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Original Title: Example of the Use of Stokes Theorem

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_

C

F dr where

F = (z y) (x + z) (x + y)

k

and C is the curve x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

= 4, z = y oriented counterclockwise when viewed from above.

Direct Computation

In this rst computation, we parametrize the curve C and compute

_

C

passes through the origin, which is the centre of the sphere x

2

+y

2

+z

2

= 4. So C is a circle which, like the

sphere, has radius 2 and centre (0, 0, 0). We use a parametrization of the form

r(t) = c + cos t

+ sint

0 t 2

where c = (0, 0, 0) is the centre of C, = 2 is the radius of C and

and

vectors, (b) are parallel to the plane z = y and (c) are mutually perpendicular. The point (2, 0, 0) satises

both x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

= 4 and z = y and so is on C. We may choose

from the centre (0, 0, 0) of the circle towards (2, 0, 0). Namely

z y = 0, the vector

(z y) = (0, 1, 1) is perpendicular to the plane of C. So

k

=

1

2

(0, 1, 1) is a

unit vector normal to z = y. Then

=

k

=

1

2

(0, 1, 1) (1, 0, 0) =

1

2

(0, 1, 1) is a unit vector that

is perpendicular to

. Since

is also perpendicular to

k

= 2,

= (1, 0, 0) and

=

1

2

(0, 1, 1) gives

z

y

x

1

2

(0, 1, 1) = 2

_

cos t,

sin t

2

,

sin t

2

_

0 t 2

To check that this parametrization is correct, note that x = 2 cos t, y =

2 sint, z =

2 sint satises both

x

2

+y

2

+z

2

= 4 and z = y. At t = 0, r(0) = (2, 0, 0). As t increases, r(t) moves toward r

_

2

_

= (0,

2,

2).

This is the desired counterclockwise direction. Now that we have a parametrization, we can set up the

integral.

r(t) =

_

2 cos t,

2 sint,

2 sint

_

r

(t) =

_

2 sint,

2 cos t,

2 cos t

_

F

_

r(t)

_

=

_

z(t) y(t), x(t) z(t), x(t) y(t)

_

=

_

2 sint

2 sint, 2 cos t

2 sint, 2 cos t

2 sint

_

=

_

0, 2 cos t +

2 sint, 2 cos t +

2 sint

_

F

_

r(t)

_

r

(t) =

_

4

2 cos

2

t + 4 cos t sint

=

_

2

2 cos(2t) + 2

2 + 2 sin(2t)

_

C

F dr =

_

2

0

F

_

r(t)

_

r

(t) dt

=

_

2

0

_

2

2 cos(2t) + 2

2 + 2 sin(2t)

dt =

_

2 sin(2t) + 2

2t cos(2t)

2

0

= 4

2

1

Stokes Theorem

To apply Stokes theorem we need to express C as the boundary S of a surface S. As

C =

_

(x, y, z)

x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

= 4, z = y

_

is a closed curve, this is possible. In fact there are many possible choices of S with S = C. Three possible

Ss are

S

S

S =

_

(x, y, z)

x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

4, z = y

_

S

=

_

(x, y, z)

x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

= 4, z y

_

S

=

_

(x, y, z)

x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

= 4, z y

_

The rst of these, which is part of a plane, is likely to lead to simpler computations than the last two, which

are parts of a sphere. So we choose to use it.

In preparation for application of Stokes theorem, we compute

the formula ndS = (f

x

, f

y

, 1) dxdy to the surface z = f(x, y) = y. We use the + sign to give the normal

a positive

k component.

F = det

_

_

k

z

z y x z x y

_

_

=

_

1 (1)

_

_

1 1

_

+

k

_

1 (1)

_

= 2

ndS = (0, 1, 1) dxdy

F ndS = (0, 2, 0) (0, 1, 1) dxdy = 2 dxdy

The integration variables are x and y and, by denition, the domain of integration is

R =

_

(x, y)

_

To determine precisely what this domain of integration is, we observe that since z = y on S

S =

_

(x, y, z)

x

2

+ 2y

2

4, z = y

_

= R =

_

(x, y)

x

2

+ 2y

2

4

_

So the domain of integration is an ellipse with semimajor axis a = 2, semiminor axis b =

2 and area

ab = 2

2 and

_

C

F dr =

__

S

F ndS =

__

R

(2) dxdy = 2 Area (R) = 4

2

2

Remark (Limits of integration) If the integrand were more complicated, we would have to evaluate the

integral over R by expressing it as an iterated integrals with the correct limits of integration. First suppose

that we slice up R using thin vertical slices. On each such slice, x is essentially constant and y runs from

_

(4 x

2

)/2 to

_

(4 x

2

)/2. The leftmost such slice would have x = 2 and the rightmost such slice

would have x = 2. So the correct limits with this slicing are

x

y

x

2

+ 2y

2

= 4

__

R

f(x, y) dxdy =

_

2

2

dx

_

(4x

2

)/2

(4x

2

)/2

dy f(x, y)

If, instead, we slice up R using thin horizontal slices, then, on each such slice, y is essentially constant and

x runs from

_

4 2y

2

to

_

4 2y

2

. The bottom such slice would have y =

would have y =

x

y

x

2

+ 2y

2

= 4

__

R

f(x, y) dxdy =

_

2

2

dy

_

42y

2

42y

2

dx f(x, y)

Note that the integral with limits

x

y

_

2

2

dy

_

2

2

dx f(x, y)

corresponds to a slicing with x running from 2 to 2 on every slice. This corresponds to a rectangular

domain of integration.

Stokes Theorem, Again

Since the integrand is just a constant and S is so simple, we can evaluate the integral

__

S

F ndS

without ever determining dS explicitly and without ever setting up any limits of integration. We already

know that

F = 2 . Since S is the level surface z y = 0, the gradient

(z y) = +

k is normal to

S. So n =

1

2

( +

k) and

_

C

F dr =

__

S

F ndS =

__

S

(2 )

1

2

( +

k) dS =

__

S

2 dS =

2 Area (S)

As S is a circle of radius 2,

_

C

F dr = 4

2 , yet again.

3

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