorily in the expected environment for the specified life of the structure without undue maintenance. The materials and mix proportions chosen should be such as to maintain the integrity of the concrete and to protect the embedded reinforcement. The principal causes of deterioration of concrete have been identified as: Carbonation, corrosion of reinforcement, sulphate attack and alkali-aggregate reaction. Generally, the concrete suffers from more than one cause of deterioration, which is generally seen in the form of cracking, spalling, loss of strength, etc. It is now accepted that the main factors influencing the durability of concrete is its impermeability to the ingress of oxygen, water, carbon dioxide, chlorides, sulphates, etc. Impermeability is dependent on the constituents and workmanship used in making the concrete. IS 456:2000 identifies various factors influencing durability as: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Environment Cover to the embedded steel Type and quality of constituent materials Cement content and water cement ratio Workmanship to obtain full compaction and efficient curing Shape and size of members.

IS 456:2000 classifies the general Environment in which the concrete will be exposed into five levels of severity--mild, moderate, severe, very severe and extreme. The code has also specified the values of minimum and maximum cement content, maximum free water cement ratio and the grades of concrete for different exposure conditions. These values are applicable for those mixes having 20 mm nominal size aggregate. For other sizes of aggregates, the values need to be changed as given in the table. It is to be noted that the minimum specified grade for reinforced concrete is M20. Incidentally, the grades of concrete have been classified into three different categories in IS 456, namely, 1. Ordinary concrete 2. Standard concrete 3. High strength concrete 1. Environmental Exposure Conditions : Table 16 (Reference IS 456:2000 Table 3) Sl No. 1 Environment Mild Exposure Conditions Concrete surfaces protected against Weather or aggressive conditions, except those situated in coastal area. Concrete surfaces sheltered from Severe rain or freezing whilst wet Concrete exposed to condensation and rain Concrete continuously under water Concrete in contact or buried under non-aggressive soil/ground water Concrete surfaces sheltered from saturated salt air in coastal area Concrete surfaces exposed to severe rain, alternate wetting and drying or occasional freezing whilst wet or severe condensation. Concrete completely immersed in sea water Concrete exposed to coastal environment Concrete surfaces exposed to sea Water spray, corrosive fumes or severe freezing conditions whilst wet Concrete in contact with or buried under aggressive sub-soil/ground water Surface of members in tidal Zone Members in direct contact with liquid/solid aggressive chemicals

Moderate

Severe

4 5

Very Severe Extreme

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2. Minimum Cement Content, Maximum Water-cement ratio and Minimum grade of concrete for Different Exposures with normal weight aggregates of 20mm nominal maximum size : Table 17 (Reference IS 456:2000 Table 5) Plain concrete Minimum cement content Kg/m3 220 240 250 260 280 Maximum Free water-cement ratio 0.60 0.60 0.50 0.45 0.40 Minimum Grade of Concrete M 15 M 20 M 20 M 25 Reinforced Concrete Minimum cement content Kg/m3 300 300 320 340 360 Maximum Free water-cement ratio 0.55 0.50 0.45 0.45 0.40 Minimum Grade of Concrete M 20 M 25 M 30 M 35 M40

S.No

Exposure

1 2 3 4 5 NOTE:

Mild Moderate Severe Very Severe Extreme

Cement content prescribed in this table is irrespective of the grades of cement and it is inclusive of additions (Mineral Admixture). The additions such as fly ash or ground granulated blast furnace slag may be taken into account in the concrete composition with respect to the cement content and water-cement ratio if the suitability is established and as long as the maximum amounts taken into account do not exceed the limit of pozzolona (fly ash) and Slag (GGBS). 3. Limits of Mineral Admixtures to be used with cement : Table 18 S. No. 1 2 3 Mineral Admixture Fly Ash (PFA) Slag (GGBS) Silica Fumes % to be used 15 - 35 25 - 70 05 - 10 Reference: IS 1489 (part 1) 1991 Amendment No.3, July 2000 IS 455 -1989 Amendment No.4, May 2000 IS 456- 2000

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I.

Maximum Cement Content


Cement content not including fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag in excess of 450 kg/m3 should not be used unless special consideration has been given in design to the increased risk of cracking due to drying shrinkage in thin sections, or to early thermal cracking and to the increased risk of damage due to alkali silica reactions. 1. Adjustments to Minimum Cement contents for Aggregates Other than 20mm Nominal Maximum size: Table 19 Sl No. 1 2 3 Nominal Maximum Aggregate size mm 10 20 40 Adjustments to Minimum Cement content in kg/m3 +40 0 -30

II. Grades of Concrete: Table 20


(Ref: IS 456:2000 Table 2)
Grade designation M 10 M 15 M 20 M M M M M M 25 30 35 40 45 50 Specified characteristics compressive strength of 150 mm cube at 28 days, N/mm2 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80

Group

Ordinary Concrete

Standard concrete

High strength concrete

M 55 M60 M65 M70 M75 M80

Notes: 1. In the designation of concrete mix, M refers to the mix and the number to the specified compressive strength of 150 mm size cube at 28 days, expressed in N/mm2. 2. For concrete of compressive strength greater than M55, design parameters given in the standard may not be applicable and the values may be obtained from specialized literature and experimental result.

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III. Carbonation and chlorides in concrete


Generally, impermeable concrete provides adequate protection to reinforcing steel. However, the atmospheric carbon dioxide can react with the products of hydration resulting in the process of carbonation, which on reaching the reinforcing steel makes it vulnerable to corrosion. This process may take a few years, or even decades, depending on a host of factors, such as depth of cover, its permeability, level of CO2, type of cement and/or additive used, etc. Another major source of corrosion is the presence of chlorides in the concrete. The chlorides may get introduced into the concrete through the chlorides present in any of the ingredients, such as cement, aggregates, water, admixtures, etc, or through an external source into the hardened concrete. IS 456:2000 lays down the limits of the chloride content (as Cl) in concrete at the time of placing. 1. Limits of Chloride content of concrete : Table 21 (Ref: IS 456:2000 Table 7) Maximum total acid soluble Chloride content expressed as kg/m3 of concrete 0.4 0.6 3.0

Sl No.

Type or use of concrete

1 2 3

Concrete containing metal and steam cured at elevated temperature and pre-stressed concrete Reinforced concrete or plain concrete containing embedded metal Concrete not containing embedded metal or any material requiring protection from chloride

IV. Sulphates in Concrete


Sulphate attack can originate from ground water, soils, sea water or industrial effluents. The reaction depends on the concentration of sulphate ions present in sulphate solutions (that is, sodium, potassium ammonium or magnesium), C3A content of the cement and the quality of the concrete. Sulphates convert the free lime in the hardened concrete to calcium sulphate, and the hydrates of calcium aluminates and ferrites to calcium sulphoaluminates or sulphoferrites. These conversions occupy more than double the solid volume, which results in disruption, expansion and cracking of the concrete. IS 456:2000 stipulates that the total water soluble sulphate content of the concrete mix, expressed as SO3 should not exceed 4 percent of the mass of cement in the mix. The standard also gives recommendations for the type of cement, maximum free water cement ratio, minimum cement content required at different sulphate concentrations in near neutral ground water having a pH of 6 to 9.

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1. Requirements for Concrete Exposed to Sulphate Attack : Table 22 (Ref: IS 456:2000 Table 4) Dense fully compacted concrete made with 20mm nominal Max. size aggregates Min. cement content OPC or PSC or PPC OPC or PSC or PPC SSC or SRPC SSC or SRPC 3 III 0.5 to 1.0 1.9 to 3.1 1.2 to 2.5 PPC or PSC 4 5 IV V 1.0 to 2.0 More than 2.0 3.1 to 5.0 More than 5.0 2.5 to 5.0 More than 5.0 SSC or SRPC SRPC or SSC with protective coatings 350 370 400 0.45 0.45 0.40 280 330 310 330 Max. free water-cement ratio 0.55 0.50 0.50 0.50

Concentration of sulphates, expressed as SO3 Sl No. Class Total SO3 % 1 I Traces (<0.2) SO3 in 2:1 water: Soil Extract, g/l Less than 1.0 In Ground water, g/l Less than 0.3 Type of Cement

II

0.2 to 0.5

1.0 to 1.9

0.3 to 1.2

Notes: 1. Cement content given in the table is irrespective of grades of concrete 2. Use of supersulphated cement is generally restricted where the prevailing temperature is above 40 degree centigrade. 3. Supersulphated cement gives an acceptable life provided that the concrete is dense and prepared with a water cement ratio of 0.4 or less, in mineral acids, down to pH 3.5. 4. The cement content given in col.6 of this table is the minimum recommended. For SO3 contents near the upper limit of any class, cement contents above these minimum are advised. 5. For severe conditions, such as thin sections under hydrostatic pressure on one side only and sections partly immersed, considerations should be given to a further reduction of water cement ratio. 6. Portland Slag cement conforming to IS 455, with slag content more than 50 percent exhibits better sulphate resisting properties. 7. Where chloride is encountered along with sulphates in soil or ground water, ordinary Portland cement with C3A content from 5 to 8 percent shall be desirable to be used in concrete, instead of sulphate resisting cement. Alternatively, Portland slag cement conforming to IS 455 having more than 50 percent slag or a blend of OPC and slag may be used provided sufficient information is available on performance of such blended cements in these conditions.

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V.

Cover to reinforcement

It is observed that inadequate cover to the reinforcement is one of the major factors leading to early deterioration of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures. Provision of appropriate cover to all reinforcements and ensuring that the quality of the cover concrete including that of the cover blocks is same as that of the core concrete to go a long way in mitigating the problem of early deterioration. IS 456:2000 gives detailed guidelines on provision of cover. The code defines nominal cover as the design depth of concrete cover to all reinforcement, including links. In order to meet durability requirements, the cover for normal weight concrete, including links as specified by the code is given in below table.

1. Nominal cover to meet durability requirements (Ref: Table 16, IS 456:2000): Table 23 Exposure Mild Moderate Severe Very Severe Extreme Nominal cover not less than ( mm) 20 30 45 50 75

Notes: 1. For main reinforcement up to 12 mm diameter bar for mild exposure conditions, normal cover may be reduced by 5 mm. 2. For Exposure conditions of severe and very severe, cover may be reduced by 5 mm, where concrete grade is M35 and above. 3. Unless specified otherwise, actual concrete cover should not deviate from the required nominal cover by +10 mm.

The code specifies that for longitudinal bar in a column nominal cover shall not be less than 40 mm, or less than the diameter of the bar. In those columns of minimum dimension of 200 mm or less, where the reinforcing bars do not exceed 12 mm diameter, a nominal cover of 25 mm may be used. For footings minimum cover shall be 50mm.

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VI. Cover for Fire resistance:


For the first time, IS 456 has specified cover for fire resistance. The nominal cover of normal weight aggregate concrete shall be provided to all reinforcement, including links to meet fire resistance as specified in Table. 1. Nominal cover to meet specified period of fire resistance: Table 24 (Ref: Table 16A of IS 456:2000) Nominal cover Fire resistance, hr Beams
Simply supported Continuous

Slabs
Simply supported Continuous

Ribs
Simply supported

Columns
continuous

0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0 4.0 Note:

20 20 20 40 60 70

20 20 20 30 40 50

20 20 25 35 45 55

20 20 20 25 35 45

20 20 35 45 55 65

20 20 20 35 45 55

40 40 40 40 40 40

1. The nominal covers given relate specifically to the minimum member dimensions given in fig 1 of IS 456 : 2000 (page 34) 2. Cases that lie below the bold line require additional measures necessary to reduce risk of spalling.

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C. CONCRETE MIX DESIGN


Different ingredients of concrete need to be mixed in appropriate proportions during the production of concrete. This can be done either by volume or by weight, the latter being more precise and scientific. It is essential that concrete mixes be designed for a particular set of given ingredients to produce specific properties of concrete in the most economical ways. Rational proportioning of the ingredients of concrete, generally referred as mix proportioning or mix designing is a process by which one can arrive at the right combination of cement, aggregates, water and admixtures (if any) for producing concrete to satisfy given specifications. The purpose of mix proportioning is to obtain a product that will perform to certain predetermined requirements. The objective of mix design is to ensure that the concrete: 1. Complies with the compressive strength as laid down in the specifications 2. Conforms to the specified durability requirements to resist the environment in which the structure will be serviceable during its design life 3. has adequate workability 4. is capable of being mixed, transported, laid down and compacted as efficiently as possible 5. And last but not least, be as economical as possible. To achieve an optimum mix proportion to fulfill the above parameters is a challenging task. The work of mix designing is a trial and error exercise, which need to be carried out by an experienced person in a laboratory. The concrete mix needs to be designed to produce the grade of concrete having characteristic strength not less than the appropriate values given in Table 20. The mix also needs to be designed for adequate workability so that it could be being mixed, transported, laid down and compacted as efficiently as possible. Depending upon the placing conditions, European Standard (DIN EN206) has recommended different range of workability and these are given in Table 25. In addition, the concrete has to satisfy the durability requirements. Some of these requirements, namely the minimum cement content, maximum water cement ratio and minimum grade of concrete, as specified by IS 456 are already given in Table 17. It may be noted that the code has specified the minimum grade of concrete to be not less than M20 for reinforced concrete constructions.

a. Slump suitable for different placing conditions : Table 25


(Ref: DIN EN 206) SLUMP CLASS S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 SLUMP RANGE in mm 10 to 40 50 to 90 100 to 150 160 to 210 >220

USE OF CONCRETE Kerb laying Floor and hand placed pavements Mass concrete foundations, Normal reinforced concrete in slabs, beams and columns and Pumped concrete Trench filling, In situ piling Self compacting concrete

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I.

Guidelines for concrete mix proportioning

1.

Data for Mix Proportioning

The following data are required for mix proportioning of a particular grade of concrete: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. Grade designation Type of cement Maximum nominal size of aggregate Minimum cement content Maximum water cement ratio Workability Exposure conditions as per Tables 4 and 5 of IS456 Maximum temperature of concrete at the time of placing Method of transporting and placing Early age strength requirements, if required Type of aggregates, Maximum cement content and Whether an admixture shall or shall not be used and the type of admixture and the condition of use.

2.

Target Strength for Mix proportioning

In order that not more than the specified proportion pf test results are likely to fall below the characteristics strength, the concrete mix has to be proportioned for somewhat higher target average compressive strength fck. The margin over characteristic strength is given by the following relation: fck where fck fck S = target mean compressive strength at 28 days. = characteristics compressive strength at 28 days, and = Standard deviation = fck + 1.65 * S

Standard Deviation
The standard deviation for each grade of concrete shall be calculated separately. Standard deviation based on test strength of sample 1. Number of test results of samples: The total number of test strength of samples required to constitute an acceptable record for calculation of standard deviation shall be not less than 30. Attempts should be made to obtain the 30 samples (taken from site), as early as possible, when a mix is used for the first time. 2. In case of significant changes in concrete: When significant changes are made in the production of concrete batches (for example changes in the materials used, mix proportioning, equipment or technical control), the standard deviation value shall be separately calculated for such batches of concrete. 3. Standard deviation to be brought up to date: The calculation of the standard deviation shall be brought up to date after every change of mix proportioning.

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Assumed Standard deviation


Where sufficient test results for a particular grade of concrete are not available, the value of standard deviation given in table 26 may be assumed for the proportioning of mix in the first instance. As soon as the results of samples are available, actual calculated standard deviation shall be used and the mix proportioned properly. However, when adequate past records for a similar grade exist and justify to the designer a value of standard deviation different from that shown in table 26, it shall be permissible to use that value. Table 26: Assumed Standard Deviation (Ref: Table 1 of IS 10262:2007) Assumed standard deviation N/mm2

Grade of Concrete M10

3.5 M15 M20 4.0 M25 M30 M35 M40 5.0 M45 M50 M55

a. Selection of Mix Proportions


1. Selection of water cement ratio Since different cements, supplementary cementitious materials and aggregates of different maximum size, grading, surface texture, shape and other characteristics may produce concretes of different compressive strength for the same free water cement ratio, the relationship between strength and free water cement ratio should preferably be established for the materials actually to be used. In the absence of such data, the preliminary free water cement ratio (by mass) corresponding to the target strength at 28 days may be selected from the established relationship if available. Otherwise, the table 17 may be used as a starting point for selection of water cement ratio for respective environment exposure conditions. Note--- The supplementary cementitious materials that is , mineral admixtures shall also be considered in water cement ratio calculations in accordance with table 17. The free water cement ratio selected should be checked against the limiting water cement ratio for the requirements of durability and the lower of the two values adopted.

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2. Selection of Water content The water content of concrete is influenced by a number of factors such as, aggregate size, aggregate shape, aggregate texture, workability, water cement ratio, cement and other supplementary cementitious material type and content, chemical admixture and environmental conditions. An increase in aggregates size, a reduction in water cement ratio and slump, and use of rounded aggregates and water reducing admixtures or fly ash will reduce the water demand. On the other hand increased temperature, cement content, slump, water cement ratio, aggregate angularity and a decrease in the proportion of the coarse aggregate to fine aggregate will increase water demand. The quantity of maximum mixing water per unit volume of concrete may be determined from Table 27. The water content in table 27 is for angular coarse aggregate and for 25 mm to 50 mm slump range. The water estimate in table 27 can be reduced by approximately 10 kg for sub angular aggregates, 20kg for gravel with some crushed particles and 25 kg for rounded gravel to produce same workability. For the desired workability (other than 25 mm to 50 mm slump range) the required water content may be established by trial or an increase by about 3 percent for every additional 50 mm slump. This illustrates the need for trial batch testing of local materials as each aggregate source is different and can influence concrete properties differently. Water reducing admixtures or super plasticizing admixtures usually decrease water content by 5 to 10 percent and between 10 to 30 percent respectively at appropriate dosages. Table 27: maximum water content per cubic metre of concrete for nominal maximum size of aggregate (Ref: Table 2 of IS 10262:2007) Nominal Maximum size of aggregate, mm 10 20 40

Maximum water content, kg*** 208 186 165

*** - Water content corresponding to saturated surface dry aggregates. Note: These quantities of mixing water are for use in computing cementitious material contents for trial batches.

b. Calculation of Cementitious Material Content


The cement and supplementary cementitious material content per unit volume of concrete may be calculated from the free water cement ratio and the quantity of water per unit volume of concrete. The cementitious material content so calculated shall be checked against the minimum content for the requirements of durability and greater of the two values adopted. The maximum cement content shall be in accordance with IS 456. 1. Estimation of Coarse Aggregate Proportion Aggregates of essentially the same nominal maximum size, type and grading will produce concrete of satisfactory workability when a given volume of coarse aggregate on rodded density basis, is used per unit volume of concrete. Approximate values for this aggregate volume are given in table 28. It can be seen that for equal workability, the volume of coarse aggregate in a unit volume of concrete is dependent only on its nominal maximum size and grading zone of fine aggregate. Differences in the amount of mortar required for workability with different aggregates, due to differences in particle shape and grading, are compensated for automatically by differences in rodded void content.

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Table 28: Volume of Coarse Aggregate per unit volume of concrete for Different Zones of Fine Aggregate (Ref: Table 3 of IS10262:2007) Volume of Coarse Aggregate** per unit volume of concrete for different zones of Fine Aggregate Zone IV 10 20 40 0.50 0.66 0.75 Zone III 0.48 0.64 0.73 Zone II 0.46 0.62 0.71 Zone I 0.44 0.60 0.69

Nominal maximum size of Aggregate in mm

** Volumes are based on aggregates in saturated surface dry condition For more workable concrete mixes which is sometimes required when placement is by pump or when the concrete must be worked around congested reinforcing steel, it may be desirable to reduce the estimated coarse aggregate content determined using Table 28 up to 10 percent. However, caution shall be exercised to assure that the resulting slump, water cement ratio and strength properties of concrete are consistent with the recommendations of IS 456 and meet project specification requirement as applicable. 2. Estimation of Fine Aggregate Proportion With the completion of above procedure, all the ingredients have been estimated except the coarse and fine aggregate content. These quantities are determined by finding out the absolute volume of cementitious material, water and the chemical admixture; by dividing their mass by their respective specific gravity, multiplying by 1/1000 and subtracting the result of their summation from unit volume. The values so obtained are divided into coarse and Fine Aggregate fractions by volume in accordance with coarse aggregate proportion already determined. The coarse and fine aggregate contents are then determined by multiplying with their respective specific gravities and multiplying by 1000. 3. Combination of Different Coarse Aggregate Fractions The coarse aggregate used shall conform to IS 383. Coarse aggregates of different sizes shall be combined in suitable proportions so as to result in an overall grading conforming to Table 2 of IS 383 for particular nominal maximum size of aggregate. Determination of mass per m3 yield and cement factor of freshly mixed concrete shall be carried out as per IS 1199.

c. Trial Mixes
The calculated mix proportions shall be checked by means of trial batches. Workability of the trial mix no.1 shall be measured. The mix shall be carefully observed for freedom from segregation and bleeding and its finishing properties. If the measured workability of trial mix no.1 is different from the stipulated value, the water and /or admixture content shall be adjusted suitably. With this adjustment, the mix proportion shall be recalculated keeping the free water cement ratio at the pre selected value, which will comprise trial mix no.2. In addition two mor trial mixes no.3 and 4 shall be made with the water content same as trial mix no.2 and varying the free water cement ratio by +/- 10 percent of the pre selected value. Mix no.2 to 4 normally provides sufficient information, including the relationship between compressive strength and water cement ratio, from which the mix proportions for field trials may be arrived at. The concrete for field trials shall be produced by methods of actual concrete production.

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D. An Illustrative example of concrete mix proportioning is given below.

DESIGN MIX
STIPULATIONS FOR PROPORTIONING

01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. 07. 08. 09. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Grade designation Type of Cement Maximum nominal size of aggregate Minimum cement content Maximum water cement ratio Workability Exposure Condition Method of concrete Placing Degree of Supervision Type of Fine Aggregate Type of Coarse Aggregate Maximum cement content Type of Chemical Admixture Brand of Admixture

M20 OPC 53 grade 20 mm 300 kg/m3 0.55 130 mm (Slump) Mild Pumping Good Natural River Sand and Crushed Rock fines Crushed Rock 450 Kg/m3 Super plasticizer. BASF Rheobuild 4839

TEST DATA FOR RAW MATERIALS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Cement used Specific gravity of Cement Specific gravity of coarse aggregate Specific gravity of Fine aggregate Water absorption of coarse aggregate Water absorption of Fine aggregate OPC 53grade conforming IS12269 3.15 2.65 2.61 0.5 percent 1.0 percent

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7.

Sieve analysis of Fine aggregate


Cumulative Percentage passing River Sand 98.5 93.3 66.3 41.0 14.3 7.4 Stone Sand 100 100 77 56 33 6 Requirements for Zone II as per IS:383-1970 (% Passing) 90 100 75 100 55 90 35 59 8 30 0 10

IS Sieve Designation

Cumulative % passing when river sand & stone dust are mixed in 70:30 98.95 95.31 69.51 45.5 19.91 6.98

4.75 mm 2.36 mm 1.18 mm 600 microns 300 microns 150 microns

8.

Sieve analysis of Coarse aggregate


Requirements of Cum. % passing for 20mm graded agg . as per IS:383-1970 95 100 ----25 - 55 0 - 10

IS Sieve Designation

Cumulative % Passing 20mm

Cumulative % Passing 12.5 mm

Cumulative % passing when 20mm&12.5mm are mixed in 58:42 ratio

20 mm 16 mm 12.5 mm 10 mm 4.75 mm

98.25 54.25 21.75 2.75 ----

100 100 95.84 61.68 0.20

98.98 73.46 52.86 27.50 0.08

Design Mix calculation for M20 grade


Target Strength for Mix Proportioning Fck = Fck + 1.65 * S Where Fck = target average compressive strength at 28 days. Fck = Characteristics compressive strength at 28 days. S = Standard deviation From IS 10262:2007, Table 1, standard deviation S = 4 N/mm2 Therefore, Target Strength = 20 + 1.65*4 = 26.66 N/mm2

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Selection of Water-Cement Ratio From IS 456:2000, Table 5, Maximum water cement ratio = 0.55 Based on experience, adopt water cement ratio as 0.53 0.53 < 0.55, hence OK. Selection of Water Content From IS 10262:2007, Table 2, Maximum water content for 20 mm aggregate = 186 Kg (for 25 mm to 50mm slump range) Estimated water content for 100 mm slump =186 + 3/100 * 186 =192 Kg As super plasticizer is used, the water content can be reduced up to 30 percent. Based on trials with super plasticizer water content reduction of 17 percent has been achieved. Hence the arrived water content = 192 * 0.83 =159.36 Kg Calculation of Cement content Water cement ratio = 0.53 Cement content =159/0.53 =300 Kg/m3 Check for exposure condition from IS 456, Table 5 Minimum cement content 300 Kg/m3 Hence, OK. Proportion of volume of coarse aggregate and Fine aggregate content From Table 3, Volume of coarse aggregate corresponding to 20 mm size aggregate and fine aggregate Zone II = 0.62 For Pumpable concrete these values should be reduced by 10 percent Therefore volume of coarse aggregate = 0.62*0.93 = 0.5766 Volume of fine aggregate content = 1 - 0.5766 = 0.4234 Mix Calculations Volume of Concrete = 1 m3 Volume of cement = (Weight. of cement/Sp.gravity of cement) * (1/1000) = (300/3.15) * (1/1000) = 0.0952 m3 = (Weight. of water/Sp.gravity of water) * (1/1000) = (159/1) * (1/1000) = 0.159 m3

Volume of Water

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Volume of chemical = (Weight. of Admixture/Sp.gravity of Admixture) * (1/1000) Admixture = (1.8/1.19) * (1/1000) (@0.6% by mass of = 0.0015m3 Cement) Volume of all in Aggregate Mass of Coarse Aggregate Mass of Fine Aggregate = (1-(0.0952+0.159+0.0015)) = 0.7443 m3 =0.7443 * 0.5766 * Sp.gravity of C.A * 1000 =0.7443 * 0.5766 * 2.65 * 1000 =1137.28 say 1130 Kg =0.7443 * 0.4234 * Sp.gravity of F.A * 1000 =0.7443 * 0.4234 * 2.61 * 1000 =822.50 say 810 Kg

MATERIAL REQUIRED FOR M20 GRADE - ONE CUM OF CONCRETE

01. 02. 03. 04.

Cement Free Water River Sand Crushed Rock Fines COARSE AGGREGATE

300 Kg 159 Kg. 570 Kg. 240 Kg

05.

20 mm 12 mm

660 Kg 470 Kg 1.80Kgs. 14.0 Kg 173 Kg - 0.53

06. 07. 08.

Admixture Water for Absorption (CA & FA ) Total Water

Free Water Cement Ratio

Note: 1) Weight Batching correction for Surface Moisture in Aggregates Should be Carried out Regularly.

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E. Making Good Concrete


The following points pertaining to materials and workmanship are important. 1. Cement: Select the appropriate type of cement. Use fresh cement of approved quality. Store it properly to prevent deterioration. 2. Aggregates: use well graded aggregates, free from silt, organic matter and other undesirable impurities. Store aggregates properly and dont allow different fractions to mix together. 3. Water: Use potable quality of water. It should be free from impurities and harmful ingredients. It should be within the tolerable limits specified by BIS. 4. Chemical Admixtures: Use appropriate type of admixtures in correct dosages, as recommended by the manufacturer, and or confirmed by laboratory tests. Ensure that the admixtures are compatible with the cement and other ingredients. Trial mixes should be mad, if necessary. Ensure that there is no batch to batch variation in quality. 5. Durability: Ensure that the durability requirements like minimum cement content, maximum water cement ratio, grade of concrete, cover to reinforcement, etc as specified in IS 456:2000 are satisfied for the given Exposure Conditions. 6. Mix Design: Use of properly designed concrete mix is essential for large jobs. BIS permits use of nominal mixes for works using concrete grades of M 20 and below. 7. Batching: Batching materials by weight is preferable and the BIS emphasize its use. If batched on volume basis, use measurement boxes in units of 35 liters, which is the capacity of one 50 kg bag of cement. The cement should, in any case, be batched only by weight and preferably by whole bags. Allowance for water on account of bulking of sand and surface water carried by coarse aggregates is essential. 8. Quantity of mixing water: Use the minimum quantity of mixing water, consistent with the degree of workability required to enable easy placing and compaction of concrete. 9. Mixing: Use a mixing machine. There should be uniform distribution of the material until the mass is uniform in colour and consistency. Avoid hand mixing. 10. Transportation: Avoid drying out, segregation, setting, loss of any ingredients, and ingress of foreign matter or water during transportation. 11. Placing: Place concrete in its final position before setting starts: avoid segregation of materials and disturbance of the forms: lay concrete in suitable layers without any break of continuity; maximum free-fall of concrete should not exceed 1.5m. 12. Compaction: Ensure thorough compaction, particularly around the reinforcement and embedded fixtures and into the corners of the formworks. Use internal/external form vibrators: avoid under and over vibration. 13. Finishing: Finish after a little stiffening. 14. Curing: Keep concrete continuously moist, preferably for a period of 7 to 14 days. 15. Formwork: Use formwork which is rigid and closely fitted, with sufficient strength to support the wet concrete and to prevent loss of slurry. The face of the form work should be treated with form release agents. 16. Reinforcement: Make sure that the reinforcement used is free from loose rust, oil, paint, mud, etc. The reinforcement shall be placed and maintained in position by providing proper cover blocks, spacers, supporting bars, etc. Reinforcement shall be placed and tied such that concrete placement is possible without segregation, and compaction possible by an immersion vibrator.

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F. A Laboratory Manual for Quality Control of Concrete


I. List of Laboratory Testing for Quality concrete

a.
1 2 3 4

Cement
Specific gravity of Cement Fineness of Cement Standard Consistency and Setting Time Compressive strength of Cement

b.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Aggregates
Specific gravity and Water absorption of Fine Aggregate Specific gravity and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate Unit Mass and Voids of concrete Aggregates Moisture content of Concrete Aggregates Fineness modulus and Grain size distribution Silt Content Bulking of Sand Flakiness and Elongation Indices of Coarse Aggregate

C.
1 2

Concrete
Slump Test Strength of Cement concrete

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a. CEMENT:
1. Specific Gravity of Cement
Object To determine the specific gravity of cement. Apparatus Weighing balance, specific gravity bottle, kerosene free from water, etc. Theory Specific gravity is normally defined as the ratio between the mass of a given volume of material and mass of an equal volume of water. One of the methods of determining the specific gravity of cement is by the use of liquid such as water free kerosene which does not react with cement. Procedure Weigh the specific gravity bottle dry. Let the mass of empty bottle be W1. Fill the bottle with distilled water and weigh the bottle filled with water. Let the mass be W2. Wipe dry the specific gravity bottle and fill it with kerosene and weigh. Let this mass be W3. Pour some of the kerosene out and introduce a weighed quantity of cement (about 50 grams) into the bottle. Roll the bottle gently in inclined position until no further air bubbles rise to surface. Fill the bottle to the top with kerosene and weigh it. Let this mass be W4. 5. Let the Mass of cement be W5. 6. From these data calculate the specific gravity of the cement. Observations and calculations 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mass of empty bottle Mass of bottle + water Mass of bottle + Kerosene Mass of cement Mass of bottle + cement + kerosene Sp. gr. of kerosene, Sp. Gr. of cement, W1, gm W2, gm W3, gm W5, gm W4, gm s = ( W3-W1)/(W2-W1) S = W5(W3-W1)/(W5+W3-W4)(W2-W1) 1. 2. 3. 4.

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2. Fineness of cement Object To determine the fineness of a cement sample by sieving through a 90 micron IS Sieve. Theory The degree of fineness of cement is a measure of the mean size of the grains in cement. The rate of hydration and hydrolysis and consequent development of strength in cement mortar depends upon the fineness of cement. To have same rate of hardening in different brands of cement, the fineness has been standardized. The finer cement has quicker action with water and gains early strength though its ultimate strength remains unaffected. However, the shrinkage and cracking of cement will increase with the fineness of cement. Apparatus 90 micron IS sieve, rice plate, weighing balance, bristle brush (25 or 40 mm brush with 250mm handle). The sieve has mesh openings of 0.087 mm. Procedure 1. Weigh accurately 100 gm of cement in a plate and transfer it to a clean dry IS test sieve and break down any air set lumps. 2. While holding the sieve and pan in both hands, sieve with gentle wrist motion until most of the fine material has passed through and the residue looks fairly clean. This usually requires three to four minutes. 3. Place the cover on the sieve and remove the pan. With sieve and cover held firmly in one hand, the other side of the sieve is tapped with the handle of the brush which is used for cleaning the sieve. Sweep clean the underside 0f the sieve. 4. Empty the pan and wipe it clean with a cloth. Replace the sieve in the pan and remove the cover carefully. Return any coarse material that had been caught in the cover during tapping the sieve. 5. The sieving is continued as described above for 15 minutes, rotating the sieve continuously throughout the sieving operation, involving no danger of spilling the cement. 6. Weigh the residue. Observations and calculations 1 2 3 Mass of cement taken on IS sieve Mass of residue after sieving, Fineness = mass of residue in gms / 100 Gm Gm percent 100 100

Result Residue of cement is _________ percent. Precautions a. Any air set lump in the sample should be broken down with fingers, but do not rub on the sieve. b. The sieve must be cleaned thoroughly before starting the experiment. c. The care should be taken to ensure that no cement is spilled. After sieving all residues must be taken out carefully and weighed. References 1. IS 4031 (part 1):1996 --Procedure for conducting the test

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90 micron IS sieve with Pan and Lid

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3. Standard Consistency and Setting Time Object To determine 1. Standard consistency and 2. Initial and Final setting times of a given cement sample by vicat apparatus. Theory and scope 1. Standard Consistency The object of conducting this test is to find out the amount of water to be added to the cement to get a paste of normal consistency, i.e., the paste of a certain standard solidity, which is used to fix the quantity of water to be mixed in cement and before performing tests for setting time, soundness and compressive strength. 2. Setting Time In order that the concrete may be placed in position conveniently, it is necessary that the initial setting time of cement is not too quick and after it has been laid, hardening should be rapid so that the structure can be made use of as early as possible. The initial set is a stage in the process of hardening after which any crack that may appear will not re-unite. The concrete is said to be finally set when it has obtained sufficient strength and hardness. Apparatus Vicat apparatus with vicat plunger, vicat needles and vicat mould, gauging trowel, measuring jar (100 to 200ml capacity), weighing balance, stop watch, rice plates, rubber gloves and glass plates. The Vicat apparatus consists of a frame bearing a movable rod with a cap at one end and detachable needle or plunger at the other end. The movable rod carries an indicator which moves over a graduated scale having graduations in mm from zero to 40 on either direction to measure the vertical movement of the plunger. The scale is attached to the frame. The movable part with all attachments, i.e., the cap and rod with needle or plunger, weighs 300gm. The Plunger required for determining the consistency, is of polished brass 10mm in diameter and 50 mm long with the lower end flat and small projection at upper end for insertion into movable rod. The Needle A, required for determining the initial setting time, is 1mm square or 1.13 mm in diameter with the lower end being flat. The Needle B, required for determining the final setting time, is the same as needle A but with a metal attachment hollowed out so as to leave a circular cutting edge 5mm in diameter, the end of the needle projects by 0.50 mm. The vicat mould for cement paste consists of a split ring 80mm in diameter and 40mm in height and rests on a non-porous plate.

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Vicat Apparatus with Mould, Plunger and needle A & B Procedure Standard Consistency The standard consistency of a cement paste ( the amount of water expressed as percentage by mass of the dry cement) which permits the Vicat plunger to penetrate to a height 5 to 7mm from the bottom of the vicat mould when the cement paste is tested as described below. 1. For preparing one mould take 400gm of cement passing 850-micron IS sieve and prepare a paste of cement with a weighed quantity of water (100ml) taking care that the time of gauging is between 3 to 5 minutes. The gauging time is counted from the time of adding water to the dry cement until commencing to fill the mould. 2. Fill the vicat mould resting upon non-porous plate with this paste. After completely filling the mould, smooth off the surface of the paste by single movement of palm making it level with the top of the mould. The mould may be slightly shaken to expel air. 3. Place the test block in mould with the non porous resting plate under the rod attached with the plunger. Lower the plungers gently to touch the surface of the test block and release it quickly, allowing it to sink into the paste. 4. Prepare the trial paste with varying percentage of water(firstly at an interval of 4%, that is of 24%,28%, and 32% and then at an interval of 1% and 0.25% between the percentage range determined by the previous test) and test as described above until the amount of water necessary for the standard consistency as defined is obtained. Setting Time of Cement 1. Prepare a neat cement paste by gauging the cement with 0.85 P water, where P = standard consistency as found before. The gauging time is again kept between 3 to 5 minutes. Start the stop watch at the instant when the water is added to the cement. 2. Fill the Vicat mould and smooth off the surface of the paste making it level with the top of the mould. The cement block thus prepared is known as test block. 3. For the determination of initial setting time, place the test block confined in the mould and resting on non-porous plates under the rod attached with the needle A, lower the needle gently in contact with the surface of the test block and release quickly, allowing it to penetrate into the test block. 4. Repeat this procedure until the needle fails to pierce the block for about 5mm measured from the bottom of the mould. The period elapsed between the time when water is added to the cement and the time at which the needle fails to pierce the test block by about 5 mm is the initial setting time. 5. For the determination of Final setting time replace the needle A of the vicat apparatus by the needle with an annular attachment B. The cement is considered finally set when, upon applying the needle B gently to the surface of the test block, the needle makes an impression thereon, while the attachment fails to do so. In the event of scum forming on the surface of the test block, use the underside of the block for the determination of final setting time.

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Observations and Calculations For Standard Consistency Mass of cement taken for one mould = 400 gm. 1 2 3 4 Percentage of water Initial reading Final reading Height not penetrated, mm

Note: Initial reading is the indicator reading when the lower end of plunger touches the bottom of non porous surface of the mould. For Setting Time Mass of cement taken = 400 gm Mass of water taken = 0.85 * P * 400 gm. 1 2 3 4 Results 1. Standard Consistency of cement = __________ percent 2. Initial setting time of cement =_______________ percent 3. Final setting time of cement =________________ percent Precautions 1. The experiment should be conducted at a room temperature of 27 +- 20C and at a relative humidity of 90 percent. 2. After a half minute from the instant of adding water, it should be thoroughly mixed with fingers for at least one minute. A ball of this paste is prepared and then it is pressed into the test mould, mounted on the nonporous plate. 3. The plunger should be released quickly without pressure or jerk, after the rod is brought down to touch the surface of the test block. 4. For each repetition of the experiment fresh cement is to be taken. 5. Plunger should be cleaned during every repetition and make sure that it moves freely and that there are no vibrations. References 1. 2. 3. 4. IS 4031 (part 4): 1988 IS4031 (part 4): 1988 IS 5513:1996 IS 10086:1982 --------Procedure for conducting Standard Consistency Procedure for conducting Initial and Final setting Time Specification for Vicat Apparatus Specification for Gauging Trowel Time in Minutes Initial reading Final reading Height not penetrated, mm

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4. Compressive Strength of Cement Object To determine the compressive strength of 1: 3 cement-sand mortar cubes after 3 days, 7 days and 28 days curing. Scope The compressive strength of cement mortar is determined in order to verify whether the cement conforms to IS specification (IS 12269 & IS 8112) for 53 & 43 grades respectively) and whether it will be able to develop the required compressive strength of concrete. According to IS, the ultimate compressive strength of cubes of cement sand mortar of the ratio 1 : 3, containing ((P/4)+3) percent of water should be as follows: Sl No. 1 2 3 Apparatus Compressive testing machine, cube moulds, vibrating machine, crucible for mixing cement and sand, measuring cylinder, trowels, non-porous plate and weigh balance. Description of the Apparatus Vibrating Machine Vibrating machine (12000+/- 400 rpm, amplitude of vibration 0.055 mm, and 3phase motor with automatic cut-off). It consists of a heavy frame, on one side of which is fixed an electric motor and on the other side there is a set of four springs. Above these springs is fixed a mould on another frame and this mould is removable. With the frame carrying mould, a pulley is attached and the belt runs on the pulley and the motor. The mould is fitted with a detachable hopper at the top. Through the hopper mortar or concrete can be put into the mould without any loss of sample. A weight is attached to the frame to keep the mould in balance. When motor is started, the belt moves the pulley and gives vibrations to the mould at the rate of 12000 +/- 400 cycles per minute. These vibrations are simple harmonic at 90o out of phase. The normal running speed of electric motor is 12000 +/- 400 rpm. Due to the load attached to the frame, the C.G. of machine falls near the weight. Cube Moulds The moulds are of special shape and dimensions. The cube mould for compression test has 70.5 mm side (5000 mm2 face). It is constructed in such a way that it can be split up in parts in order to take out the cube without any damage. The base plate is non-porous and of such a size that there should be no leakage of water from the bottom. The side of the cube mould is 70.5 +/- 1.27mm and angle between adjacent interfaces should be 90 +/- 0.5 degrees. Age in days After 3 days After 7 days After 28 days For 53 grade Not less than 27 Mpa Not less than 37 Mpa Not less than 53 Mpa For 43 grade Not less than 23 Mpa Not less than 33 Mpa Not less than 43 Mpa

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Vibrating Machine and Cube moulds of size 7.05 cm

Three Types of Standard Sand Procedure 1. Calculate the material required. The material for each cube shall be mixed separately and the quantities of cement and standard sand shall be as follows: Cement = 200 gm Standard sand = 600 gm Water = ((P/4) + 3) percent of total mass Where P is percentage of water for standard consistency. 2. Place the mixture of cement and standard sand in the proportions of 1:3 by mass on a non-porous plate or china dish and mix it dry with a trowel for one minute and then with water until the mixture is of uniform colour. The percentage of water to be used shall be ((p/4) +3). The time of mixing (gauging) in any event shall not be less than 3 minutes and if the time taken to obtain a uniform colour exceeds 4 minutes, the mixture shall be rejected and the operation is repeated with a fresh quantity of cement, sand and water. 3. Place the assembled mould on the table of the vibrating machine and firmly hold it in position by means of suitable clamps. Securely attach the hopper at the top of the mould to facilitate filling and this hopper shall not be removed until completion of the vibration period. 4. Immediately after mixing the mortar as explained above, fill the entire quantity of mortar in the hopper of the cube mould and compact by vibration. The period of vibration shall be 2 minutes at the specified speed of 12000 +/- 400 cycles per minute.

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5. Remove the mould from the machine and keep it at a temperature of 27 +/- 2 0C in an atmosphere of at least 90 percent relative humidity for 24 hours after completion of vibrations. 6. At the end of this period, remove the cube from the mould and immediately sub merge it in clean and fresh water and keep there until taken out just prior to breaking. The water in which the cubes are submerged shall be renewed after every 7 days and be maintained at a temperature of 27 +/- 2 0C. Keep the cubes wet till they are placed in machine for testing. 7. Test the specimens at the required periods. Observations and calculations
Grade of cement Age in days Weight of cube (Kg) Failure Load (KN) Compressive strength N/mm2 Avg. Comp. Strength N/mm2

Sl No.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Precautions

3 3 3 7 7 7 28 28 28

The mortar shall not be compressed into the moulds with hand. Neglect the results which fall outside by 15 percent of the average results on either side. The cubes should be tested on their sides and not on their faces. The inside of the cube mould should be oiled to prevent the mortar from adhering to the sides of the mould. The size of sand particles should be such that not more than 10 percent by mass shall pass a 60 micron IS sieve and shall completely pass through an 85 micron IS sieve. 6. The time of wet mixing shall not be less than 3 minutes. If the time of mixing exceeds 4 minutes to bring a uniform colour, the mixture shall be rejected and fresh mortar should be prepared. References 1. 2. 3. 4. IS 4031 (part 6)-1988 IS 10080 :1982 IS 10086 :1982 IS 650:1991 ------Procedure for conducting the test ---Specification for vibration Machine ---Specification for moulds & gauging Trowel Specification for Standard Sand

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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b. AGGREGATE
1. Specific Gravity and Water Absorption of Fine Aggregate Object Determination of specific gravity and water absorption of Fine aggregate. Theory and Scope The specific gravity of an aggregate is defined as the ratio of the mass of a given volume of sample to the mass of an equal volume of water at the same temperature. The specific gravity of fine aggregate is generally required for calculations in connection with concrete mix design, for determination of moisture content and for the calculations of volume yield of concrete. The specific gravity also gives information on the quality and properties of aggregate. Departure of specific gravity from its standard value indicates change in shape and grading. Absorption It influences the behavior of aggregate in concrete in several important aspects. A highly absorptive aggregate, if used in dry condition, will reduce effective water cement ratio to an appreciable extent and may even make the concrete unworkable unless a suitable allowance is made. Hence determination of absorption of aggregate is necessary to determine net water cement ratio. Apparatus Pycnometer bottle or flask, weigh balance, conical mould, metal tray and drying oven to operate between 1001100C

Pycnometer Bottle

Procedure 1. Calibrate the flask by weighing it empty and fill with water at room temperature. Roll and agitate the flask gently in an inclined position, to eliminate air. 2. Take a sample of fine aggregate and soak it in water and keep it for 24 +/- 0.5 hours. The temperature should be 27 +/- 50C. 3. Take out and spread the sample (approximately 1.5 kg) on a clean flat surface exposed to gently moving current of warm air until the material just reaches free running condition ( flowing freely). 4. Place the sand loosely in conical mould and tamp it on surface 25 times. Lift the mould vertically. If the sand retains its shape, it means free surface moisture is present. Continue the drying with constant stirring until the cone of sand slumps on the removal of the mould. This indicates that sand has reached a surface dry condition. 5. Immediately weigh 500 gm of saturated surface dry sand in the flask.

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6. Fill the flask with water to the top of the cone. Roll the flask in an inclined position to eliminate all air bubbles and replace with water by means of fountain pen filler. 7. Wipe the flask dry and weigh it accurately. 8. Calculate the specific gravity. Absorption Test 1. 2. 3. 4. Weigh the remaining 1000 gm of saturated surface dry sand in the tray of known weight. Dry the sample in an oven at 100-1100C for 24 hours Weigh the dry sand with tray. Calculate the absorption capacity as the percentage of oven dry Mass.

Bulk specific gravity =

W2/ (W2-(W3-W1)

Percentage absorption Observations and Calculations Mass of empty dry flask, W gm Mass of flask + water, W1 gm Mass of saturated surface dry sample, W2 gm Mass of flask + sample + water, W3 gm Mass of empty tray, We gm Mass of tray + saturated surface dry sample, Ws gm

(W4-W5)*100/W5

Mass of saturated surface dry sample, (We Ws) = W4 gm Mass of tray + oven dry sample, Wo gm Mass of oven dry sample, (Wo We) = W5 gm Bulk specific gravity Absorption percentage Precautions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The entire sample should be frequently stirred to secure uniform drying. The air trapped in the aggregate should be brought to surface by rolling the flask in inclined position. All weighing should be accurate to the nearest gm. Sand should not be allowed to stick to the sides of the jar or flask. The results of different repetitions should not differ more than 0.02 for specific gravity and 0.005 percent for absorption.

References: 1. IS 2386 part III 1963 ----- Methods of Test for Aggregates for Concrete

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2. Specific gravity and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate


Object Determination of specific gravity and absorption of coarse aggregate Scope For design of concrete mix, information should be available about the specific gravity of the aggregates. Specific gravity of an aggregate gives valuable information on its quality and properties. If the specific gravity is above or below that normally assigned to a particular type of aggregate, it may indicate that shape and grading of aggregate has altered. Apparatus Weigh balance, Wire basket 200 mm in diameter and 200 mm height of 4.75mm IS sieve net, water tub for immersing the wire basket in water, suitable arrangement for suspending the wire basket from centre of scale pan of balance and absorbent cloth for surface drying of the sample. Procedure 1. Take about 5 kg of aggregate by method of quartering; rejecting all material passing a 10 mm IS sieve. 2. Wash thoroughly to remove the dust etc. from the surface of particles. Dry to constant mass at a temperature of 105 +/- 50C. 3. Immerse the sample in water at 22 to 320C for a period of 24 hours. 4. Remove the aggregate from water and roll the same in a large piece of an absorbent cloth until all visible films of water are removed, although the surface of particles will still appear to be damp. 5. Now, weigh 3 kg of this sample in the saturated surface dry condition and note down the mass as W1 gm. 6. Place the weighed aggregate immediately in the wire basket and dip it in water. Weight this basket with aggregate, while keeping it in water, with the help of the balance. Note its mass as W3 gm. 7. Dry the sample to the constant weight at the temperature of 100 to 1100C for 24 hours. 8. Cool to room temperature and weigh. 9. Calculate the specific gravity and absorption of the aggregate. 10. Repeat the procedure for fresh aggregate.

Calculations and Observations The specific gravity of coarse aggregate is defined as the ratio between the mass of equal volume of coarse aggregate and water at the same constant temperature. Bulk specific gravity = mass of sample in air _________ Loss in mass of sample in water = W1 / W1-(W3-W2) of SSD sample in air. = mass of basket in water. = mass of basket + sample in water. = mass of oven dry sample in air.

Where, W1 = mass W2 W3 W4

Percentage absorption = (W1-W4)*100/W4

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Tabulate the observations as follow: Material Mass of saturated dry sample Mass of basket suspended in water Mass of material + basket suspended in water Mass of aggregate suspended in water Mass of oven dry aggregate in air Specific gravity Absorption present Precautions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The mass of sample should be accurate at all stages and should be determined to the nearest 0.5 gm. The sample should be free from foreign matters. The large fragments should be wiped individually. Avoid evaporation during surface drying operation. The absorbent cloth should be 1000mm x 1000 mm in size. It must be of such a type that it can absorb quite large quantity water. W1, gm W2, gm W3, gm (W3 W2) gm W4, gm

References: 1. IS 2386 part III 1963 ----- Methods of Test for Aggregates for Concrete

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3. Unit Mass of Concrete Aggregates


Object Determination of unit mass (bulk density) of concrete aggregates Scope The bulk density of an aggregate can be used for judging the quality by comparison with normal density for that type of aggregate. The bulk density determines the type of concrete for which it may be used. It is also required for converting proportions by mass into the proportions by volume and is used in calculating the percentage of voids in the aggregate. Apparatus Weighing balance, cylindrical container (3, 15 or 30 liter capacity) and a piece of glass plate to be used for calibrating the container

Procedure 1. Determine the volume of container to be used by accurately filling it with water at 16.70C and weighing the filled container. The mass of water in kg will give the volume of container in liters. 2. Take the sample by quartering. 3. Fill the container with aggregate to overflowing by means of a shovel, the aggregate being discharged from a height not exceeding 50mm above the top of container. 4. Level off the surface of the aggregate with a straight edge. 5. Determine the net mass of aggregate in the container. 6. Compute the unit mass of aggregate by dividing the net mass of aggregate in container by volume of container. Observations and Calculations Material and size of aggregate, mm Mass of empty container, Mass of container full of aggregate, Mass of aggregate in container, (W2 W1) = W Volume of Container, Bulk density of aggregate = W/V References: 1. IS 2386 part III 1963 ----- Methods of Test for Aggregates for Concrete W1 kg W2 kg kg

V liters kg/liter

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4. Moisture Content of concrete aggregates


Object Determination of moisture content (or surface moisture) in concrete aggregates by drying method. Scope The determination of moisture content of an aggregate is necessary in order to determine net water cement ratio for a batch of concrete. A high moisture content will increase effective water cement ratio to an appreciable extent and may even make the concrete weak unless a suitable allowance is made. Apparatus Weigh balance, metal tray (frying pan) and a source of heat. Procedure 1. Weigh approximately 1000gm of aggregate from the material to be tested by method of quartering in a metal tray. 2. Heat the aggregate in tray for about 20 minutes. 3. Weigh the tray with dry aggregate. 4. Take the aggregate out and clean the tray thoroughly and weigh it. 5. Express the loss in mass as a percentage of the dried sample to give the moisture content. Observations and calculations Material Mass of tray and sample Mass of tray and dry sample Mass of empty tray Moisture (by difference) Mass of dry aggregate Moisture content (%) Precautions 1. For accurate results, the aggregate should be dried and weighed until there is no further loss in weight. 2. The aggregate should be turned over at intervals during the drying period to prevent over heating of the parts of sample. 3. Heat should not be applied fiercely to avoid chemical change. (W1 - W2), gm (W2 - W3), gm w = (W1-W2) * 100 / (W2-W3) W1, gm W2, gm W3, gm

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5.

Fineness Modulus and Grain size Distribution


Object To determine fineness modulus and grain size distribution of given Coarse and Fine aggregates. Theory Fine aggregate is the sand used in mortars. Coarse aggregate that is the broken stone or gravel, and the mixed aggregate which is the combination of coarse and fine aggregates are used in concrete. The coarse aggregate, unless mixed with fine aggregate, does not produce good quality concrete for construction works. The size of the fine aggregate is limited to maximum of 4.75 mm gauge beyond which it is known as coarse aggregate. Fineness modulus is only a numerical index of fineness giving some idea of the mean size of particles in the entire body of aggregates. Determination of fineness modulus may be considered as a method of standardization of the grading of the aggregates. It is obtained by sieving a known mass of given aggregate on a set of standard sieves and by adding the cumulative percentages of mass of material retained on all the sieves and dividing the total percentage by 100. The object of finding the fineness modulus is to grade the given aggregate for obtaining a most economical and workable mix with minimum quantity of cement. Certain limits of fineness modulus for fine, coarse and mixed or all-in-aggregates are given in below table. The sample under test should satisfy these results so that the aggregate may give good workability under economical conditions.

Type of Aggregate Fine aggregate

Maximum size of Aggregate, mm 4.75 20

Fineness Modulus Minimum 2 6 6.9 7.5 4.7 5 5.2 5.4 5.8 Maximum 3.5 6.9 7.5 8 5.1 5.5 5.7 5.9 6.3

Coarse Aggregate

40 75 20 25

All-in-aggregate

30 40 75

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Apparatus Indian Standard test sieves : Fine wire cloth Nos. 4.75 mm, 2.36 mm, 1.18 mm, 0.6 mm, 0.3 mm, 0.15mm and square hole perforated plates 25mm, 20 mm, 16 mm, 12.5 mm, 10 mm and 4.75 mm, weighing balance, sieve shaker, trays, rice plates, drying oven (to operate between 100 to 1100C).

Standard IS brass sieves and G.I.sieves

Procedure b. Coarse Aggregate 1. Take 2 kg of coarse aggregate of nominal size 20 mm from a sample of 10kg by quartering. 2. Carry out sieving by hand. Shake each sieve in order: 25mm, 20mm, 16mm, 12.5mm, 10mm, 4.75mm over a clean dry tray for a period of 2 minutes. The shaking is done with a varied motion; backwards and forwards, left to right, circular clockwise and anticlockwise and with frequent jarring, so that the material is kept moving over the sieve surface in frequently changing directions. 3. Find the mass of aggregate retained on each sieve taken in order. c. Fine Aggregate 1. Take 1 kg of sand from a laboratory sample of 10 kg by quartering and break clay lumps, if any in a clean dry rice plate. 2. Arrange the sieves in order of IS sieve nos. 4.75mm, 2.36mm, 1.18mm, 0.6mm, 0.3mm, 0.15mm keeping sieve nos. 4.75mm at the top and 0.15mm at the bottom. Fix them in the sieve shaking machine with the pan at the bottom and cover at the top. 3. Keep the sand in the top sieve; carry out the sieving in the set of sieves as arranged before for not less than 5 minutes. 4. Find mass retained on each sieve. Fineness modulus is an empirical factor which is obtained by dividing the sum of the cumulative percentages of aggregate retained on each Indian Standard sieve taken in order by 100.

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Observations and Calculations A. Coarse Aggregate Mass of coarse Aggregate, W = ___________grams.


Mass retained Percentage retained Cumulative percentage retained Percentage passing

Sl. No.

Sieve No.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

25 mm 20 mm 16 mm 12.5mm 10 mm 4.75mm Pan C=

Fineness modulus of coarse aggregate = C/100 = B. Fine Aggregate Mass of fine aggregate, W = ___________Grams.
Sl. No. Sieve No. Mass retained Percentage retained Cumulative percentage retained Percentage passing

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

4.75 mm 2.36 mm 1.18 mm 0.6 mm 0.30 mm 0.15 mm Pan F=

Fineness modulus of Fine aggregate = F / 100 = Precautions 1. Sieves should be cleaned before use. 2. Stiff worn out brushes should not be used. 3. The sieving must be done carefully to prevent the spilling of the aggregates. 4. Do not apply pressure to force the particles through the mesh. References: 1. IS 383: 1970 ----Specifications for coarse and fine aggregates from natural source for concrete.

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6.

Silt Content

Object To determine the silt content in sand by volumetric method field test Apparatus Measuring jar of 500ml Procedure 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Prepare 1% solution by mixing 10gms of common salt in 1litre of water. Put this solution in measuring jar up to the mark of 100 ml. Add Sand as received in the jar till its level reaches 200 ml. Add Solution again so that the mixture reaches the level of 300 ml. Measuring jar top is now covered with the palm of hand and shake vigorously by turning upside down. Then allow it to stand undisturbed for an interval of time. Take the reading of sand in a jar after settling (h1). Take the reading of total sample in a jar after settling (h2). Then the reading of silt (h) = (h2-h1)

Calculations Silt content (%) = (h / h2) x100

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7. Bulking of Fine Aggregate


Object Determination of necessary adjustment for the bulking of fine aggregate by field method Theory and Scope In concrete mix design, the quantity of fine aggregate used in each batch should be related to the known volume of cement. The difficulty with measurement of fine aggregate by volume is the tendency of sand to vary in bulk according to moisture content. The extent of this variation is given by this Test. If sand is measured by volume and no allowance is made for bulking, the mix will be richer than that specified because for given mass, moist sand occupies a considerably larger volume than the same mass of dry sand, as the particles are less closely packed when the sand is moist. If as is usual, the sand is measured by loose volume, it is necessary in such a case to increase the measured volume of the sand, in order that the amount of sand put into concrete may be the amount intended for the nominal mix used (based on the dry sand). It will be necessary to increase the volume of sand by the percentage bulking. The correction to be made is only a rough method at the best, but a correction of the right order can easily be determined and should be applied in order to keep the concrete uniform. This experiment is intended to cover the field method of determining the necessary adjustment for bulking of fine aggregate. Apparatus Weighing balance, cylindrical container, graduated cylinder, metal tray, steel rule and oven

Procedure 1. Fill the container to about two-third full with given sand loosely. 2. Level off the top of sand and measure the height by pushing a steel rule vertically down through the sand at the middle to the bottom, let it be h mm. 3. Take the sand out into a clean metal tray without any loss. 4. Fill the container with water to half full.

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5. Pour the sand back into the container and stir it with a steel rod 6 mm in diameter so that volume may reduce to a minimum. 6. Smooth and level the top surface of the inundated sand and measure its depth at the middle with the steel rule. Let it is h mm. 7. Calculate percentage of bulking of sand due to moisture, using the following formula. Percentage Bulking = ((h-h)*100)/h Comments and Discussions It is seen that bulking increases with increasing water content up to a certain point where it is maximum and then it begins to decrease until when the sand is inundated with bulking being practically nil. With ordinary sands the bulking usually varies between 15 and 30 percent. If, therefore, in volume batching no allowance is made for bulking, the mix will be richer than specified. For example, when the sand has bulked by say 15 percent the mix 1:2:4 by volume batching will correspond to 1:1.74:4 and for 30 percent bulking the ratio 1:2:4 will correspond to 1:1.54:4. An increase in bulking from 15 to 30 percent will result into an increase in concrete strength by as much as 13 percent. If no allowance is made for bulking, concrete strength may vary by as much as 25 percent. In absence of such a test it is common to assume that the normal dampness present in sand results in 25 percent bulking. References: 1. IS 2386 part III 1963 ----- Methods of Test for Aggregates for Concrete

8. Flakiness and Elongation Indices of Coarse Aggregate


Object To determine the Flakiness and Elongation indices of Coarse Aggregates Theory An aggregate having least dimension less than 3/5th of its mean dimension is termed as flaky. Where the mean dimension is the average of the sieve sizes through which the particles pass and the sieve size on which these are retained. On the other hand the particles having the largest dimension (length) greater than 9/5 times the mean size are termed elongated. The presence of excess of flaky and elongated particles in concrete aggregate decreases the workability appreciably for a given water cement ratio, thus requiring larger amounts of sand, cement and water. The flaky and elongated particles tend to orient in one plane and cause laminations which adversely affect the durability of the concrete. The percentage of flaky and elongated particles should be limited to 15 to 20. Apparatus Weighing balance, a set of sieves ranging from 25mm IS sieve to 10mm IS sieves, thickness gauge and length gauge.

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Thickness Gauge and Length gauge Procedure a. To determine the flakiness index of coarse aggregate 1. Take a sufficient quantity W1 of coarse aggregate by quartering so as to provide at least 200 pieces of any fraction. 2. Carry out sieving by hand. Shake each sieve in order: 25mm, 20mm, 16mm, 12.5mm, 10mm and 6.3mm, over a clean dry tray for a period not less than 2 minutes. The shaking is done with a varied motion: backward and forward, left to right, circular, clockwise and anticlockwise and with frequent jarring, so that the material is kept moving over the sieve surface in frequently changing directions. 3. Pass the separated aggregate fractions as retained on the sieves in step 2 through the corresponding slots in the thickness gauge as shown. E.g. the material passing through 25mm sieve and retained on 20mm sieve is passed through 0.5(25+20) x 3/5 = 13.5 mm slot. Determine the mass of aggregate passing through each of the slots. 4. Find the total mass W2 of the materials passing through the slots of the thickness gauge. 5. Calculate the flakiness index as defines below: The flakiness index is an empirical factor expressing the total material passing through the slots of the thickness gauge as the percentage of the mass of sample taken for testing. b. To determine the elongation index of coarse aggregate 1. Take a sufficient quantity W3 of coarse aggregate by quartering so as to provide at least 200 pieces of any fraction. 2. Carry out sieving by hand. Shake each sieve in order: 25mm, 20mm, 16mm, 12.5mm, 10mm and 6.3mm as explained in the part A so that the material is kept moving over the sieve surface in frequently changing directions. 3. Pass the separated aggregate fractions as retained on the sieves in step 2 through the corresponding length gauge size as shown. E.g. the material passing through 25mm sieve and retained on 20mm sieve is passed through (9/5) x (25+20)/2 = 40.5 mm slot. A particle of length which cannot pass through the corresponding gauge size is taken as retained by the length gauge. Determine the mass of aggregate retained on each of the length gauge sizes. 4. Find the total mass W4 of the material retained on the length gauges. 5. Determine the elongation index as percentage material retained by the length gauges of the total material taken for testing.

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Observations and Calculations A. Flakiness index of coarse aggregate Mass of aggregate, W1 = ________grams
Size of Aggregate Sl No. Passing through IS: sieve, mm Retained on IS: sieve mm, Thickness gauge size, mm Mass of aggregate passing through the slot, gm

1 2 3 4 5

25 20 16 12.5 10

20 16 12.5 10 6.3

13.5 10.8 8.55 6.75 4.89 W=W2

Flakiness index of coarse aggregate = W2/W1 X 100 = _______percent. B. Elongation index of aggregate Mass of aggregate, W3 = __________grams
Size of Aggregate Sl No. Passing through IS: sieve, mm Retained on IS: sieve mm, Thickness gauge size, mm Mass of aggregate retained on the length gauge, gm

1 2 3 4 5

25 20 16 12.5 10

20 16 12.5 10 6.3

40.5 32.4 25.6 20.2 14.7 W=W4

Elongation index = W4/W3 X 100 = _________percent. Precautions 1. The representative sample should be taken by quartering. For quartering, the sample is thoroughly mixed and spread out evenly on the clean surface; it is then cut into four equal parts by a trowel. Two opposite quarters are taken and mixed to make the sample. If any further quantity reduction is required, the process may be repeated. 2. The particles of length which cannot pass through the length gauge size are taken to be retained by the length gauge. They should not be forced to pass through an opening. References: 1. IS 2386 part III 1963 ----- Methods of Test for Aggregates for Concrete

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c. CONCRETE
1. Slump Test
Object To determine the consistency of concrete mix of given proportions by the Slump test. Theory Unsupported fresh concrete, flows to the sides and a sinking in height takes place. This vertical settlement is known as Slump. In this test fresh concrete is filled into a mould of specified shape and dimensions, and the settlement or slump is measured when supporting mould is removed. Slump increases as water content is increased. For different works different slump values have been recommended as shown in the table. Slump is a measure indicating the consistency or workability of cement concrete. It gives an idea of water content needed for concrete to be used for different works. A concrete is said to be workable if it can be easily mixed and placed, compacted and finished. A workable concrete should not show any segregation or bleeding. Segregation is said to occur when coarse aggregate tries to separate out from the finer material and a concentration of coarse aggregate at one place occurs. This results in large voids, less durability and strength. Bleeding of concrete is said to occur when excess water comes up at the surface of concrete. This causes small pores through the mass of concrete and is undesirable. Apparatus Iron pan to mix concrete, trowels, Slump test apparatus and tamping rod. The slump cone is a hollow frustum made of thin steel sheet, with internal dimensions as: the top diameter 100 mm, the bottom diameter 200 mm and the height 300 mm. It stands on a plane non-porous surface. To facilitate vertical lifting from moulded concrete it is provided with a suitable attachment and suitable foot pieces and handles. The tamping rod is 16 mm in diameter, 0.6 m long and is bullet pointed at the lower end.

Slump Test Apparatus Procedure 1. Collect the fresh concrete from the Mixer and mix the concrete thoroughly to get a uniform mix. 2. Place the mixed concrete in the cleaned slump cone mould in the 4 layers, each approximately of the height of the mould. Tamp each layer 25 times with tamping rod distributing the strokes in a uniform manner over the cross section of the mould. For the second and subsequent layers the tamping rod should penetrate in to the underlying layer. 3. Strike off the top with a trowel or tamping rod so that the mould is exactly filled. 4. Remove the cone immediately, raising it slowly and carefully in the vertical direction. 5. As soon as the concrete settlement comes to a stop, measure the subsidence of concrete in mm which will give the slump.

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The recommended slump values for different placing conditions (Ref: DIN EN 206) Use of Concrete Kerb laying Floor and hand placed pavements Mass concrete foundations, Normal reinforced concrete in slabs, beams and columns and Pumped concrete Trench filling, In situ piling Self compacting concrete References: 1. IS 1199 1959 ----- Methods of Sampling and Analysis of Concrete Slump Class S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 Slump range in mm 10 to 40 50 to 90 100 to 150 160 to 210 >220

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2. Strength of Cement Concrete


Object To determine the Characteristic compressive strength of concrete Theory and Scope One of the important properties of concrete is its strength in compression. The strength in compression has a definite relationship with all the other properties of concrete, i.e., these properties are improved with the improvement in compressive strength, hence the importance of the test. The height of the test specimen in relation to its lateral dimensions greatly influences the results. The more slender the test specimen, lower will be the crushing strength. The ratio of the minimum dimension of the specimen to maximum size of aggregate should be at least 4: 1. Apparatus Cube moulds fitted tightly on base plate (size in mm 150x150x150) in required set (One set comprises of 9 moulds, for 3, 7 and 28 days test), Smooth Tamping rod of size 16 mm dia and length of 600 mm with one rounded edge, Trowels small and large, Collection pan, Flat working platform of adequate size, weighing balance and 200 tones compression testing Machine.

Compression Testing Machine of 200 tones capacity and 15cm cube mould

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Procedure A. Sampling 1. Cube moulds shall be verified for dimensions and tight fitting assembly. They shall be lightly oiled and have clean surfaces. 2. Cube moulds shall be arranged in sets on working platform. 3. Collect the fresh concrete from the Mixer and mix the concrete thoroughly to get a uniform mix. 4. Fill the mixed concrete in cube moulds in 3 layers, each approximately 5cm or 1/3rd of the height of the mould. Tamp each layer 35 times with tamping rod distributing the strokes in a uniform manner over the surface of the layer. For the second and subsequent layers the tamping rod should penetrate in to the underlying layer. 5. Care to be taken particularly at corners. Trowels can be used at sides to ensure proper surface of sides and allow entrapped air to escape. 6. Struck off concrete flush with the top of the moulds. 7. Cube concrete surface shall be marked with Cube I.D. , Mix, location of use, date, source of concrete ( additional) when adequately set. 8. Cubes thus cast, shall be covered with wet gunny bags till they are replaced in curing tank. 9. Cubes shall be checked for surface correctness, sharp edges and incorrect filling. Such defective cubes may be rejected there it self. 10. Details of Cubes thus sampled shall be entered serially in Cube Register maintained for testing compressive strength. 11. The number of cube samples cast shall also be entered in concrete batch ticket and pour card with proper traceability to cube register. B. Curing Specimens are removed from the moulds after 24 hours and placed in curing tank. Cubes shall be arranged in the curing tank sequentially as per ID mark, date wise. Cubes shall be sorted out for 7 days, 28 days tests. Cubes shall be placed in the tank in layer of three cubes with marked top upside. Cubes once placed in tank shall not be handled, disturbed frequently so that edges are not broken. Water in tank shall cover cubes by at least 50-75 mm all the time. Water should be clean at a temperature of 27 30C.

C. Testing Remove the cubes required for testing from curing tank, wipe clean of water and air dry them to surface dryness. Stack cubes in sequence as per mix, dates, locations etc. Weigh the cubes and record the weights in the register. Place the specimen centrally on the location marks of the compression testing machine and load is applied continuously, uniformly and without shock. The rate of loading is continuously adjusted through rate control valve by hand to 14 N/mm2/minute. The load is increased until the specimen fails and record the maximum load carried by each specimen during the test. Also note the type of failure and appearance of cracks.

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Format for concrete cube Register Location with cube ID mark Age in days 3 3 3 7 7 7 28 28 28 Calculation Compressive Strength = Failure Load/ Area of Cross section Area of Cross section (for 150 mm cube mould) = 150 x 150 A = 22500 mm2 Failure Load = L KN = L x 1000 N Compressive Strength = L x 1000 / A = L x 1000 / 22500 N/mm2 N/mm2 Failure load in KN (L) Comp. strength in N/mm2 Avg. comp. strength in N/mm2

Sl No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Grade

slump

Date of casting

Date of testing

Weight of cube

Remarks

Compressive Strength = L / 22.5 References:

1. IS 516 1959 ----- Methods of Tests for strength of Concrete 2. IS 456-2000----- Plain and Reinforced concrete-code of practice

Precautions Both the mould and base plate should be lightly oiled before use to prevent the concrete from sticking to the moulds. Excess compaction should be avoided, particularly when using vibration with more workable mixes, as this is likely to produce segregation and loss of water from the spaces between moulds and their base plates. The blows should be evenly distributed over the surface of each layer. When compaction is completed the moulds should be slightly overfull, the surplus be struck off flush with trowels. At least three specimens should be used for each test and mean crushing strength of three being taken as crushing strength of concrete. While calculating the average load, if any, individual variation from the average is more than 15 percent the test results are discarded. Cube should be placed in testing machine centrally on platens.

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Frequency of Sampling (Ref: IS 456:2000) The minimum frequency of sampling of concrete of each grade shall be as below: Quantity of concrete in the work, m3 15 6 15 16 30 31 50 51 and above Number of samples* 1 2 3 4 4 + one additional sample for each additional 50 m3 or part there of

Note At least one sample shall be taken from each shift. Where concrete is produced at continuous production unit such as RMC plant, frequency of sampling may be agreed upon mutually. Note Three specimens shall be made for each sample for testing at 28 days. Additional samples may be required for determining strength at 3 days and 7 days or at the time of striking formwork. Remarks Sample* means quantity of concrete required to fill one set of cubes (3nos / 6 nos /9 nos) for testing. Hence number of sample is equivalent to number of cube sets (3 / 6/9 nos.). 3 cubes are drawn when only cube testing is done at 28 days. 9 cubes are drawn for tests at 3/7 / 28 days required. Always sampling of cubes should be done as set and these set of cubes (3/6/9 nos.) should be taken from any one of the transit mixer.

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