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SOALAN 2 (a) (Independent Sample T-Test) Menguji perbezaan min antara dua kumpulan.

Persoalan Kajian: Adakah terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan bagi skor kebimbangan terhadap kursus GB6023 pada awal semester antara pelajar lelaki dan perempuan? Hipotesis Kajian: Ho : Tidak terdapat perbezaan min yang signifikan bagi skor kebimbangan terhadap kursus GB6023 pada awal semester antara pelajar lelaki dan perempuan. ( 1 = 2 ) Ha : Terdapat perbezaan min yang signifikan bagi skor kebimbangan terhadap kursus GB6023 pada awal semester antara pelajar lelaki dan perempuan. ( 1 2 )

Group Statistics Gender Male Perceived_Anxiety_class_Time1 Female 123 5.5305 1.42561 .12854 N 35 Mean 5.5643 Std. Deviation 1.53554 Std. Error Mean .25955

By observing the means it can be seen that male participant produced more errors on the perceived anxiety score in the early semester but this difference may not be significant. To ascertain if this result is significant or due to chance the Independent Samples Test table must be examined. The Std. Deviation shows that the male participant have a wider spread of scores than the female group.

Independent Samples Test Levene's Test for Equality of Variances F Sig. t df Sig. (2tailed) Mean Difference Std. Error Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Equal variances .505 assumed Perceived_Anxiety_class_Time1 Equal variances .117 not assumed 51.854 .908 .03380 .28964 .54745 .61504 .478 .122 156 .903 .03380 .27784 .51501 .58261 Upper t-test for Equality of Means

Levenes test has found that the two variances do not differ significantly where F= 0.505, p> 0.05, therefore, as the variances are not significantly different, we can accept the equal variances assumption and use the top line values. The result of two-tailed hypothesis shows that t(156) = 0.122, p>0.05 which we can accept our null hypothesis that there are not significantly mean differences between the male and female participant in the perceived anxiety score in the early semester.

SOALAN 2 (b) (ANOVA 1 WAY) Menguji perbezaan min antara lebih daripada dua kumpulan. Persoalan Kajian: Adakah terdapat perbezaan yang sinifikan antara skor kebimbangan terhadap kursus GB6023 pada awal semester antara pelajar berbangsa Melayu, Cina dan India? Hipotesis Kajian: Ho : Tidak terdapat perbezaan min yang signifikan antara skor kebimbangan terhadap kursus GB6023 pada awal semester antara pelajar Melayu, Cina dan India. ( 1 = 2 = 3 ) Ha : Terdapat perbezaan min yang sinifikan antara skor kebimbangan terhadap kursus GB6023 pada awal semester antara pelajar Melayu, Cina dan India. ( 1 2 3 )

Descriptives Perceived_Anxiety_class_Time1 N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval for Mean Lower Bound Malay Chinese Indian Others Total 139 7 7 5 158 5.6565 4.8214 4.3929 4.8500 5.5380 1.45658 1.20515 1.02933 .89443 1.44572 .12355 .45550 .38905 .40000 .11502 5.4122 3.7069 3.4409 3.7394 5.3108 Upper Bound 5.9008 5.9360 5.3448 5.9606 5.7652 2.50 3.50 2.25 4.00 2.25 9.00 6.75 5.50 6.00 9.00 Minimum Maximum

The table above displays the mean perceived anxiety score in the early semester in the four races conditions. It can be seen that Malay student have higher anxiety level in the early semester (mean perceived anxiety = 5.657). As for Indian student have the lowest anxiety level in the early semester where their mean perceived anxiety is 4.393. Chinese students (4.821) and others races student (4.850) have similar concerns in scores where the mean difference in their perceived anxiety scores was 0.029. The Std. Deviation indicates the spread of score in the four races. The largest spread of scores was found in Malay students (1.45658)

Test of Homogeneity of Variances Perceived_Anxiety_class_Time1 Levene Statistic 1.515 df1 3 df2 154 Sig. .213

From this above table, we see that the Sig. Value is 0.213, which is greater than 0.05. We can therefore assume thatthe variances are approximately equal.

ANOVA Perceived_Anxiety_class_Time1 Sum of Squares Between Groups Within Groups Total 17.092 311.056 328.147 df 3 154 157 Mean Square 5.697 2.020 F 2.821 Sig. .041

From the Anova table, we can see that F(3, 154) = 2.821; p < 0.05. As p < 0.05, this indicates that there is a significant differences between the four groups. However, it does not state where the significance lies. As this result, we can reject our null hypothesis.

Multiple Comparisons Dependent Variable: Perceived_Anxiety_class_Time1 LSD (I) Race (J) Race Mean Difference (IJ) Chinese Malay Indian Others Malay Chinese Indian Others Malay Indian Chinese Others Malay Others Chinese Indian .83505 1.26362
*

Std. Error

Sig.

95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound 1.9226 2.3512 2.0844 .2525 1.9293 1.6154 -.1761 1.0721 1.1868 .4715 1.6725 2.1011

.55053 .55053 .64692 .55053 .75967 .83218 .55053 .75967 .83218 .64692 .83218 .83218

.131 .023 .214 .131 .573 .973 .023 .573 .584 .214 .973 .584

-.2525 .1761 -.4715 -1.9226 -1.0721 -1.6725 -2.3512 -1.9293 -2.1011 -2.0844 -1.6154 -1.1868

.80647 -.83505 .42857 -.02857 -1.26362


*

-.42857 -.45714 -.80647 .02857 .45714

*. The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.

The Multiple Comparisons table shows al the possible pairwise comparisons for our three groups of participants. From this table we can see that the difference between Malay and Indian group is significant, as is the difference between the Chinese and Malay group as the p values are small and less than 0.05.

SOALAN 2 (c) (PEARSON CORRELATION) Menguji hubungan (data parametrik) - kolerasi Persoalan Kajian: Adakah terdapat hubungan antara skor persepsi kendiri pelajar dengan skor sikap pelajar terhadap aktiviti kursus GB6023 pada awal semester?

Hipotesis Kajian: Ho : Tidak terdapat hubungan antara skor persepsi kendiri pelajar dengan skor sikap pelajar terhadap aktiviti kursus GB6023 pada awal semester. ( 1 = 2 ) Ha : Terdapat hubungan antara skor persepsi kendiri pelajar dengan skor sikap pelajar terhadap aktiviti kursus GB6023 pada awal semester. ( 1 2 )

From the graph above we can see that the student self perception score in the early semester have weak correlation, r=.194 with the student attitude score in the early semester towards the GB6023 course activity. This result agree with Cohen (1988) which state that r= .10 to .29 is considered as weak correlation.
Correlations Attitude_towards_cla ss_Time1 Pearson Correlation Attitude_towards_class_Time1 Sig. (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation Self_Perception_Time1 Sig. (2-tailed) N *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). 155 .194
*

Self_Perception_Tim e1

.194* .018 149 1

.018 149 154

The Pearson Correlation test statistic = 0.194. SPSS indicates with * that it is significant at the 0.05 level for a two-tailed prediction. The actual p value is shown to be 0.18 and we can conclude the result as r = 0.194, N = 155, p < 0.05. These result indicate that as the student attitude score in the early semester towards the GB6023 course activity increase, the student self perception score in the early semester also increases, which is a positive correlation. As the r value reported is positive and p < 0.05, we can state that we have a positive correlation between our two variables and our null hypothesis can be rejected.

SOALAN 2 (d) (SPEARMAN CORRELATION) Menguji hubungan (data bukan parametrik) Persoalan Kajian: Adakah terdapat hubungan antara skor kebimbangan pelajar pada awal semester dengan Jangkaan Gred bagi kursus GB6023? Hiptesis Kajian: Ho : Tidak terdapat hubungan antara skor kebimbangan pelajar pada awal semester dengan jangkaan Gred bagi kursus GB6023. (1 = 2) Ha : Terdapat hubungan antara skor kebimbangan pelajar pada awal semester dengan jangkaan Gred bagi kursus GB6023. ( 1 2 )

Correlations Perceived_Anxiety_ class_Time1 Correlation Coefficient Perceived_Anxiety_class_Time1 Sig. (2-tailed) N Spearman's rho Correlation Coefficient Expected_Grade Sig. (2-tailed) N .124 .120 158 1.000 . 158 1.000 . 160 .124 .120 158 Expected_Grade

By observing the Spearman correlation output matrix it can be seen that student perceived anxiety score in the early semester is not correlated with the expected grade for the GB6023 course. As the result is rs = 0.124, N = 160, p > 0.05 indicate that there is no effect on the increase of the student perceived anxiety score in the early semester toward the expected grade for the GB6023 course.

As the scatter plot diagram above shows that there a no correlation between the two variable.

SOALAN 2 (e) (Mann-Whitney U Test) Ujian statistik yang lain. Persoalan Kajian: Adakah terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan bagi pelajar yang masih bujang dengan yang sudah berkahwin antara pelajar lelaki dan perempuan yang mengambil kursus GB6023? Hipotesis Kajian: Ho : Tidak terdapat perbezaan min yang signifikan bagi pelajar yang masih bujang dengan yang sudah berkahwin antara pelajar lelaki dan perempuan yang mengambil kursus GB6023. (1 = 2 ) Ha : Terdapat perbezaan min yang signifikan bagi pelajar yang masih bujang dengan yang sudah berkahwin antara pelajar lelaki dan perempuan yang mengambil kursus GB6023. (1 2 )

Ranks Gender Male Marital Status Female Total N 35 122 157 Mean Rank 93.56 74.82 Sum of Ranks 3274.50 9128.50

Test Statisticsa Marital Status Mann-Whitney U Wilcoxon W Z Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) a. Grouping Variable: Gender 1625.500 9128.500 -2.519 .012

The test statistic generally reported is the Mann-Whitney U which is 1625.500 in the above table. The probability value is ascertained by examining the Asymp. Sig (2-tailed). A figure of less than 0.05 is considered to be indicative of significant differences. The result show that U = 1625.50; p=0.012, p < 0.05. Here we can conclude that there is a significant difference between the marital status and the gender of the participant and null hypothesis can be rejected. Our hypothesis is also supported by examining the mean ranks that shows male reports a higher mean ranking of the marital status than female.