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EarthingSystem ProtectionAgainstElectricShocks EarthFaultsProtection ProtectionAgainstVoltageSurges

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Earth:TheconductivemassoftheEarth,whose electric l t i potential t ti lat tanypoint i tis i conventionally ti ll takenaszero. Anearth isdefinedasaconnectiontothe generalmassofearth.

BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

(1)Earthelectrode (2)Earthing conductor (3)Protectiveconductor (4)Electricalinstallation (5)Bondingconductor (6)Mainearthing terminal (7)Removablelink

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Aconductororothermetalisearthedwhenit is i effectually ff t ll connected t dto t the th general lmassof f earth bymeansofametalrodorasystemof metalwaterpipesorotherconductingobject. SolidlyearthedorBoltedearthedwhenitis earthedwithout theinterventionofafuse, , switch,circuitbreaker,resistor,reactor,or solenoid.
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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

Earthing ismeantbyhavingeveryitemof apparatus t and deveryconductor d t shall h llbe b preventedfromgivingrisetoearthleakage currents. Itiscarriedoutbyensuringanymetalliableto becomecharge g shouldbeearthandevery yp part oftheearthing circuitshouldbeproperly installed.
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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

Otheralternatives toearthing thatcouldbe employedarebyhavinganallinsulted construction,doubleinsulationandbyhaving anisolation. Earthing protectspeopleandequipmentfrom potentiallydangerousovervoltages and leakages associatedwithelectricalequipment inhomes,offices,retailoutletsandindustrial plant.
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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

Grounding
Connectingequipment eq ipmentandpointsonelectricalsystems s stems totheearth oranearthsubstitute. Purposeistolimitovervoltages betweentheequipment andtheearthduetolightning,faults,etc.

Bonding
Connectingequipmenttogetherandtothesystem neutral point. Purposeistolimitvoltages betweenequipmentandto provideapathforgroundfaultcurrent.
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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

Reason(1) Minimiseovervoltages
Lightning strike Utilityphase conductor Lightning arrester transformer

Utilityneutral conductor

Transformerearthrod

Serviceearthrod
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Reason(2) Limitvoltagepotentialon equipment i tenclosures l


Ungrounded motorframe Insulation breakdown Grounded motorframe Insulation breakdown

415V feeder conductors

240V

Equipment earthing conductor 400Vmotor

0V

400Vmotor

Earthing surface

Earthing surface
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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

Reason(3) Providealowimpedancepathfor fault f ltcurrent t


Ungrounded motorframe Overcurrent devices 415V feeder conductors Insulation breakdown Overcurrent devices I=0A IF Equipment earthing conductor IF IF IF 400Vmotor Grounded motorframe Insulation breakdown

400Vmotor

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Designingasafeearthing systemmeans providing idi the th easiest i tand dshortest h t t path thfor f the th faultcurrentwithoutexposingapersonto electricshock. Satisfactoryearthing isthemostimportantpart ofanelectricalinstallationbecauseoperation p ofalltheprotectivedevicesdependuponit.

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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

Thetotalimpedanceoftheconductor, connectingthemetalwork oftheinstallation totheearthelectrode(earthcontinuity conductor)measuredbetweentheearth electrodeandanyotherpart oftheinstallation atsupplyfrequencyshouldnotexceed1.0. Iftheresistanceishigherthan1.0 1 0 (excessive resistance),itisanindicationofimproper earthing.
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Earthlugterminalrusty Loosewireconnection Layersofpaintontheelectricapparatus Looseconnectionofearthwiretotheplugand socketoutlet Looseconnectionbetweenconduitand terminalbox

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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

T = Terre (French word for earth) I = Isolation (all live parts isolated from earth or supply connected to earth through an impedance for isolation. N = Neutral (in AC system, the earth point is normally the neutral point). S = Separ (neutral and protective functions provided by separate conductors). C = Combin (neutral and protective functions combined in a single conductor, PEN).
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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

TTsystem(earthedneutral)

One point at the supply source is connected directly to earth. All exposed and extraneousconductiveparts are connected to a separate earth electrode at the installation. This electrode may or may not be electrically independent of the source electrode.
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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

TNCsystem

Theneutralconductorisalsousedasaprotectiveconductorandisreferredtoasa PEN(ProtectiveEarthandNeutral)conductor.
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TNSsystem

The protective conductor and the neutral conductor are separate. On underground cable systems where leadsheathed cables exist, the protective conductor is generally the lead sheath.
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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

TNCSsystem

In the TNCS system, the TNC (4 wires) system must never be used downstream of the TNS (5 wires) system, since any accidental interruption in the neutral on the upstream part would lead to an interruption in the protective conductor in the downstream part and therefore a danger.
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ITsystem(isolatedneutral)

No intentional connection is made between the neutral point of the supply source and earth. Exposed and extraneousconductiveparts of the installation are connected to an earth electrode.
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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

ITsystem(impedanceearthedneutral)

An impedance Zs (in the order of 1,000 to 2,000 ) is connected permanently between the neutral point of the transformer LV winding and earth
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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

Simplest solution to design and install. Used in installations supplied directly by the public LV distribution network. k Does not require continuous monitoring during operation. Protection is ensured by special devices, the residual current devices (RCD), which also prevent the risk of fire when they are set to 500 mA. Each insulation fault results in an interruption in the supply of power, power however the outage is limited to the faulty circuit by installing the RCDs in series or in parallel. Loads or parts of the installation which, during normal operation, cause high leakage currents, require special measures to avoid nuisance tripping.
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TNCsystem

TNSsystem

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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

Requires the installation of earth electrodes at regular intervals throughout the installation. Requires that the initial check on effective tripping for the first insulation fault be carried out by calculations during the design stage, followed by mandatory measurements to confirm tripping during commissioning. Requires that any modification or extension be designed and carried out by a qualified electrician. May y result, , in the case of insulation faults, , in g greater damage g to the windings of rotating machines. May, on premises with a risk of fire, represent a greater danger due to the higher fault currents

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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

Solutionofferingthebestcontinuityofserviceduring operation. Indicationofthefirstinsulationfault,followedbymandatory locationandclearing,ensuressystematicpreventionof supplyoutages. GenerallyusedininstallationssuppliedbyaprivateMV/LVor LV/LVtransformer. Requiresmaintenancepersonnelformonitoringand operation. p Requiresahighlevelofinsulationinthenetwork(implies breakingupthenetworkifitisverylargeandtheuseof circuitseparationtransformerstosupplyloadswithhigh leakagecurrents).
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An electric shock is the pathophysiological effect of an electric current through the human body. body The degree of danger for the victim is a function of the magnitude of the current, the parts of the body through which the current passes, and the duration of current flow. When a current greater than 30 mA passes through a human being from one hand to feet, the person concerned is likely to be killed, unless the current is interrupted in a relatively short time.
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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

Zonestime/currentofeffectsofACcurrentonhumanbodywhenpassingfromlefthandtofeet
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Adirectcontactreferstoapersoncominginto contact islive t twith ithaconductor d t which hi hi li in i normalcircumstances.

Is=Touchcurrent

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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

Anindirectcontactreferstoapersoncoming i t contact t twith ithanexposed dconductive d ti part t into whichisnotnormallyalive,buthasbecome aliveaccidentally(duetoinsulationfailureor someothercause).
Is=Touchcurrent Id=Insulationfaultcurrent

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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

Protectionbytheinsulation ofliveparts Protectionbymeansofbarriersorenclosures Useofresidualcurrentoperatingdevice,which operateat30mA orless,andarereferredtoas RCDs ofhighsensitivity


RCD Insulation Envelope
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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

Theearthing ofallexposedconductivepartsof electricalequipmentintheinstallationandthe constitutionofanequipotentialbonding network. Automaticdisconnection ofthe supplyofthesectionofthe installationconcerned concerned,insucha waythatthetouchvoltage/time safetyrequirementsare respectedforanyleveloftouch voltage(Vc).
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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

Maximumsafeduration(disconnectingtime)of theassumedvaluesofACtouchvoltage(in seconds)notexceeding32A:


Vc (V) System TNorIT TT 50<Vc 120 0.8 0.3 120<Vc 230 0.4 0.2 230<Vc 400 0.2 0.07 Vc >400 0.1 0.04

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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

Theimpedanceoftheearthfaultloopconsistsmainly inthetwoearthelectrodes(i.e. (i e thesourceand installationelectrodes)inseries. Themagnitudeoftheearthfaultcurrentisgenerally toosmalltooperateovercurrent relayorfuses,and theuseofaresidualcurrentoperateddeviceis essential. essential Protectionbyautomaticdisconnectionofthesupply usedinTTsystemisbyRCD ofsensitivity:
I n 50 RA
RA istheresistanceoftheearthelectrodefortheinstallation
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TNC
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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

InallTNsystems,anyinsulationfaulttoearth resultsinaphasetoneutralshortcircuit. circuit Highfaultcurrentlevelsallowtouseovercurrent protectionbutcangiverisetotouchvoltages exceeding50%ofthephasetoneutralvoltageat thefaultpositionduringtheshortdisconnection time. time TheuseofCB,fuses,andRCDs maybenecessary onTNearthedsystems.
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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

Apermanentmonitoringoftheinsulationtoearth mustbeprovided, provided coupledwithanalarmsignal(audio and/orflashinglights,etc.)operatingintheeventofa firstearthfault. Duringaphasetoearthfault,thecurrentpassing throughtheelectroderesistanceRnA isthevectorsum ofthecapacitivecurrentsinthetwohealthyphases. phases TheuseofCB,fuses,andRCDs maybenecessaryon ITearthedsystems
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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

Earthleakagedevicesarebasedontheprinciple thattheamountofcurrententering adevice shouldbeexactlythesameastheamountof currentleaving thedevice. Earthleakageprotectiondevicesaredesignedto tripforfaultcurrentsbetween10and100mA and forinterrupt p timesbetween40and100 millisecondsafterafaultcurrentissensed. Ithasbeengraduallyreplaced byResidueCurrent Devices (RCD)suchasRCCB.
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Forregularhouses40A/63A,singlephaseor dependsonsupplydemandandmainswitch capacity,ELCB's sensitivityisnotexceeding 100mA. Forheaterwater,itshouldpossesseparate additionalELCB(otherthanno.1above)with sensitivityisnotexceeding10mAisneeded needed. Forloadwhichhigherthan100A,3phases, ELCB's sensitivitymustnotexceed100mA.
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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

To load

fault

earth Current Transformer

Trip p coil

Circuit Breaker

3wire 3phase supply

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DuringnormaloperationthecurrentfromsupplyLflows throughN1,totheloadandthenflowthroughN2before returningtoN. SincethenumberofturnsofN1andN2arethesame andthecurrentthroughthemisalsothesamethe resultingfluxintheironcoreiszero. However,ifthereisaleakagefromtheloadtothe ground,acertainamountofcurrentwillflowtothe ground. AssuchcurrentthroughN1andN2willnotbethesame resultinginsomemagneticfluxsettingupinthecore. Thefaultsensingwindingwilltripthetrippingdeviceif theleakagecurrentfallswithin10to100milliampere. Atestcircuitconsistingofapushbuttonandatest resistorisnormallyincludedintheELCBasshown.Its functionistocreateanunbalancecurrentintheN1and N2windings,andthecurrentflowthroughthetest resistorisgreatenoughforthefaultsensingwindingto tripthecircuitbreaker.
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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

TherearetwomainreasonswhyRCDsareused: To p provide additional and a higher g level of p protection than that given by direct earthing, against electric shock and also against fire risk caused by earth leakage currents. Where fuses and miniature circuit breakers (MCBs) are the only means of earth fault protection, it is possible for earth fault currents to flow undetected and cause fire risk (or touch voltage problems). The use of an RCD will prevent the flow of a sustained leakage current above the sensitivity of the RCD thus greatly reducing shock and fire risk. All live conductors in the protected circuits should be disconnected in the event of earth leakage current flowing.

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TermsassociatedwithRCDs:
RCCB: ResidualCurrentCircuitBreakerusedindistributionboardstoprotectindividual orgroupsofcircuits RCBO: ResidualCircuitBreakerwithovercurrent protection.Thisisacombined MCB/RCDandprovidesoverload,shortcircuitandearthfaultprotectioninone unit SRCD: SocketoutletwithcombinedRCD PRCD: ThisisaportableRCDunitwithaninbuiltplugtopandsocket outlet
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Single Phase RCD


Phase LOAD

Detection Coil

Neutral

Relay Test Button

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Three Phase RCD


Test Button Test Resistor

L1 L2 L3 Neutral Magnetic Core Detection Coil

LOAD

Earthed Metalwork

Trip Relay

Amplifier

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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

Regulation D22 (Basic Earthing Requirements) States that earth leakage protection may be provided by means of fuses or excess current circuit breakers if the earth fault current available to operate the protective device and so make the faulty circuit dead exceeds: 1. 3 times the current rating of any semi enclosed fuse or any cartridge fuse having a fusing factor exceeding 1.5, used to protect the circuit, or 2. 2.4 times the rating of any cartridge fuse having a fusing factor not exceeding 1.5, used to protect the circuit, or 3. 1.5 times the tripping current of any excess current circuit breaker used to protect the circuit.
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Asinglephase240V,15kW50Hzmotorcircuit operatingat0.8powerfactorlaggingisprotectedbya cartridgefusehavingblowingcurrentof110A.Afault occursinthecircuitcausesacurrentof220amperesto flowthroughtheearthcontinuitypath.Asaresultof poorcontactduetoalocknutandbushconnectinga steelconduittoametalbox,theresistanceofthis conduitconnectionaloneis1.35.State: a) whetherthefusewillrupture b) theamountofheatproducedatthemetalbox c) thedegreeofrisk,ifany,ofafiredeveloping
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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

Yes.Theratingcurrent:
Ir = 15kW = 78.125 A 240V 0.8
110 A = 1.41 78.125 A
Sinceaccordingtoregulation D22,theprotectionisbya cartridgehavingafusingfactor notexceeding1.5.Thenthe maximumcurrentinthefaultis 2.4x78.125A=187.5A.

Fusingfactor:
FF =

I2R=(220)2 x1.35Ohms=65.34kW. HighRisk


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Whatisavoltagesurge?
Avoltagesurgeisavoltageimpulseorwavewhich issuperposedontheratednetworkvoltage.

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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

Voltagesurgeischaracterisedby:
The Th rise i time ti (tf)measured din i s Thegradient(S)measuredinkV/s

Avoltagesurgedisturbsequipmentandcauses electromagneticradiation. Furthermore,thedurationofthevoltagesurge (T)causesasurgeofenergy intheelectrical circuitswhichislikelytodestroy the equipment.


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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

Atmosphericvoltagesurges Operatingvoltagesurges Transientovervoltage atindustrialfrequency Voltagesurgescausedbyelectrostatic discharge

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Lightning risk.Between2,000and5,000stormsare constantlyformingaroundtheearth. earth Thesestorms areaccompaniedbylightningwhichconstitutesa seriousriskforbothpeopleandequipment. Strokesoflightninghitthegroundatarateof30to 100strokespersecond. Lightningaffectstransformers,electricitymeters, householdappliances,andallelectricaland electronicinstallationsintheresidentialsectorand inindustry.
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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

LightningdischargevaluesgivenbytheIEC lightning li ht i protection t ti committee: itt


Beyondpeak probability P% 95 50 5 Currentpeak, I(kA) 7 33 85 Gradient, S(kA/s) 9.1 24 65 Totalduration (s) 0.001 0.01 1.1 Numberof discharges n 1 2 6

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Asuddenchangeintheestablishedoperating conditions diti in i anelectrical l t i lnetwork t kcauses transientphenomenatooccur. Thesearegenerallyhighfrequencyordamped oscillationvoltagesurgewaves.

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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

Theopeningofprotectiondevices(fuse,circuit breaker), ),andtheopening p gorclosing gofcontrol devices(relays,contactors,etc.). Inductivecircuitsduetomotorsstartingand stopping,ortheopeningoftransformers suchas MV/LVsubstations. Capacitivecircuitsduetotheconnectionof capacitorbankstothenetwork network. Alldevicesthatcontainacoil,acapacitor ora transformeratthepowersupplyinlet:relays, contactors,televisionsets,printers,computers, electricovens,filters,etc.
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Theseovervoltages havethesamefrequencyas thenetwork(50,60or400Hz).


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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

Phase/frameorphase/earthinsulatingfaultsona networkwithaninsulatedorimpedanceneutral, neutral orbythebreakdownoftheneutralconductor. Whenthishappens,singlephasedeviceswillbe suppliedin400V insteadof230V. Acable breakdown.Forexample,amedium g cablewhichfallsonalowvoltage g line. voltage Thearcing ofahighormediumvoltageprotective sparkgapcausingariseinearthpotentialduring theactionoftheprotectiondevices.
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Inadryenvironment,electricalchargesaccumulate andcreateaverystrongelectrostaticfield. Forexample,apersonwalking oncarpetwith insulatingsoleswillbecomeelectricallychargedtoa voltageofseveralkilovolts.Ifthepersonwalksclose toaconductivestructure,hewillgiveoffan electricaldischargeofseveralamperesinavery shortrisetimeofafewnanoseconds. Ifthestructurecontainssensitiveelectronics,a computerforexample,itscomponentsorcircuit boardsmaybedamaged.
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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

Primary protectiondevices(protectionof installations i t ll ti against i tlightning). li ht i ) Secondary protectiondevices(protectionof internalinstallationsagainstlightning).

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Thepurposeofprimaryprotectiondevicesisto protectinstallationsagainstdirectstrokesof lightning. Theycatchandrunthelightningcurrentintothe ground.Theprincipleisbasedonaprotectionarea determinedbyastructurewhichishigher thanthe rest. Therearethreetypesofprimaryprotection:


Lightningconductors Overheadearthwires ThemeshedcageorFaradaycage
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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

Thelightningconductoris ataperedrodplacedon topofthebuilding.Itis earthedbyoneormore conductors(oftencopper strips).

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Thesewiresarestretchedoverthestructuretobe protected.Theyareusedforspecialstructures:rocket launchpads,militaryapplicationsandlightningprotection cablesforoverheadhighvoltagepowerlines.


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Thisprincipleisusedfor verysensitivebuildings housingcomputeror integratedcircuit productionequipment. Itconsistsin symmetricallymultiplying thenumberofdownstrips outsidethebuilding.


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Thesehandletheeffectsofatmospheric, operating voltage ti orindustrial i d t i lfrequency f lt surges. Theycanbeclassifiedaccordingtotheway theyareconnectedinaninstallation:serialor parallel p p protection.

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Thisisconnectedinseriestothepowersupply i of fthe th system t t t t d wires tob beprotected.

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Transformers
Theyreducevoltagesurgesbyinductoreffectandmake certainharmonicsdisappearbycoupling.This protectionisnotveryeffective.

Filters
Basedoncomponentssuchasresistors,inductance coilsandcapacitorstheyaresuitableforvoltagesurges caused db byi industrial d i land doperation i di disturbance b correspondingtoaclearlydefinedfrequencyband.This protectiondeviceisnotsuitableforatmospheric disturbance.
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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

Waveabsorbers
Theyareessentiallymadeupofairinductancecoils whichlimitthevoltagesurges,andsurgearresters whichabsorbthecurrents.Theyareextremely suitableforprotectingsensitive electronicand computingequipment.

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Networkconditionersandstaticuninterrupted powersupplies(UPS)
These devices are essentially used to protect highly sensitive equipment, such as computer equipment, which requires a high quality electrical power supply. They can be used to regulate the voltage and frequency, stop interference and ensure a continuous electrical power supply even in the event of a mains power failure (for the UPS). UPS) On the other hand, they are not protected against large, atmospheric type voltage surges against which it is still necessary to use surge arresters.
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Theparallelprotectionisadaptedtoany i t ll ti powerlevel. l l Thi f installation Thist typeof overvoltage protectionisthemostcommonly used.

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Maincharacteristics
Theratedvoltageoftheprotectiondevicemust correspondtothenetworkvoltageattheinstallation terminals. Whenthereisnovoltagesurge,aleakagecurrent shouldnotgothroughtheprotectiondevicewhichison standby. Whenavoltagesurgeabove theallowablevoltage thresholdoftheinstallationtobeprotectedoccurs occurs,the protectiondeviceabruptlyconductsthevoltagesurge current totheearth bylimitingthevoltagetothe desiredprotectionlevel,Vp.
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BEX42803/BEF33203/BEE4213 UtilisationofElectricalEnergy

Whenthevoltagesurgedisappears,theprotection devicestopsconductingandreturnstostandby withoutaholdingcurrent.ThisistheidealU/I characteristiccurve:


Theprotectiondeviceresponsetime(tr)mustbeasshort aspossibletoprotecttheinstallationasquicklyas possible. The Th protection t ti d device i must th havethe th capacity it t tobe b able bl toconducttheenergycausedbytheforeseeablevoltage surgeonthesitetobeprotected. Thesurgearresterprotectiondevicemustbeableto withstandtheratedcurrent,In.
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(1)Voltagelimiters They are used in MV/LV / substations at the transformer output, in IT earthing scheme. They can run voltage surges to the earth, especially industrial frequency surges.
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(2)LVsurgearresters Lowvoltagesurgearresterscomeintheformof modulestobeinstalledinsideLVswitchboard. Theyensuresecondaryprotectionofnearby elementsbuthaveasmallflowcapacity. Someareevenbuiltintoloadsalthoughthey cannotprotectagainststrongvoltagesurges.

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(3)Lowcurrentsurgearresters Theseprotecttelephone orswitchingnetworks againstvoltagesurgesfromtheoutside (lightning),aswellasfromtheinside(polluting equipment,switchgearswitching,etc.). Lowcurrentvoltagesurgearrestersarealso installedindistributionboxesorbuiltinto loads.


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