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REPUBLIC

OF YEMEN

Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources Agricultural Research and Extension Authority (AREA) Extension, Training and Communication Sector.

AGRICULTURAL

EXTENSION IN YEMEN

Agricultural Extension, Training and Communication An overview of the foundation, development and future orientation

Compiled by

Dr. Ismail Abdulla Muharram

Eng. Khalil Mansoor Ash-Shargabi

1995

Translated by RAMADA Translation Bureau Sana'a

Edited and printed b'j the \ntemationa\ !\gricu\tura\ Centre - Wageningen, the Netherlands \el/lax 31-3i7-41B552

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This book would not come to light were it not for the support and devotion of numerous persons. We remain proud of every word or figure they furnished us with. We highly appreciate every gesture of encouragement they expressed to us, every idea or observation they contributed and each effort or time they gave us. ., We, in particular, express gratitude and appreciation to Dr. Abdu~fWahed Mukred, Eng. Ismail AI-Mutawakke( Dr. Omar As-Sagheer, Eng. Abdo Muhammad Ghaleb, Eng. Najeeb Abkar, Eng. Afrah Abdul Habeeb, Eng. Mahmood Haidar, Abdo Saleh Ar-Rakhmi and Issam Ali Mutie Ali-Awadhi. These, and others, whose names have not been mentioned; lea':;!us without words with which we can express appropriate gratitude and indebtedness to all of them. All will remain in our minds, spirits and so"1!s. "> The Authors

CONTENTS

I ,

1. 2. 3. 4.

Contents. List of Tables. To the Reader. Foreword.

CHAPTER

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Yemen: Basic Information 1.2 Agriculture and Population 1.3 Significance of Agricultural

Extension

CHAPTER

2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4

AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION

Foundation and development Human and material resources Achievements Flow of information and co-ordination mechanism Agricultural Research and Extension 2.5 Characteristics of past extension work 2.6 The most important difficulties and obstacles 2.7 Concepts and suggestions for future action

between

CHAPTER

3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3 5 3.6 3.7

AGRICULTURAL TRAINING Foundation and development Human and material resources Achievements Co-ordination of Agricultural Training Characteristics of agricultural training during the past period. Main difficulties and obstacles Concepts and suggestions for future action

CHAPTER

AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION

4.1 Foundation and development 4.2 Human and material resources 4.3 Achievements 4.4 Co-ordination of agricultural information activities 4.5 Characteristics of information work up till now 4.6 Main difficulties and obstacles 4.7 Concepts and suggestions for future action

REFERENCE LIST

APPENDICES 1. Summary of results and recommendations of the First National Workshop on Linkage, (Sana'a, 5 - 8 October, 1991) Results and recommendations of the First National Symposium on Training and Human Resource Development in the Agricultural Development Plan

2.

TABLES 1. Characteristics of the agricultural environment in Yemen 2. Some agricultural projects in Yemen: Areas and Duration's (1964 - 1995) 3. Extension allocations of foreign funding in some agricultural projects in Yemen (1997 - 1990) 4. Agricultural staff in the Republic
5. Available agricultural extension installations, equipment and supplies 6. Productivity increase of some significant crops (1969/71 - 1988/90) 7. Quantity and productivity of animal wealth (1969/1971, 1988/1990)

8. Accommodative capacity of agricultural training and qualification centers in the country with respect to number and boarding of trainees 9. Regional research stations participating in agricultural training services 10. The most important agricultural centres I institutes participating in agricultural training and education
11. Development of number and specialization of graduates of Nasser College for Agricultural Sciences in Lahej (1975/76 - 1990/91)

12. Categories and number of graduates from training programs implemented in the agricultural training center in J'iar (970-1973) 13. Categories and number of graduates from training programs implemented in theNATC (1988 - 1995) 14. Number of employees engaging in communication in agricultural agencies 15. Distribution agricultural communication staff according to function 16. The most important kinds of agricultural communication equipment available at a number of agricultural agencies
17. Agricultural print-outs / magazines that are still being published up to present

FIGURES 1.
2a,b 3. 4. 5. 6.

Geographical map of Yemen and its important regions.


Organizational structure of Agricultural Extension and Research Authority Standard structure of Agricultural Extension Organs in regions Structure of Agricultural Research Regional Stations Transfer mechanism of agricultural information from the research agencies to farmers: Multi-steps and channels (Second Phase). Organizational structure of the General directorate of Extension and Training in the Ministry of Agriculture and Fish Wealth - Sana'a.

NOTICE: Tables and figures referred to in italics to be added

TO THE READER We know on beforehand that the subject of this booklet is both extensive and complex and more time and effort should have been spent, as well as more patient compilation of additional reference works and documents to collect more information. Perhaps, there was need for meeting such officials and specialists who were involved in the various phases of the development of extension work in our country. While knowing this, we also are aware that our work is still clouded by some aspects of shortcomings and loop-holes. However, we are also convinced that perfection belongs to Almighty Allah alone, and had we continued to be wary of mistakes we would have not advanced one single step and this work would have remained a mere project that would never come to light Starting from that, and out of our care for encouraging the tackling of the topic of agricultural extension and other aspects related to it, and as the topic is both vital and has a pivotal relationship with agricultural development in our country and for various other reasons and motives, we preferred to disregard general hesitation and commence with what we have arrived at - as represented by the contents of this booklet, including what it contains of shortcomings and faults that will continue to trouble us until we can overcome or at least minimize them in the future. Perhaps it is well to acquaint the reader with the great difficulty that we faced in our search for documents and reference materials which we used. In fact, these are very limited but are dispersed in various public and private places. Furthermore, most, if not ali, are of a general nature, not specialized and were prepared by numerous agencies and persons during various stages for varying purposes and objectives. This fact has doubled the effort exerted in the examination and review of such materials and drawing from them the required statements and information. We faced the problem of the disparity and contradiction of statements and information, which we sometimes preferred to deal with as they are, being content with reference to the existence of such disparities in the various reference works. On the other hand, we enlisted numerous and diversified methods for the compilation of the required information and data, such as interviews, personal conversations, telephone calls. At the end we found it imperative that the first draft be reviewed and revised by experienced and competent specialists and benefit from their views and observations. This booklet is not intended to be a conceptual theoretical reference work or an academic work. Rather it is a general and preliminary introduction to agricultural extension in general. It remains subject to development, completion and detailed expansion in the future. Nevertheless, the absence of any reference material on the topic was akin to a major motivation for its preparation and publication so that it becomes available to all. It is intended that it forms an information base from which the planning, preparation and execution of other more precise and detailed studies and works can be undertaken characterized by quantitative and qualitative development

We had wished to dedicate parts of this booklet to include numerous other topics related to agricultural extension, training and communication and in a more detailed manner, such as agricultural co-operation, credits, rural women's development extension, agricultural education and so on. However, our many other pursuits and the limited time available for study and research, the scarcity of resources available for the funding of publications and other factors - in their totality - formed a great barrier between ourselves and the realization of our desire. We, as such, considered the postponement of such topics to a time when the opportunity becomes available to issue a second edition, or that it should remain among the agricultural extension topics with their wide and inviting vistas. We, therefore, turn to the researchers to tackle these topics along with the topics that have been tackled in a limited manner and still require to be completed. This is a call for future works and for the future itself. In conclusion, we welcome any critical observations, comments, addition or rectifications that relate to any of the parts of this booklet. We promise the reader that we shall strive with all our efforts to take all of these into consideration when we intend to undertake the review, updating and development of this edition which has finally been produced and will, Allah willing, be followed up by the second edition which we aspire to achieve with greater detailed and precise information and with a greater degree of coverage, details and expansion.

Dr. Ismail Abdulla Muharram Eng. Khaleel Mansoor AI-Shargabi

FOREWORD History affirms that in the past our country has witnessed a great civilization in which agriculture was one of its major pillars. Historical monuments, such as the remnants of dams, irrigation systems and the complex terrace systems, continue to evidence that agricultural civilization to this day. Yemen has the most fertile lands of all countries in the Arabian Peninsula, apart from the terrain that have granted the country diverse climates that aid farming of a long list of crops, grain, vegetables, fruits and others. Throughout the past centuries, the Yemeni farmer has practiced farming and innovated scores of local agricultural technologies and methods which have been passed down from generation to another. Despite natural conditions and disasters, factors of internal discontinuity and being cut-off from the outside world and the economic changes witnessed by the country during the past stages, agriculture still represents the backbone of the country's economy. Agriculture contributes towards nearly 27% of the Gross National Income and no less than 65% of the country's work force are engaged in agriculture. On the other hand, total arable land amounts to some 1.5 million hectares, while there are some 2 million hectares of marginal land which is farmed during the season of heavy rainfall. The area of vegetation cover of trees and shrubs amounts to some 3.3 million hectares, in addition to nearly 16 million hectares of rangelands. The remaining area of the country is made up of rocky land or deserts. Due to al this, and owing to the population growth in the country and the need to produce local food resources through increased agricultural production, the government has been concerned with foundation and establishment of agricultural authorities and projects in which agricultural extension has been one of the basic components. The purpose of establisment and consolidation of agencies for agricultural extension was to provide the farmers with information, ideas and advice pertaining to modern farming technologies to benefit therefrom in the improvement, in number and quality, of agricultural production, and consequently improve farmers' incomes and living standards. Furthermore, agricultural extension has an important role to play in confronting a number of problems that agriculture is facing in the country and from which the farmers suffer, like deterioration of natural resources as water and soil. Groundwater is exploited at random, there is erosion and deterioration of land and terraces, decrease of soil fertility and loss of biodiversity, and many other problems and practical obstacles. As such, the potential role of agricultural extension is growing in importance more and more. This booklet contains a brief overview of the situation of agricultural extension work in the country. It also contains some general ideas on agricultural training and communication. In brief, a number of issues related to the topics of extension, agricultural training and communication concerning its foundation and development, the material and human resources involved, achievements, problems and constraints that face each of them are included. A specific section is exclusivly dealing with future concepts for the development of agricultural extension, training and communication at national and regional levels.

CHAPTER 1
1.1 Yemen:

- INTRODUCTION
Basic Information

1.1.1 Geographic location The Republic of Yemen is located in the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bounded from the north and northeast by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from the east by the Sultanate of Oman, from the west by the Red Sea and from the south by the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Aden. The national territory covers 550,000 krns" (Fig. 1). 1.1.2 Climate Temperature varies a great deal owing to the immense differences of altitude. The average annual temperature ranges between 15C in the Central Highlands and 30 C in the coastal line of the country, where temperatures may rise to 40C in summer, while temperatures may exceed 40C in some of the eastern regions. However, temperature may drop to 0 C during winter in some highlands.

Rainfall occurs in Yemen during two periods: the first during March - May, and the second during July - September when rainfall is more intense. Despite the absence of rainfall during November - February, yet there are exceptions in some seasons and for some years. Rainfall varies between 50 mm in the coastal and eastern regions and over 1,200 mm in the western highlands region. The country can be divided into three 1 climatic regions:
A) Dry Equatorial Climate

This covers the coastal strip and the low mountainous slopes in the west and the south. It is characterized by high temperature and low rainfall ranging between 0 and 400 mm. 8) Semi-Equatorial Dry Climate This represents a mid-way climate between the equatorial climate of the coastal strip and the mild climate of the highlands. Average temperature ranges between 16 and 28 degrees C, while the average rainfall ranges between 100 mm and 600 mm. This climate covers the high mountainous slopes, the lowland slopes and the eastern desert regions.
C)

Moderate Climate Region This climate prevails in the mountainous ranges whose altitude ranges between 1,800 m and 3,700 m. The average mean temperature per year ranges between 10 -c and 18 C, while the average rainfall is between 200 mm and 1,500 mm.

Even so, this division does not mean that it is final and comprehensive. Within each of the three principal regions there are some micro-climates that distinguish specific geographical areas or regions.

The data included in this part are not compatible with the contents of Table 1 as some reference

workshavecitedhigherratesof rainfall.SeeReveir( i 1983), Geography of Yemen(1992) and


Isnar (1993). On the other hand some reference works divide the country's surfaces according to terrain, climate and agricultural regions making them four or five regions: coastal plains, western

highlands. central highlands, central plateau and the eastern desert regions

4
1.1.3 Water and Land Resources

Water is deemed to be one of the crucial and important factors not only for agriculture alone, but also for the various national development aspects as well. Lack of water is one of the major problems confronted by agricultural production. Therefore, government efforts to develop water resources, and more particularly irrigation installations, are considered important and essential if exemplary utilization is to be achieved of the limited water resources like rainfall and groundwater as the two most important sources of water in the country. Rainfall ranges between 350 mm - the lowest level required for irrigation agriculture and 1,500 mm. The southern highlands is where the great annual rainfall occurs in a regular manner. Large parts of the agricultural regions depend on flood water irrigation which represents some 8% of the total arable land in a permanent manner, while 80% depends on rainfall water. Some 12% of the total agricultural area is cultivated with water from wells and springs that are widespread in the highlands regions. It is worth mentioning that the number of underground wells is on the increase in a continuous manner. This is met with a continuous negligence of the traditional irrigation methods through flood waters and may result in the drying up of the underground water and a lowering of the quality of irrigation water and, may be, the salination of the soil. Sandy and silt land is spread in the coastal regions, while the mountainous lands are either silty or clay silty. These lands are characterized by a decreased level of nitrogen, phosphorous and organic matter. The soil is subject to dangerous erosion owing to the flow of floods, wind and sandstorms. 1.1.4 Agricultural Environment Regions Disparity of the topography, soil types and the marine effects upon the climate and other factors have led to the presence of several areas or regions which have distinct agricultural environments. This can be noticed even at short distances. Even so, it is possible to identify nearly 8 agricultural environment regions in the country. Table 1 contains the most important characteristics of each.
1.2 Agriculture and Population

The results of the population census declared in early 1995 show that the Republic of Yemen had 15,804,654 inhabitants. About around 70% of the population is living on the countryside and most depend on agricultural production or related to agricultural production activities and the land. Agriculture has great importance in the life of the Yemenis, not only because of past practice and their ancient engagement therein, and by what their ancestors have left of monuments that evidence their advanced dealing therewith, like weirs, channels, dams and terraces, but also what agriculture represents nowadays as an important economic resource that may reach 30% of the Gross National Income. Due to the diversified natural conditions, the country produces many major and secondary crops. The most important ones are sorghum, millet, potatoes, bananas, mangoes, palm trees, onions, cotton, tobacco, wheat, barley, coffee, grapes, pomegranates, citrus fruits and a number of tubular and oil crops as well as numerous vegetables and fruit crops.

5 The country is also covered with a fair number of natural plants, such as tamarisk, acacia, thorny fig, in addition to hundreds of types of shrubs and grass of importance to grazing and animal husbandry. From another point of vies, agriculture, as far as the Yemeni are concerned, does not mean plant production alone. Animal wealth occupies an important and major status in Yemeni agriculture and the Yemeni farmer, who cultivates some crops during certain seasons, such as fodder for animals, just because natural grazing land depends on rainfall averages. Goats, sheep, cattle and camels constitute the most important species to be found in the Yemen. Their numbers vary from over the years depending on rainfall and vegetative growth. Also poultry and fish represent an important part of the country's economic resources and for the life of human beings. Agriculture has also had its effects upon the industrial sector of the country, especially during recent years. This is evident from food industries, the textiles and furnishings industry and some handicrafts industries such as baskets, boats, brooms and so on. It was mentioned earlier that the total arable area in the country is estimated at nearly 1.5 million hectares and a similar area is occupied by a natural plant cover of trees and forests, while the marginal agricultural land has been estimated at 3 million hectares. There also are great areas suited to agriculture but requiring many inputs, material and human resources as well as water. 1.3 Importance of Agricultural Extension Despite the diversification and expansion of agricultural and animal production, yet our country still imports many of the agricultural products and commodities, which may exceed 10% of the total imports. These are mainly represented by wheat, wheat flour, rice, sugar, some food industries, fruits, vegetables white and red meat. Due to the high population growth rate (3.0%) and the change in consumption trends of the inhabitants, the issue of importing a number of agricultural commodities will remain one of the possible alternatives to meet demand for such commodities. However, this does not exempt increased governmental concern for the agricultural sector to realize bigger increases in the rates of local agricultural production, from both in terms of volume and quality. This concern has been shown through the construction of dikes and dams, and import of agricultural inputs such as fertilizers, pesticides and machinery. It has also been exhibited by the founding of agricultural development support authorities and projects and the agricultural extension within them, and other activities and services such as agricultural credits, agricultural extension and teaching, and so on. The importance of agricultural extension becomes particularly evident if we consider the need of the Yemeni farmer for knowledge of modern agricultural technology and the manner of dealing with chemical materials and agricultural mechanization. This is in addition to the emergence of problems, such as the phenomena of soil deterioration and erosion, soil salination in some regions, or the depletion of water resources and its misuse in other regions, the emergence of problems of marketing and

warehousing, the planning and management of natural resources, the population's


concepts thereof and other related issues.

6 Due to the still growing number of farmers and the agricultural population and the agricultural resources and potentials in the country referred to above, and owing to the on-going agricultural expansion - be it as regards area or the many types of crops - and starting from what we have mentioned on the emergence of new problems and phenomena of a dangerous nature that confront agricultural production, it becomes clear from all the above that there is great importance attached to agricultural extension in our society which cannot be denied. Additionally, development and expansion of the agricultural sector and agricultural investment may push forward into existence new numbers of extension beneficiaries, who will need the advanced and diversified extension services. They, next to the other segments and large numbers of extension beneficiaries, and as a consequence of what has been covered earlier, will impose the need to cater for agricultural extension and shall work for its continuous development and consolidation of its human, material and moral capabilities Thus, agricultural extension represents one of the important and necessary inputs for the development of agricultural work and production, quantitatively and qualitatively This should be in a manner that shall not only assists increased productivity of the farmer, his income level and the improvement of his, and his family's, living standards, but also lead to realizing higher rates of self-sufficiency, food security, particularly strategic crops and commodities. Some surplus production should be achieved, which can raise the volume of the country's exports and its share of hard currencies and improve its position within the context of commodity exchange and foreign trade,.

CHAPTER 2
2.1 Foundation

- AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION
and Development

Agricultural extension has witnessed several stages of founding an development" These stages can be briefly described in the following manner. Important aspects and fundamentals of agricultural extension, if subjected to examination and study, research and appraisal, may result in outcomes that may be similar to the results of our studies or may fail to do so. Regardless of the different outcomes of such studies, - as an example - we quote Hashem (1993) on this topic who distinguished 3 phases of the development of agricultural extension in our country: the Application Phase (1), the Modern Phase (2) and the Advanced Phase (3). It should be noted that he has distinguished the duration of the first and second

In ttus study we have relied upon a follow-up and monitoring of the stages of foundation and development of agricultural extension from the aspect of national and regional institutional training, with some analysis of aspects of organization building whenever the context so required. In any case, there are other important aspects which this study has not dealt with or barely touched on for many reasons that we mentioned In the foreword to this booklet and the Message To The Reader. Among aspects not dealt with by this booklet are the development witnessed by agricultural extension at the level of other
fundamentals, such as trend philosophies or the intellectual concepts and frameworks which guided

extension activities in the past or still do.

7 phases at ten years each, starting in 1970 and ending in 1990, which latter year he considered as the start of the third, and actual phase. Irrespective agreement or disagreement over these divisions, it is important to stress the importance and need for carrying out several studies on the various aspects of agricultural extension in our country. One single study, such as the one in our hands, cannot ever achieve the objective on its own 2.1.1 Phase One: Founding (1968/69 - 1972173) The beginnings of the emergence of some government agricultural activities go back to the twenties and thirties of this century when the country was infested with some dangerous agricultural pests, such as desert grass-hoppers. This had to be faced with collective action on a wide scale and with assistance from the then Imamic regime. Regardless of the primitive nature of the implements and inputs required for that confrontation and the manual and mechanical methods, yet in the fifties such activities led to the appointment of a Minister for Agriculture in the government of Imam Ahmad. Activities at that time were limited to some issues related to cotton and tobacco growing as well as coffee production as the main cash crops of some importance to the limited commercial activity and related companies which started to appear at that time within a very limited action area. On the other hand, British colonial circles were not at all concerned with agricultural extension, as they were most interested in some crops such as cotton. Such crops received specific care in Abyan governorate, for example. However, in the mid-fifties Hadhramout Governorate became known as the "agricultural governorate for students", who paid short field visits during which they extended some advice to farmers. Despite the expansion of the scope of work of the Ministry of Agriculture, after the Revolution, with the opening of Agriculture Offices in a number of governorates and some limited bilateral agricultural projects, most of the activities were focused on staff recruitment and training, creation of state farms, their development and productivity increase. There was also an awareness arousing among the population urging them to work the land and engage in agriculture through the available information media and similar but simple activities. As a matter of fact, all these activities represented the core and the first emergence and founding of agricultural extension later on. Extension activity in the country began in the late sixties and early seventies through the activity of some projects established within the context of co-operation between our country and the United Nations Organization, such as the Central Highlands Project in Taiz, the Ibb Highlands Project in Ibb and the Lowlands Project in Zabeed, or through the activities of the research center in AI-Kod and Seiyun (later known as the "Agricultural Extension and Training Project in AI-Kod and Ji'ar", which continued for two years 1970-1972). During this period the Tihama Development Authority (TDA) was founded and among its tasks was the training of Agricultural Extension Workers3

See Mukred (1988), Mukred et.al. (no publication date), AI-Attar (1987), As-shargabi

(1986) et.al.

8 2.1.2 Phase Two: Expansion and Plurality (1973 - 1980) During this phase care for agricultural and rural development in general increased. Due to this, the country witnessed great expansion through the founding of rural development authorities, projects and programs, where agricultural extension was one of the components. At a time when the U.N. organizations continued to play their role during this stage through a number of projects, other organizations and states made their contributions through bilateral and multi-lateral co-operation projects. Also during this stage, the" Agriculture Research and Extension Program in AI-Kod and Ji'ar" was extended for an additional period from 1972 up to 1975. This period witnessed expansion activities" In 1973, the Central Highlands Project and the Highlands Project in Taiz and Ibb respectively merged within a new project for the second phase : the new entity was named the" Agricultural Research and Training Station" in Taizllbb. The Agricultural Production Promotion Project was also founded and the project duration was extended from 1976 till 1980 in Abyan, Lahej and Hadhramout. More and more projects were started in the country's governorate and provinces, such as the Rural Development Project in Rada' (1978), AI-Boun (1977) and others (see Table 2). During this period agricultural extension witnessed a multiplicity of administrative entities and agencies, diversification of procedures and methods, funding and supporting institutions. Also a disparity could be noticed, between relations and co-operation with the other organs and institutions for agricultural research, training and development.
2.1.3 Phase Three: Institutional and Supervisory Organization (1980-1990)

Despite the continued founding of agricultural and rural projects and authorities, be these public or private, in the various regions and governorates of the country, or the continuation of existing ones that had proven their success, (such as the Southern Highlands Project, Wadi Hadhramout Project and others), this phase in the development of agricultural extension in the country witnessed numerous efforts to come to grips with dispersal of extension and the absence of co-ordination between its numerous agencies. This was clear not only at the level of extension work, but also at the level of agricultural research, training, and education. The Agricultural Research and Extension Department was established in 1980 within the framework of the headquarters of the Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform in Aden to orient research and agricultural extension activity and link them to eachother at the various levels. There were extension units working in a number of governorates, such as Lahej and Abyan, or within the framework of development projects in Shabwa and Hadhramout. The establishment of the Research and Extension Department was an attempt to found an extension service at national level under supervision of a single central department." As for the headquarters of the Ministry of Agriculture and Fish Wealth in Sana'a, since the mid-seventies, a small department called the" Extension Department",

See Mukred (1988), Shihab (1990), Mukred et.al. (no publication date), AIAttar (1987), As-sharqabi Mukred (1988).

(1986) et.al,

9
subordinated to the General Directorate of Agricultural Affairs, was established. In 1984 this department developed into a General Directorate for Agricultural Extension and Training and under its umbrella were placed all agricultural extension and training activities. On the one hand, the development into a general directorate is considered to indicate the awareness of the importance of agricultural extension, and, on the other hand, an attempt to tackle the phenomena of dispersal and multiplicity at field level and create a single supervisory quarter to undertake the tasks to formulate policies and plans, to give guidance, supervision and support those field organs in the various action areas of extension. In both cases - i.e. the establishment of the Research and Extension Department and the establishment of the General Directorate for Agricultural Extension and Training, it is noted that this was resorted to at a time when the role of the agricultural extension organs was being consolidated, especially those subordinated to the agricultural development offices, projects and bodies to be found in the various regions of the country. Due to the fact that there was no central unit to formulates extension policy and to co-ordinate these agnecies and projects, and at the same time a pressing and important need was felt to create a stronger entity subordinated to a general directorate, it was found that there should be a stronger framework which should upgrade and expand the role of the small department so that it could carry out its tasks in a better way. Even so, the Research and Extension Department was unable to play its role for numerous reasons, among them the lack of staff, shortages in resources and potentials, absence of a system of linkage and co-ordination or a work mechanism between the organs, and other reasons. Even so, the department was able to advance its role during the remaining years of the eighties as a result of the start of the implementation of Research and Extension support project (1985 -1990)6. As for the General Directorate for Agricultural Extension and Training and despite the efforts it exerted to play its role at the levels of supervision, formulation, follow-up and evaluation of extension and training programs, yet it primarily remained overwhelmingly a media department, or an excellent agricultural information department." This, most of the time, was due to the same difficulties that confronted the Research and Extension Department, such as lack of staff and the lack of other resources, like means of transport and so on. 2.1.4 Phase Four: May 22, 1990 till now Following the signing of the Declaration of Unification on November 30, 1989 several joint specialized committees were formed in the various sectors and institutions of the two zonal governments. The objective of such committees was the formulation of concepts on the merger of the institutions in the light of the lessons and experiences of each of them.

AI-Attar (1985 - 1990)

AI Attar 1987

10 From the development of the institutional and supervisory organization phase (1980 1990) it became apparent that the newly created central supervisory echelons were facing some problems that did not enable them to play their defined roles in an appropriate way, such as the scarcity of trained staff, in particular, and the lack of resources and capacity and so on. To the contrary, regional development projects and authorities were different in strength and availability of financial and administrative resources. In addition, they enjoyed financial and administrative autonomy that motivated them to work according to their structures, procedures, resources and the work mechanism most suited to them. All this led to the domination of complex bureaucratic administrative measures which, by their very nature, created conditions that were not conducive to overall co-ordination and work. Similarly, it was noted that the absence of central supervision and co-ordination by the weak administrative entity in charge, and under the diversity of agencies, programs and field extension echelons, this multiple agencies and sources of recommendations and extension messages to the farmers, whether at the national or regional level, did not bear any fruit. Moreover, such plurality encompassed numerous other aspects. It was found that agricultural information or the results of agricultural research, for example, had to traverse many phases and steps before it could reach the beneficiaries admist the mass of farmers. Additionally, the channels through which such information had to pass were also numerous and different. On most occasions, the matter would end up with the loss of information or messages during one of those steps, phases or channels or would be subjected to variations and disfigurement before they reached the farmers." For the same reasons, it is worthwhile mentioning the accumulation of a huge quantity of technical information or recommendations inside agricultural research bodies - be these centers or stations - since the beginnings of agricultural research in the Yemen in the mid-fifties. Many sources affirm that such information and recommendations never went beyond the walls of the research organs. The little that did go beyond those walls, never reached the farmers in a regular and organized manner for many reasons, among them the absence or weakness of connections between agricultural research and extension, administrative weakness, no clear-cut objectives and lack of a sense of responsibility, etc. Therefore, and for many other reasons, the work of the General Directorate for Agricultural Research and Extension and the Research and Extension Department was frustrated, especially during the 1980-1985 period. Both were unable to

undertake the role defined for each of them in the required manner and with disparate
rates. The Research and Extension Department was able to benefit from the Research and Extension Support to improve its level of performance and play its role in a better manner. However, it could not free itself from the difficulties and obstacles that continued to surround its work.

As-Shargabi

(1990). Haider (1987), Hashem (undated) and Muharram (1993)

11 In any case, the work of the unification and merger of institutions of the unity state committees, referred to earlier, did arrive at need for the existence of a single institution to supervise the work of the agricultural extension, training and communication organs. Owing to the close relation between research and extension work, it was decided that the Agricultural Research and Extension Authority - the just born national agricultural institution (AREA) - should be the agency that would technically supervise extension work on the national level and would undertake tasks of support, co-ordination and assistance for development and activation of the numerous field agricultural extension agencies in the governorates and regions of the country. Then, as a consequence thereof, the Agricultural Extension and Training Department (ETD) was created within the structural framework of AREA. The various administrative units and projects operating under the umbrella of the Research and Extension Department and the General Directorate for Agricultural Extension and Training were transferred to work under the umbrella of the newly created department. Three sections were created in the new department, namely Extension, Training and Agricultural Communication. 9 (Fig. 2, 3 and 4). The role of the Extension, Training and Communication Sector at AREA becomes clear from the tasks assigned to it , summarized as follows:1. To define extension policies and strategies 2. To create appropriate procedures and mechanisms to link agricultural research and extension at national and regional levels 3. To train extension staff, to establish a national network of agricultural training institutions and to develop their technical capabilities to train various segments of those working in extension 4 To establish a national network for agricultural communication and co-ordinate the various activities related to the processing, preparation and publication of agricultural information at the various levels 5. To carry out extension research and studies in consolidation of extension policies, programs and methods, and realize linkage and co-ordination between them in line with the tasks of the AREA and its Extension Department and the extension role assigned 6. Develop the follow-up and evaluation system in the extension work and an appropriate data collection mechanism 7. Integrate rural women's activity and population education issues in the agriculture research and extension programs and activities, as well as the aspects pertaining to the environment and development. During this phase extension activities were carried out through the extension agencies of the agricultural authorities and projects, agriculture offices in the various governorates and regions. Some were frustrated or remained stagnant as a result of the changes ensuing from the re-organization and merger of the institutions or the adoption of new financial and administrative regulations. The ETD at the AREA started some technical supervision activities related to the crystallization of general policies and trends. It also extended consultancies and some technical assistance,

In addition to the merger of population education with the agricultural extension program, and most

probably it will be a sectionor departmenw t ithinthe Sector's organizationa e lntity.

12 such as organizing seminars, workshops, national and regional meetings on linkage and co-ordination of research and extension. It also organized training courses and workshops for extension officials and specialists in extension topics and prepared periodic technical information publications. 2.2 Human and Material Resources Earlier we mentioned that the country witnessed the founding and implementation of projects and the creation of agricultural authorities in co-operation with international organizations or through bilateral relations and agreements with some of the donor states. It is worth mentioning here that the tangible disparity in the volume of funding of such projects and their procedures, as well as their spheres of work and activities, were generally numerous and diversified to encompass different aspects of development, such as health services, drinking water supply, road construction and provision of credits, in addition to agriculture. Therefore, a large number or projects directly or indirectly contributed to agricultural extension work and the creation of the various human and material resources. (See
Table 3).

These indicators evidence that extension work received a fair share of funding, especially if we add to these allocations the funding obligations of the local side, which usually are not less than those of the foreign allocations. Unfortunately, wedo not have data on the development of extension allocations by the local side. Numerous tasks have been accomplished during the past period of the various development phases of the agricultural extension agencies. Primary structures were set up, such as the founding of agricultural extension centers and extension blocks. In addition, extension staff have been qualified and trained, an extension structure created and extension work requirements have been provided to an acceptable degree. All this has led to the expansion of extension work in various parts of the country. The Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources (MAWR) is in charge of the Agricultural Offices, Projects and Authorities distributed among the various governorates of the Republic. It should be taken into account that some of these authorities cover more than one governorate and this has led to the common usage of the term region, especially in the agricultural work.

13 At regional or governorate level, there is an agricultural extension section that undertakes supervision of a number of agricultural blocks distributed among the various districts or areas within the framework of that region or governorate. In each block an agricultural team is employed, made of a number of specialists in extension topics, technical aspects and veterinary matters. This team undertakes the supervision and follow-up in consolidating on-the-job training of field extension workers. Every agricultural block centre supervises a number of extension centers that may vary from one governorate to another. These centers are spread at the level of districts and villages to provide possible extension services to the farmers by adopting the Training & Visit System, but in amended or adjusted forms to be suited to local conditions and the resources and potentials available. Workers in agricultural extension utilize various methods of individual and group communication. However, the method of personal and direct communication with individuals or groups is the prevailing method. This is natural as it has a great effect on diagnosis of problems, building contacts and relationships that have great influence upon the adoption of modern production technology. It also assists in identifying and knowing local leaders and other such numerous benefits as can be derived from personal social contacts. As for the planning of extension work, this is undertaken by the project's department in charge of extension, or by the Agricultural Office in the governorate or region in co-ordination with the AREA, represented by the research and extension sectors of its general directorate or by the agricultural research center in that region or governorate, as will become apparent in greater detail later. The extension centers are spread all over the country. There are 270 extension centers subordinated to some 40 agricultural blocks. Some 1,200 staff are employed in the agricultural extension sector, among 350 specialists in extension topics and 146 extension workers (see Table 4). In each extension center 2 to 3 agricultural extension workers are employed, while in some other centers only one such worker is employed and in some other centers only one such worker is to be found. Yearly, the agricultural extension organ in all the regions serves nearly 258,000 thousand rural households or the equivalent 1.5 million inhabitants constituting 9.5% of the total population of the Republic, in addition to covering nearly 500,000 hectares or the equivalent of 30% of the arable area.

14

It is important to note here that the extension organs subordinated to some projects, authorities and agricultural offices (AO)do not have agricultural blocks, such as TOA, the AO in the Southern and Eastern Governorates and the ROP in Rada'a. In the statements mentioned above, only three extension regions, namely the Northern, Central and Southern regions in Tihama, have been included as three agricultural blocks. In general, agricultural extension in our country suffers from many problems. The main problems are the qualitative and quantitative weaknesses of the extension staff. The number of agricultural workers is very small when compared with the agricultural area to be covered or the number of farm fsamily households to de attended. In some regions, the extension worker has to serve nearly 6,650 rural households and supervise an area of some 3650 hectares. This exceeds by far (by 22 fold) the capacity of the extension agent, according to international estimates. As for the female extension workers, their numbers are very limited and do not exceed 146 workers over the country. On the other hand, raising the awareness of workers in extension agencies seems to be one of the impeding factors restricting their activity as is apparent from the following statement.

Of the agricultural extension staff, 57% do not academically qualify for extension (they hold preparatory level qualification or less than that): - 13% hold a secondary certificate, - 25% have less than 3 years experience, - 20% have not received any training, while - 44 % participated in training courses shorter than three weeks.* Besides, additional staff engaged in agricultural extension at AREA/ETO, Faculties of Agriculture or the Agricultural Secondary Schhol & Technical Schools or Institutes and alike, cannot be ignored. The extension role of such officials may be qualitative and restricted to certain spheres, such as extension research and studies, extension education or training, communication and information. However, through their various activities they regularly undertake specific extension work, through which they provide advice and extension clarifications to farmers, investors and other individuals involved in activities that benefit from agricultural extension or are otherwise related to rural and agricultural development.

15 Due to lack or non-updating of data on some extension agencies, the total actual staff number appears to be less than 1,200. In addition, the statistics do not include the extension staff at the Ministry's HQ and some qualitative projects and centers or the like. Furthermore, resources and input supply for extension work are meager to a great degree. For example, there are in the Southern Highlands Project 73 extension centers and 13 agricultural blocks - in which nearly 250 female agricultural extension workers are employed - they are served by 22 vehicles (13 cars; 9 motorcycles). Assuming the cars are actually there and serve the agricultural blocks, we find that 9 motorcycles are expected to serve 73 extension centers, i.e one motor cycle for every 8 to 9 centers or one motor cycle for every 19 persons. This means that mobility of the extension agents is very restricted, especially in the difficult mountainous areas."? The situation is relatively better in the Rada'a Project which has 15 extension centers in which 69 persons are working having 25 vehicles (13 cars and 12 motorcycles). The situation in Abyan and Hadhramout is similar to that of Rada'a.
(see Table 5).

Anyhow, one should be aware that most of these cars and motorbikes are out of order and need to be repaired, while others are totally neglected. Besides, other extension conditions are hardly met and there is a sharp shortage in operation items, apart from the high price of production inputs and their unavailability in some rural regions. Some extension recommendations do not meet the farmer's needs. These and other factors have limited the extension activity and adoption of recommendations on some crops in Tihama after five years of extension work produced results that did not exceed 20% on the average.

2.3

ACHIEVEMENTS

2.3.1 A brief summary From the foregoing it is noted that agricultural extension has, during its phases of founding and development, been able to realize numerous achievements till now. Main achievements are summarized below:
1.

2. 3. 4. 5.

Recruitment, training and qualification of extension staff. Formulation of the organizational structures and procedures necessary for the extension instiututions, Constructing the primary infrsstructures of buildings, equipment, arboretums and so on. Provision in varying degrees some of the various extension work conditions. Providing a number of services to farmers in various areas and in varying numbers, be these related to veterinary services, public health or campaigns to combat some pests, other extension services, extending advice to the

10

During 1994 and 1995 new numbers of motor cycles were provided and distributed among workers of the extension organsin the southern highlands. Hashem (no publicationdate).

16 beneficiaries or establishing some utilities, such as digging wells, paving rural roads and so on. 6. Encouraging farmers to use some modern agricultural techniques and methods such as for pest control, irrigation methods and mechanization. 7. Realizing increasing numbers in time, of the beneficiaries and increased attention to rural women. 8. Disseminating numerous types of improved and high yielding varieties derived by research agencies and promoting their adoption by farmers acquainting them with the proper agricultural operations. 9. Contributing to the preparation of studies, instruction of the farmers to benefit from the credit services and facilities of the Co-operative and Agricultural Credit Bank. 10. Propagating some population, environmental and development concepts amidst farmers and rural households. These are merely indications of the most important achievements, obtained by agricultural extension, both at the level of extension itself in the form of structures, resources and procedures, as well as at the level of agricultural production activities, which required long and detailed clarification. In itself, agricultural extension is but one of the inputs or factors of agricultural and rural development. To be effective, it needs provision and support for many other inputs and factors. The best evidence thereof, for example, is the promulgation of a resolution prohibiting the import of fruit and vegetables in 1984, accompanied by a strong moral and political support, which was an important incentive and motivation for extension work and the realization of very evident results at the level of agricultural production in general. From Tables 6 and 7 one can see the increased productivity of a number of important crops (kgs / hectare), the increase in the numbers of animals and the national production of animal products. If such developments in the sphere of agricultural and animal production are substantial, then it is important to emphasize here that agricultural extension played a crucial and influential role in bringing about those developments facilitating resources and inputs for such successes. It is also worth pointing out that the occurrence of a drop in productivity of some crops or a decrease in cultivated areas in some parts of the country had its causes during the same period covered by the two tables. E.g., the country was subjected to periods of drought, rainfall failure and other such factors that affect agriculture in general and influence its productivity and feasibility of agricultural extension work, in particular. However, it is clear that Yemen attained self-sufficiency in some crops, .such as various vegetables, and productivity per hectare has increased considerably as regards some other crops, such as potatoes and wheat.

17 2.4 Information flows and research and extension co-ordination mechanisms Although the Yemeni farmer has experience that goes back to nearly three thousand years, yet in agricultural production he has failed to keep abreast of many of the modern agricultural development and technologies as was mentioned before. Among such modern knowledge and technologies which the Yemeni farmer should apply in order to develop his agricultural production, are: Dealing with new types and crops, particularly fruit, vegetables, wheat Utilization of chemicals (fertilizers and pesticides) Water requirements of crops and modern irrigation means Agricultural mechanization Post - harvesting operations for a number of modern types and crops

Due to all this, the importance of agricultural extension that we have talked about in brief in the previous parts becomes apparent. It is, to a great extent, pivoted on the distinctive role which the extension agencies play to satisfy farmers information needs on various issues after due assessment in a precise anc objective manner. Utilization of numerous sources of information on modern agricultural technologies has top-priority for AREA, as these are considered to be the most important of such sources. Results of agricultural research accumulated during the past few decades, which did not find its way to the farmers, remain futile unless they find an effective extension agency that acts on their dissemination and presentation as agricultural production recommendations of an appropriate nature and in the form of extension advice and messages suited to the agricultural producers, their work conditions and agricultural environments. During the past stages one of the most important reasons behind the non-publication of and benefit from research results is due to the lack linkage and co-ordination between research and extension. This was the weaker part even when it was avalable. In addition, there was the weak administration, absence of specific planning, an insufficient sense of responsibility and such other aspects as we mentioned earlier in brief. If the agricultural development process in Yemen is to be pushed ahead, then a common serious and objective perception of the causes of the low extension performance, is required to tackle these causes and to arriving at appropriate solutions to remove the causes or mitigate their effects. Starting from that, there has been serious thinking on the importance of finding appropriate solutions for the problems extension is facing through the holding of successive and various workshops, meetings and seminars. Here, we will only mention some of those activities, such as the Expanded Agricultural Extension Meeting held at the Ministry in Sana'a in February, 1989. From that meeting emanated a Committee to follow-up the works of the meeting. It held its first meeting in April 1989, with the aim to restructure the extension agencies at national and regional levels, to review and to develop the job definitions of the various extension functions, such as agricultural training and communication which will be referred to in detail later on.

18 In May 1990, a meeting called the" Open Meeting" was held for the AREA managers and their counterparts in the development authorities and projects, the agriculture offices and the MAWR, for the same purpose. In October 1991, the First National Workshop on Co-ordination between Research and Extension was held in Sana'a during which a number of issues was discussed. The most important of these were: Experiences of the development authorities and projects in the agricultural extension process Prospective conceptions of extension and its relationship to research This Open Meeting came out with a number of recommendations: 1. 2. Creation of standard structures for the agricultural extension agencies and definition of responsibilities Consolidation of the process of co-ordination between agricultural research and extension through regional co-ordination units of agricultural research and extension and other channels.

2.4.1 Linkage Mechanisms and Research-Extension Co-ordination During the past couple of years, AREA, through the activity of its extension, training and communication department and with help from the Agriculture Sector Management Support Project (ASMSP), and the Netherlands Extension Support Project (ETC), strived to develop and activate co-ordination and linkage mechanisms between agricultural research and extension at the national and regional levels, in cooperation with the extension organs at the agriculture projects, authorities and offices in the regions. The objective was not mere transmission of the results of research and promotion of their adoption and utilization. Rather, and in addition thereto, the objective was to ascertain research and extension could formulate plans and programs responsive to the problems of the farmers and their reflection upon the impediments and difficulties of the agricultural reality. This would enable research and extension to find appropriate solutions for them. From this, the importance of these communication channels and the linkage and co-ordination mechanisms becomes apparent and each of these can be taken up in brief in the following. 2.4.2 Regional Co-ordination Units for Agricultural Research and Extension These units were created within the administrative structure of the regional agricultural research centers and stations. The regional co-ordination unit is deemed to be the linkage instrument and the main communication channel for the extension and other agencies concerned with agricultural development at the regional level. At present, this unit has one specialist only who assumed the function of ' Regional Co-ordinator of Research and Extension'. However, there is a prospective trend to expand the activity of this unit and furnish it with a number of specialists and technicians according to the volume of work in the region, the activities of the unit and the actual needs that will become clear with the elapse of time. (Figures 3 and 4)

19 2.4.3
Monthly workshops Such workshops are held once every month, as indicated by their name. Reality however, is different as these meetings are held every once per month, or only once per two months or with even larger inrtervals, varying from one region to another. There are specific items or topics which are taken up, which makes them different from other meetings. After all, there is no harm in calling them periodic workshops as it is sometimes difficult to hold regular monthly meetings in most of the regions and areas. At these periodic workshops, district officials and specialists of research and extension participate. Usually, at each workshop a number of specific topics is dealt with, such as a review of agricultural conditions in the district, review and discussion of field problems, agricultural operations for the next month and the technical recommendations thereto, planning of extension activities and input requirements such as tools and means for practical instruction and new instructions for the extension staff (training), preparation of studies, feedback mechanisms, preparations for field visits and so on. Topics related to population education, rural women, the environment and agricultural and rural communication activities are also considered. On the other hand, it is worth pointing out that these workshops become very important in the planning of agricultural research and extension activities and programs through the variety of topics dealt with, the problems and difficulties that are solved and the cases that are brought forward. It is supposed that such workshops or co-ordination activities should enumerate, categorize and classify these problems and difficulties into three types as follows: Problems for which the researchers can give the extension officers immediate solutions as technical recommendations; Problems for which solutions may be available in similar areas, whether inside the country or abroad, and which can be benefited from; Problems for which there are no ready solutions at hand with the research staf or at the research station and have not been met before, and without solutions in other, similar areas. Therefore, such kind of problems should be incorporated in the next research program and in this manner a short-term research program can be crystallized. During the monthly meeting, manner: a number of topics is discussed in the following

a) Review of agricultural conditions / agricultural calendar:


Regional agricultural conditions and and discussed. This goes along with methods, results obtained and other period under review, such as animal activities during the previous month are reviewed review and discussion of the adopted practices and aspects that relate to agricultural activity during the health, pests, diseases and climatic conditions.

Next, various agricultural operations are categorized per crop. This should be done in a dynamic and intereactive way. The objective is to link the extension worker to the daily

work of the farmer in a detailed manner covering all agricultural operations and the symptoms, figures and quantities that clearly relate to them. Discussion of the crop calendar ts also meant to monitor production developments and as a source of agricultural data and statistics for the region. This should make it easier to obtain information and data on schedule for planning purposes, programs and activities of research and extension in agriculture and rural development work in general.

20 b) Case Report
The extension officials submit one or more reports to the meeting on specific problems or difficulties. These are taken up in detail and transmitted to the research officials for discussion, exchange of experiences and finding possible solutions for overcoming them. Such reports can also be the basis for joint activities of the resear-ch and extension officials, such as field visits for the common diagnosis of the case or new phenomena or for collection of data thereon and crystallizing the appropriate solutions through fields surveys. c) Technical Recommendations At each workshop the available recommendations necessary for the month to come, are discussed and specified. Information on on-farm verification trials is also discussed, the results and technical recommendations to be based on these. Such recommendations are transmitted to other extension staff in the region for the purpose of publication, utilization and adoption. Therefore, it is supposed that these be discussed in a precise and detailed manner at the workshop, taking into account the provision of various alternatives. It is also necessary to determine the way in which the field extension worker will adjust or amend the recommendation according to the conditions of the action area, the characteristics of the local environment and conditions and features of the farmers when preparing the extension messages directed to them. d) Application of skills and demonstrations / training In each workshop, according to topics and needs specified in previous meetings, one or more research staff provide training to extension staff specializing in certain subject matter. The training may include lectures and applied work on such topics. This type of training is especially focused on those methods and techniques that are recommended and which may be new and unknown to the extension staff. It thus becomes necessary, that research staff be furnished with the know-how and related skills in such a way that they, in turn, can train extension field staff, passing on the know-how during meetings held for that purpose according to a specific training program. The purpose is that they become fully acquainted with the recommendation or the information which they will have to disseminate to the field workers. During the monthly meeting there is also practice in diagnostic skills that are necessary at field level. This item - skills training and practise - may be combined with place during the field visits or one of the verifications field experiments.

e) Other topics
The monthly workshops may include a number of other topics or items that should be dealt with and the necessary decisions taken. Among those topics, e.g., are the population cultural concepts, environment issues, rural. women's activities, information or communication of an agricultural and rural nature and other important aspects and topics of agricultural extension and research on an equal footing. Here, and similar to what has been previously reviewed, problems related to these topics are discussed, categorized and classified. Whether specific technical recommendations or solutions are available or agreement on a specific measure can be reached, is discussed and iuf so, these are adopted and included in the work plans after approval.

2.4.4

On-farm verification trials


These experiments are planned, executed, followed up and supervised by the researchers and the concerned extension staff. The experiments that are carried out in the verification trials are deemed to be the fruit of the research experiments carried out on the research stations. They are carried out directly on the farmers' lands to ascertain the success of the results of research

experiments under farming conditions of the individuals of the farming community target groups who contribute to the actual management of the
verification fields.

21 The regional research and extension co-ordinator (REC) and the co-ordinator of the extension agency playa great role in the planning and preparation of the verification trials while the field extension worker plays the greater role in collecting all the data and information pertaining to this plan.

2.4.5

Joint Field Surveys Specialists from agricultural research and extension take part in these surveys according to pre-determined objectives and arrangements. The surveys may be general or of specific purpose and the scope of special aspects may be a particular one. They may aim at problem identification of the agricultural reality in some region and determine its most prominent priorities which then are taken into consideration when formulating research and extension programs and plans. The survey may aim at diagnosing and tackling a specific phenomenon or problem that has afflicted the region. According to its specific purpose, it shall be determined who is to participate in the survey, who will be a member of the team or which will be the procedures to be applied. Farmer participation or their representation is always necessary and important in carrying out the survey according to its nature and objectives. These surveys represent one feature of linkage between the farmers, extension guides and researchers, and is considered to be one of the forms of continuity, coordination and joint work which not only lead to development of relations between its parties but also furthers the development of research and extension programs in a manner that benefits the farmer.

2.4.6

Periodical Information Bulletin on Agricultural Research and Extension This bulletin is issued by AREA every three months. The Bulletin has an Editorial Board working at the premises of the General Directorate of the AREA in Dhamar. This board is concerned with its preparation, printing and distribution, and primarily through the Agricultural Information and Documentation Department (100) of the ETD of the Authority. Specialists in extension topics from some of the projects and extension agencies regularly contribute articles, news and diverse writings in a voluntary manner: On the other hand, the regional co-ordinators of agricultural research and extension contribute to the preparation of material, news and follow-up operations. The Bulletin is distributed among the leaders of projects, authorities, agricultural offices in the governorates and regions, the extension supervisors and the specialist in extension subjects, either during workshops, training courses or by direct dispatch to the places where they work. The Bulletin is also distributed to all agricultural institutions or those that relate to agricultural development at national and regional levels. At present, the Bulletin represents one of the contact links between agricultural research and extension. Through this bulletin, the exchange of various information, experiences and news takes place. It is expected that in due time, both its preparation and publication will attract more interest and gain recognition as well as increased contributions from specialists in extension topics. Although the Bulletin is considered to be a communications link by itself

between agricultural research and extension, yet it also functions as a

22 supporting and complementary linkage mechanism, both qualitatively and quantitatively. 2.4.7 The Regional Technical Committeefor Research & Extension Co-ordination This committee is comprised of the representatives of the leaderships of the project, development authorities, the agricultural office and the agricultural extension official of the region, as well as specialists in extension topics present at the agricultural extension blocks, and managers of the research center or the regional station. This Committee meets twice in the first year to discuss the annual report and the work plan. The Committee submits the results of its work to the Regional Co-ordination Committee. The Regional Co-ordination Committee The regional co-ordination committee is comprised by the director of the project or development authority, director of the extension agency, the director of the regional station or his deputy, in addition to the research-extension co-ordinator at the regional station. This Committee meets annually to discuss the financial and administrative aspects pertaining to the co-ordination plans and programs submitted to it by the Regional Technical Committee for Research & Extension Co-ordination, for adoption in its final form. Supreme Research and Extension Co-ordination Committee It is chaired by the Minister of Agriculture and Water Resources and includes in its membership the general directors of development projects and authorities, the agricultural offices and the management of AREA. It discusses problems that confront co-ordination between research and extension and the exemplary methods of their resolution. Characteristics of Extension Work during the past period Features of extension during the last decade can be summarized as follows: 1. Concentrationof efforts and resourceson the creation of the necessary infrastructure like buildings,equipment, furnishings, means of transport.
2.

2.4.8

2.4.9

2.5

Polarization of varying numbers of staff to work in extension- generally, these have varying educational levels, mostly below standard - and staff training for various periodsthe longest of which is 9 months.

3. Weak, irregular co-ordinationand communicationwith research. 4. Extension work was mainly focused on large farms along the major paved roads, and particularly in the irrigated agricultural areas. 5. Extension work was rather limited to promotion of cultivation of specific crops and varieties and accompanying agricultural technologies generally presented as incidental recommendations neglecting farm management in a comprehensive manner, nor the prevailing farming system.
6.

Extensionfocussed on technologiesto increase productivity, not given due attention to the increaseof farmer's income applying technologiessuited to his

conditions, needs and problems.

23
7. One way flow of information, be it from the research centre or the extension agency to the farmer, and - in the best circumstances - no or restricted feedback on the effects of extension messages allow due amendment and development of research and extension programs. Farmers do hardly participate in extension - nor in research - except for a very meagre ratio of participation represented by negative receptivity of advice and messages or the access to land for the establishment of the demonstration or experimental farms. Participation is restricted to the implementation phase and not in problem identification, decision-making on alternative solutions or planning and programming. A weak linkage between field extension work and the information media, especially the activities of agricultural information media. Besides, there is no co-ordination between the central agricultural information units and the activities of the rural information units in the regions and governorates. Many extension activities are limited to the provision of a certain variety services. such as input supply, especially the ones free of charge, such as seedlings and so on. This has had a clearly negative impact on extension work itself. Lack of planning - or, in the best circumstances, inclarity or impreciseness of the objectives of extension activity. If any planning does exist, then it is of a general nature, and not related to the needs and problems of the farmers. Plurality of extension agencies and institutions and diversity of their regulations, mechanisms, work spheres and funding sources. This has been accompanied by weak relations between each of them, on the one hand, and their relations with agency supervising over agricultural extension on the national level, on the other hand. There are extension activities, most of which are oriented to reaching the male farmers and neglecting the female farmers. There is delay in care for such segments like rural women and youth, etc. Similarly, the fetal beginnings of women's extension programs were characterized by concentration upon certain aspects, to the exclusion of others, such as tailoring, embroidery, home farming and the like.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

2.6

Main Problems and Obstacles


It is most important that technical recommendations reach the farmers and equally so the transmission of their problems to the research centers is in need of a strong extension agency that is also effective. However, the agricultural extension agencies face numerous problems which affect their work and lead to deterioration of their activities and a low performance level. Those problems and impediments can be briefly described as follows: 1. Staff, that is qualitatively weak and in numbers disproportionate to the numbers of farmers to be contacted, the geographical area to be covered and the variety and manifold aspects of agricultural production activities. Lack of adequate resources such as means of transports, budgettary funds for operational expenses, extension materials and aids, etc. Increased prices of agricultural inputs and their unavailability in the farming regions.

2.

3.

24
4. The weak linkage and co-ordination between agricultural extension and research and other institutions that relate to agricultural work. Job instability of the extension staff and the increasing staff turn-over rates resulting fromf low salaries, incentive and limited promotion opportunities. Dependence of extension on the T & V system, which involves high costs. There is need for clear and precise structural framework, rules and regulations and specific and strict procedures. Training of extension staff is weak and restricted to technical aspects and natural sciences. This is accompanied by great negligence of training in social and economic aspects that are relevant to agricultural extension and rural development. No clear planning of extension work as far as many those engaged in it are concerned, weak administration and the and the absence of responsibility therein. Weakness of the agricultural credits system and the limits spread of the other agricultural services. Extension work is mainly concentrated in irrigated areas and biased towards working with farmers of those areas, especially the big farmers, and men in particular. Increased burden and expanded scope of extension work, in addition to some workers being busy with other work.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

25 2.7 Concepts and suggestions for future development of extension work The development of extension work is imperative so that it can play its role in agricultural development in a general manner. Therefore, it is necessary to take the following matters into consideration: Formulating a clear agricultural policy that is in harmony with the aspirations and needs of the farmers and the state plan. Elaborate a complete set of recommendations on social, cultural and economic changes to the extension agencies, in addition to making available the material and technical resources to move rural society from the stage of information receptivity to that of adoption. Crystallize and consolidate the integrated rural development concept that encompasses the various life aspects. Strengthen the relations of extension work with the various information media on the national and regional levels so that it can play its complementary role in support of the field personal contact channels. Increase the effectiveness of the present role of the extension agencies as bridge over which the technical information is transmitted from its source to the farmers and information sources, such as the research institutes. Stronger integration of rural women by convincing men of the need for women's enlightenment and their participation in development. Have rural youth participate in development. Expand the scope of extension work with the various local leaderships of the village instead of restricting it to the traditionalleaderships. Avoid restriction of dealings with the same contact farmers or those repeatedly selected during successive seasons and years. Promote the formation of co-operatives and consolidate the role of co-operative working, agricultural extension and development activities. Develop co-ordination and co-operation between the various agencies concerned with rural development. Deepen contacts, bonds and relations of co-ordination and joint work between the extension workers and those engaged in research work. Consolidate care for the agricultural worker and improve his job living conditions. Formulate a standard structure for the agricultural extension organs, job classification and duties at all levels. Delineate the geographic and human scope in which the agricultural worker is engaged to be compatible with the available resources.

26 Open up promotion and qualification opportunities and establish an incentive system in the extension sector. Provide the necessary financial allocations to conduct extension work. Dedicate attention to the training and re-qualification of procedures in extension agencies and develop an evaluatoion and follow-up system within the framework of extension work at national and regional level. Study and unify concepts of extension work, define the connotations of extension words and terms starting from local experience and conditions in a manner that serves extension work at the level of the Republic Crystallize the organizational frameworks and regulations concerning development of extension work, those engaged in the extension agencies, linkage and co-ordination networks between extension and other actors at the national and regional levels, follow-up, develop and adopt such rules and regulations.

27

CHAPTER THREE - AGRICULTURAL


3.1

TRAINING

Foundation and Development Agricultural training has not been very much different from agricultural extension as far as its foundation and development concerns. A number of developement stages can be distinguished as follows: First stage: the Early Beginnings (per 1970) In the preceding part, when speaking about foundation and development of agricultural extension in Yemen, we stated that some agricultural activities witnessed by the country led to the establishment of a Ministry of Agriculture in Imam Ahmad's government. Later on the Desert Locust Center was founded as a result of the country being subjected to repeated swarms of this insect. As a consequence, the importance of training of local staff in agriculture was increasingly sensed. In 1958, this was illustrated by the FAO establishing what was then called the Agricultural Institute on the remnants of the Desert Locust Centre. At this institute three batches of trainees graduated with a total number of 100 trainees before the final close-down of the institute in 1963. Moreover, there is no doubt that other efforts in the sphere of agricultural training were witnessed by the country beyond the scope of this institute as an institutional framework for agricultural training, either before its emergence or after its closure. Examples of this is the training which the so-called agricultural students in Hadhramout used to receive during the fifties before taking up their tasks of visiting farmers and furnishing them with advice and information, or the training which some new staff received when they were employed at some farms and projects which began to appear in the mid-sixties and onwards.

3.1.1

3.1.2 Second stage: the Founding (1970 -1974) The expansion of agricultural activities and care for crops during the fifties and sixties led to the emergence and expansion of agricultural extension and its increased activities in the country, as has been mentioned earlier. With that expansion and increase in agricultural work, in general, and extension work, in particular since the late sixties, some efforts were exerted in an irregular and dispersed manner to provide agricultural training which primarily aimed at preparing and training a number of staff in an urgent and rapid manner. However, this situation did not last for long During this stage, many steps and efforts followed each other to institutionalize and organize training activities on an institutional basis. The Ji'ar Training Centre in Abyan was founded in 1970. Furthermore, agricultural training activities began and grow alongside extension activities through a number of projects established since 1970, such as the Central Highlands Project in Taiz, the Highlands Project in Ibb and the Agricultural Extension and Training Project, which included the development of research work as well in AI-Kod, Ji'ar in Abyan governorate, as well as the Lowlands Project in Zabeed, Tihama. In 1974 two centres were established for the training and qualification of extension staff at the Taizllbb Agricultural Research and Training Station, the Wadi Zabeed Project within the framework of the TDA. With that, one can

28 observe the distinctive training activities during this stages as they accompanied (and were pursued) parallel to extension and research activities which had begun to appear at the same time. 3.1.3 Third stage: Expansion and Growth (1974 _1985)11 During this stage more agricultural authorities and projects were founded. This was accompanied with an increase in the numbers of agricultural training centers that were founded within such authorities and projects to qualify and train cadres to support their field extension organs. Therefore, general and specialized agricultural training centres appeared in a number of areas, such as Taiz, Mareb, AI-Boun in Imran, Lahej and Sana'a. Some of these centres had prepared classrooms for training along with other furnishings and installations. Some others were furnished with dormitories for the trainers and trainees (see Table 8). As against that, some of those centres were established and started training activities without having such installations and furnishings. For example, since 1976 the Agricultural Extension and Training Department subordinated to the General Directorate of Agricultural Affairs at the Ministry of Agriculture, began to organize agricultural training courses for the new agricultural extension cadres in a classroom of the Yemeni-German Plant Protection Project (PPP). During this stage, there appeared a number of specialized and qualitative agricultural extension training centres, such as the Veterinary Training Centre, Plant Protection Training Centre and Horticultural Training Centre in AI-Jarouba, AI-Irra and elsewhere. This was in addition to the emergence of some specialized training institutes, such as the Irrigation Institute in Lahej and the Agricultural Co-operation Institute in Aden. These were the tributaries of training and qualification of not only agricultural staff, but also various beneficiary segments at many occasions. On the other hand, most of the rural agricultural projects and authorities and other qualitative crop projects, that had an extension component, undertook numerous general and specialized training activities during this staqe.? The contributions of the training centres, institutes and training programs within the context of the projects and authorities played an important role in the training of large numbers of various segments as agricultural workers and technicians, rural female workers and others, particularly the Agricultural Training Institute in Ji'ar, which as from 1974 - 1985 became the centre of agricultural training and extension. It is worth pointing out that during this phase also, training of workers at the Taiz / Ibb Agricultural Research and Training Station ceased to exist (1982). The same happened with the Zabeed Training and Research Centre, where training activities ceased in 1984. That is not surprising in any case as the halt came following the foundation of the Secondary Agricultural Training Institute in Ibb in

11

See Mukred and others (undated publication (,ji'ar Center (1993), As-Shadli (1989), for more details. AI-Attar (1978)

12

29 1979 and the Secondary Agricultural Institute in Surdud in 1980 along with others. On the other hand, with the beginnings of this phase or a bit earlier (1979) the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences was founded as one of the faculties of Aden University and the Faculty of Agriculture of Sana'a University had begun enrolling students in their first university agriculture education programs. 3.1.4 Institutional and Supervisory Organization Phase (1985-1990) The multiplicity of agricultural development projects, authorities and programs had a great impact upon the level of agricultural extension and training performance. Not only that, the multiplicity and the influences resulting therefrom reflected themselves also on the level of relationship between extension and training with the research agencies. This led to an increased sensing of the absence of clear trends and the feeling for the need of a supervisory framework at the national level for the organs of a complementary but diversified nature on the agricultural plane." The Research and Extension Department at the headquarters of the Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform was established in Aden in 1980. However, this department did not record great success in overcoming the difficulties that had originally necessitated its founding for various reasons. However, it witnessed great development in the performance of its tasks as from 1985, especially after the implementation of the Research and Extension Support Program, as has been mentioned earlier. At a time when a unified framework was created to supervise over research and extension activities in the Southern and Eastern Governoratres, the Agricultural Research Authority was established in the late 1983 to be the national institution concerned with the planning, execution and direction of the agricultural research programs. Before its founding by a short period it had lifted its hands of any activity related to agricultural extension and traininqin a gradual manner. Even so, the" Extension Department" of the General Directorate of Agricultural Affairs at the Ministry of Agricultural and Fish Wealth in Sana'a was elevated to a " General Directorate for Agricultural Extension and Training" in 1984 to undertake responsibility for agricultural extension training at the level of the Republic and meet the needs of the governorates for training. Its tasks were determined in a broader and clearer manner - as regards agricultural extension and communication -, especially after the issue of Republican Decree in Law NO.6 of 1986 which re-organized the Ministry of Agricultural and Fish Wealth. Within the framework of the General Directorate for Agricultural Extension and Training a special department for agricultural training was created. One of its

13

As-Sharjabi (1989). It should be noted that the workers who graduated from the training programs of the
reseerch centers amounted to nearly 175 persons during 1975.1982,

30 tasks was supervision over the plant and animal agricultural training centres subordinated to the Ministry." On the other hand, late 1988 another project was founded with support from the United Nations and FAO for the founding of The Regional Agricultural Training Centre as a permanent national institution capable of providing the required training opportunities for the medium and high level leaders hips of the agricultural sector. Among the tasks of the said project was also" extension of technical assistance to the General Directorate of Agricultural Extension and Training at the headquarters of the Ministry of Fish Wealth in Sana'a, its restructuring and formulation of national extension policies for co-ordination of and supervision over extension and training activities in the country." In 1989 quite a number of activities took place related to agricultural training, particularly its organizational and supervisory aspects. In this year the General Meeting for Extension Staff was held - as mentioned earlier - and from this meeting emanated a follow-up committee which held its met in April, 1989. This last meeting was meant "to dwell on the re-structuring the extension agencies at all agricultural development projects and authorities and the General Directorate for Extension and Training ...".16 This is to say that the organizational structure, job defenitions and co-ordination functions concerning agricultural training at the national and regional levels were just one of the aspects that were discussed and an attempt was made to arrive at a stable and satisfactory structure. The said committee indeed gave its approval to the structuring of the General Directorate for Agricultural Extension and Training from which appeared the Training Department and the National Agricultural Training Centre (NATC; see Fig. 7). However, the Committee did not accomplish anything related to agricultural training at the regional level. It is worthwhile mentioning here that the First National Seminar on the Development and Training of Human Resources to serve Agricultural and Rural Development in Yemen (held in Taiz, December 16 - 18, 1989), had 23 local and international organizations and institutions representing those operating in the sphere of rural and agricultural development in Yemen. The institutional agricultural training aspect received the lion's share of attention and occupied and important part in the resolutions and recommendations of the seminar (see Appendix 2). It was quite clear that the seminar called for the formation of an organizational framework to supervise the formulation of policies, determination of agricultural training trends and to co-ordinate training program activities. At that time, just over a year had elapsed since the beginning of the project on the establishment of the NATC. The said seminar passed a recommendation on the formation of a new institution called The Support Committee for Agricultural Affairs. This institution

" "
"

Shihab (1990), Mukred (1989).For more details see the section on the stages of extension development.AI-Attar (1987).

FAO (1991) As-Shadli (1989)

31 was proposed to include the staf training for the authorities and projects, along with the Director of Training at the Ministry. No reference was made to the NATC and its role in formulating the general framework of agricultural training policies nor within the framework of the proposed committee. Apart from this, the seminar issued recommendations on agricultural training for the" General Directorate for Extension and Training" at the Ministry and the NATC to be created. It was recommended that follow-up should be given to complete the implementation of the recommendations of the General Meeting of Agricultural Extension Staff referred to before. Specific attention should be given to the recommendations relating to training, organizational structures and job definition at the regional level. The review of activities, measures and recommendations not only show clearly the awareness of the difficulties and bottlenecks of agricultural training and the isolated nature of the various training efforts and lack of systematic compilation of training materials. It also expressed the common desire to amend those constraints and to solve these problems in an proper way. However, the search for an acceptable solution led to the design of a number of alternatives, among them the founding of the National Agricultural Centre (NA TC), which had just been created when the project of its founding was put forward during these activities, meetings and seminars. There were also similar activities for the same purpose but these lacked legitimacy. Next came the new stage with its scores of new developments as we will show later. From the fore-going we will note that this stage was characterized by efforts to deal with the problems of heterogeneity, dispersed activities and the diversity of training institutions and programs. It is very clear that this was the stage of the search for a central co-ordinating and supervisory framework for those activities and programs at the national level, regardless of whether such a framework was the Joint National Committee, a department, a national centre or anything
else.

Besides, the mere creation of such an administrative organizational framework was not an aim in itself, as from a monitoring of the quantity and quality of what
had crystallized of entities and measures over the various years during this

stage and before, the need for a supervisory institutional entity for agricultural training had grown very clear. Also, it was necessary to determine the size and structure of such an entity and its procedures, to put it into effect it and to enable it to play its role according to its mandate at national and at regional level. Despite the on-going founding and strengthening of the Agricultural Research Authority during this period as an autonomous national authority concerned with research, yet the events that followed this stage led to the creation of the National Agricultural Training Centres in Ji'ar and Sana'a and activation of the Research and Extension Department at the Ministry in Aden through the" Research and Extension Support Project" and its training components, and
other successive activities - all of which evidenced the extent of the strong

relationship between Agricultural Extension and the Training and Agricultural


Research. This was the pivotal point taken into consideration as will become

32 clear when we speak about the following stage of the founding and development of agricultural training in Yemen. 3.1.5 The post-unification stage Since the creation of the public Authority for Agricultural Research and Extension (AREA) following the unification of Yemen, the Extension, Training and Communication Department (ETD) was created within it Some staff and equipment were transferred to the premises of the Authority in Dhamar, including some of those who used to work at the NATC at the Ministry of Agricultural and Fish Wealth in Sana'a under the framework of the General Directorate for Agricultural Extension and Training. Although the NATC had no building or equipment, yet it started with the available resources and training materials at the building of the General Directorate of AREA in Dhamar. The period of the founding of the NATC project was also extended to include Founding of an Integrated Agricultural Extension System in Yemen following unification. This project made a great contribution to the organization of the 1st National Workshop on Co-ordination and Linkage between Agricultural Research and Extension (Sana'a, October, 1991). In this workshop, agricultural education and training occupied a fair part of its activities. The Project's work continued until late 1992. Its halt coincided with the start of the Dutch Project in support of implementation of agricultural extension and training in mid-1993 as one of the components of the Agricultural Sector Management Support Project (ASMSP). Even so, the Centre continued to co-ordinate with the ATC in Ji'ar and other regional training centres by organizing a number of training courses. The Management of the ASMS Project incorporated establishment and equipment of the NATC. However, this matter remains suspended owing to the continued search for the best premises possible. It is determined that the extension and training component (ETC) within this project will lend the support that is necessary for the founding and development of the NATC.
3.2 Human and Material Resources

The human factor is considered to be the backbone of development and the human being is know to be the means as well as the objective of development. In the special section on extension of this booklet we touched upon the characteristics and specifics of those working in the agricultural extension agencies, where we discovered the low level of qualification and training of the extension staff. Similarly, the preliminary statistics of workers in the Yemeni agricultural sector in a general manner indicate that in the early nineties their number reached 8,700 persons distributed among 12 offices and branches of the Ministry. Those statistics did not include the workers of the numerous agricultural projects and authorities. Those statistics also pointed out that the ages of most of them
(65%) range between 25 and 45 years, and that nearly 2,050 employees i.e.

nearly 25%, work in the headquarters of the Ministry and its Office in Sana'a
Governorate.

33 As for the educational level, the statistics show that more than 60% of them are preparatory stage certificate holders or even less qualified and nearly 14% hold university degrees, the ratio of those with academic qualification (SSc Degree and above) is around 17%. However the practical experience of these staff is rather limited, as 36% of them have 1 to 6 years experience. Furthermore, the overwhelming majority (74 %) have not received any training following their
quautication."

Since the early seventies, when training activities began and some training centres were established, many of these were founded in the various parts of the country and within the national and regional agricultural authority and projects. The number of such centres now is almost 12 (see Table 8), in addition to the equipment and resources of the research stations of the AREA, which can be used as a training centres also. There are eight such regional research stations where some training activities are carried out from time to time for various categories of trainees (Table 9). The centres shown in Table 8 absorb nearly 1,121 persons at this time, though the in-take capacity is less than that. Varying numbers of specialists and supervisory staff work at the ATC. These were recruited and employed over the stages of their founding and development and they now number to nearly 50 persons. However, they are not full-time trainers and in none of the centres there are trainers who specialize in specific training subject matter, except in rare cases. To set off this, assistance of subject matter specialists form the various agricultural institutions, be they engaged in research, university faculties or the agricultural production, is included. As a matter of fact, during the past few decades, it has been possible to prepare training syllabi and materials for a number of training topics. These are used and developed in a number of centres. Yet, much remains to be done in this field of action. It is worth pointing out that very few centres have the necessary facilities such as classrooms, dormitories, laboratories, training equipment and aids, libraries, reading rooms, experimental farms and means of transport. Some of the training centres succeeded in formulating some rules and regulations that govern their work and strived after creating distinctive relations of co-operation and co-ordination with the other centres and institutions. Even so, there is great disparity between them, especially as regards the availability of resources, equipment and other facilities (see Table 8). Most agricultural training activities in our country depend upon the extent of financial support being available. Therefore, it is noted that the activities of most centres come to halt the moment external support comes to an end. This is also due to the fact that operational costs of such centres are not included in the local budgets to the extent necessary. If available, then such allocations are

11

Zuhair As-Sabbagh (1993), Manpower structures.

34 very modest and are sufficient only for the organization of a limited number of training activities. The ATC used to playa great role in the training and preparation of agricultural staff and workers before entering service as well as during service by the development authority or the agricultural project. However, the pre-service condition of the qualification and training of the required agricultural staff has changed owing to the existence of other training channels, such as the agricultural education institutions, like the Secondary Agricultural Education and the Faculties of Agriculture at the universities. (see Table 10). The agricultural education institution mentioned in Table 10 playa crucial role in the pre-service qualification of the cadres required for the agricultural sector. This task used to be undertaken in a limited and unequal manner by the various A TC. Therefore, the agricultural faculties and higher institutes now furnish extension work with college staff and workers who are suitably and scientifically qualified. In the long-term this will lead to the replacement of the former less qualified staff, even though they have, with their limited training, played a role that cannot be minimized in the absence of medium and high level specialists holding college degrees before the stage of founding agricultural education colleges and institutes and the commencement of the first batches graduating from them. (See Table 11). From Table (11) one can ascertain the contribution of the agricultural education institutions. This will give a great outlet to enable the ATC to focus upon preliminary and in-service training in specialized and qualitative spheres in a manner that is suited to the conditions of the various agricultural action areas, be they old or new staff. Moreover, the numbers of qualified persons graduating from the agricultural education institutions will accord the opportunity to the previous careers that had received only limited training to continue their scientific qualification at any of those faculties or institutions. This will also grant them the opportunity to change over to new jobs more suited to their new educational standards and experiences in accordance with appropriate plans and clearly defined needs that are harmonious with the need to develop work and production, and develop human and material resources on an equal footing. Despite the fact that the agriculture educational institutions concentrate on preservice qualification in a primary manner, yet a number of them organize and execute in-service training courses, particularly the Faculties of Agriculture. The Faculty of Agriculture at Sana'a University supervises over the agriculture training centre subordinated to it and which was founded for this purpose specifically. On another hand, and in addition to the ATC and the agricultural education institutions that we have already referred to, there is a number of other quarters concerned with agricultural training. These organizations undertake planning

and execution of training activities for extension staff, agricultural students and
other segments targeted for training activities

35 Among such organizations, reference can be made to the agricultural research centres and stations in the various regions (see Table 9). These research stations have some equipment and facilities that are suited for training, such as lecture halls, workshops, demonstrative farms, equipment, machinery, audio-visual aids, publications and other training materials, apart from trainers from among the specialist research staff and other such training resources. We previously referred to the linkage between the founding of research and agricultural extension and training and to the contributions of some joint projects and research stations in conducting agricultural training for short periods before these were halted coinciding with the emergence of the Agricultural Faculties and Institutes. However, the contribution of these research stations and centres in carrying out training activities for agricultural guides, specialists and students and other segments is still continuing but with varying levels from one region to another. Neither can we ignore reference to the existence of other non-agricultural organizations that in one form or another contribute to agricultural training activities by virtue of the facilities, installations and excellent training resources that they possess, such as the National Public Administration Institute at its headquarters in Sana'a and branches in a number of the governorates of the Republic. Thus, there are enough agricultural training potentials and resources. However, these resources are spread among a large number of different organizations that do not work in a co-ordinated, regular and excellently organized manner and within a pre-prepared training plan resting on the fundamentals of agricultural and national comprehensive development plans and policies. Starting from that and out of awareness of the importance of unifying efforts, co-ordinating training activities and programs to raise the competence of those working in the agricultural sector and confronting the problems ensuing from the low performance of the employees of this vital sector, the State resorted to the founding of the National Agricultural Training Institute in Ji'ar, Abyan in 1978, the National Agricultural Training Institute in Sana'a in 1988. Since 1990 the National Agricultural Training Institute in Dhamar has become the competent centre at national level in charge of the task of supervision over, co-ordination, planning, execution and evaluation of agricultural training and its various activities.

3.3

Achievements The total number of agricultural extension agents who received pre-service training at the various extension training centers of the various projects and institutions since 1982 and upto the end 1986 was around 529 individuals, in addition to more than 200 veterinary extension workers". This is in addition to others who completed the training courses organized later by the Extension Training Center of the General Directorate for Agricultural Extension and Training in Sana'a at that time.

"

AI-Attar (1987)

36
As for the major agricultural training centers, such as the Ji'ar Center, the total number graduating from its training programs during the period from mid-June 1970 till December 1993 was 4,591 male and female trainees as extension agents, agricultural workers, agricultural technical staff, rural local leaderships, agricultural students, rural women, farmers, co-operative workers and supervisors of vegetables and fruit orqanisations'". Their numbers was around 5,000 trainees. The Jiar training centre organized nearly 200 courses until mid-1995 (Table 12). Similarly, the NATC organized 38 training courses since its founding in 1988. The total number of those who graduated from these courses was 783 males and females from the various categories of trainees." (Table 13). Most of the training courses concentrated on crop productiontecnology and the various agricultural sciences specialized aspects. On the other hand, some qualitative projects had their contribution to the sphere of training extension staff. For example, we here mention the efforts of" Integration of Population Education into Agricultural Extension Programs" Project, as it was able to train more than 300 of the specialist in extension topics, and extension workers of either sexe in the various topics of population education or related matter. In addition to this, evidenced by the elaboration of training courses and the number of trainees graduating therefrom, the various efforts in agricultural training also brought about many other results at various levels, such as infrastructures, equipment, administrative procedures and the like. In general, the following achievements of agricultural training can be cited in brief as follows:1. Creation of the administrative framework and the organizational structures for agricultural training, the founding of agricultural training centers and the polarization and recruitment of a number of specialists and officials for the newly created frameworks and centres.
2.

Planning and execution of numerous training courses with varying duration, spheres, objectives and types.

3. A large number of various segments of trainees was covered, such as pre- and in-services training of extension workers and other agricultural staff, as well as co-operative workers, farmers, local leaderships, rural female guides and others. 4. Crystallization and preparation of training syllabli and materials in the various subjects and spheres and the printing of some of these materials and using them.

5. Establish the buildings necessary for training activities, or those of the training centers, and equipping them with some facilities, equipment and requirements of training, accommodating and feeding the trainers, making available study rooms, bedrooms, reading rooms, training aids and materials.

19

Ji'ar Institute (1993), Identification Bulletin Records of the national Ag. Training Center

20

37
6. Qualification and training a number of training staff, making an inventory of the number of local trainers staff in the various institutes and promoting the skills enhancement of such staff and consolidate their links with the network of ATe in a systematic manner. Founding and development of some specialized training centers.

7.

8. Adoption and development of some specialized training centers. 9. Adoption of some steps aimed at founding of the National Agricultural Training Center, activate its role in the planning, execution and evaluation of training, co-ordination and supervisory activities on the national and regional levels. 10. Creation of excellent opportunities for the interaction of workers in the agricultural sector and prepare training activities to establish linkage mechanisms among speclatists, trainers and the trainees for the exchange of experience, creating an atmosphere conducive to linkage and co-ordination between research and training and promote the exchange and circulation of information, modern technologies and methods.

38
3.4 Co-ordination of Agricultural Training

From the foregoing the extent of multiplicity of the quarters that participate in the execution of training activities becomes apparent, whether it is pre-service or in-service training. It has also become clear that some qualification and training centers are subordinated to other governmental quarters outside the agricultural sector, such as the Ministry of Education or the universities. The organizations concerned sought the integration of the agencies supervising extension training. In 1984, this was crowned with the founding of the Extension Training Center in Sana'a and the NATC in Ji'ar in 1986, followed, in 1988, by the NA TC in Sana'a. The objective of such attempts was the creation of a single entity that would shoulder all training activities and serve all projects and agricultural authorities in the various regions and governorates. Nevertheless, often much training continued to be undertaken without reference to the competent central administrative entity and without any co-ordination. The little co-ordination there was, depended purely on personal relationships and was not underpinned by a continuous and systematic hrchanism. Through the NATe in Dhamar, the agricultural extension and training sector at the public AREA exerts persistent efforts to raise the level of co-ordination and relations of linkage and communication with the other regional training centers and the agricultural education institutions involved in agricultural and extension education or training activities. Hopefully, these efforts will lead to integrated planning, which will result in due mobilization of the available resources to furnish the agriculture sector with the necessary manpower and staff possessing the required knowledge and skills, to improve their job performance in the agricultural sector and raise the rate of agricultural development, qualitatively and quantitatively. 3.5 Characteristics of agricultural training during the past period From the foregoing, the most important characteristics of agricultural during the past period can be observed in the following manner:-

training

1. Concentration on pre-service training with the aim of qualifying the required numbers of cadres to join agricultural work. 2. Paying less attention to in-service training or so-called refresher training. 3. Semi-neglect of induction training which should take place upon recruitment. 4. Great concentration on topics of various agricultural sciences, such as crops, soil, land conservation and the like, along with greater neglect of other important topics such as social communication, rural communities, management, social behavior, sciences and others. 5. A clear concern for the quantitative aspects of training, such as the number of activities, the number of participants, or the preparation of topics and subjects without corresponding attention to the qualitative aspects of training whether related to the relevance of such training or applicability to the regional or local conditions for the staff concerned. 6. Training programs and activities lack appropriate and regular fundamentals and mechanisms for follow-up and evaluation, most evaluation procedures being restricted to selection on a tribal basis in the best cases. 7. Absence of a clear agricultural training plan at national and regional levels based on precise and approved policies along with proper planning of the resource requirements for implementation at national and regional levels.

39
8. A limited number and small segments of those working in the agricultural sector benefit from the various training activities. 9. The disparity among educational qualifications of those participating in many of the training activities and programs and their functions, job positions and the experience they avail of. This affects negatively the effectiveness of such training efforts and their impacts.

3.6

Main Difficulties and Problems


The course of agricultural training activities are confronted by many problems and obstacles that are not very much different from those facing agricultural extension. Among the more prominent of such problems and obstacles are the following: Lack of a national policy for agricultural training; No planning or co-ordination of training activities at national level; No proper needs assessment of those working in the agricultural sector; Scarcity of the resources available for training; Lack of a system of incentives for the trainers and trainees equally; No system for evaluation and follow-up of training courses and trainees. for future development strategy of Agricultural Training training.

3.7

Recommendations 1. Formulation 2.

of national

and policies for agricultural

Design of agricultural training plans and the co-ordination of training activities at national and regional levels in a manner that is compatible with the national agricultural training policy; integration of efforts and resources within the framework of those plans in co-operation with the institutions involved in agricultural education and training and other relevant quarters .. Undertaking assessment the studies and surveys necessary for training needs in the agricultural sector in the short and long terms. of training activities and a

3.

4.

Creation of a system for evaluation and follow-up system of incentives for trainers and trainees.

5.

Incorporation of specific social and economic topics and the various aspects of rural development in the training programmes. Special courses should be organized for these topics according to local needs and conditions so as to realize a balanced training content. Determining the training aspects on which the national and regional formal agricultural education should focus to keep abreast of national agricultural policies, work plans and national development in general. Enhancing agricultural complementarity and compatibility between extension, education and communication. training and

6.

7.

8.

Developing the competence and capacity of the National and specialized training center for tile medium and upper level leadersnlps as regards

agricultural research and extension and the agricultural sector, in general, in

40 important and strategic spheres such as management and leadership skills and so on.

CHAPTER 4 - AGRICULTURAL AND RURAL INFORMATION


4.1 Foundation and Development Undoubtedly, there is a close link between agricultural information and agricultural extension and training, concerning basic concepts and underlying principles - the theory of communication and learning - similarity of objectives or their complementary nature, the way it is linked to the framework of agricultural development, in particular, and comprehensive national development, in general. From the preceding two chapters on agricultural training and extension, one can notice their degree of similarity, intertwining and linkage during the various stages of founding and development. Agricultural information is a third tributary and interacts with extension and training in many aspects which are mentioned in this chapter. Agricultural information passed through a number of stages since its foundation and development which will be briefly reviewed in the following, starting with its origins up to now. 4.1.1 Foundation and Development (before 1976) Owing to the great status enjoyed by agriculture in the life of our Yemeni society, it was natural that agricultural issues and topics should occupy an appropriate position in the Yemeni mass media since its first appearance. Therefore, it can be said that the concerns and problems of agriculture and production in the country started to appear in the mass media since the beginnings of modest journalist work, which was intermittent since the thirties of this century, while official and national newspapers came later. Those newspapers dealt with specific agricultural issues such as the cultivation of coffee and cotton, the cooperative societies, marketing and export of agricultural produce, in addition to the issue of (qat) in the publication of some news and official policy decisions related to agriculture and the like." Publishing of agricultural issues and problem by the press of the fifties and sixties, especially after the eruption of the Revolution, the development of previous concepts and concerns and the appearance of new concepts and issues, has developed. The concern with agricultural issues was not limited to the writing press, as it also emerged in other media such as radio and television when they made their appearance in Aden in the mid-sixties and in Sana'a in the mid-seventies. This was before the appearance of institutional agricultural information. While agricultural and rural information had a fetal beginning in the womb of the mass media as shown by the publications on programs and materials containing some agricultural issues and concerns of the agricultural sector and rural society in our country, the emergence of agricultural extension, training and research organs was akin to a green light for the crystallization of

AI-Mutawakkel

(1983)

41 agricultural and rural information specialized work within the organizational setup of the Ministry of Agriculture and the subordinated national and regional institutions. Throughout the seventies and with the beginnings of extension work, attention was concentrated upon the recruitment and training of agricultural extension agents to be distributed among the extension centres in the various districts and governorates However, in practice the number of extension workers was limited and inadequate to cover the immense number of farmers. Moreover, their distribution over the agricultural regions and areas was unequal. In addition, the experience taught that field extension work must be accompanied by wider information work to consolidate and support it so that the field extension worker can reach the farmer by any means available to realize or help to realize the targets. Meanwhile, agricultural activities multiplied and diversified and the number of projects and agriculture offices and the number of their workers also increased. This was in addition to the desire to realize the maximum rates of agricultural development and production that were feasible and to speed up agricultural and rural development. All of these, and other reasons, made the agricultural institutions and officials resort to accomplishing some works related to agricultural information, such as the preparation of reports, bulletins, pictures and posters, along with some radio material and various press articles and reports. However, those and other activities were spontaneous, irregular and had no permanent character. They were directed by non-specialist or even unqualified cadres. Indeed most of what had been executed was for the sake of publicity, political mobilization and incitement or simple public relations. During this stage, and more particularly in 1970, there appeared an information section at the Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform in Aden attached to the Minister's office directly. Its work was limited to public relations tasks or ensuring news coverage of the activities of the Ministry. Sometimes, some
extension material was offered to the farmers but in an irregular manner. Said

section had no links to extension field work* and it published some issues of a co-operative agricultural magazine in the early seventies, but this stopped very soon. As for the Ministry of Agriculture and Fish Wealth in Sana'a, it had an extension department subordinated to the General Directorate for Agricultural Affairs, as has been mentioned earlier. This department was in charge to undertake agricultural information activity. The main component of its activities was similar to that of the information section. Even so, the issue of the first number of the Magazine "Agricultural Awareness" during this stage, and specifically since 1975, by the Taizllbb Central Research
Station, came after three years had passed after the idea was launched to

publish an agricultural magazine by the Ministry of Agriculture in Sana'a. Its

42 issue crowned the efforts of a number of agronomists without the aid of an information specialist or an agricultural information unit or section at that time."

4.1.2

Multiplicity and Diversity: 1976 - 1984 The previous stage was characterized by the appearance of diverse agricultural information activities and lack of clear concepts of agricultural information and its relationship to agricultural extension and agricultural development in general. It was also distinguished by the appearance of two or more sections of information as an experiment that was flawed by the mixture of concepts of public relation, publicity, marketing and so on. However, that stage was the basis of successive activities that began to appear since 1976 when the tasks of the Agricultural Extension Department at the Ministry in Sana'a were determined by Ministerial Decree No. 13 of 1976. It was quite clear that most of these related to agricultural information activity, as has been pointed out earlier. As for Aden, the information section which was attached to the Minister's Office, was linked to the Farmers' Union for nearly three years. It was then once again reverted to the Ministry to work according to the same previous mechanism until the end of the seventies. From another point of view, the Ministry of Agriculture and Fish Wealth in Sana'a began implementing some information activities, such as exhibitions and the issue of publications It should be noted that the magazine Agricultural Awareness issued its fourth number in (1977) from the Ministry of Agriculture. This meant the start of increased attention for agricultural information and its various activities. This is also shown by the fact that implementation started of a special project for agricultural information in 1979 under the supervision of the Extension Department at the Ministry of Agriculture in Sana'a in co-operation with FA023 Through that project the Department received audio-visual equipment, a photography workshop, slides and training of a number of staff in the various information spheres." In 1980 the FAO also provided support for agricultural information at the Ministry of Agriculture in Aden and the ATC in Ji'ar. These activities and aid existed of provision of information equipment, the establishment of a photographic laboratory and training for a number of staff in photography and desk-top publishing. After nearly a year, i.e in 1981, the Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform was restructured organizationally and the information section became the Central Council for Agricultural Information, which soon became the Agricultural Information Department. That move was considered to

22

Nasser (1991), Documents of the First National Work Circle on co-ordination between research and extension. )Abdul Rahman (1991), Documents.... Agricultural Awareness magazine, no. 1, 1975

23

Nasser (1991), Documents of the First National Workshop on Co-ordination of Research and extension.

24

Abdul Rahman (1991) documents ...

43 be an expression of the level of importance given to agricultural information and the importance it had earned. At the same time, it clearly illustrated the obscurity and mist that had previously surrounded the nature and mechanism of its work and its lack of a structural basis. The appearance of such agricultural information projects or extension and agrarian reform at central level was accompanied by the emergence of a number projects with agricultural and rural information as one of the components. As such, the founding and formation of special agricultural and rural information units and sections within the context of those regional agricultural development projects and authorities with support and assistance from the donors and the approval at local level. The beginning of the eighties saw the founding of such units and sections. At the Tihama Development Authority the Agricultural Information Section was founded and at the Southern Highlands Agricultural Development Project the Rural Information Unit was established. In late 1983 and with the promulgation of the Law on the Agricultural Research Authority, a Section for Information, Training & Documentation was founded within the Authority. Similarly, agricultural information units and sections began to appear at the extension agencies or the agricultural offices of some governorates, whether projects with or without external funding, like the Extension Agencies in Lahej and Hadhramout, which were usually called" Information Units ". From the foregoing, it can be said that this stage saw strengthening and consolidation of agricultural information at the headquarters of the Ministries in Aden and Sana'a. However, none of the two systems came nearer to perform the tasks they were supposed to undertake, namely the transmission of extension information to the farming public or strengthening links between the farmers, research and extension or consolidating and backing field extension work and similar tasks. Therefore, it seems that the appearance of a number of agricultural information units or sections in the governorates or regions was a natural evolution, but this improvement was not a general one, despite the presence of some success cases among those various experiences. However, it is confirmed that the sections or units which were founded in the governorates continued to work on a regional basis without any close co-ordination and linkage with the Agricultural Information Department / Section at the Center, and probably without any communication or co-ordination with field extension work in the region itself, with some exception, of course.
4.1.3 Institutional and Supervisory Organization Stage (1985-1990)

With the increased institutionalization and the appearance of more projects during this stage, like before, the formation of agricultural information units and sections also continued. To cite examples, we can refer to the founding and creation of agricultural information systems at the Rada' Rural Development Project, the Forests and Rangelands Project, the Yemeni-German Plant Protection Project, the Northern

44 Regions Development Project (Sana'a, Saada and Hajja), and the Eastern Regions Development Authority. This, in addition to the appearance of agricultural information activities through a number of other projects. with agricultural and rural information as one of the project components, such as the Integration of Population Education in Agricultural Extension Programs and Agricultural Marketing Project and so on. Consequently, the situation of agricultural information was similar to that of agricultural extension and training, as it had to go through the same stages of dispersal, chaotic efforts, diversity and multiplicity of structural conditions, the natural of work and tasks. Therefore, the importance of co-ordination and the need for clear monitoring systems, better administrative and organizational mechanisms and linkage at national level, became clear. There was a restructuring that led to the upgrading of the Extension Department to a General Directorate for Agricultural Training and Extension at the Ministry of Agriculture in Sana'a. The former Agricultural Information Section became the Agricultural Information Department within the new structural arrangements. With that transformation in 1985 and with assistance from the USAID a complete studio for television productions was created and a small offset printing machine provided to produce publications for the Ministry of Agriculture and Fish Wealth in Sana'a. In mid-1986 and within the context of yet another advanced step, in Aden the activity of the agricultural information was integrated into the agricultural research and extension department's activity within the Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform. That step led to the realization of benefits from agricultural information as one of the components of the Research and Extension Support Project (1985 - 1990) which was being carried out with the help and support of FAO. A complete television production studio was founded in addition to a complete and complementary support system (a production unit, a radio mixing and recording unit, a complete printing unit, a complete photography laboratory and a number of other audio-visual equipment and aids." It is worth mentioning that such equipment which was received by the Ministry of Agriculture, whether in Sana'a or Aden, was in line with the consolidation of agricultural information frameworks to supervise over and organize agricultural information at national level so that it could provide services and some field extension services, while supporting agricultural information in the region at the same time. It also disseminated information on the results of agricultural research and modern farming methods and techniques among the framers throughout the country.

4.1.4

The post-unification stage (May, 1990 and thereafter) When the process to transfer extension and training to the AREA was approved, following the declaration of the country's unification, from the two previous ministries in Sana' and Aden, it was noted that the Department of Agricultural Information had been separated from the General Directorate for

25

Nasser (1991), Document of the First National Workshop on Co-ordination between Research and Extension.

45 Agricultural Extension and Training and merged into the new framework of the General Directorate for Documentation and Information at the Ministry with its new structural organization in the wake of creation of the unity state. Rather soon, it was realized that this condition had to be rectified and information was once again brought back to agricultural extension and training within the public AREA. This was effected by the promulgation of Ministerial Decree No. 85 of 1992 which provided for the transfer of agricultural information activity to the Authority along with its staff, equipment and allocations. However, that resolution was not implemented speedily, as the same resolution provided for the transfer of news coverage activity to the General Directorate for Public Relations and Agricultural Information. This caused some confusion and misunderstanding and was behind due to delay in interpreting the decree into precise and clear measures. The Committee formed to carry out an inventory, hand-over and reorganization of the conditions of agricultural information was unable to complete its tasks. In late 1994, the Board of Directors of AREA, chaired by the Minister of Agriculture, agreed to merge the remaining information team of the Ministry in Sana'a to the Authority. They were four in number, as well as the television studio productions there. That step was a consolidation for the information work capabilities at the AREA which had created the Agricultural Information and Documentation Department (lDD) within the framework of the extension training sector since the declaration of reunification of the country. The Information and Documentation Department at the Authority had begun to crystallize and started some agricultural information activities at national level, such as participation in the activities of the First National Workshop On Co-ordination Between Research and Extension in 1991, in which the national and regional agricultural information had a noticeable presence. During this workshop most of the guidelines for agricultural information, such as policies, plans, structures and various resources were determined. The said Department began to implement some other activities according to its tasks, such as the provision of technical support and backing for some of the research and extension agencies in the form of furnishing them with some of the available information equipment. At the beginning of 1992, the Department began issuing the experimental number of the Agricultural Research & Extension Bulletin referred to in the chapter on agricultural extension. On the other hand, the Department began to co-operate with and assist the Dutch Project for Agricultural Extension Support by formulating a complete conception of an agricultural information centre at national level and determining its procedures. In addition, it formulated concepts on the features and trends of agricultural information work within the Authority and at the

nationallevei. It was intended that the team attached to the Authority in late
1994 would form the core of the intended centre.

46 Apart from that, the Department planned and executed a number of other activities related to agricultural information work, such as agricultural. surveys, research and information studies. It also participated in the training of research and extension staff in some spheres of information work in the various regions. Work is underway for planning and executing the First National Workshop On Agricultural Information during 1995 and it is aimed at studying the past and present experience of agricultural information work and future trends, the formulation of concepts, definition of tasks, roles and mechanisms in agricultural information at national and regional levels owing to the central role played by information in research and extension and agricultural development in general. 4.2 Human and Material Resources In our country there are several national and regional information organs and institutions, governmental or private ones. Among the government information organs at national level, we have two television channels and two broadcasting stations in Sana'a and Aden, three daily newspapers, namely At-Thawra, 14th. October and AI-Jamhouria issued in Sana'a, Aden and Taiz respectively. There are also a local television channel in Mukalla, Hadhramout, and regional broadcasting stations in Taiz, Hodeida, Abyan, Mukalla and Seiyun. In addition to that there are weekly, monthly and periodic newspapers and magazines, some of which are issued by the government along with the national ones that have some relationship with agricultural and developmental work, such as the Agricultural Co-operation Union magazine, the Commerce and Economy magazine, the Development magazine, Ma'een magazine, 26th. September newspaper and so on. There is no doubt that these diverse and numerous channels at national and regional levels represent one of the necessary major resources for agricultural and rural information work. Through these, it is possible to support and consolidate extension work and agricultural development in general. Here we must point out that during the period of growth and development of agricultural and rural information services in the seventies and eighties and up to now several other resources necessary for agricultural information activity have accumulated. For example, and without exaggeration, more than 60 persons from the various agricultural quarters on the national and regional levels joined the agricultural and rural information units, sections and departments (see Table 14). Many of them attended short training courses in some spheres of information work, such as preparation, issue and printing of bulletins, operation of audio-visual equipment, photography and the like in the spheres of the information work they are distributed among (see Table 15). There is no doubt that such knowledge and skills which they acquired during their training have accumulated and doubled through applied work and actual practice leading to an increase in their experience over time. On the other hand, the period of founding the agricultural and rural information framework, it has witnessed increasing growth during the past two decades, during the periods of specific project implementation. This period witnessed the provision of equipment and materials necessary for agricultural information

47
activity. Previously, reference was made to such equipment as television productions studios, photographic labs, offset printing presses and the like. In this regard, there are no less than eight mobile film and information vehicles, in addition to scores of cameras, video recorders as well as several television and video sets, slide and overhead projectors, cinema films, stencil printers and duplicators, public address systems and much more similar equipment and materials necessary for agricultural and rural information activities which were imported into the country within the framework of projects' components and activities to support and back up the development of agricultural information and extension or agricultural and rural development in general (see Table 16). Naturally, the information and figures pertaining to the number of workers in agricultural information and the numbers of information equipment available to the agricultural sector cannot be considered precise and final figures. They are only preliminary indicators and estimates which have been compiled and categorized on the basis of what we received of information and data on them from various sources, reports, bulletins, working papers and so on. As for the agricultural information staff, a number of them may have left and joined other quarters or other jobs with the same employers during the past few years owing to the stagnation of some activities at times and owing to the re-merger and reorganization of operations witnessed by the agricultural sector since the founding of the unity state or for other reasons. As for some equipment and other inputs, the available information shows that some of these have become out of order, others are stored under most unfavorable conditions and those that are still in service are about to become out of order and other such similar cases. The fact is that information available as regards information work equipment and apparatuses is greater by far than that which has been shown in Table 16. However, a fair part of these were either destroyed or plundered during the ominous war in mid 1994 and other conditions and cases. In any case, little specifications are available on the information equipment and apparatuses. These originate from different countries and numerous companies and some of them are not represented by local agents. Requirements for their operation and spare parts are not available in the domestic market. In this respect it is necessary to point out that the agricultural and rural information units and sections at the agricultural quarters on the national and regional levels cannot overcome some of the problems related to those equipment and apparatuses, except if they raise the rate of co-ordination and joint work for the sake of complementation and benefiting from whatever is available of material, equipment and resources with some of them. Indeed, they can co-ordinate with the rural training and information institutions and the agricultural education institutions that have been founded successively in OUf country, for the same purpose. These institutions have been provided with
similar specialized units and are of an information teaching nature for the

production of training aids, publications and audio-visual aids.

48 The increase in the numbers of private commercial establishments operating in spheres that relate to agricultural information work are also considered to be one of the important and major resources that can ensure the development and continuity of the various agricultural information activities and programs Among such establishments are the audio-visual equipment agencies, the printing and publishing houses, the photography film developing and printing workshops, agricultural production service centers, maintenance workshops and so on. It should be noted that some of these possess excellent experience and present very excellent qualitative services. There are others which are still growing and developing. The forthcoming period will witness even more such establishments and perhaps others never known before to the country will also appear. When we speak of the resources of agricultural information work, we should not neglect the importance of the information which represents one of the principal in-puts of the information process. On the one hand, and to this day, there is a constant flow of new technologies, methods and means and commodities related to agricultural and rural development work through the various official and national quarters, be they commercial ones or not. Similarly, the results of local agricultural research continues to accumulate in our country since decades and still accumulates by virtue of the on - going execution of research programs through the activities of the Public Authority for Agricultural Research and Extension, the agricultural research stations and centers subordinated to it in the various regions of the country and which, as a whole, constitute an addition to the numerous spheres and sources. These represent an important and continuing source for agricultural information that is required by agricultural information activities as in-puts of their diverse materials and programs through the various information channels. We must not neglect here to point to the spread of information sources, such as reference works, books, magazines and the like in our domestic markets. This is in addition to the spread of public libraries, specialized at the universities, institutes and research and studies centres. This is apart from the agricultural libraries, and the specialized information and documentation centres of the agricultural sector. All of these are of valuable importance for those engaged in agricultural information work for enrichment, development, diversification of the contents of their various programs and materials. On the other hand, the mass base of agricultural information has increasingly expanded during the past years. The farmer or rural citizen, be it a male or a female, is not the only one that is targeted by the activities of agricultural information. Indeed, the decision-maker, the politician, the agricultural worker, the educated segment, the scientist or an expert among the local, Arab or foreign specialists and the agricultural researcher, as well as members of the teaching staff of the agricultural faculties and institutes and universities and many others from the various segments of receptors today represent the broad base of those benefiting from the agricultural information activities. Similarly, there is another resource that is no less important than the resources that have already been mentioned and which relate to agricultural information

work. This is represented by the information qualification and training


institutions. The lack of trained information cadres with theoretical and applied qualifications and with some experience in the agricultural sedor was one of

49 information features in the agriculture sector. The matter is still the same, even though more than two decades have passed since the founding of the institutional information activity in this sector. However, it is possible to benefit from what is available at the information qualification and training institutes, such as the Information Section of the Faculty of Arts at Sana'a University, the Khalifa Information Training Institute in Sana'a, the Information Institute in Aden, for the qualification and training of workers in the agricultural information sphere. On another level, even a limited amount of exchange of knowledge and experiences can be achieved through co-ordination and co-operation with the specialized information units and departments in some development sectors, such as health, education, the environment and other quarters which were the forerunners of development of their human and material resources and forerunners also in the planning and execution of specialized qualitative information programs and activities. 4.3 Accomplishments The previous speedy overview of the resources available to agricultural and rural information may lead to the creation of the positive impression on the resources available to information activity and thus raise high expectations of a qualitative and quantitative nature. However, one should avoid the speedy formation of such an impression. The information available to us points out that the rural and agricultural information sections/ units were proceeding in an excellent and natural manner during the work of the project or with foreign assistance. After that, the count down of the volume and type of those activities would begin. As such, only a few and limited number of those activities would continue once the project, is closed down or the support ended for many and varied reasons. Thus, the agricultural information aspect is not very much different from the case of agricultural research, extension and training. Even so, there is no harm in spotlighting the productivity of the agricultural information at the national and regional levels in brief during the past period There were two agricultural programs transmitted by Channels 1 and 2 for 30 minutes. The first was fortnightly one and the other monthly. There were also two programs transmitted by Radio Sana'a daily and the second a weekly program transmitted by Radio Aden. This was in addition to the weekly agricultural programs transmitted by Taiz, Hodeida, Abyan radio stations and lasting for 10 to 15 minutes each. In any case, some of these programs continue, while some others are less regular or have totally disappeared. On the other hand, there were several agricultural magazines issued by the agricultural information sections/units in a regular and periodic manner, such as the Agricultural Awareness magazine (issued in Taiz during the seventies) and the second Agricultural Awareness magazine (issued in Sana'a in the eighties), the Tihama and Agricultural Development magazine issued by the
TDA, the Today's Farmer magazine issued by the Extension Organ in

Hadhramout. In addition, there were other magazines issued by the Extension

50 Organs such as the ones issued by Abyan and Lahej governorates and elsewhere. However, most of these issues have stopped, with limited exceptions which are still issued in an intermittent and irregular manner, with rare exceptions such as the Agricultural Research & Extension Bulletin" which began to be issued in January, 1992 with an experimental issue and is now regularly issued on a quarterly basis and has witnessed development in form and content. This bulletin has been dealt with previously within the section on Mechanisms On Co-ordination Between Research And Extension of this booklet as it is deemed to be one of the co-ordination circles and information flow channels between research and agricultural extension. During the past years also a number of periodicals were issued but of a scientific nature concerned with studies, research and scientific papers such as the Yemeni Agricultural Magazine of which three issues have been produced by the Research and Extension Department and Nasser Faculty for Agricultural SCiences, and the Yemeni Magazine for Agricultural Research whose first issue was put out by the Agricultural Research Authority in 1990. It is worth mentioning here that the two magazines have stopped and instead the Yemeni Agricultural Studies and Research Magazine has been issued by the public AREA instead of the former two magazines (see Table 17). In the sphere of publications and bulletins as well, the agricultural information activities of the authorities, projects and agricultural offices in the various governorates and or animal production, bee-keeping, household economics and other subjects. The available information shows that the agricultural and rural information sections / units used to produce on the average between 7 and 10 bulletins in the year an average of 2,000 copies of each extension bulletin, as is the case with the Southern Highlands Project (Taiz Ilbb) and the TDA. In the sphere of publishing also there appeared some specialized agricultural pages of some of the daily newspapers such as At-Thawra and Al-Jamhouria newspapers. However, these did not continue for long and appeared in an intermittent manner only. After some interruption they would reappear for a time in those same newspapers. However, the dailies and weeklies were not completely devoid of some articles, news and reports which used to be prepared at times by specialists or workers of the rural and agricultural information sections / units. In addition, these same sections / units were able to produce transparencies, slides, and photographs. They also participated in the exhibition of soundless films which used to be produced by the extension organs in a number of governorates on various extension topics, crops, farming operations and the numerous aspects of rural development. Those sections I units also prepared and organized - and still do - various agricultural exhibitions, rural development exhibitions, women's activities exhibitions and other specialized exhibitions some of which are permanent while others are temporary and mobile.

Posters of various sizes, shapes and colours were one of the products of the
agricultural and rural information sections / units. They constituted one channel

51 of delivering the various extension messages and information. However, the coloured posters used to be prepared by commercial presses owing to the absence of appropriate printing facilities and financial allocations that would permit their being printed at the commercial presses. Yet, the presence of such allocations with some agricultural projects and authorities permitted the printing of some ordinary and coloured bulletins and other publications by commercial presses not only at home, but abroad as well. As for the production of local educational and training films, and despite the availability of facilities and resources necessary for their preparation and production, these were less lucky than the productions of agricultural and rural information, and indeed were rare. The films shown over television, or by the mobile cinema units at extension evenings, meeting halls or during the training were foreign films provided by international agricultural organizations and quarters and were either in a foreign language or sub-titled in Arabic. But these had no relevance to the reality of agricultural and rural work or the issues, concerns and needs of the farmer or agriculture in our country. In general, one can say that agricultural and rural information on the national and regional levels had other roles, such as performing public relation roles for the Ministry or the Agricultural Development Authority or Project. It also had the important role of disseminating awareness of the issues of agriculture, the countryside and development concerns amidst the people. There also was effective participation in marking national, pan-Arab and international anniversaries of relevance to agricultural work and rural development, such as World Food Day, The Tree Day, etc. This was in addition to participation in, and effective contribution to, the information campaigns associated with those anniversaries, as happened when some highly dangerous pests and insects appeared like the green worm and the swarms of desert locusts and the like. Our rather rapid review of that mass of production and quantity by agricultural information activities does not aim at preparing a precise inventory list of accomplishments and does not aim at a comprehensive compilation of the quantities and quality of accomplishments, apart from their effects and returns. That is why names of the various agricultural quarters have not been mentioned except, in context and according to the availability of statements and information. Thus, the primary aim of citing those activities and accomplishments is to confirm the existence of an agricultural information work experience with all the connotation and dimension which it bears. It can be said that this general experience has within it special and distinctive experiences of agricultural information. Whatever the matter may be, there is need for individual stands and deep separate studies to sound the depths and determine the causes behind the success or failure of its march and thus realize learning and benefit from them. It must also be mentioned here that those activities, accomplishments of the various programs and materials would not have been possible if they were not

accompanied by other activities and accomplishments at the level of building,


methodology and requirements of agricultural information worK itself, which were realized during the years of founding and development. The other stages

52 were the take-off base later to realize various other activity. Among that which was accomplished reference can be made to:
1. Inclusion of agricultural information within the organizational structure of the agricultural institution as a unit, section, department or center, and particularly within the structure of the research and extension organ. 2. Development of the organizational structure of agricultural and rural information work at its own administrative framework. Recruitment and training of a number of cadres to occupy the various agricultural information posts. Provision of a number of equipment and materials necessary for agricultural information work. Construction of a number of buildings specifically for agricultural information or preparation of a number of installations or wings of an appropriate nature within the precincts of other buildings suited to the nature of agricultural information work, such as dark rooms, studios, exhibition halls, etc.

3.

4.

5.

6. Adoption of the concept of planning agricultural information work and commencing co-ordination of its implementation - in a stumbling manner - with other organs of relevance such as extension, research, ect. within or outside the framework of the agriculture institution. 7. Crystallizing the orientations of policies, plans, work mechanism and co-ordination of agricultural information work at the national and regional levels within the framework of co-operation and co-ordination with other relevant organs, such as extension, research, training, education, credits, agricultural co-operation and so on. Crystallizing some internal organizational regulations that pertain to agricultural information work.

8.

9. Acquiring practical experience and numerous knowledge of practical reality, not only for the development of agricultural information work alone, but also for development of dealing with specialists from other sectors and organs who have a connection with agricultural work and information.
10 Commencing inclusion of specific financial allocations for agricultural information

within the framework of the general budgets of agricultural institutions or the

agricultural projectwhich is to be implemented by these. Yet, agricultural information officials continued to be absent from co-ordination activities between research and agricultural extension, whether at the national or regional levels. However, the concerned quarters became aware of this imbalance and the results that could ensue therefrom. The matter was tackled by a circular letter to all units concerned with co-ordination between agricultural research and extension in the various regions, authorities and projects and their extension organs drawing attention to the necessity of agricultural
information officials participating in the various co-ordination by agricultural activities information between

research and extension. The purpose was that the results and proceedings of
such activities should be taken into account

programs and activities to realize even more complementation and linkage between the various channels and organs which fall within the sphere of agricultural and rural development, in a manner that would ensure the flow of

53 information, exchange of ideas, experiences and methods between those channels and quarters and work undertaken to develop and activate their role within the scope of development work. Even so, the participation of agricultural information in the activities of co-ordination between research and extension continue to be irregular. This situation requires to be set right through a greater understanding of the importance of such participation in perpetration of finding appropriate solutions that realize the purpose required of the activities, linkage circles and co-ordination. This is specially important as the co-ordination activity itself takes place at distant periods and agricultural information can fill those time gaps through the activation of information exchange, circulation and publication in the various information programs and so on. This will realize continuity between the workers in research and extension and between them and other information receivers, whether in the administrative organs, national institutions or the individuals of the agricultural community or the investors and others. Whatever the matter may be, the tabling of the idea of the participation of agricultural information in co-ordination activity and its execution, regardless of shortcomings, is considered to be an advanced step and an accomplishment of agricultural information in the light of which there will be much qualitative and quantitative development of information work and consolidation of its role in building and development. Thus, the foregoing is a brief overview of the achievements and activities realized by the general experience of agricultural information. This overview has spotlighted some rich and fertile activities covered by agricultural information. This makes its balance both most lucky and distinctive. For example, and without limitation, we here mention the Yemeni-German Plant Protection Project in Sana'a, which is an experience whose fruit has been witnessed by most of those working in the agricultural sector and a large number of the extension workers in the project work area. This Project has issued a large number of varied publications, such as booklets, extension and technical bulletins, atlases and guides on the most important agricultural crop pests. This was in addition to numerous high quality extension teaching posters. The project also issued, for some time, a specialist periodic magazine under the title of Plant Protection Bulletin ". This is apart from the other activities undertaken through the various information channels. We here are not concerned with their comprehensive study and evaluation, even though they remain worthy of that being both a unique and distinctive experience.
II

4.4.

Co-ordination of Agricultural Information Activity We have previously mentioned that agricultural information, with its newly created sections and units within the organizational frameworks of the agricultural quarters, may be primarily a simple tributary feeding agricultural extension and an inducement for agricultural development in general. Therefore, agricultural information activity has been influenced by the extent of
co-ordination and relations of linkage with agricultural research on the national

and regional levels, as well as other extension organs and other relevant
agricultural authorities and quarters.

54 It was clear from the very outset that agricultural information work requires a great deal of co-ordinatoion and linkage circles and bonds with a large number of organs, such as the national information organs, the agricultural projects, the extension organs, the research organs and other quarters related to agricultural development on the national and regional levels. Starting from that, some co-ordination relations with a number of quarters, such as Broadcasting and Television Corporation and the daily newspapers have been established. Their response was great indeed and they have made available much co-operation and facilities. The most important of these was the secondment of some specialists to supervise over the co-ordination and presentation of agricultural programs and rnatertals ", allocation of suitable times for the agricultural programs within the terminal program charts, as well as setting aside pages in some of the newspapers for purely agricultural issues. These however, did not witness regularity or continuity for some reason or another. When some problems and ideas related to the content of the various agricultural program materials appeared, co-ordination meetings were held many times in which representatives of the various agricultural quarters participated. In other meetings, the Ministry leaderships and officials, research officials, and the radio and television corporation officials participated. All of these aimed at the development of agricultural information programs and raise the rate of co-operation and co-ordination of information efforts and resources. These various co-ordination efforts, which were disorganized in any case, arrived at a number of agreements on the required measures and arrangements. The most prominent of these was that the agricultural sector within the framework of the Ministry and the authorities operating under its umbrella should decide matters that pertain to agricultural information policies and plans, the most appropriate work mechanisms, needs or resources required for the implementation of agricultural information programs and activities. The continuity and co-ordination efforts also arrived at the importance of determining the principal source of information that should be included in the information programs and materials. This source was determined as agricultural research and the Agricultural Research Authority was indeed sending copies of its periodic and annual reports as well as the technical reports to the Ministry, and in particular to the General Directorate for Extension and Training to benefit from them in the preparation and production of the various information materials. As one of the linkage and co-ordination, it was agreed at one of the meeting that some engineers be released to follow-up and compile information on research and furnish it to the Agriculture Information and Extension quarters for their publication and dissemination. This step was indeed carried out in late 1989, when the General Directorate for Extension and Training at the Ministry

ae

For example:

Messrs.

Saleh Al-Arneer.

Naguib Aighouri,

seconded

to work

at the Ministry

of Agricultural

still

continue their efforts to preserve and continue agricultural programs, despite the numerous difficulties and obstacles.

55 dispatched two engineers to work at the Agricultural Research Authority in Dhamar through what used to be known as the Economics and Technology Transfer Department, which used to include an Agriculture Documentation and Information Section and an Agricultural Extension and Training Section. Similarly, there were other co-ordination steps in information work in other quarters and location, in different methods and with diverse sides. For example, the researchers would review and revise what was prepared and produced by the Agricultural Information Section within the Research and Extension Department at the Ministry headquarters in Aden. They used to express their views and observations on what they heard and saw of such materials before their transmission or publication. There is no doubt that this was an excellent and advanced step, despite some of the shortcomings that accompanied it. It should be noted that this experience did not pass without criticism from the researchers themselves despite their participation, or the participation of other, in its preparation. It is also worth mentioning that some agricultural projects and authorities in the various regions used to resort to sending the texts of publications it intended to produce to the Agricultural Information, Documentation and Training Section at the Agricultural Research Authority for the follow-up of their presentation to the specialized research" sections and collect any observation or comments of the researchers in the light of the research experiments and results do as to ensure correctness and preciseness of their contents from a practical aspect. The Information Section also puts forward any views or remarks related to the other technical aspects of information. However, some of the agricultural quarters used to send samples of their publication to the agricultural research quarters after their final production making it impossible for expressing any opinion or adopting any measure. These remained for perusal only and formed an exchange of publications and no more. Agricultural information activities also witnessed several other co-ordination experiences. For example, one of those was the co-operation between the public AREA and the German-Yemeni Plant Protection Project in 1991. This entailed a preliminary evaluation study of one of the extension posters with the purpose of developing the poster both in form and content prior to the actual production of the said poster. Before that by some years and at the request of the managements of the Southern Highlands Project and the Agricultural Research Authority, agricultural information witnessed another co-ordination experience in 1978. Officials prepared a joint information working plan between the two sides for executing some activities and production of some information materials and programs After several days of work to crystallize that plan and determine the execution requirements, it was submitted to the officials of the two sides for perusal and approval and issue of directives for the provision of materials required for commencing execution. However, the whole subject stopped at that point and mostly because of the financial cost and obligations which the two sides had to contribute.

See the working paper presented by Abdulla Nasser Nafi (1993) to the First National Workshop on Linkage and Co-ordination between Agricultural Research and Extension, Sana'a, Yemen Research Center.

56 In any case, co-ordination in the agricultural sector in general and in research, extension and information work in particular requires patient and long stands to be fully aware of it and benefit from it. As for the examples that we have reviewed previously they are but indicators of orientations or general trends witnessed by co-ordination and linkage efforts between a number of quarters at the national and regional levels in the agricultural information sphere." It must be pointed out here that there are many similar efforts and experiments which were carried out in other numerous information spheres and activities, such as agricultural exhibitions and training courses in the sphere of agricultural information or the exchange of experiences and specialized consultation on a number of aspects of agricultural information, as well as the execution of qualitative information materials and equipment, including publications and the like. Despite ali that, most of the co-ordination activities that took place in the information work aspects were momentary, irregular and based on personal relations and not characterized by perpetuity and continuity. Besides that, some links of co-ordination and linkage which were resorted to, an attempt was made to use them usually failed as they clashed with various administrative and financial obstacles. The best evidence of that is the frustration of the participation of agricultural information officials or specialists in the various co-ordination activities between research and agricultural extension. Therefore, the matter necessitates determination of tasks and the role of the central framework of agricultural information on the national level. It is supposed that this should begin with the formulation of appropriate conceptions for specific frameworks and mechanisms with clear co-ordination of agricultural information programs and activities. This should be suited to the nature of information work and the diversity of the quarters that relate to it, whether within the framework of the agricultural sector or outside it. Attention should be paid to its comprehensive role in agricultural research, extension and development work in particular and comprehensive national development in qeneral." 4.5 Characteristics of Agricultural Information Work during the past stage

Agricultural information work during the past stage was branded with a number of characteristics, the most prominent of which are the following: 1. Tangible concentration on the purchaseand provision of large numbers of information equipment. means and audio-visual materials. 2. The spread of reliance upon Arab foreign experts and the financial allocations
available during the periods of projects with external funding.

3. According only limited opportunitiesfor short-term training of local cadres and which in the main concentratedupon the use and operation of equipment, with total negligenceof the theoretically competentand capable information cadres.

lS

As-Shrajabi (1991) Report on Preliminary Study of a Poster.


As-Sharjabi (1991)

57
4. Seasonal information work without reliance on clear and specific plans and objectives with the absence of actual co-ordination with the field extension organs. 5. Absence of effective co-ordination and co-operation between the various agricultural information sections and units in the authorities and projects on the one hand, and between them and the central agricultural information, on the other hand, as well as between them all and the governmental or private national and regional information organs and channels, on the other hand. . 6. A mystical concept of agricultural and rural information at the level of the leaderships of local administration and dealing with it as similar to public relations or political mobilization. This restricted the role of agricultural information in consolidating developmental work and support for field extension work. 7. Domination of dependence on the quantitative aspect of production without according due attention to quality, in addition to the absence of a follow-up and evaluation system for agricultural information work.

8. Weak participation of agricultural and rural information staff in co-ordination and linkage activities, be they workers at the agricultural research organs or the agricultural extension sphere, except within the narrowest of limits and for news coverage only. 9. Dependence upon external information in-puts, such as transparencies and slides, films and the like, and the non-existence of similar local agricultural information production.

4.6

MainProblems and Constraints Owing to the conditions that accompanied the founding and framing of agricultural and rural information within the scope of the various agricultural quarters and the characteristics of the previous stage, it was natural that agricultural information work should witness a great reversal with the passage of time, especially as many changes and developments accompanied the past stage and contributed to having agricultural information reach its present critical reality. It is noted that some radio and television agricultural programs have stopped altogether. The agricultural information section / department at the Ministry or the Authority no longer bear responsibility for their preparation and the follow-up of their production or supervision thereof. This is the case with the programs that are transmitted by Aden television and radio. If anything of this is found in other places then it does not exceed the limits of formality and official nominal aspects. The pages printed on agriculture weekly in the daily newspapers have also stopped. the printing and publication activity of the agricultural information sections and departments have been reduced by a great degree, be that at the Ministry, the Authorities, projects or agriculture offices in the provinces. Not more than 3 to 4 small publications are issued in limited quantities and modest quality. In general, it can rural information limited production excepted are the external backing be said that the productivity of most of the agricultural and units has stopped or IS about to stop, with the exception of that of extension bulletins, as has been mentioned earlier. Also information activities in this project or that and which still have or the rare local attention.

58
12 Accord appropriate attention to agricultural and rural information studies and research, such as surveys of listener; test the information materials and carry out evaluatory research thereon; determine the needs of the recipients of information and so on. There should be benefit from the results of such studies, research and surveys for the continuous review and development of agricultural and development information plans, methods and policies. 13 Crystallize appropriate specialized training programs for the various segments of the agricultural sector workers engaged in the agricultural and rural information and communication sphere and its various topics. Such programs should be incorporated in agricultural training activity, either and rural information and communication sphere and its various topics. Such programs should be incorporated in agricultural training activity, either independently or integrated into the training content for the remaining training programs related to other spheres under implementation or to be developed and implemented in the future.

'.:'!.

57 1. Crystallization of clear and precise strategies and policies for agricultural and rural information in a manner that is compatible with the strategies and policies of agricultural extension and development in general at the national and regional levels. 2. Founding of a special national framework for agricultural and rural information work to undertake review and development of such strategies and policies and formulate the plans necessary for their implementation in co-ordination and co-operation with all the relevant agencies in the agricultural sector and outside it. Have the agricultural and rural information departments / sections / units participate in the various activities of co-ordination between agricultural research and extension on the national and regional levels. Organize a meeting. or a consultative periodic meeting. for agricultural and rural information officials and the officials at the national and regional levels. to prepare a joint short-term work plan with specific objectives and features to keep abreast of the activities of agricultural research, extension and development in the country.

3.

4.

5. Carry out a complete inventory of all the information equipment and apparatuses available at the national and regional levels for agricultural information activity and formulate an integrated policy for the provision and utilization of such equipment and apparatuses in such a way that facilitates the exchange of information programs and materials, their use, operation and maintenance and provision of spare parts. 6. Realize a greater degree of understanding on the part of agricultural work leaderships for the role assigned to agricultural and rural information, along with emphasis on the fact that the role of public relation, publicity and marketing aspects is not in itself agricultural information, but one of the tasks only, if necessary.

7. Assign more attention to the training and qualification of agricultural and rural information cadre in the required manner and in the various relevant spheres, without any concentration and limitation of such training upon the operation of equipment, photography and publication of bulletins. 8. Create several and diverse information channels appropriate to the specifics of those targeted by agricultural information work and its objectives, the content of its messages and their timing, be that on the national or regional levels. 9. Begin serious thinking on the economic viability of the various agricultural and rural information activities, the various information materials and messages that are produced by it, such as booklets, tapes, photographs and so on, especially if the prices of the various information inputs are continuously on the rise. It is assumed that there should be a reconsideration of the previous policy based on the free distribution of information materials, so that production costs at least are taken into consideration. 10 Transform agricultural work from its office character into field work, alongside the workers in agricultural research and extension and the beneficiaries in the agricultural community. Whenever information work, and its various activities, is based on the actual participation of the individuals of these segments, it is more effective and more able to meet the needs and effect the required impact. 11 Realize exemplary benefit from the local visual and readable information means and channels available in the various regions, and activate their role in serving the rural population and satisfy the need of farmers for information, be that through the government or private means.

58 As for the reasons for all that, they are many being the product of the characteristics and distinguishing features of the previous work stage that accompanied founding and expansion. Among those reasons are the following:
1. Absence of sufficient numbers of competent staff and insufficient training cappacity to train those who are available.
2.

Lack of clear policies and strategies on rural information work. Most equipment and apparatuses being subjected to sabotage or becoming out of order. Non-installation. repair and maintenance of equipment. Unavailability of financial allocations necessary for operation and execution of activities. Lack of appropriate means of transport for field work. Absence of serious attention and support for agricultural information work. Multiplicity of the forms and types of information equipment and the unavailability of suitable spare parts for them. Information activity not being considered to be one of the items of the agricultural extension or development work plans of this Authority or that project or at the national level in general.

3.

4. 5.

6.

7.
8.

9.

10 Continued absence of a strong central agricultural information organ capable of co-ordination, supervision, ensuring backing and support required for the regional agricultural information units, and the lack of similar co-ordination with the information organs at national and regional levels and its weakness under the best circumstances. 11 The poor condition of work places, warehouses, and places for the preservation of documentary material, agricultural information equipment and means. 12 The rise and indeed doubling of prices of materials and wages of information services, such as films, fees for the development and printing of photographs; the prices of paper, ink and cost of printing and so on. 13 Absence of specialized studies and research, whose results can be benefited from the quantitative and qualitative development of agricultural information work, in addition to the non-compilation of what is available of results, data and information in this respect. What makes things even worse is that there is no utilization of that which is available. however meagre it may be.

4.7

Recommendations for future Development of Agricultural Information The issue of development of agricultural and rural information work was always either a primary or secondary axis of many meetings and seminars held during the past years. Here, we can make mention of the "First National Workshop on Co-ordination and Linkage between Research and Agricultural Extension" ,which was held at the Yemeni Studies And Research Center in Sana'a in October, 1991.

59

Appendix No.1

Summary of the Results and Recommendations of the National Workshop on Co-ordination between Agricultural Research and Extension held in Sana'a October 5 - 8, 1991.

1.

Introduction The participants in the National Workshop on Co-ordination between Agricultural Research and Extension reviewed 29 working papers submitted by the various agricultural authorities, projects and departments in the governorates on selected models of national experience in the areas of agricultural research, extension, education and information. The discussions resulted in a set of scientific results and recommendations of a practical nature for the development of the competence and effectivity of each of the preceding areas, in addition to a set of general measures and recommendations, briefly indicated as hereunder:

1.1

Concerning Agricultural Research 1. A realistic determination of research policy in the light of the State policy and the government's program through the National Council for Agricultural Research, Extension and Training. Determination of priorities and agricultural problems on a conceptual basis that takes into consideration the needs of agricultural development, its short-term and long-term horizons and the problems from which the agricultural sector suffers. Create a linkage between regional and national problems and priorities so that research activity is complementary on the regional and national levels. Complete the primary standard structures of the research stations and centres and grant them autonomy, within the framework of the Research Authority, to enable them interact with local problems and strengthen their relations with the extension agencies. Back the role of the General Directorate of the Public Authority for Research in the areas of monitoring and evaluation of research activities, national co-ordination and extension of central technical support, central laboratory services and qualitative research that serves the various agricultural regions. Consolidate the role of national co-ordination and benefit from the experience of the national co-ordinators for the co-ordination of efforts and avoid
repetition 7. of regional research activities. research stations in a manner that ensures

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Redistribute

staff to strengthen

the availability of scientific specializations for the activities of each of them.

60 8. Strengthen co-ordination relations between AREA and the projects which have research and extension components, with the aim of strengthening such activities of the projects and create complementarity in research and extension work and gradual transfer of tasks, staff and material resources to the Public Authority for Agricultural Research. Attract the academic staff of the universities to enlist in the research activity at the Authority's centres and stations, so as to benefit from their potentials in solving regional or national agricultural problems. Develop research management with the aim of better planning of research projects, provision of their execution inputs and make available the necessary resources to shorten the time spent on experiments with the aim of solving production problems in record times. Encourage competition between researchers in the areas of innovation, apply the principle of reward and accountability, adopt accuracy for the recruitment and engagement of research staff with the aim of having quality to supersede quantity. Document the acquired farming experiences during the past two millenniums with the aim to draw benefit of these in the research and extension programs. Co-ordinate relation with the national seed improvement agency, with the aim of expanding the circle of improved seeds to include field and horticultural crops in a manner compatible with farmers' needs in the various regions. Grant the following areas greater attention within the priorities of research activities: - Viral and bacterial diseases affecting tubers, fruit and vegetables. - White ants affecting various crops - Rain-fed agriculture and water management - Animal production and animal health - Salinization problems - Environmental pollution, deterioration of the plant cover and desertification - Agricultural mechanization. 15. Provide an information network between the stations to benefit from the recommendations at similar stations in such a way ensuring complementarity of research activities and the generalization of results.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

1.2 1.

Concerning Agricultural Extension Determine an extension policy and priorities of extension work through surveys aimed at better knowledge of the problems of agriculture. Arrive at a standard structure of agricultural extension that gives due regard to the homogeneity of administrative organs, simplicity, flexibility and allows for the movement of information and feedback, and create a stronger linkage between extension and national and regional research.

2.

61 3. Review periodically the agricultural extension methodology, so as to ensure that this activity keeps abreast of farmers' needs and their concerns and allows for a better understanding of production conditions and needs and enables higher authorities to adopt appropriate policies for the implementation of that methodology and keep abreast of development requirements. Expedite provision of stable conditions for the extension staff through provision of necessary work inputs in the regions where they are present and adopt a job structure that ensures promotion during service and linkage to extension work. Consolidate the role of the Public Authority for Agricultural Research and Extension in the planning aspects and the management, follow-up and evaluation of extension activity. Create an integrated organizational framework for extension work among rural women and through special channels within the existing extension agencies and employ all resources for rural women's development through such channels so as to prevent dissipation of efforts and frittering away of available resources. Follow-up agricultural authorities, projects and offices with the purpose of providing the allocations necessary for extension activities. This should be made clear through the various means, including the holding of seminars, workshops and consultation meeting with the decision-makers at the level of the Ministry and outside it, with the aim of demonstrating the importance of supporting this activity. Integrate population education within extension programs, expand and diversify these programs to be comparable with the diversity of population education issues and its encompassing all aspects of rural life.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

1.3

Concerning Agricultural Training


1.

Carry out surveys and studies that are necessary for the planning and training of agricultural manpower according to the needs of agricultural development of the country. Assign the task of preliminary training and in-service training of agricultural staff, in general, and extension staff whereby those centres implement the training programs of the offices, projects and authorities. Conduct short training courses at regionasl centres in the form of monthly or bi-monthly workshops for extension specialists and workers, as well as rural women. Consider in-service training to be one of the primary criteria for job promotion or salary increase.
Create a technical and administrative framework within the national. regional

2.

3.

4.

5.

and specialized ATC's. Here we stress that the Ji'ar ATC should be considered a branch of the NATC.

62
6. Provide financial allocations for agricultural training throug the amounts allocated in the recurrent budget of the Ministry branch offices in the governorates, as well as to the RDA and RDP whose budgets incorporate training programs on local level whereby those centres implement the training of the AO, RDP and RDA. Organize preliminary agricultural courses for all recently appointed staff of those who are to be transferred or promoted to other posts. Attach importance to the training programs of the agricultural trainers within the program of the National Agricultural Training Center in a manner that meets the renewable needs of these trainers.

7.

8.

1.4

Concerning Agricultural Education 1. Stress the importance of co-operation between the Research and Extension Authority and the agricultural education institutions in the country in determining the numbers of graduates, the quantity and quality of syllabi that are compatible with the actual conditions of the agricultural and rural sector and development requirements. Create joint and appropriate co-operation between the university staff, the agricultural secondary schools and the Research and Extension Authority in research, teaching and extension operations to realize utmost benefit from the resources available to each of them. Encourage enrollment of females at agricultural secondary schools and the Faculty of Agriculture. Here, the State should guarantee the employment of the graduates. Absorb and employ graduates of agricultural secondary schools and the Faculty of Agriculture immediately upon their graduation. Provide an administrative and technical framework for the agricultural and veterinary secondary institutes to be linked to the Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources to meet the needs of the agricultural sector for medium level technical staff. Underline the importance of strengthening and diversifying the curriculum of agricultural extension in secondary and university education. Integrate population education programs medium level agricultural education. within the syllabi of higher and

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

1.5 Concerning Agricultural Information 1. Underline that agricultural information is one of the organizational and technical components of agricultural and rural development in general and extension activities, in particular.

63
2. Plan and execute agricultural information programs in a manner that is compatible with the priorities of the research and extension programs and agricultural realities. Expedite determination of the structure and tasks of agricultural information in a manner that prevents duplication of work and dissipation of efforts. Take concern in training staff working in the field of agricultural information, authorities, projects and agriculture offices in the governorates in particular to ensure the development of information work and devoting it to the service of development Create a balance between that which is national and that which is regional in the contents of the agricultural information messages Carry out an inventory and maintain information capacity at the national and regional level and employ them in accordance with the needs of agricultural information plans. Formulate controls for dealings and co-ordination between the agricultural information organs and the potentials of the national and regional information organs.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

1.6

General Recommendations 1. Constitute a national council to be concerned with the formulation of agricultural extension, education, training and information polices, and prepare special regulations on their tasks, organizational structures and regional branches.
2. Owing to the successes attained by FAa in the execution of agricultural and

rural development projects, the Workshop recommends that the Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources should submit an application to this Organization to adopt and formulate feasible projects in cooperation with the competent government institutions compatible with the recommendations of this Workshop. 3. The Workshop underlines that the course of building the rural and agricultural development institutions, the preparation of scientific and technical staff for such institutions are pioneer works at the national and regional levels. In this regard, the Workshop affirms that the present building of the Public Authority for Agricultural Research and Extension is fully harmonious with the requirements of rural and agricultural development in the Yemen and is considered to be a vanguard work for the development and support of extension and research. 4. Underlining the importance of the participation of the representatives of agricultural producers within the organizational and executive frameworks of agricultural research and extension.

64

Appendix No.2
Results and Recommendations of the First National Seminar on Agricultural Training Out of the belief of the Southern Highlands Agricultural Development Project in the importance of training and its crucial role in realizing agricultural development, the project undertook the organization and convening of the First National Seminar on Agricultural Training and Development of Human Resources to serve agricultural and rural development in Yemen, during the period December 16 - 18, 1989, in Taiz city, under the auspices of the Minister of Agriculture. I n this seminar - which is considered to be the first one in the field of training for rural and agricultural development in Yemen - 23 national and international organizations engaged in the area of rural and agricultural development in Yemen, participated. The seminar was held over six working sessions to discuss the working papers submitted to the seminar. These amounted to 21 working papers that dealt with the reality of agricultural training in Yemen, its importance, the problems and difficulties that training programs are facing in the fields of rural and agricultural development, and the formulation of concepts for an agricultural training strategy in Yemen in the future. The seminar came out with a set of recommendations which can contribute to raising the competence and effectivity of agricultural training in Yemen, if they are implemented. These recommendations have been submitted directly to the institutions that are concerned with agricultural training and rural/agricultural development, to take action for their implementation within the scope of their powers and concerns.

FIRSTLY Recommendations of the First National Seminar on Agricultural Training and the Human Resource Development. Recommendations submitted to the Ministry of Agriculture and Fish Wealth 1. Constitute a commission of a permanent and on-going nature for agricultural training affairs. It should include in its membership training officials at agricultural authorities and projects, with the Director of Training at the Ministry as rapporteur. This commission should undertake the foliowing:a) Formulate the general framework of training policy in the agriculture sector. b) Co-ordinate between the training centres and units at the AO, RDA and RDP on training plans and programs so as to prevent duplication and bring about complementarity between them in a way that is compatible with the conditions of each of them. c) Co-ordinate between authorities and projects as regards external courses in similar topics to realize the dispatch of trainees from homogeneous groups rather than individual dispatch and in a way that minimizes training expenses.

65
2. Create close linkage between the promotion and upgrading opportunities of those working in the agricultural sector, who successfully complete courses, or several training courses of not less than six weeks duration at least, during three years at the most, in accordance with the laws of the Ministry of Civil Service and Administrative Reform. Intensify efforts for the provrsion of appropriate premises for the NATC at the present stage and until permanent premises are constructed, to ensure continuity of work to realize the dire need for its present and future roles. Formulate organizational and administrative controls that ensure the return and stability of trainees to their work places, so that full benefit is made of them.

3.

4.

SECONDLY Recommendations Submitted to the Ministry of Agriculture and Fish Wealth and Subordinated Projects 1. Support training centres and units with appropriate government funding to cover training needs in a manner that is compatible with development plans of each of them and in the form of autonomous allocations for training. Co-ordinate with Military Supplies to benefit from the capacity available for practical field training in agricultural projects and authorities. As the counterparts are the cornerstone for building qualified manpower to absorb the necessary experience and skill for the execution of development programs, this shall require that any expert who commences work should have one counterpart at least. These should be chosen on objective fundamentals of competence, distinctive personal readiness and the appropriate educational level. It is also necessary that the job functions of the counterpart be determined along with his relationship and work method with the expert. The counterpart should be followed up in accordance with this, along with the formulation of guarantees and incentives that ensure counterparts continuing in the jobs in which they have acquired experience. Grant priority for external training opportunities to those who have received local training at distinctive levels in the same field. Grant the trainees a favourable remuneration against the actual costs they bear to attend the training courses. Allocate a suitable material remuneration to those undertaking training at the training programs according to standard rates that attract them to effective participation in training. Establish relations of co-operation and exchange of experience between the National Centre and the other relevant centres, whether at the level of the Republic at international level and support efforts for training centres to benefit therefrom.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8. Establish a regional training centre in the Tihama plain and other distinctive regions
according to needs.

66
9. Implement the recommendation of the National Defence Committee to postpone

national defence service for a period of five years at least for the graduates of agricultural institutes and training centres to realize utmost benefit from their services in agricultural development work, provided that they are recruited over periods that do not impair the work of the agricultural authorities and projects. 10. Care for workers and officials in the field of training needs assessment through having them participate in training courses and qualify them scientifically so that they can make a scientific and objective determination of the workers needs.

THIRDLY: Recommendations submitted to the General Directorate for Agriculture Extension and Training
1.

Follow-up of the completion of the execution of the recommendations of the Extended Meeting of agricultural extension officials held in February, 1989, especially as regards training, organizational structuring and job descriptions at the regional level. Speedy preparation of a renewable data base on the competencies and potentials of the training institutions and the trainees in the agricultural sphere, internally and externally, and make these available to all authorities and projects. Co-operate with the General Directorate for Planning and Statistics on the simplification of general agricultural policies so that planners of training programs can formulate training plans and programs in a manner that realizes this policy. Increase benefiting from the mass media, especially television, to develop the capabilities of manpower in the sphere of agriculture at its various levels. Care for the follow-up of by this seminar. implementation of the various recommendations issued

2.

3.

4.

5.

FOURTHLY: Recommendations submitted to the National Agricultural Training Centre 1. The necessity to hold a meeting at the earliest possible opportunity for training officials and experts to integrate the connotations, concepts, nomenclature and methodology of training. Intimate to the agriculture authorities and projects the forthcoming annual plan of the Centre by mid-May of each year to facilitate determination of training opportunities available at the centre and include them within the training plans and budgets of the authorities and projects for the next year. Owing to the importance of the participation of training specialist in the agricultural sector, it is recommended that these specialists be provided with courses in the sphere of training.

2.

3.

67
FIFTH: Recommendations submitted to the Agricultural Training Centres and Units in the Republic 1. Establishment of relations of exchange of experience between the centrers and other relevant centres at the national level or abroad and secure opportunities for the regional agricultural training centres benefiting from such co-operation. Underline the importance of exchanging human experiences and available training resources at the AO, RDP, RDA and ATC in a manner that ensures the exemplary exploitation of such potentials and resources. Speedy preparation of a renewable data base at regional level about competences and resources of the training institutions, trainers and trainees in the agricultural sector in-country and abroad and inform the Training Department at the Ministry of such data. Formulate a general framework for the follow-up evaluation of training courses and the performance of trainees at their work places. The implementation of this should be the responsibility of the training centres and sections in CO-operation with the follow-up and evaluation units or sections within the authorities and projects, provided that the proposed frameworks are sent to the General Directorate for Agricultural Extension and Training to formulate an integrated framework to act in accordance therewith at the level of the local training centres or units. Formulate job descriptions for the various posts and adopt these as one of the fundamentals for determining staff training requirements in the agricultural sector. The need to observe an equilibrium between know-how, performance skills and orientations when planning training programs. Provide the training packages for the targeted categories with the aid of specialist experts from the research and other authorities. Plan for transferable training in pace with the process of replacement of agricultural workers with educational standards less than the secondary stage. Assign relative importance to the planning of training programs in combating pests and the use of toxic materials. The need to observe an equilibrium between training in the agricultural fields and home economics with regard to rural women development.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

SIXTH
Recommendations
1.

to the General Directorate for Planning & Statistics

at the Ministry

Inform the authorities, projects and training institutions the allocations determined

for them in documents or budgets.

68
2. The importance of clear announcement of various kinds of scholarships reserved for external training that reach the central level to all quarters concerned, along with fair distribution of such scholarships among these quarters in accordance with the Scholarships Law No. 19 of 1984.

SEVENTH: Recommendations Submitted to the Faculty of Agriculture, Sene's University


1.

Development of the practical plan at the Faculty through the opening of specialized sections according to the actual needs for agricultural development plans and programs in the country. Strengthening co-operation opportunities between the agricultural authorities and projects in the field of training, whether this is organized by the Faculty or by the authorities or projects through allocation of the human and technical resources, laboratory and field equipment. Grant priority to the graduates of the Ibb and Surdud Agricultural Institutes, and those with same levels, to enroll at the Faculty of Agriculture, Sana'a University after spending a field work period of two to three years. Recommend to the Faculty the speedy adoption of the post medium diploma syllabi for the extension workers who are graduates of secondary schools to bring about an uplift of the extension service in the country.

2.

3.

4.

EIGHTH Recommendations submitted to the Ministry of Civil Service and Administrative Reform, the Central Planning Organization and the General Directorate for Planning and Statistics at the Ministry of Agriculture and Fish Wealth 1. The concerned authorities, projects and departments should determine candidates from among their workers to attend the external training courses in accordance with the criteria, technical and planning controls, provided that the relevant agencies complete the procedures required therefore. 2. Procedures in respect of agricultural projects scholarships by the Employee Qualification Committee and the Central Planning Organization should be facilitated.

69
List of Important Sources Arabic Reference Works: 1. ISMAILABDULLAMUHARRAM, 1993, (Role of Agricultural Extension in Propagating Population Education Concepts), working paper presented to the Workshop for Decision-markers in the sphere of population education in Sana'a, project for integration of population education within Agricultural Extension Programs, Agricultural Research and Extension Authority. ISMAIL ABDULLA MUHARRAM,1993, (Agricultural Training in Yemen), presented to Workshop on Agricultural Training, Damascus, Syria, paper

2.

3.

ISMAIL ABDULLA MUHARRAMK , HALILMANSOOR ASH-SHARJABI1 , 993, (The Importance of Agricultural Extension in the Development of Coffee Plantation and Production), work paper presented to the First National Seminar on Coffee, Sana'a, July 26 29,1993. ASMA MAHDIMUNASSAR Z , AHRAESSAand CHRISTINA SCHOOT,1993, 2(Enumeration of Female staff Working in Development Authority, Projects and Agricultural Extension Organs in the Republic of Yemen), Agricultural Research and Extension Authority, Dhamar. JAMAL FUAD (and others), 1991, (Review of Research, Extension and Training Activities in the Republic of Yemen), an explanatory memorandum presented to the Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources and the World Bank (Arabic translation) . HASSAN A. AL-ATTAR, 1987, (Agricultural Extension Support Project, Projects Studies and Preliminary Recommendations), Ministry of Agriculture and Fish Wealth, FAO. KHALIL MANSORASH-SHARJABI,1994, (First Look at the Experience of Issuing Agricultural Scientific Periodicals in Yemen), Agriculture Research and Extension Authority, Dhamar (unpublished study). ZUHAIRAS-SABBAGH,1993, (Manpower Structuring at the Ministry of Agriculture and Fish Wealth and Its Future Planning), Report No. 14, Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources, Republic of Yemen (Arabic copy). ABDULMO'AMINAHMEDHASHEM,(Concepts on The Social and Economic Structure of the Yemeni Agriculture Extension Worker), project for integration of population education in agriculture extension programs, in co-operation with UNFPA and FAO. ABDULWAHEDUTHMAN MUKRED,1988, (Agricultural Research and Extension Tasks in Democratic Yemen), Yemeni Agricultural Magazine, Vol. 1, NO.1, pp. 102 - 110.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11. ABDUL WAHED UTHMANMUKREDand others, (undated), (Agricultural Research


Trends In Respect of Food and Industrial Crops In the Third Five-year Plan 1986) -

1990, Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform, Aden.

70
12. FATHIYA HUSSEIN SHIHAB, 1990, (Agricultural Extension and its Development in the Southern Governorate of the Republic of Yemen), Yemeni Agricultural Magazine, Vol. 1, No.3, pp. 137-164. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION, TRAINING AND INFORMATION SECTOR, 1991, (Results of the Inventory of Human and Material Resources and Potentials for Agricultural
Extension in the Republic), Extension Sector, Agricultural Research and Extension

13.

Authority, the General 14.

Directorate

in Dhamar.

JI'AR AGRICULTURAL TRAINING CENTER, 1993, (Bulletin identifying activities and accomplishment of the .li'ar Agricultural Training Center, Abyan, Republic of Yemen. NATIONAL Agricultural
Research

15.

AGRICULTURAL TRAINING CENTER, Extension Training and Information,


and Extension, Dhamar.

1995, Reports Public Authority

and Records, for Agricultural

16.

SOUTHERN HIGHLAND AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECT - Taiz / Ibb, 1991, the Course of Agricultural Development in the Southern Highlands with the dawn of the First Anniversary of Yemeni Unity, Taiz, Yemeni Modern Printing House. Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, 1991, First National Seminar on Reality of Scientific Research and Horizons of its Development in the Republic of Yemen, Sana'a, Republic of Yemen. MUHAMMAD ABDUL-MALEK AL-MuTAWAKKEL, 1983, Yemeni Journalism: Founding and Development, At-Tobaji Commercial Printing Press, Cairo, Arab Republic of Egypt. MUHAMMAD FATHI AS-SHADLI, 1989, Horizons of Development of Agricultural Extension in the Republic of Yemen, Agricultural Awareness Magazine, special edition, pp. 30 -33. PUBLIC AUTHORITY FOR AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND EXTENSION & FAa, 1991, Documents and Papers of the First National Workshop on Co-ordinatiion between Agricultural Research and Extension, October, 1991, Yemeni Studies and Research Center, Sana'a.

17.

18.

19.

20.

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Table 2

Agricultural projects in Yemen - Areas and duration (1964-1995)


Area Taiz Ibb Taiz Taiz Tihama Sana'a Taiz-lbb Taiz-lbb Taiz-lbb AI-Jarouba Haraz Various areas Amran Various areas Dhamar Dhamar Dhamar Rada'a Various areas Various areas Mahweet Surdud Tihama Project Various areas Various areas Sana'a Sana'a Duration 1969-72 1969-72 1973-78 1979-82 1971-95 1975-79 1976-81 1981-87 1988-94 1974-79 1978-86 1980-89 1977-87 1974-date 1976-88 1974-83 1984-89 1978-94 1979-93 1977-93 1982-92 1964-74 1968-70 1968-70 1972-91 1979-90 1979-90 1985-95 1982-87 1988-95 1988-96 1984/93 1980-96 -

Project name 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. Central Highlands Project Highland Project Research and Extension Workers Training Station Central Agricultural Research Station Tihama Development Authority 1,2, 3, 4 AI-Batana Project Southern Highlands Project 1 Southern Highlands Project 2 Southern Highlands Project 3 American Tropical and Sub-tropical Fruits Project Haraz Forestry Pilot Project American Horticultural Project Yemen German AI-Bown Agricultural Project Yemen German Plant Protection Project Yemen British Research Development Project Animal Wealth and Rangeland Upgrading Yemen Dutch Rangeland Upgrading Project Rada Integrated Rural Development Project Seeds Propagation Project Potato Seeds Propagation Project Mahweet Rural Development Project Surdud Model Farm Project Jumaisha Project Agricultural Marketing Development Veterinary Services Project Agricultural Research and Training Project Agricultural Extension and Information Support Project Forestry Project Poultry Project Northern Areas Development Authority Eastern Areas Development Authority Central Highlands Agricultural Development Wadi Hadhramou Development Project 1,2,3 Wadi Beihan Development Project Project

Sana'a
Sana'a/Sada Sana'a/Sada Maribl AI-Jaw! DhamarlSana'a Hadhramou Beihan

Project name 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 5152. 53. 54. Agricultural Extension & Training Project National Agricultural Training Centre Extension and Agricultural Systems Development Project Abyan Sana'a

Area

Duration 1970-71 1988-92 1982-87 1985-90 1990-99 1982-87 1976-81 1970-79 1981-85 1986-89 1983-89 1988-91 1976 -

Various areas Aden Various areas Abyan Various areas Lahej l.ahej/ Abeyan/S Abyan Tihama/Dhama Khowlan. Various areas Various areas various areas Taiz Khawlan Sa'da Haja General Sana'a/Taiz Various areas Aden Aden Various areas Various areas Various areas Various areas Various areas Various areas Various areas AI-Jowl Various areas
Various areas

Agricultural Research and Extension Support Project Agricultural Sector Management Support Project Abyan Delta Development Project Agricultural production Upgrading Project Abyan Delta Development Project

Agricultural Services Support Project Extension Training Project Agricultural Research and Development Project Rural Women Development Coffee Development Project Horticulture and Apiary Development Project Desert Locust Control Project Agricultural Mechanisation Project Project

Integrated Rural Development Project Rural Development Project (Sa'da) Rural Development Project (Haja) Agricultural Extension Support Project Poultry Training/Pilot Eastern Co-operatives Farm Project Project

1983-88 1982-88 1984-88 1987 1976-82 1990-92 1983-86 1977-82

55.
56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 6162. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67.
68.

Post-harvesting Waste Reduction Project Agricultural Upgrading Assistance Project Crop Production Upgrading Assistance Women in Irrigated Agricultural Areas Project Desert Locust in Survey and Control Project Seed Propagation Project Agricultural Information Units Development Support Project Potato Seed Production Project Goats Pneumonitis Control project Wadi AI-Jowl Rural Development Project Animal Wealth Development Project
Yemeni Soviet Projects

1971-76 1978-87

1991-92 1985-88 1975-80 -

Table 3

Allocations foreign funding to extension in agricultural

projects (1974-1990)

Project

base year

basic budget

extension allocation

%ofthe basic budget

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.
12.

Southern Highlands Project Tihama Project (II) Tihama Project (III) Southern highlands Rural Development Wadi Beihan Agricultural Project Research Support Project Wadi Hadhramou Project (II) Central highlands Agricultural Dev. Project Wadi AI-Jawf Agricultural Dev. Project Research and Extension Support Project Tihama Project (IV) Southern Highlands Rural Development Northern Areas Development Project Eastern Areas Development Project Wadi Hadhramou Agricultural Project (III ) Total [US$ million] Project (II)

1975 1978 1979 1981 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1985 1986
1987

14.8 34.9 63.3 57.8 15.8 25.3 33.2 14.2 26.4 5.6 42.0
30.6

2.2 1.5 1.8 11 2.1


0.8

12 4.3 2.8 19 13.3 3.2 1.8 26.1 7.6 39.3 17.6


29.6

0.6 3.7 2.5 2.2 7.4


9

13. 14. 15.

1988 1989 1989

32.1 22.8 43.2 456.7

7.2 3.4 0.6 55.5

22.4 14.9 1.8 12.2

Source: Zeeb 1991

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Table 8

Accommodation capacity of Agricultural Training Centres in the Country


Capacity (Trainees) Capacity (Boarding)

1,
2.

Agricultural Training Centre Jiar (Abyan) Agricultural Training and Rural Community Centre (Taiz) Agricultural Training Centre - Marib Agricultural Training Centre - Tihama Agricultural Training Centre - Albown Agricultural Cooperative Institute - Aden Irrigation Institute - Aden Yemeni-German Plant Protection Project

90 40 26 30 30 60 60 20 25 600 70 50 50 1121

90 20 26 10 30 40

3. 4.
5.

6. 7. 8.
9.

a
0
15

Agricultural Training Centre - Wadi Moor Training Centre - Lahej National Agricultural Training Centre - Dhamar Agricultural Training Centre - Sana'a Unit Veterinary Training Centre

10. 11.
12.

0 30 30 281

13.

I Total
Table 9

Agricultural Research Stations conducting training activities


Research Centre - Station location AI-Kod-Abyan Hadhramawt Taiz Surdud Dhamar AI-Bown Marib Lahej Dhamar since

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Agricultural Research Centre - Alkod Agricultural Research Centre - Seiyun Southern Highlands Regional Research Station Tihama Plain Regional Research Station Central Highlands Regional Research Station Northern Highlands Regional Research Station Eastern Areas Regional Research Station Animal Breeds Upgrading Centre AREA Headquarters

1955 1972 1983 1983 1983 1989 1991 1991

7. 8. 9.

Table 10

The most significant agricultural education institutions / centres participating in training and education
Institution Place Year of establishment 1972173 1984/85 1979/80 1981/92

Supervising Agency Aden Unit Sana'a Unit Ibb Min. of Ag.

1.

Nasser College for Agricultural Sciences Faculty of Agriculture Agricultural Secondary Institute Cooperative Institute Irrigation Institute Agricultural Secondary School

Lahej Sana'a Ibb Aden Aden Surdud

2. 3.
4. 5. 6.

Min. of Educ.

Table 12

Categories/numbers of graduates from training programmes at ATC AI-Jiar, Abyan (1970-1993)


Number of programmes Nr of graduates Male Female

Category

1. 2.
3.

Agricultural Workers Agricultural Technicians Technicians Assistants Rural Leaders Trained Rural Women Trained Farmers Agricultural Labourers State Farms Cooperative and Extension Director Agricultural College and Institute Students Agricultural Poly-technique Teachers Statistics Supervisors

19 41
3

453 764 38 337

25 41 10 49 534 35 19

4. 5.
6.

11 21 53 15 4 11
5

1498 291 57 240 90 41 41

7. 8.
9.

57
8

10. 11.

4 4

I Total
Source: Agricultural Training Centre, Jiar, 1993

Table 13

Training programmes

implemented

at the National Agricultural

Training Centre in Dhamar

(1988-1995) source: NATC, 1995


Number of programmes 6 14 3
1

Nr of graduates Male 174 178 94 59 92 57 39


-

Category 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Extension and research Officials Extension and Research In-charge Person Agricultural workers Agricultural Secondary Students Extension Supervisors Trainers and Training Personnel Agricultural Communication Female Agricultural Workers Agricultural Technicians Personnel

Female 3 4
-

6
3 1
2

12 4
35

2 38

32 725

58

I Total
Table 14

Workers in rural agricultural information in agricultural agencies


Number

Agency 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Area MAWR Rural Development Project, Rada

9
13 2 6 4 5 9 3 2 2 3 3 1 1 4 67

Rural Development Project, Southern Highlands Extension Organisation, Lahej

Agricultural Training Centre, Jiar Tihama Development Authority Forestry Project Yemeni German Plant Protection Project Extension Organisation, Hadhramaw1

Eastern Areas Development Authority Northern Areas Development Authority Rural Development Project, Mahweet Extension Organisation, Shaboa Extension Organisation, Abyan Total

Source:

1. 2. 3.

Data from the Extension and Training Department, AREA Reports of experts, Agricultural Sector Administration support Documents of first national workshop on coordination between research and extension

Table 15

Distribution agricultural communication staff


Job Number 3 9 4 Personnel 12 3 2

1. 2. 3. 4.

Department Director Section Head Unit Director CommunicationfEngineering Printing designer Clerks Off-set Technician Audio-Visual Aids Technician Producer Draftsman Photographer Equipment maintenance technician Assistant technician Editor Printing technician Driver Total

5.
6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

5
5 1 1 9 3 6 2 1 1

67

TABLE 15.1

An inventory of agricultural staff identification according to place and education level (PhD/MScl Bsc! intermediate levels)
total staff number PhD MSc BSc Diploma 2 years after sr 34 14 37 20 22 37 30 27 6 21 8 1 5 18 secondary number 81 48 98 93 61 53 32 16 22 44 25 5 253 95 316 86 124 172 113 49 42 133 53 14 67 76 Total % 54.0 60.5 33.4 29.5
22A

Governorates & Authorities

Sana' a Plant Protection Sana'a AREA Shabwah Hadramawl Aden Lahej Abyan Almahwl Taizz Ibb Dhamar Albayda Alhodeidah

468 157 945 287 553 341 337 104 96 363 149 79 91 192

3 1 26 1 2 2

27

108 29 94 17 25 61 46 6 12 63 19 7 37 29

8
56 5 14 19 5 2 5 1 1 3 1

50.4 33.5 47.1 43.8 36.6 35.6 17.7 35.1 37.6

22
38

Total

4262

35

147

553

280

573

1593

34.4

[source

ASMSP/ETC July 1993]

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