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Submitted to: Dr.

Gul Hameed Submitted by: Arslan Ahmad Anjum 2010-MM-14

Classification of Aluminium Alloys


This assignment contains the detail of classification of aluminium alloys. These alloys are classified into wrought and cast aluminium alloys and according to the percentage of aluminium in them they are given different numbers and names. Also there are the applications of these alloys.

Classification of Aluminium Alloys 2012 Characteristics of Aluminium & its Alloys


Aluminum is a silverish white metal that has a strong resistance to corrosion and like gold, is rather malleable. It is a relatively light metal compared to metals such as steel, nickel, brass, and copper with a specific gravity of 2.7. Aluminum is easily machinable and can have a wide variety of surface finishes. It also has good electrical and thermal conductivities and is highly reflective to heat and light. Aluminum also has a rather high electrical conductivity, making it useful as a conductor. Copper is the more widely used conductor, having a conductivity of approximately 161% that of aluminum. Aluminum connectors have a tendency to become loosened after repeated usage leading to arcing and fire, which requires extra precaution and special design when using aluminum wiring in buildings. Aluminum is a very versatile metal and can be cast in any form known. It can be rolled, stamped, drawn, spun, roll-formed, hammered and forged. The metal can be extruded into a variety of shapes, and can be turned, milled, and bored in the machining process. Aluminum can rivet, welded, brazed, or resin bonded. For most applications, aluminum needs no protective coating as it can be finished to look good; however it is often anodized to improve color and strength. Magnalium is an aluminium alloy with 1.5 to 2% magnesium and small amounts of copper, nickel, and tin. Some alloys, intended for particular uses at the cost of poor corrosion resistance, may consist of up to 50% magnesium. It finds use in engineering and pyrotechnics.

Aluminium Alloys:
At extremely high temperatures (200-250C) aluminum alloys tend to lose some of their strength. However, at subzero temperatures, their strength increases while retaining their ductility, making aluminum an extremely useful low-temperature alloy. Aluminum alloys have a strong resistance to corrosion which is a result of an oxide skin that forms as a result of reactions with the atmosphere. This corrosive skin protects aluminum from most chemicals, weathering conditions, and even many acids, however alkaline substances are known to penetrate the protective skin and corrode the metal.

Aluminium alloys are alloys in which aluminium (Al) is the predominant metal. The typical alloying elements are copper, magnesium, manganese, silicon and zinc. There are two principal classifications, namely casting alloys and wrought alloys, both of which are further subdivided into the categories heat-treatable and non-heat-treatable. About 85% of aluminium is used for wrought products, for example rolled plate, foils and extrusions. Alloys composed mostly of the
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Classification of Aluminium Alloys 2012


two lightweight metals aluminium and magnesium have been very important in aerospace manufacturing since somewhat before 1940. Aluminium-magnesium alloys are both lighter than other aluminium alloys and much less flammable than alloys that contain a very high percentage of magnesium. Aluminium alloy surfaces will keep their apparent shine in a dry environment due to the formation of a clear, protective layer of aluminium oxide. In a wet environment, galvanic corrosion can occur when an aluminium alloy is placed in electrical contact with other metals with more negative corrosion potentials than aluminium. Cast aluminium alloys yield cost effective products due to the low melting point, although they generally have lower tensile strengths than wrought alloys. The most important cast aluminium alloy system is Al-Si, where the high levels of silicon (4.0% to 13%) contribute to give good casting characteristics. Aluminium alloys are widely used in engineering structures and components where light weight or corrosion resistance is required.

Classification of cast aluminum alloys.


The Aluminium Association (AA) has adopted a nomenclature similar to that of wrought alloys. British Standard and DIN have different designations. In the AA system, the second two digits reveal the minimum percentage of aluminium, e.g. 150.x corresponds to a minimum of 99.50% aluminium. Aluminium alloy compositions are registered with The Aluminum Association. Many organizations publish more specific standards for the manufacture of aluminium alloy, including the Society of Automotive Engineers standards organization, specifically its aerospace standards subgroups, and ASTM International. The digit after the decimal point takes a value of 0 or 1, denoting casting and ingot respectively. The main alloying elements in the AA system are as follows. The last digit indicates the product form: casting (designated by 0) or ingot (designated by 1 or 2 depending on chemical composition limits.) Types of Aluminum Alloys: 1. Wrought Aluminum Alloys 2. Cast Aluminum Alloys

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Classification of Aluminium Alloys 2012 1. Wrought Aluminum Alloys:


The term "wrought aluminum" refers to aluminum alloys that have been mechanically worked to improve the grain structure an physical properties. Wrought aluminum is in a form of sheet, foil, plate, rod, bar, or tubing and it leaves the mill in the "as formed" condition. This also includes forms such as extrusions, and some forgings. The transformation from ingot to wrought product gives the material its final stated properties. The forming operations, thermal treatments, and/or aging transform the cast ingot's metallurgic property and crystalline structure. This strongly influences the strength, corrosion resistance, and several other properties of the finished product. 1xxx Aluminum 99.0% minimum; 2xxx Copper (1.9%...6.8%); 3xxx Manganese (0.3%...1.5%); 4xxx Silicon (3.6%...13.5%); 5xxx Magnesium (0.5%...5.5%); 6xxx Magnesium and Silicon (Mg 0.4%...1.5%, Si 0.2%...1.7%); 7xxx Zinc (1%...8.2%); 8xxx .

Wrought Aluminum Numbering System:


Aluminum classification numbering system has been established by American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the Aluminum Association (AA). This classification system uses an alpha-numeric code to identify major alloying element and heat treating condition of the material. The primary alloy groups are designated by a four digit code. The first digit indicates the major alloying element as shown below.

Wrought Aluminum major alloying elements code:


1. 1xxx:
Aluminum (99% minimum purity)

ductile easily formed


corrosion resistant

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Classification of Aluminium Alloys 2012


2. 2xxx:
Aluminum - Copper alloys

This is the most common heat treatable alloy. aluminum-copper alloys respond to solution heat treatment subsequent aging will increase strength and hardness while decreasing elongation.

3. 3xxx:
Aluminum - Manganese alloys

Manganese increases strength either in solid solution or as a finely precipitated intermetallic phase.

It has no adverse effect on corrosion resistance.

4. 4xxx:
Aluminum - Silicon alloys Most of aluminum-silicon wrought alloys are not heat-treatable (except alloy 4032 containing 1% of magnesium and alloy 4145 containing 4% of copper).

5. 5xxx:
Aluminum - Magnesium alloys

Aluminum-magnesium alloys are not heat-treatable may be strengthened by cold work (strain hardening) Effectiveness of cold work hardening increases when magnesium content is increased.

Alloys of this series have moderate to high mechanical strength combined with relatively high ductility in annealed condition (up to 25%), good corrosion resistance and weldability.

6. 6xxx:
Aluminum - Magnesium and Silicon alloys

Precipitation upon age hardening forms Guinier-Preston zones and a very fine precipitate.

Both of these increase the strength of these alloys.


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Classification of Aluminium Alloys 2012

7. 7xxx:
Aluminum - Zinc alloys Aluminum-zinc alloys containing other elements offer the highest combination of tensile properties in wrought aluminum alloys.

8. 8xxx:
Aluminum - Other Aluminum alloys

Aluminum-lithium alloys were developed for reducing weight in aircraft and aerospace structures.

Aluminum-lithium alloys are heat-treatable.

9. 9xxx:
Aluminum Unused.

Common wrought aluminum alloys and properties:


1100: This grade is pure aluminum. It is soft and ductile with good workability and can be polished to a mirror finish. It is ideal for applications involving intricate forming because it does not work harden as quickly as other alloys. This makes it ideal for foils and lithography plates. It is the most weldable of aluminum alloys, by any method. This grade cannot be heat treated. It has excellent corrosion resistance and is widely used in the chemical and food processing industries and other uses where product purity is important. It responds well to embossed designs and finishes. Ductile enough for deep draws, but the lowest strength aluminum alloy. 2011: This is the most easily machined aluminum alloy. It also has excellent mechanical properties. 3003: This is a general purpose manganese alloy that is the most widely used of all aluminum alloys. The addition of Manganese increases its' strength by 20% over the 1100 grade. This combines
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Classification of Aluminium Alloys 2012


the excellent characteristics of 1100 with higher strength. It has excellent corrosion resistance. It has excellent workability and it may be deep drawn or spun. It can be welded by all conventional processes. Like 1100, it also cannot be heat treated.

5005: This alloy is generally considered to be an improved version of 3003. It has the same general mechanical properties as 3003 but appears to stand up better in actual service. It is readily workable. It can be deep drawn or spun. It is weldable by all conventional processes. It has excellent corrosion resistance. It is non heat-treatable. It is well suited for anodizing and has fewer tendencies to streak or discolor. 5083 & 5086: For many years there has been a need for aluminum sheet and plate alloys that could be used for high strength welded applications. This alloy has several distinct benefits over such alloys as 5052 and 6061. Some of the benefits are greater design efficiency, better welding characteristics, good forming properties, excellent resistance to corrosion and the same economy as in other non heat-treatable alloys 6061 & 6063: This material is an alloy of magnesium and silicon. It is the most common material for extrusions and is the least expensive and most versatile of the heat-treatable aluminum alloys. It has most of the good qualities of aluminum. It offers a range of good mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance. It can be fabricated by most commonly used techniques. 6063: This grade is commonly referred to as the architectural alloy. It was developed as an extrusion alloy with relatively high tensile properties, excellent finishing characteristics and a high degree of resistance to corrosion. This alloy is most often found in various interior and exterior architectural applications, such as windows, doors, store fronts and assorted trim items. It is the alloy best suited for anodizing applications - either plain or in a variety of colors. 7475: This is a superplastic-formable high-strength aluminum alloy, now available for structural applications and designated. Strength of alloy 7475 is in the range of aerospace alloy 7075, which requires conventional forming operations. Although initial cost of 7475 is higher, finished part cost is usually lower than that of 7075 because of the savings involved in the simplified design/assembly.

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Classification of Aluminium Alloys 2012


8090: It is a class of aluminum-lithium alloys possessing increased Modulus of Elasticity, high specific stiffness, increased fatigue strength and cryogenic strength. Alloys, containing silver, have also good weld ability. Zirconium is added to aluminum-lithium alloys for controlling grain structure during heat treatment. Aluminum-lithium alloys are used for manufacturing aircraft structures, aerospace vehicle skins, spacecraft fuel tanks (liquid Hydrogen and oxygen).

Uses and Applications of Wrought aluminum alloys:


1. 1100 include light reflectors, decorative and jewelry parts, name plates. Seldom used in precision sheet metal stampings. 2. 2011 is widely used for automatic screw machine products and in parts 3. Requiring extensive machining. 3. 2014 and 2017 are used in a wide variety of screw machined and billet parts. 4. 2024 is primarily used in aerospace industry for aircraft components, fittings, and hardware; other uses include automotive wheels and other parts for the transportation industry. 5. 3003 is commonly used to make cooking utensils, decorative trim, mail boxes, awnings, siding, storage tanks, and window frames lithography plates. 6. 5005 is used in many of the same applications as 3003. 7. 5052 applications include a wide variety of home appliances, marine and transportation industry parts, heavy duty cooking utensils and equipment for bulk processing of food. Corrosion resistance and weldability are very good. It has better salt water corrosion resistance than 1100. 5052 is commonly used for electronic chassis, tanks, pressure vessels and any number of parts requiring considerable strength and formability at reasonable cost. Anodizing may be slightly yellowish. 8. 6061 and 6063 applications include a wide variety of products from truck dump bodies and frames to screw machine parts and structural components and some marine applications. 9. 7075 is used where highest strength is needed.

Cast Aluminum Alloy Classification:


Aluminum can be cast by every process used in metal casting. These processes, in descending order of quantity of aluminum casting are: die casting, permanent mold casting, sand casting, plaster casting, investment casting, and continuous casting. The casting process is selected based on factors such as cost, feasibility, quality of parts, etc. For instance, large products are made using sand casting. The quality factor is also important in selecting the casting process. Quality refers to both, mechanical properties (ductility and strength) and soundness (surface imperfections, cracking, and freedom from porosity).

1xx.x series are minimum 99% aluminium


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2xx.x series copper 3xx.x series silicon, copper and/or magnesium 4xx.x series silicon 5xx.x series magnesium 7xx.x series zinc 8xx.x series lithium

Cast Aluminum Numbering System:


The first digit is an alpha indicator of base metal. Always A for aluminum in the UNS system. The AA system uses the alpha character to distinguish between alloys that differ only slightly in percentages of impurities or minor alloying elements. The alpha character can be A356.0, B356.0, F356.0 are common examples.

Casting Alloy Designation:


1st digit alloys: In 1st digit alloys have the major element aluminium so we always use letter A to designate aluminium. 2nd digit alloys: A1xxx: It contains 99% of aluminium. A2xxx: It is the alloy of aluminum and copper. And it is capable of developing highest strengths among all casting alloys. Good casting design and foundry techniques must be used to get full mechanical properties and consistent high quality parts. Good high temperature strength. Heat treatment is required with these alloys. Lower corrosion resistance and surface protection is required in critical applications. A3xxx: It is an alloy of aluminum-Silicon alloy with Copper and/or Magnesium. They are in low cost, highest volume usage. Three main types Al-Si-Mg, Al-Si-Cu or Al-Si-CuMg. Those with copper are heat treatable. both copper and magnesium increase strength and hardness in the as cast (f) temper and at elevated temperatures.
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Classification of Aluminium Alloys 2012


A4xxx: It is an aluminium-silicon alloy. It is based on the binary aluminum-silicones system and contain 5-12% silicon. It has moderate strength and high ductility impact resistance. A5xxx: It is an aluminium magnesium alloy. It has moderate to high strength and toughness. High corrosion resistance especially to sea water and marine atmospheres. can be welded and good machinability, anodized. A6xxx: It is unused. A7xxx: It is an alloy with zinc.it has good finishing characteristics, good corrosion resistance. capable of high strength through natural aging without heat treatment.

A8xxx:

It is an alloy with tin. It contains

6%tin and small amounts of copper and nickel for strength. These alloys were developed for bearing applications. Tin imparts lubricity. 3rd & 4th digit alloys: A319.x: It is a commercial code of this alloy and it is low cost aluminium silicon alloy. A360.x: This alloy is corrosion resistant.

5th digit alloys: Axxx.0: This alloy is used in casting. It has good casting characteristics. Axxx.1:

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Classification of Aluminium Alloys 2012


It is used to make ingots. It has good ingot specifications. Axxx.2: It is also used to make ingot and it has tighter ingot specifications.

Some common casting alloys and their properties:


A242: This alloy has good fluidity and shows resistance to hot cracking and shrinkage in the casting process. It has satisfactory weldability by arc and resistance methods but brazing is not recommended. Typical applications include: motorcycle, diesel, and aircraft engine pistons, aircraft generator housings, as well as air cooled cylinder heads. A355: An aluminum alloy with 0.02% copper added for greatly improved strength over the more common A356 material. This alloy yields highly consistent castings that are crack resistant, easy to repair, and have excellent tensile elongation properties. A356: Aluminium alloys are characterized by very good mechanical properties and low porosity with a globular microstructure which is fine and uniform. The mechanical properties can be further improved through heat treatments such as T5 and T6. These alloys are used for casting generalpurpose die castings. The common alloys used are 356-T6 for cast wheels. A360.0: is specified for die cast parts that require good corrosion resistance Special alloys for special applications are available, but their use usually entails significant cost premiums. . 383 & 384: These alloys are a modification of 380. Both provide better die filling, but with a moderate sacrifice in mechanical properties, such as toughness. A390: This alloy is hypereutectic aluminum-silicon alloy. The optimum structure of it must consist of fine, uniformly distributed primary Si crystals in a eutectic matrix. This alloy does not require heat treatment. The low coefficient of thermal expansion, high hardness and good wear resistance of these alloys make them suitable for internal combustion engines, pistons and cylinder blocks.
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514: This alloy has a relatively poor fluidity and a high degree of directional solidification shrinkage. High pressure die casting is the primary method of forming this alloy. This combination of material properties makes 514 less casting friendly. As a result careful attention to casting geometry is essential. Because of its poor fluidity, fine detail and thin sections are difficult and radii must be large Because of shrinkage, feeding the casting requires large risers proper design. High ductility and excellent corrosion resistance is the main advantage of this alloy. It is commonly found boat propellers where impact toughness is required. A518.1: A535.0 is an aluminum-magnesium alloy with good combination of strength, shock resistance and ductility. It is used for parts in instruments and tools where dimensional stability is a prime factor. This alloy doesn't require heat treatment. It is used in parts that need strength and stability like impellers, optical equipment. It can be polished and anodized. It has excellent machining properties and an exceptional finish can be produced, especially when machined with carbide tools at maximum speeds. It is highly resistant to corrosion and will not need any further surface treatment for most applications. It is weldable in an inert gas or shielded arc methods.

Uses and application of cast aluminum alloys:


1. A242 alloy is used extensively for applications where strength and hardness at high temperature are required. 2. A319 is also used in permanent mold casting with applications including watercooled cylinder heads, rear axle housings and engine parts. 3. A355 has been used very effectively in aftermarket aluminum engine block castings. When heat treated to T6 condition the alloy remains very strong to 300 F which is 100 F higher than A356. 4. . A356 has largely been replaced by 295 used in permanent mold castings for machine tool parts, aircraft wheels pump parts, tank car fittings, marine hardware, valve bodies, and bridge railing parts. 5. A360.0 is commonly found in applications such as frying pans, instrument cases, cover plates, and electronic component frames. 6. . The Al-Si alloy 368.0 replaced the single phase, Al-Mg 515 alloy that was used in boat propeller production for over 25 years because 368.0 had significantly higher strength and better ductility. 7. A390 is often Selected for special applications where high strength, fluidity and wear-resistance/bearing properties are required. 8. A518.1 for conveyor components, escalator parts, aircraft, marine hardware.

Named alloys:

Alclad Aluminium sheet formed from high-purity aluminium surface layers bonded to high strength aluminium alloy core material
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Classification of Aluminium Alloys 2012


Birmabright (aluminium, magnesium) a product of The Birmetals Company, basically equivalent to 5251 Duralumin (copper, aluminium) Fire-damaged Duralumin cross brace from the Zeppelin airship "Hindenburg" (DLZ129) salvaged from its crash site at Lakehurst Naval Air Station, NJ on May 6, 1937. Magnalium Magnox (magnesium, aluminium) Silumin (aluminium, silicon) Titanal (aluminium, zinc, magnesium, copper, zirconium) a product of Austria Metall AG. Commonly used in high performance sports products, particularly snowboards and skis. Y alloy, Hiduminium, R.R. alloys: pre-war nickel-aluminium alloys, used in aerospace and engine pistons, for their ability to retain strength at elevated temperature.

References:

http://www.markusfarkus.com/reference/aluminum.htm http://www.substech.com/dokuwiki/doku.php?id=classification_of_aluminum_alloys

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