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1 CHAPTER TWO.

PRESENTATION OF RUBAVU SECTOR

2.1. Geographical principal characteristics 2.1.1. General aspects Rubavu Sector is one of the twelve Sectors comprising Rubavu District. It is composed of 7 Cells namely: Byahi, Buhaza, Gikombe, Rukoko, Murara, Murambi, Burinda and 35 Villages. The Sectors general characteristics can be grouped as shown in the table 1 below. Table 1: Rubavu Sector general characteristics Boundaries Nort East South West Number of Cells 7 Number of Villages 35 Total Population 22389 Inhabitants Source: Rubavu Sector Annual Report 2011 2.1.2. Relief Rubavu Sector is situated in the central plateau. Topographically, it is generally hilly in the central, eastern and southern part. There are hills with an average altitude of 1700 meters which descend up to 1450 meters, these are Buzuta Rwangara, Gitaruwenze, Gikombe, Nyabutwa, Kanyabikona, a part of Rubavu mountain and Cyanzarwe mountain. 2.1.3. Climate and rainfal Rubavu Sector is characterised by sub-equatorial temperate climate with an average temperature fractuating around 20oC. Like in the rest of the country it has an annual rainfall of 1160 mm. It has 4 climatic seasons: long period of rainfall (mid- February May) ; long dry period (June-mid September) ; short rainy period (mid-SeptemberDecember) and a short dry season (January-mid February). The rainy season is characterised by an average heavy rainfall of about 1400 mm par year. CYANZARWE Sector RUGERERO Sector GISENYI Sector DRCongo

2 2.1.4. Soils The soils depth depends on the situation on the hill. The best soils are found in swamps. They are sandy and have enough humus, if they are not formed from erosion of hills. Soils on the dorsal granite are the not fertile as they are poor in humous content. Central platea soils are better; they are the koalisol type, fertile when the erosion has not impacted it and their humus layer has been conserved. 2.1.5. Fauna and flora Natural vegetation has disappeared due to agricultural pressure and has been replaced by man- made vegetation dominated by food plants. The largest part of the land is under food cultivation such as bananas, beans, sorghum, irish potatoes and cassava in that order of importance. Generally, Rubavu Sector lacks forest cover and a few forests which already exist require harvesting and reforestation. However, there are certain patches of reforested land dominated in large part by encalyptus and grevillia. 2.2. SOCIO-ECONOMIC SITUATION The socio-economic situation can be presented under two aspects: human development sector and economic development sector. 2.2.1. Human development sector 2.2.1.1. Demographic data Sector Total Population Distribution Par Cell The Total population of Rubavu Sector is 22389 inhabitants who are distributed in various Cells as shows in the table below.

3 Table 2 : Population distribution par Cell CELL TOTAL POPULATION 5622 1233 3840 1371 5694 2229 2400 22389

1. GIKOMBE 2. BYAHI 3. BURINDA 4. BUHAZA 5. RUKOKO 6. MURARA 7. MURAMBI TOTAL Source: Rubavu Sector Annual Report 2011

This table shows that in Rubavu Sector population distribution par Cell, Gikombe Cell is the most densely populated with 25.1% of the total population and Byahi is the least populated with 5.5% of the total population. 2.2.1.2. Education There are 3 levels of education in Rubavu Sector: nursary, primary and secondary. Nursary and primary schools are attended by children whose parents live within the Sector and its surroundings. Secondary receive children literally from all Provinces of the country.

- Nursary, primary, secondary, professional and adult education


Table 3: Number of schools in the Sector (Nursary, primary, secondary, professional and literacy centres Type of Education Number Nursery Schools 3 Primary schools 6 Secondary Schools 1 Professional training Centres 2 Literacy centers 2 It must be noted that illiterate population represents a significant proportion of people aged 15 years and above who cannot read, write or count. The illiteracy rate is

4 estimated to be more or less 42.3% of the total population of the Sector. 2.2.1.3. Sports, Youth and Culture The majority of the youth in Rubavu Sector are unemployed. They have no easy access to education, financial means to carry out gainful self employment and do not engage in any income generating activities as they lack any form of professional training. Regarding sports, the Rubavu Sector youth have 4 Football teams and 1 volleyball team. All the teams comprise both men and women players. However, there are insufficient sports grounds and equipment. In the domain of culture, there are cultural troupes in schools and Cells which engage in dense, theatre and poetry as the principle activities. Local cultural clubs organise sensitisation meetings for the youth to promote cultural development, fight against HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. In such meetings educational films related to each domain are shown. 2.2.2. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT SECTOR 2.2.2.1. Agricultural production Like in other parts of the country more than 90% of the population of Rubavu Sector rely on agriculture. Agricutural production is characterized by a diversity of food crops including irish potatoes, sorghum, beans, soyabeans, cassava and bananas. These different crops are often intercropped on the same piece of land. There are also vegetables such as: tomatoes, cabbages, and eggplants ets. Fruits grown in the area include plum fruits, avocados and pawpaws. 2.2.2.2. Livestock farming

5 Like elsewhere in the country, livestock was decimated during the genocide of April 1994. Despite the effort by certain intervening parties to restock, the population always point out insufficient livestock as squarely linked to diminishing agricultural production. Veterinary clinics lack sufficient equipment and means of transport hence the technical staffs available are unable to cover the entire Sector. 2.2.2.3. Commerce Commercial activities are currently going through a recession as a result of a decrease in purchasing power of the population. Production in general and agriculture in particular has declined in the last several yeas in succession due to over exploitation of the land without compensatory fertilisers. 2.2.2.4. Associations and Cooperatives Movement Rubavu Sector has many associations grouped according to activities they are engaged in. We can mention association of farmers, masons, shoe repairers, etc. Agricultural and Livestock farmers associations help their members to access loan facilities and agricultural inputs. These must be repaid after the harvest. There are also rotational loans to buy small animals given by the Umurenge SACCO of Rubavu Sector. Major problems faced by those associations include lack of sufficient training in management and lack of collateral to enable them access loans in Popular Banks and other existing financial institutions in the District. moto taxi drivers, welders, carpenters, tailors,

Table 3. The groupment of population in cooperatives

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CELLS NUMBER 0F NUMBER OF NUMBER MEMBERS MA LE FEMELLE OF YOUTH COOPERATIVES

COOPERATIVES

ASSOCIATIONS

BYAHI 4 8 BUHAZA 4 BURINDA 1 4 GIKOMBE 1 1 MURARA 6 3 MURAMBI 3 RUKOKO 3 TOTAL 15 33 Sources: Rapport IMIHIGO 2009 2.2.2.6. Financial Institutions

54 9 58 12 153 70 23 379

12 4 34 17 175 46 16 314

1 2 4

Actually there is no Bank Branch in Rubavu Sector but there is two microfinance institutions which are CLECAM and Umurenge SACCO of Rubavu Sector. 2.2.2.7. Transport and Communication A. ROADS AND BRIDGES There are 3 distinct categories of roads in Rubavu Sector: 1. Roads of international importance; 2. Inter-Sector roads; 3. Inter-Cell roads;

B. COMMUNICATION The proportion of the Sector population which uses telephone is still very small even though some remarkable progress in this domain has been made. The number of people using mobile telephones (MTN and TIGO) is generally on the increase.

2.2.2.8. Energy It is hoped by the year 2020, Rwanda shall be able to produce sufficient energy to satisfy all social and economic activities without damaging the environment, by combining hydro and methane gas potential. It is hoped 35% of the population shall be able to access electricity instead of the current 6%. Firewood is the principal source of energy in 92% of homes in Rubavu Sector as most homesteads use it for domestic cooking. Hullicane lamps are the principal source of lighting for about 74% of the population. Use of electricity in homes is very limited especially in Byahi and Murara cells. 2.2.2.9. Water and Sanitation Clean drinking water enormously contributes to good health of homes and according to studies carried out, Rubavu Sector population generally cover a long distance to access drinking water. This distance ranges from 645 m and is well below the national average of 703 m. The principal sources of water used most in the Sector are free public fountains used by about 53,7% of the population. A high percentage of the population 7% use poor quality water and only 19,3% have access to clean drinking water.

2.2.2.10. Forests and the Environment Most of forests in the Sector were dessaminated during the war and period of insecurity in the region. Forests which remain cover 58 hectares and require maintainence. In general, the Sector lacks sufficient tree nursaries for reforestion and agroforestry.

8 However, there are some tree nursaries for trees like encalyptus, plums, acacia, passion fruits etc.. Environment protection activities carried out in the Sector are essentially to fight soil erosion by reforestation and digging terraces. 2.2.2.11. Mines and quarries In Rubavu Sector, there is no single mine exploited on industrial scale. The last research on mine prospects in the area found no existence of mineral deposits of any significant importance. The Sector is also rich in various types of clay often of good quality. Clay deposits are concentrated in low laying marshlands. This clay is used in bricks and tites making. There are also sand quarries, gravel and stones used locally in the construction of roads and houses. 2.2.3. Health Table 5 presents the current situation in the health sector. Table 5: Current situation in the health sector in Rubavu Sector REFERENCE NUMBER National reference hospital 1 First stage reference hospital 1 Health Centres 2 Centres specialising in mental health 0 Nurses 2 Health posts 0 General practioner doctors 2 A1 midwife nurses 0 A1 Nurses 2 A2 Nurses 12 A2 Social assistants 4 A0 Pharmacists 0 Anaesthtist 1 OBSERVATIONS Centre de Sante de Murara District hospital (Rubavu)

9 Mental health technicians Dentist A1 Kinesitherapist A1 Laboratory technician A2 Laboratory technician 1 1 0 1 4

The principal cause of morbidity and mortality by decreasing order are: malaria, respiratory diseases, AIDS, diarrhea diseases and diseases linked to malnutrition. These principal causes of morbidity and mortality can be linked mainly to lack of hygiene, ignorance, lack of material and financial means and long distance to health centres in certain Cells. 2.2.4. Gender and Family Promotion In the domain of gender and family promotion, the Sector has already made significant progress as women organisational structures at all administration levels (Cells, Villages and Sector) play a big role in the mobilisation of women on current national policies. Women are also integrated in decision making institutions. Women organise themselves in mutually beneficial associations which engage in income generating activities such as commerce, breeding of small animals, crafts particularly basket and mat weaving, brick making and agriculture.

2.2.5. Vulnerable groups Rubavu Sector has a number of vulnerable persons as a result of the war of October 1990, 1994 genocide, epidemic diseases, pandemics like HIV/AIDS and homelessness.

10 A large number of these vulnerable persons have neither shelter nor land for cultivation. Their housing is inappropriate and children access to education and health care is very limited. The following table 3 gives current available figures. Table 3: Number of vulnerable persons in the Sector Category Number Orphan 230 Widow(er) 761 Physically 273 Old people 404 Destitute 277 Source : Data produced by Sector (June 2011) 2.3. Administrative structure of Rubavu Sector On 31 December 2005, Law No 29/2005 determining the administrative entities of the Republic of Rwanda was gazetted. It represents the legal basis of the Local Administration Reform Policy, adopted in 2005 with the following specific objectives:

To promote and enhance effectiveness in service delivery by making the Sector a truly service delivery focal point with adequate human, material and financial capacity, and to improve collection of data and information at this level;

To streamline and strengthen the coordination of public services and local economic development at District Level by availing more technically competent personnel as well as financial resources to the District to ensure sustainable decentralized fiscal regimes;

To strengthen the coordination of development activities; To establish and strengthen coherent monitoring and evaluation systems as well as institutionalize accountability tools and systems .

The country is currently composed of two layers of government (central and local) and of six administrative entities: the Central Government, the Province ( Intara), the District (Akarere),

11 the Sector (Umurenge), the Cell (Akagari) and the Village (Umudugudu). These structures, which were reorganised under the 2005 reform, are complementary. Their new roles and responsibilities have been clarified and distributed based on estimated capacities at each level and their comparative advantages. The Figure below shows the administrative boundaries of the Republic of Rwanda. The Sector is a development level at which the population accesses various services in accordance with existing laws The Sector shall have the following responsibilities: 1. Provide basic services including, death, marriage and birth registration; 2. Analyse people's problems and devise a participatory development plan; 3. Receive and settle problems which could not be solved at the Cell level; 4. Collect data which can be used to plan development activities; 5. Co-ordinate activities of Government special programmes (Gacaca, Tig, Mediators ..); 6. Monitor management and use of land, housing, infrastructure, environment and hygiene; 7. Sensitise people to participate in Government political, social and economic development programmes; 8. Assist the District in tax collection; 9. Maintain and monitor the functioning of health centres; 10. Devise a programme of sensitising people to join the Health Insurance Schemes and register those who join them; 11. Promote sports, culture and entertainment; 12. Publicise laws and regulations on quarries and mines; 13. Publicise District and Sector Council decisions among Sector residents. 2.3.1. Administrative structures A Council is hereby established at Sector and Executive Secretariat levels. A. Sector Council 1. Responsibilities of the Sector Council

12 The Sector Council has the following responsibilities: 1. Approve Sector strategies and action plan and monitor their implementation by the Executive 2. Approve the annual action plan and budget; 3. Approve or change decisions taken at the Cell level; 4. Activities and functioning of the Executive Secretary; 5. Analyse existing problems and approve modalities to address them; 6. Take disciplinary sanctions against leaders or any other employee at that level or of the Cell level including temporary suspension for indiscipline or incompetence. The final decision to replace him/he shall be taken by the District Council where the Sector is located; 7. Debate and take decisions on how security can be ensured in the Sector; 8. Elect the Council Bureau; 9. Monitor implementation of the communal work programmes (umuganda) for each term as approved by each Cell Council basing on programmes from the Villages; 10. Approve days for mass marriage ceremony. 2. Members of the Sector Council Voluntary services Sector Council members shall be credible persons of integrity whose services shall be voluntary. They shall be elected for a mandate of five (5) years. When that period expires, other elections shall be held. The serving Council members can again stand for elections. Members The Sector Council comprises of the following: 1. All Co-ordinators of Cells within the Sector; 2. A Cell representative elected by the Cell Council; 3. Members of the National Youth Bureau at Sector level; 4. A Coordinator of the National Council of Women at Sector level;

13 5. Women representatives who should be at of least 30% of all Sector Council members; 6. A Headmaster representing Headmasters all primary schools in the Sector; 7. A representative of Non-Governmental Organisations operating in the Sector; 8. A representative of co-operatives in the Sector elected by his/her colleagues; 9. A Headmaster representing secondary schools in the Sector; 10. A leader representing hospitals, nutritional centers or health centers in the Sector. Soon after elections, Sector Council members shall take, in front of the electorate, the oath provided for in Article 61 of the Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda of June 4, 2003 as amended to date. That ceremony shall be presided over by the District leaders. B. Sector Executive Secretariat Members The Sector Executive Secretariat comprises of the Executive Secretary and other essential staff employed by the District Council through competition and in accordance with the organisational chart of each Sector approved by the Sector Council concerned. The Sector Executive Secretary shall have a minimum qualification of a University degree or any other Higher Institution but within A0 category. He/she can alternatively have a senior six certificate and a six-year experience in leadership roles.

Executive Secretariat employees Sector Executive Secretariat staff are employees of the District and shall implement the Sector responsibilities on daily basis. The Sector Council shall monitor their performance on daily basis through its Bureau. Executive Secretary The Sector Executive Secretary shall assist the Council secretary in his/her duties to enable him/her discharge his/her responsibilities effectively.

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The Sector Executive Secretary shall be the secretary for Sector Council meetings. He/she shall communicate to the Sector Council Bureau all instructions given by the District. The Sector Executive Secretary shall attend Council meetings but is prohibited from voting when decisions are taken. Responsibilities Without prejudice to provisions within this order, the Sector Executive Secretariat shall specifically have the following responsibilities: 1. Co-ordinate Government programmes at Sector level; 2. Keep security of persons and their property; 3. Prepare the Sector plan of action and budget; 4. Perform the function of registration and other services provided at Sector level as provided for by the Law; 5. Ensure services given to the population at all levels of the Sector are of good quality and delivered on time; 6. Prepare and give report to the Council Bureau every month and whenever necessary so that it can submit it to the Council; 7. Ensure rational use of District resources and finances in the Sector; 8. Prepare all development programmes at Sector level; 9. Prepare program for Sector Council meetings and submit it to the Bureau so that it gives it to the Council; 10. Ensure all correspondence which require response are answered; 11. Disseminate to the population all information which can enable them to better perform development activities; 12. Monitor development projects operating in the Sector; 13. Collect statistics; 14. Submit to the Council Bureau all instructions given by the District and Sector Council within a period not exceeding three (3) days; 15. Submit report to the Sector Council Bureau President with a copy to the District Mayor;

15 16. Perform any other duty assigned by competent higher authorities. 17. In his/her absece he/she is replaced by a professional in charge good governance 2.3.2. Working relationship the between Sector and District structures The Sector Council President and Executive Secretary shall submit the Sector report once a month and whenever necessary. That report must be approved by the Council before it is sent to the District Mayor. Every member of staff at Sector level submits his/her report to the person with similar responsibilities at District level. A copy of such report is given to the Sector Executive Secretary to be included in the general report. 2.4. Vision 2020 Umurenge Program (VUP) in Rubavu Sector 2.4.1. Vision Releasing the productive capacities of people and offering solutions adapted to their needs Improving community livelihood assets and ensuring their sustainable usage Increasing the targeting of social protection to the most vulnerable

2.4.2. Mission Contribute to reduce extreme poverty from 36.9% (2005/2006) to 24% (2012) Instigate changes in the efficiency of poverty reduction (coordination,

interconnectedness of services, change attitudes) Ensure economic growth is pro-poor.

2.4.3. Core Functions Sensitizing very poor people unable to participate in normal economic activities to the direct support program from VUP

16 Interesting and sensitizing people to apply voluntarily to get public work Sensitizing people recruited to public work to save s percentage of his salary for being eligible to the credit. Assist people eligible to credit to design project and get credit

2.4.4. Core Values Increase the income of very poor citizens in the Sector by improving their productivity. 2.4.5. Service offered by the Vision 2020 Umurenge (RUBAVU) 1. Acquiring direct support in Vision 2020 Umurenge Project VUP direct support service is given to very poor people unable to participate in normal economic activities eg the sick and old especially in families without a bread earner. Direct support is based on the village level What is the service? Am I eligible? and depends on the number of people in the household. Eg head of the family: 250 frw, partner; 150 including up to a maximum of 3 dependants each receiving 100 frw per day. These people are also assisted to form saving schemes and design self help projects. Which public administration do I go to? Sector Which unit within the public administration Vision 2020 Umurenge Sector Unit do I go to? Where can I access the service? VUP Sector

When can I access the service? 7:00am 5:00pm, Monday to Friday Once a request is made or an application is One week from the time the list of submitted, how long will it take? beneficiaries is given to the VUP Sector. What, if any, are the costs for accessing the Free service service?

17 What documents are required? List of the very poor and unable to work people. To get direct support from VUP: *Umudugudu and cell office in a general assembly prepare a list of very poor people in their area who cannot engage in work. *Joint What is the procedure? Action Development Forum (JADF) of the Sector approves the list. *The selected people are sensitized on the direct support program from VUP. *The people selected are then given direct assistance for a period not exceeding one year. What, if any, other institutions do I need to visit to access the service? (Eg. For payment of service costs or to get additional documents) Is there a complaint procedure? No formal procedure The other group of people assisted is the most disadvantaged group eg the mentally sick, the Is there any additional information regarding disabled etc whose assistance is continued this service that is useful to know? beyond one year. The very sick and disabled are parented to people who can manage them with direct support from VUP. These people are also assisted to get into the saving schemes and design self help projects. Source: Citizens Charter, Vision 2020 Umurenge Program Rubavu Sector, 2010 2. Recruitment of Vision 2020 Umurenge Project (VUP) public work VUP offers public works to very poor people residents of the sector. What is the service? Am I eligible? Which public administration do I go to? Recruitment is done through a process of identifying the very poor but able to work. Sector Village and Cell

18 Which unit within the public administration Vision 2020 Umurenge Sector Unit do I go to? Where can I access the service? VUP Sector Office When can I access the service? 7:00am 5:00pm, Monday to Friday Once a request is made or an application is One week from the time work submitted, how long will it take? What, if any, are the costs for accessing the Free service service? What documents are required? List of the very poor and able to work. To get recruitment from VUP public work; *Umudugudu and cell office in a general assembly prepare a list of very poor people in their area with less than hectare of land and What is the procedure? have capacity to work. *The selected people are sensitized on the public works program. *Interested but sensitized people then voluntarily apply verbally to get work.*The people selected are then given work in Ubudehe village program. What, if any, other institutions do I need to visit to access the service? (Eg. For payment of service costs or to get additional documents) Is there a complaint procedure? No formal procedure Sensitization of the people is done such that they understand conditions under which they Is there any additional information regarding will work and apply voluntarily to get work. this service that is useful to know? These include; the rate of payment per day, paying workers to through a bank account and saving a percentage of his salary for being eligible to the credit. If no workers are available in a given sector the private contractor; may employ anybody else from any where. All workers are employed for a Village, Cell and Private enterprise

19 maximum of six month running. The savings kept for every worker, is for developing a project meant to sustain individual workers after the expiration of the work contract. VUP Sector program managers assist workers individually to design and set up projects of their interest individually of jointly and helps them negotiate bank loans for these projects if need be. Source: Citizens Charter, Vision 2020 Umurenge Program Rubavu Sector, 2010

3. Submitting a project proposal to Vision 2020 Umurenge Project (VUP) You get assistance form Vision 2020 Umurenge project which includes advocacy on your project to a cooperative finance. What is the service? Am I eligible? Vision 2020 Umurenge project prefer to give assistance to a group of people with joint Which public administration do I go to? project or cooperative. Sector

Which unit within the public administration Vision 2020 Umurenge Sector Unit do I go to? Where can I access the service? VUP Sector

When can I access the service? 7:00am 5:00pm, Monday to Friday Once a request is made or an application is 2 weeks submitted, how long will it take? What, if any, are the costs for accessing the There is no charge for this service service? What documents are required? None To get assistance from vison 2020 Umurenge: 1. Go to the Umudugudu level ask for 2

20 Forms: one for designing project and another for contract then submit your request, the What is the procedure? Mudugudu make a list of eligible projects which are forward to the cell level. 2. The cell level consolidates different lists from villages. 3. The Sector council in charge of project studies approves your project. In 2 weeks you come back up your project and fund for the project. What, if any, other institutions do I need to visit to access the service? (Eg. For payment of service costs or to get additional documents) Is there a complaint procedure? There is no formal complaints procedure in place for this service The group assisted by Vision 2020 Umurenge Is there any additional information regarding program is regularly trained to save money this service that is useful to know? and to do investment from their saving. Source: Citizens Charter, Vision 2020 Umurenge Program Rubavu Sector, 2010 4. Acquiring direct support in Vision 2020 Umurenge Project VUP direct support service is given to very poor people unable to participate in normal economic activities eg the sick and old especially in families without a bread earner. Direct support is based on the village level What is the service? Am I eligible? and depends on the number of people in the household. Eg head of the family: 250 frw, partner; 150 including up to a maximum of 3 dependants each receiving 100 frw per day. These people are also assisted to form saving schemes and design self help projects. None

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Which public administration do I go to? Sector Which unit within the public administration Vision 2020 Umurenge Sector Unit do I go to? Where can I access the service? VUP Sector

When can I access the service? 7:00am 5:00pm, Monday to Friday Once a request is made or an application is One week from the time the list of submitted, how long will it take? beneficiaries is given to the VUP Sector. What, if any, are the costs for accessing the Free service service? What documents are required? * List of the very poor and unable to work people. To get direct support from VUP: *Umudugudu and cell office in a general assembly prepare a list of very poor people in their area who cannot engage in work. What is the procedure? *The selected people are sensitized on the direct support program from VUP. *The people selected are then given direct assistance for a period not exceeding six months. What, if any, other institutions do I need to visit to access the service? (Eg. For payment of service costs or to get additional documents) Is there a complaint procedure? No formal procedure The other group of people assisted is the most disadvantaged group eg the mentally sick, the Is there any additional information regarding disabled etc whose assistance is continued this service that is useful to know? beyond six months. None

22 The very sick and disabled are parented to people who can manage them with direct support from VUP. These people are also assisted to get into the saving schemes and design self help projects. Source: Citizens Charter, Vision 2020 Umurenge Program Rubavu Sector, 2010 PARTIAL CONCLUSION This chapter was concerning the presentation of our case study which is Rubavu Sector. It has showed the geographical principal characteristics of Rubavu Sector, socio-economic situation of Rubavu Sector which has been presented under two aspects; human development sector and economic development sector. In this chapter, the Administrative structure of Rubavu Sector has been presented. In this chapter we presented the Vision 2020 Umurenge Program (VUP) in Rubavu Sector. It spells out the role of the Vision 2020 Umurenge Program, highlights the services offered and the requirements therein, lists the service centers at which Vision 2020 Umurenge Program services can be accessed and the guiding legal instruments. The next chapter is going to cover the analysis and interpretations of the findings.

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CHAPTER THREE: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 3.1. Introduction

This chapter presents the data collected on the field, analyses and interpretation of the findings of the research and related information collected in conjunction with the research objectives. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of GIRINKA program (one cow per family) in poverty reduction and enhancing productivity in Rubavu Sector. In this chapter both primary and secondary data are analyzed and presented in terms of tables, descriptions, and percentages. 3.2. Sample Size The study must consider a sample size that is within the cost constraint but should provide the ability to detect an independent variable effect (Christensen, 1991: 372). Williamson (1982:113) comments on the sample size as being a phase of research, which is crucial because of its major impact on time and money that must go into data collection. Due to limited resources in terms of money, time and the need for precision of results, it was impossible to study the whole population. To determine our sample size, the formula of Alain Bouchard has been used. Thus, given that our universe is 215, the formula has been used as followed:
n n N n = = 1+ n N + n N + n N N

nc =

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nc : sample size n : sample size for a defined population of 96 N : Size of our statistic universe (total population) Using the above formula with our data we have:
215 96 20640 = = 66,4 215 + 96 311

Therefore our sample size is composed by 66 persons.

3.3. Characteristics of respondents 3.3.1. Distribution by Age and Sex Age and Sex as essential characteristics was put into consideration in this study. This was done in order to obtain information concerning GIRINKA PROGRAM towards poverty reduction of the population from different age groups and sex. This provides quality data and it is clearly shown in the table 1 below.

Table1. Distribution of Respondents by Age and Sex Age Group 20-29 20-39 40-49 Male 0 2 12 Female 0 4 18 Total 0 6 30

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50-59 60-69 Above 70 TOTAL Source: primary data

10 0 0 24

16 4 0 42

26 4 0 66

From the table above, it can be noted that the study considered old and advanced years people. This was done so as to obtain information on the impact of GIRINKA PROGRAM towards poverty alleviation of the population from all the age groups and sex. Table 1 indicates that, the majority of respondents were those falling in the age group of 4049 years constituting 45.5 % of the sample size. The age group of 20-29 constituted 0 % and the age of above 71 constituted 0 % of the sample size. This age group (20-29) is resulting from the fact that most of the people under this group are still dependents, depending on their parents or guardians so they can manage to benefit from the PROGRAM. A big number are in the age group of 40-49 years followed by the age groups of 50-59 years resulting from the fact these two age groups (50-59, 40-49) contain poor families who keep orphans due to 1994 war and genocide; also are in the active class. So, they are capable of getting incomes, employment through working and gain from the PROGRAM. The age group of above 70 years, constitute an inactive group of people who are weak and hence not able to gain from GIRINKA PROGRAM everyday activities and not capable of providing physical labor. This table above shows the distribution of the 66 samples by sex, and shows that 24 which is 36.4% of total respondents were Males and 42 which is 63.6% of the respondents were Females. It is clear that the number of female respondents were bigger than that of their male counterparts. These results are from the fact that most of females inhabitant in the Sector lose their husbands due to consequences of the bloody events of 1994 and migration toward urban areas so as to search for job generating income.

26 Furthermore, those females still believe that GIRINKA PROGRAM could improve their wellbeing in general and help them to better keep their children, orphans as well as to ameliorate the soil quality in order to generate increase in different items from agricultural productivity so as to reduce the challenge of malnutrition.

3.3.2. Distribution by marital Status Marital status was also an essential characteristic that was put into consideration in this study. This was done in order to obtain information from different social set up of the population. Details are in table 2 below:

Table 2. Distribution by marital status Status Single Married Widow (er) Total Source: primary data Frequency 18 20 28 66 Percent 27.3 30.3 42.4 100

The table above shows that the majority of the respondents are widow(er). They account for about 42.4% of the total sample. About 27.3% of the respondents are single and the rest are married (30.3%). In brief the main demographical profile of respondents is widow(er) and mature more than 30 years old. 3.3.3. Distribution by Education level The levels of education of respondents were also put into consideration to show their impact and relationship of GIRINKA PROGRAM and wellbeing of the population in general and poverty reduction in particular.

27 Details are presented in the table 3 below:

Table 3. Distribution by Education Level Education level Non-formal education Primary school Secondary school High school Total Source: primary data Frequency 41 23 2 0 66 Percent 62.1 34.9 3 0 100

As indicated in the table 3 above, each respondent category has its level of education that is different from others. This indicates that all categories of education were taken care of in studying of GIRINKA PROGRAM, poverty reduction and enhancing productivity in rural areas. Majority of the respondents were illiterate comprising of 41 persons constituting 62.1% of the sample size. Those with primary level were 21 Persons making 34.9 % of the sample size. 2 respondents have secondary education level. Nobody has high level education.

3.3.4. Distribution by Occupation Occupation was also put into consideration in data collection in order to obtain clear information concerning agriculture and GIRINKA PROGRAM in the area. The detail is given in the table 4 below:

Table 4. Distribution by Occupation Education level Farmer Self-employed Seller Local government employed Labor Frequency 21 0 3 0 35 Percent 31.8 0 4.5 0 53

28 Other Total Source: primary data 7 66 10.7 100

The table above shows that 21 respondents (31.8%) are farmers, 3 respondents (4.5%) are sellers, 35 respondents (53%) are labors and 7 (10.7%) respondents have different occupations. A great number of all respondents being farmers and cattle Keepers indicate the reason why GIRINKA PROGRAM can play a crucial role in improving the socio-economic wellbeing and reducing poverty in particular for the population inhabitant Rubavu Sector than any other policy.

3.4. Cow production and management 3.4.1. When were you given a cow? Table 5. When were you given a cow? Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Total Frequency 8 8 12 10 9 13 6 66 Percent 12.1 12.1 18.2 15.2 13.6 19.7 9.1 100

The table above shows that many cows have been given in 2011 (19.7%) this is due to the fact that the numbers of stakeholders in GIRINKA PROGRAM has been increased. 3.4.2. Race / category of cow received

29 In GIRINKA PROGRAM people has received different race of cows. The table 6 below shows the distribution of cow by race.

Table 6. Race / category of cow received Race Pure Frisonne Pure Jersey Mixed (croise) Ankole Burun Suisse Total Frequency 16 14 10 20 6 66 Percent 24.3 21.2 15.2 30.3 9 100

The table above shows that the race of Ankole is the most given with 30.3% of all the races followed by Pure Frisonne 24.3% of all the races. Given that Pure Frisonne is the race which gives a big quantity of milk; this will show the impact of GIRINKA PROGRAM on milk production. 3.4.3. Possession of a ranch We wanted to know how many people have a ranch and how their ranches are. The table below shows the people with a ranch and the quality of their ranches. Table 7. Possession and quality of ranch Ranch quality Very good Good Bad Total Frequency 66 0 0 66 Percent 100 0 0 100

The table above shows that all respondents have ranches and all their ranches are very good. This is due to the fact that the Sector after giving a cow they construct a ranch to the beneficiary.

30

3.4.4. Quantity of milk produced We wanted to know how many liters of milk are produced; this production depends on the race of the cow. Some cows can produce up to 10 liters per day. 3.4.5. Market for cow production We wanted to know where the beneficiaries of GIRINKA PROGRAM sell their products. The table 8 below shows the market for cow production of the beneficiaries. Table 8. Market for production Market Local Markets Cooperative Neighbors Industry / Dairy Other Total Source: primary data Frequency 32 4 28 0 2 66 Percent 48.5 6.1 42.4 0 3 100

This table shows that many beneficiaries sell their products at local markets and neighbors. None among the beneficiaries sells his products in Industries or dairies, this due to the fact that there is no dairy or industry in Rubavu Sector.

3.5. Rural Development Status

31 3.5.1. Perception toward Income generating which increases earnings We wanted to know how many respondents had bank account before they were given a cow and how many people have bank account after they were given a cow. The details are given in the table below: Table 9. People who had bank account before and after they were given a cow BEFORE Frequency Yes No Total 2 64 66 Percent 3 97 100 Yes No Total AFTER Frequency 42 24 66 Percent 63.6 36.4 100

The table above shows that 40 respondents have opened bank accounts after they were given cows. This show the impact of GIRINKA PROGRAM in increasing income of its beneficiaries. 36.4% of the respondents has not opened bank account yet, this is due to the fact that some of them are so far from banks / SACCO and others have a little production. Source of income and employment were also considered as an essential source of information in data collection as far as the relationship between GIRINKA PROGRAM and poverty reduction of the population are concerned. The details are in the table 10 below: Table 10. Income generating activities before and after they were given a cow BEFORE Activity Farming Raise Frequency 0 2 Percent 0 3 Activity Farming Raise AFTER Frequency 46 2 Percent 69.7 3

32

Selling Labor None Other

1 20 42 1

1.5 30.3 63.6 1.5 100

Selling Labor None Other Total

5 12 0 1 66

7.6 18.2 0 1.5 100

Total 66 Source : Primary data

As illustrated in the above table, before theye were given cows, none of all respondents was engaged in farming, 3% in raising animals ,30.3% in labor sale, 1.5% in Selling and 63.6 % had no income generating activity. After they were given cows, as illustrated in the table above, 69.7% of all respondents is engaged in farming, 3% in raising animals, 18.2% in labor sale, 7.6% in Selling and 1.5% of the respondents has other income generating activities. The above two sources of income of respondents (farming and labor) reveal that GIRINKA PROGRAM is important in this area. 3.5.2. Perception toward Food Security Table 10. Food condition before and after they were given a cow BEFORE Condition Sufficient Insufficient Frequency 2 64 Percent 3 97 100 Condition Sufficient Insufficient Total AFTER Frequency 66 0 66 Percent 100 0 100

Total 66 Source : Primary data

From the above table, among the beneficiaries of GIRINKA PROGRAM in Rubavu Sector surveyed, 2 % of them rated food condition Sufficient, while 64% of them see that food condition in their respective households was Insufficient before they were given cows. This

33 insufficient in food taken per day was supported by the number of meals that they take per day. All respondent agrees that their meals in take have been increased and ameliorated due to the intervention of GIRINKA PROGRAM in their area. 3.5.3. Perception toward Basic health According to respondents' views, the awareness, which measures access to information, was highly accepted among respondents regarding health. Almost all of respondents said that they could get access to health information and participate in the campaigns. In this regard, many activities and group education about health have been undertaken to share information, it also plays important role changing from the use of traditional treatment like superstitious ways to scientifically medical treatment. Inclusion and Participation in health training and services is another measurement of awareness. According to the interview with the respondents, all respondents use to participated in HIV/AIDS training and awareness. Impressively 100% of respondents participated in health activities. They were well aware of the issue and willing to participate for their own good and their community. Table 12. Health services rating before and after they were given a cow BEFORE Rating Frequency Very poor 35 Poor 31 Good 0 Very good 0 Total 66 Source: Primary data Percent 53 47 0 0 100 Rating Very poor Poor Good Very good Total AFTER Frequency 0 0 44 22 66 Percent 0 0 66.7 33.3 100

Table 13. Medical insurance before and after they were given a cow BEFORE Insurance Frequency Percent Insurance AFTER Frequency Percent

34

Yes No

12 54

18.2 81.8 100

Yes No Total

66 0 66

100 0 100

Total 66 Source: Primary data

The table above shows that all respondents have insurance medical after they were given cows while before they were only 18.2% of all the respondents. This reveal the impact of GIRINKA PROGRAM in health. 3.5.4. Perception toward Education Table 13. Children schooling before and after they were given a cow BEFORE Schooling Yes No Frequency 26 40 Percent 39.4 60.6 100 Schooling Yes No Total AFTER Frequency 51 15 66 Percent 77.3 22.7 100

Total 66 Source: Primary data

3.5.4. Perception toward Communication Table 14. Information Communication tools and services used before and after they were given a cow BEFORE ICT Tools Radio Fixed Telephone Mobile Frequency 12 0 0 ICT Tools Radio Fixed Telephone Mobile AFTER Frequency 42 0 10

35

Television Computer

0 0

Television Computer Internet

0 0 0

Internet 0 Source: Primary data

The table above illustrates that before 12 respondents used Radio as CIT tools, none of them used telephones, television, computer and internet. Now they are 42 respondents with radios and 10 respondents with mobile phones.

Table 13. Main Sources of lighting energy before and after they were given a cow BEFORE Source Frequency Candle 46 Petroleum 20 Electricity 0 Biogas 0 Total 66 Source: Primary data AFTER Frequency 24 32 9 1 66

Percent 69.7 30.3 0 0 100

Source Candle Petroleum Electricity Biogas Total

Percent 36.4 48.5 13.6 1.5 100

The table 13 shows that due to GIRINKA PROGRAM 9 people have electricity and 1 has biogas as source of energy and lighting.

3.6. Analyzing the contribution of GIRINKA PROGRAM in wellbeing of its beneficiaries 3.6.1. Job opportunities

36 The research considered motivation as one of the factors that could clearly give information as far as the relationship between GIRINKA PROGRAM and wellbeing of the population in particular and poverty reduction in general is concerned. Therefore, respondents revealed that: GIRINKA PROGRAM motives their members by providing them fertilizer; It also motives their members by providing loans helping them buying cows; The GIRINKA PROGRAM again motives their beneficiaries by training them on modern farming methods, which increased their production capacity. 3.6.2. Income indicators Despite political upheavals and increasing land pressure, the nutrition is tempered by evidence of increasing of rural inequality in 1990s. While the least poor households expanded their access to income through skilled labor, the majority of households retreated into a more autarkic mode of production focused on key subsistence crops. The change in crop mix seems to be associated with the improvement in the nutritional status of children. In order to raise agriculturalist and rural labors income to generate opportunities to earn better incomes outside agriculture, one of the new policies called GIRINKA PROGRAM has been introduced in rural areas so as to provide new technologies needed for recapitalization and transformation of the rural economy. 3.6.3. Contribution of GIRINKA PROGRAM in social welfare of its beneficiaries This entails the role plays by the PROGRAM towards the betterment of the beneficiaries in the area where it operates. It is basically focused on the social necessities that are intended to promote the welfare of the population. Linked to the income generated and employment offered by GIRINKA PROGRAM, it is equally important that the social wellbeing in guaranteed and the ultimate socio-economic welfare of the members. Therefore, indicators in health perspective that include nutrition among others create a platform for analysis and assessment of the PROGRAMs contribution.

37

3.6.4. How the program add value to farm gate products The research had to consider methods used by GIRINKA PROGRAM in adding value to farm gate products because it could give important information as far as social economic wellbeing and poverty reduction in general is concerned. According to responses from the Veterinary at Sector level, methods used include: Artificial insemination so as to improve cows breed for milk production; Provision of farm equipment; Training of Veterinaries personnel (VSF) on the rampant disease like foot and mouth disease; They also use fertilizers, manure in reducing the soil exhaustion.

He however stated that some of the achievements benefited by beneficiaries from GIRINKA PROGRAM include: To manage to pay school fees for their children; Increase productivity and income; To sell at a relatively high price compared to before joining the program; Health problems reduced.

The research was interested in knowing the wellbeing of beneficiaries of people of the after joining the program so as to verify the positive impact of GIRINKA PROGRAM toward socio-economic wellbeing and poverty reduction in particular. More details are indicated in the table 14 below: Table 14 Classification of respondents according to their socio-economic wellbeing after joining the PROGRAM Response Yes (positive impact) Number of respondents 66 % of respondents 100

38 No (negative impact) Total Source: primary data From the table 14 above, 66 respondents 100% of sample size revealed that their socioeconomic life positively changed after joining GIRINKA PROGRAM. None of them said that it had no importance. Therefore, GIRINKA PROGRAM should be emphasized in poverty reduction in general. The rate of unemployment and malnutrition were a crucial characteristic in data collection because they indicate the rate of poverty. The rate of poverty was important in data collection due to the fact that it is one of the important concepts the researcher was interested in. The details are in the table 15 below: Table 15 Classification of respondents in relation to the rate of poverty in the area before joining the PROGRAM. Response Yes No Total Source: primary data Number of respondents 60 6 66 % of respondents 91 9 100 0 66 0 100

From the table 15 above, 60 respondents said that the rate of poverty before the functionment of GIRINKA PROGRAM was very high corresponding to 91% as compared to those who responded by stating that the rate of poverty was low equivalent to 9%. Therefore, there is a need for the PROGRAM to solve the problem of poverty. Table 16 Classification of respondents according to the rate of poverty in the area after joining the PROGRAM. Response Very high High Medium Low Very low Total Number of respondents 2 2 6 56 0 66 % of respondents 3.03 3.03 9.09 84.9 0 100

39 Source: primary data As shown in the table 16 above, 2 respondent who constitute 3.03% of the sample size revealed that the rate of poverty after joining GIRINKA PROGRAM was very high, 2 respondent reported it being high, 6 respondents who constitute 9.09 % of the sample size indicated that it was medium, 56 respondents who constitute 84.9 % of the sample size indicated that poverty is low. For the Researcher, none of the respondents showed that poverty is very high after joining the PROGRAM. So, from the above information both on socio-economic wellbeing particularly and poverty reduction in general, one can conclude that the household crop incremental resulting from GIRINKA PROGRAM and wellbeing of Rwandan population are inversely related. 3.6.5. The impact of GIRINKA PROGRAMs activities with regard to wellbeing of Rubavu Sector population The impacts of the activities of GIRINKA PROGRAM with regard to wellbeing of the population are in line with its mission of developing and backing up populations social economic development in particular and poverty reduction in general.

The researcher states that: All respondents revealed that GIRINKA PROGRAM s activities have lead to considerable improvement in the standards of living of the Beneficiaries at household levels; The program intended for enabling the population to have access to job and income etc; Also the respondents contented that GIRINKA PROGRAM encouraged its beneficiaries to create small-scale projects and following-up their implementation as

40 well as assessing their impact on the Beneficiaries social cohesion and the environment in general; It was further indicated that, through GIRINKA PROGRAM, Beneficiaries have been able to engage beneficial and profitable small project activities which enable them to re-invest in developmental activities. From the funds earned, parents who have children are able to pay school fees and attain family basic needs such as nutrition, shelter etc; Beneficiaries further emphasized that before joining the PROGRAM they were not engaged in any activity that could improve their standard of living but, after joining it they are introduced in a system of savings that could help them to keep their projects records which would lead to self-reliance; Authorities still indicated that Beneficiaries have been encouraged to participate in meetings and discussions from which they gain knowledge and confidence on their economic improvement, mutual solidarity and trust; These activities have enabled them to increase their levels of income as well as decrease in poverty .None of the Beneficiaries revealed that before joining the PROGRAM were economically good or very good

No respondent among all the Beneficiaries denied the fact that GIRINKA PROGRAM has improved on their standards of living. The above discussion shows that the activities of GIRINKA PROGRAM as regards to wellbeing of the population have had a considerable impact on life of the Beneficiaries as well as that of the population in general. 3.6.6. Rubavu Sector Authorities views on the importance of GIRINKA PROGRAM in relation to crop incremental

41 On the question whether Authorities regard GIRINKA PROGRAM as indispensable and necessary for wellbeing of the population, all the Authorities all of whom were questioned held the view that the PROGRAM is an essential stakeholder for population development in the country. In order to justify their stand, the respondents revealed the role of GIRINKA PROGRAM in relation to crop incremental as below: GIRINKA PROGRAM works as means through which populations make their contribution ameliorating their social economic wellbeing and to the development of the country. On this issue, the Veterinary at Sector level had this to say: Wellbeing of the population in a given country cannot take place when the majority of the population is not actively engaged in all developmental ventures. Therefore, GIRINKA PROGRAM is necessary because it assists Rwandan population have access to income so as to handle themselves problems encountered at household level. Thus, the population can become actor and able to carry out profit earning activities and contribute to the development of their families as well as of the national economy due to the fertilizer from the program. The in-charge of Social Affairs at Sector level asserted that: GIRINKA PROGRAM is necessary because it enables the population to get out of misery and stress especially to traumatized one due to 1994 war and Genocide in Rwanda . In this context therefore, the traumatized and other people with the same problem are given cows to console them so as to increase their productivity, stress and turn back to their normal life. The in charge of Agriculture, livestock, business and promotion of cooperatives at Sector level noted that: GIRINKA PROGRAM helps to facilitate economic empowerment of the population whereby through knowledge and skills, population is able to design and implement small income generating projects". Regarding this, there is an increase in agricultural productivity gained through manure from the PROGRAM. 3.7. The problems encountered by beneficiaries in implementing GIRINKA PROGRAM activities

42

There are many problems Beneficiaries encounter in executing GIRINKA PROGRAM missions as below: High illiteracy and ignorance rate amongst Beneficiaries is another problem they face. This affects them to design their projects, evaluate, formulate and monitor their performance especially to know their monthly income and profits to ensure their effectiveness ; Also, heavy household occupation is another problem identified among Beneficiaries. They contended that this affects them to participate in project activities because most of their time is spent in family affairs like looking after their children, fetching water and collecting firewood; Limited land is another factor that limits the agricultural activities. It mainly affects Beneficiaries who are engaged in projects that require extensive land for farming and cultivation. In addition, the Beneficiaries who are involved in art and craft projects lack enough raw materials for their trade; Respondents further stressed that another problem they face is uncertain climatic conditions caused by natural hazards. They revealed that crops are destroyed whenever there are unpredictable climatic changes. However, as mentioned by the Veterinary at Sector level, this problem has been solved by sensitizing the Beneficiaries to plant their crops at early planting seasons. It can therefore be deduced from the above arguments that although GIRINKA PROGRAM offers support to Beneficiaries for the execution of their development initiatives, they still encounter a series of problems; sustainable wellbeing of the population would largely depend on how appropriate these problems are solved. 3.7.1. Problems GIRINKA PROGRAM faces in rendering its services According to the Veterinary at Sector level, GIRINKA PROGRAM faces several problems in its efforts to promote the populations wellbeing and these include:

43 GIRINKA PROGRAM conducts its activities in a socio-economic environment which is affected by the consequences of the 1994 war and Genocide whereby Survivors had no hope for existence; The PROGRAM faces the problem of logistical and technical assistance. Technical problems include lack of enough materials and funds to finance all its development projects; Low financial capacity; Low level of Beneficiaries entrepreneurship; Lack of enough skilled human resources; Lack of basic materials to use like enough stable offices and accounting and management principles to effectively utilize their finance; The Veterinary revealed that delay by the Donors to release funds is another problem the program meets in rendering its services to its Beneficiaries. 3.7.2. Strategies proposed to overcome the above mentioned problems Although the problems are still inflicting a great negative impact on population wellbeing in the country, the Veterinary of Rubavu Sector stressed the following as strategies to overcome some of these problems: To solve the problem of limited capacity, funds continue to be mobilized from different stakeholders for example local and INGOs and government of particularly MINAGRI. This will enable the PROGRAM to promote populations wellbeing initiatives; The PROGRAM will continue to offer training sessions to improve on the skills of the Authorities and Beneficiaries as far as the management of the small-scale development projects is concerned;

44 The problem of Beneficiaries who failed to breed the cows offered by GIRINKA PROGRAM is being solved by obliging Beneficiaries to return back the cow and Authorities give it to other person who is able to keep it properly. 3.7.3. Hypothesis testing GIRINKA PROGRAM according to the research was proved to have an impact on the poverty reduction and enhancing productivity in rural areas of Rwanda, justified by the fact that social and economic wellbeing aims at improving the standards of life of the individuals. Therefore, It was found that GIRINKA PROGRAM has improved the wellbeing of its beneficiaries in Rubavu Sector of Rubavu District as revealed by 100% of respondents (see table 13). It was also found that GIRINKA PROGRAM can reduce the poverty problem as revealed by 84.9% of respondents (see table 15). In addition, GIRINKA PROGRAM has been proved to be a solution to better standards of living of its Beneficiaries as revealed by 91% of the respondents (see table 10). Furthermore, it is revealed that the following hypothesis : GIRINKA program (one cow per family) contributes in poverty reduction in Rubavu Sector. GIRINKA program (one cow per family) has an impact in enhancing productivity in Rubavu Sector. Are confirmed. GENERAL CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 1. GENERAL CONCLUSION The purpose of this research was to demonstrate the impact of GIRINKA program (one cow per family) in poverty reduction and enhancing productivity in rural areas in general and in Rubavu Sector in particular. Based on the purpose of this research the main objectives of the study were:

45 To review whether GIRINKA program do contribute to poverty reduction and enhance productivity in rural areas. To demonstrate GIRINKA program To make recommendation

On the first objective upon the contribution of GIRINKA PROGRAM to poverty reduction of its beneficiaries, the researcher concluded that to a big extent the PROGRAM has managed to achieve its set objectives. In this regard, GIRINKA PROGRAM beneficiaries have benefited in acquiring manure for fertilizing poor soil, amelioration in child malnutrition, shelter, housing, clothes, and school fees as well as fund for health insurance is concerned etc. On the second objective about the contribution of GIRINKA PROGRAM on beneficiaries social and economic wellbeing, the researcher concluded that income and employment opportunities for the few years the PROGRAM has spent in operation, satisfactory achievements have been registered since beneficiaries earn income from personal output and being employed. On the third objective where the researcher was set to investigate the extent to which the PROGRAM has been able to poverty reduction, basing on the PROGRAM performance since 2006, it has improved beneficiaries incomes, provision of employment opportunities and learning model to other programs about how they can improve their social and economic wellbeing and reduce poverty. From all the contributions, benefits and advantages that the PROGRAM offers to its beneficiaries, farmers in the PROGRAM stands have better chance of developing socially and economically than those not in the PROGRAM.

Regarding income and employment, the researcher found out that GIRINKA PROGRAM with the support of its donors has contributed to its beneficiaries social economic wellbeing as far as poverty reduction is concerned.

46 This is evidenced in table 13 on the comparison of populations poverty before the establishment of GIRINKA PROGRAM and in table 10 illustrating their occupation after joining the PROGRAM. It was also found out that, income of beneficiaries of the PROGRAM increased compared to those of non members whom they shared the same level of living conditions. On the other hand, it was revealed that the PROGRAM also availed healthy employment opportunities to both members and non beneficiaries to a limited extent and allowed them to social cohesion. It was further found out that a lot has been achieved as far as increase in agricultural productivity, health, reduction of malnutrition and education are concerned. The PROGRAM is particularly known to offer facilitation in developmental programs like trainings, meetings and study tours on modern agriculture and environmental protection. Furthermore, findings were also highlighted that the achievements of GIRINKA PROGRAM have reached better extent, in as far as improving the wellbeing of its beneficiaries in the context of fighting or reducing poverty and thus, becomes a social and economic model of populations wellbeing. However, the problems encountered in implementation of GIRINKA PROGRAM were low capital, illiteracy of its beneficiaries, and lack of natural resources to extend some of the activities using manure as fertilizer, low land and climatic conditions.

2. Recommendations

Approaches to managing policies particularly GIRINKA PROGRAM should facilitate peoples livelihood. After collection, analyzing and interpretation of the data, the researcher came up with the following recommendations: - The GIRINKA PROGRAM should always be in a position to using technological knowhow in its daily operations. This is in line with curbing down the issue of competition from both local, regional and foreigner diary industries.

47 - GIRINKA PROGRAM should be promoted so as to provide a broader basis of reducing poverty in Rwanda. This would automatically increase the purchasing power people and thus, ultimate growth and development of the country. - GIRINKA PROGRAM should endeavor to work hand in hand with the local Leaders so as to sensitize individuals a system that should be designed to ensure efficient information flow right from the grassroots to top management and management to grassroots (from top to bottom and bottom to top). - GIRINKA PROGRAM should join hands with other policies so as to have an increased bargaining power from the Government. This in turn, should be assessed by the government of Rwanda by focusing on the impact of the PROGRAM and other influencing policies on population or examining their feasibility and consistency with other development objectives. - Low education is one of the factors that hinder development particularly populations wellbeing and good performance of GIRINKA PROGRAM implementation. Therefore, the government of Rwanda should provide rural population with selected seeds, modern breeds of cattle and fertilizers so as to increase on production. In addition, with increased agricultural production, producers can be able to sustain themselves through liquid cash. Furthermore, due to well trained personnel, the little arable land and available soil would be utilized and managed effectively.

3. Suggestions for further research

This study focused on GIRINKA PROGRAM and poverty reduction in rural areas. It therefore focused on social economic wellbeing such as income, employment opportunities, nutrition, agricultural productivity improvement and other social and economic wellbeing of the PROGRAM beneficiaries.

48 Then, other researchers should give a supportive arm so as to shade light on what could otherwise be vital as far as wellbeing of Rwandan population is concerned. It is also suggested that future researchers should focus on the following areas: The role of GIRINKA PROGRAM in raising agricultural development of rural people; GIRINKA PROGRAM and socio-economic development in Rwandan rural areas;

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