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FRP INTERNATIONAL

Editor Kent A. Harries University of Pittsburgh, USA IIFC Executive Committee President Lawrence C. Bank City College of New York, USA Senior Vice President Jian-Fei Chen Queens University Belfast, UK Vice Presidents Charles E. Bakis Pennsylvania State University, USA Renata Kotynia Technical University of Lodz, Poland Scott T. Smith Southern Cross University, Australia Treasurer Amir Fam Queens University, Canada Webmaster Jian-Guo Dai Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China Members-at-Large Laura De Lorenzis Tech. Univ. of Braunschweig, Germany Emmanuel Ferrier Universit Lyon 1, France Conference Coordinators Raafat El-Hacha (CICE 2014) University of Calgary, Canada Riadh Al-Mahaidi (APFIS 2013) Swinburne University of Tech., Australia Secretary Rudolf Seracino North Carolina State University, USA

the official newsletter of the International Institute for FRP in Construction


Vol. 10, No. 3, July 2013
Invitation to CICE 2014
Dr. Raafat El-Hacha, Chair of CICE 2014 On behalf of the International Institute for FRP in Construction (IIFC), it gives me great pleasure to invite all to the 7th International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering (CICE 2014), the official conference of the IIFC, to be held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada from August 20-22, 2014. The conference is co-hosted by the University of Calgary and the University of British Columbia. CICE 2014 aims to provide an international forum where leaders, engineers, researchers, practitioners and industrial partners in the field of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites in civil engineering can discuss, exchange, and share recent advances and developments and future perspectives of the use of FRP in bridges and other structures. The CICE 2014 conference will continue the success of CICE conferences held in Hong Kong 2001, Adelaide 2004, Miami 2006, Zurich 2008, Beijing 2010, and Rome 2012. The CICE 2014 conference is organized into several focus areas including: FRP for Sustainability, FRP Internal Reinforcement, FRP Strengthening, Hybrid FRP Structures, All-FRP and Smart FRP Structures, Durability and Long-Term Performance, Fire, Impact and Blast Loading, Inspection and Quality Assurance, Codes and Design Guidelines, Field Applications and Case Studies, FRP in 2020: Visions and Reality.

We also invite you to enjoy the spectacular beauty of Vancouver; voted one of the worlds premier meeting and convention destinations and ranked #4 on the list of the worlds 10 best places to live. Located halfway between Europe and the Asia Pacific region, Vancouver is located on Canadas spectacular West Coast, surrou nded bymountains and ocean side beaches. The city of Vancouver is a cosmopolitan city with a vibrant and multicultural population of two million; it is safe, clean, and pedestrian friendly. Vancouver, the host city of the 2010 Winter Olympics and Paralympics Games, offers an unprecedented range of activities and experiences and unique attractions (Vancouver Aquarium, Capilano Suspension Bridge, Vancouver Art Gallery, Vancouver Maritime Museum, Museum Of Anthropology, Botanical Gardens). The CICE conference will be held at The University of British Columbia (UBC), only 20 minutes to downtown or the Vancouver International Airport which offers direct flights to major cities around the world. The city centre is easily accessible by public transit, with many bus routes offering frequent service. CICE 2014 promises to be an engaging and enjoyable meeting of International colleagues. There is a full companion program and plenty of activities for families. You may plan your pre- or post-conference vacations to Victoria and Vancouver Island, Whistler, Okanagan, the Canadian Rocky Mountains, or Alaskan cruises. We look forward to welcoming CICE 2014 delegates to Vancouver in August 2014!

More information is available online at www.cice2014.ca or by contacting cice2014@ucalgary.ca ABSTRACTS ARE DUE 15 JULY 2013

FRP INTERNATIONAL

the official newsletter of the International Institute for FRP in Construction

were both critical design conditions for the 63 m long cable-stayed span. The structure was built of patented interlocking pultruded planks and connectors bonded together on site. The 113 m long deck is continuous over the main span and both back spans. The bridge was sufficiently light (the towers weight only 2.5 tonnes and the 2.1 m wide deck weighs 150 kg/m) that it was constructed and launched within eight weeks using a typical crew of six students and no crane. Completed in October 1992 only a year after inception of the project, the bridge almost immediately experienced the worst flooding and winds ever experienced in the area. Twenty years on, The structure remains iconic to the FRP industry and is garnering renewed interest as the subject studies on FRP durability.

20th Anniversary of FRP International 10th Anniversary of IIFC


2013 marks the 20th volume of FRP International and the 10th anniversary of the founding of IIFC (FRP International restarted with Vol. 1 when it became the official newsletter of IIFC). In its first 20 years, the 56 issues of FRP International have contained 194 research articles and 283 case studies or product reports. Articles have originated from 29 countries. Interestingly, articles focusing on external FRP reinforcement have outnumbered those addressing either internal FRP reinforcement or FRP structures and shapes by about 2 to 1. A complete index of all FRP International articles is maintained on the IIFC website: www.iifc-hq.org. Considering the milestone anniversaries of both FRP International and IIFC, over the course of this year we are featuring a few items from twenty and ten years ago... The use of FRP in construction has come a long way in a very short time. Why it only seems like yesterday...

Twenty Years Ago


The Summer 1993 (Vol. 1 No. 3) FRP International was introduced by Mr. Peter Head, founding director of Maunsell Structural Plastics. By 1993, Mr. Head had already more than decades experience integrating composite materials in the construction industry. This experience culminated in 1992 with the design and construction of then, the longest GFRP bridge in the world, the Aberfeldy Golf Club footbridge (also featured in Vol. 1, No.1). Limited funds were available for construction and maintenance and a highly optimised design, using polyester GFRP decks and towers, was adopted allowing the bridge to be assembled on economical foundations using student labour from the University of Dundee. The bridge was designed using a limit-states design approach supported by static and dynamic finite element analyses. Extreme wind and flooding loads

FRP International Vol. 1 No. 3 also features brief articles on a large variety of AFRP, GFRP and CFRP internal reinforcing products; although perhaps the highlight is an article by a young faculty member, Prof. Lawrence Bank (the accompanying photo of a twentyyear younger Prof. Bank is certainly worth logging into the IIFC website for). Prof. Bank notes that glass and composite material technology could one day replace steel reinforcement in concrete bridges. If the material proves successful, it could be an asset for the construction industry. It seems that Larry was on to something.

Ten Years Ago


Ten years later, the Summer 2004 (Vol. 1 No. 2) FRP International featured reports of the application of FRP around the world. Considering Prof. Banks prophetic comments a decade earlier, the progress was substantial. Articles in the summer of 2004 report on national standards and/or guidelines for FRP repair or FRP internal reinforcement issued in Canada, China, Europe, the UK and USA; all published in the years between 2000 and 2004. What a difference a decade makes.

FRP International Vol. 10 No. 3

thehappypontist.blogspot.com

This article describes recent research conducted at the University of Minho, the host institution of FRPRCS-11.

Flexural and Shear Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Elements


Dr. Glucia Maria Dalfr, ISISE, University of Minho, Portugal Prof. Joaquim Barros, ISISE, University of Minho, Portugal; barros@civil.uminho.pt This work focuses on research carried out on the use of the near surface mounted (NSM) technique to increase the flexural capacity of statically indeterminate reinforced concrete (RC) slabs or shallow beams, and the use of embedded through-section (ETS) bars for shear strengthening of these structures. NSM technique to increase the load carrying capacity of continuous RC slab strips Experimental program The potential of the NSM technique for increasing the load carrying capacity of two-span continuous RC slab strips was explored. Carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates of rectangular cross section were used. The experimental program was composed of seventeen 5875 mm long RC slabs strips having section dimensions 375 x 120 mm strengthened with NSMCFRP laminates, grouped in two series that were different in terms of their strengthening configuration: the H series, were strengthened with NSM-CFRP applied in the hogging region only; and the HS series in which NSM CFRP is applied in both the hogging and sagging regions. Slab specimen configuration and identification is summarised in Table 1. Figure 1 shows the slab test configuration. Table 1. Specimen identification.
Specimen SL15 SL30 SL45-H & HS SL15s25-H SL15s25-HS SL15s50-H SL30s25-H SL30s25-HS SL30s50-H SL30s50-HS SL45s25-H SL45s25-HS SL45s50-H SL45s50-HS moment redistribution () 15% 30% 45% 15% 15% 15% 30% 30% 30% 30% 45% 45% 45% 45% NSMCFRP provided none none none H H&S H H H&S H H&S H H&S H H&S target strength increase 25% 25% 50% 25% 25% 50% 50% 25% 25% 50% 50% strength increase observed 8.1% 36.1% 19.8% 5.9% 29.8% 9.2% 49.4% 2.9% 24.4% 8.5% 37.2%

The amount and disposition of the steel bars were designed to assure moment redistribution percentages of 15%, 30% and 45%. The NSM-CFRP systems applied were designed for increases in load carrying capacity of 25% and 50% over the control slabs.

Figure 1. Test configuration. From the results obtained, shown in Table 1, it was verified that the strengthening configurations composed of NSM-CFRP applied only in the hogging region (H) did not attain the target increases of the load carrying capacity. In fact, when the CFRP laminates were applied in the hogging region, an increase of the load carrying capacity of between only 3 and 20% was achieved. When NSM-CFRP was applied in both sagging and hogging regions (HS), an increase of the load carrying capacity was markedly greater and generally achieved the target capacity (Table 1). Therefore, to increase significantly the load carrying capacity of the RC slabs, the sagging zones need also to be strengthened. Figure 2 presents the load-midspan deflection of the slab strips SL15-H and SL15-HS. As seen in Figure 2, the NSM-CFRP strengthening configuration provided a significant increase of the load carrying during the second phase of the test loading process. A lower-than-predicted moment redistribution () was observed in the slabs strengthened only in the hogging region. For this strengthening configuration, decreases with an increase of the CFRP percentage. However, adopting a flexural strengthening strategy composed of NSM-CFRP applied in both hogging and sagging regions, resulted in the target values for being attained; additionally, in this case, the influence of the percentage of CFRP was marginal on . A detailed description of this experimental program is found in Dalfr (2013).

FRP International Vol. 10 No. 3

90 80

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Average Load, F (kN)

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20
82803 F(522) 60541 82804 19906 F(123) 18897 3468

NSM-CFRP, respectively; and Es and Ef are the Youngs Modulus of the longitudinal steel bars and NSM-CFRP, respectively. The load carrying capacity of the strengthened slabs increases with the equivalent reinforcement ratio applied in the sagging and hogging regions (Ss,eq and Hs,eq, respectively), although the increase is more pronounced with Ss,eq, especially up to the formation of 1.4 0.8 hinge 0.9 in the 1.0 1.1 region. 1.2 1.3 1.4 the plastic hogging 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4
S H 4 MRI = 10.733(s.eq /s.eq ) - 10.696

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SL15 - H SL15s25 - H SL15s50 - H


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3 2

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E A J O

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70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20
82803 F(522) 60541 82804 19906 F(123) 18897 3468

1 0

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L H D
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G K B

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MRI = 3.7164(s.eq/s.eq ) - 4.5348

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MRI

E L C D H PK GB A J F O

I M N

Figure 2. Load-midspan deflection of the slab strips Numerical simulations For assessing the predictive performance of a FEM-based computer program for the simulation of the behaviour of these types of structures, the experimental tests were simulated by considering the nonlinear behaviour of the constituent materials. The numerical simulations have reproduced with high accuracy the behaviour of the tests (Dalfr 2013). A parametric study composed of 144 numerical simulations was carried out to investigate the influence of the strengthening arrangement and CFRP reinforcing ratio in terms of load carrying capacity and moment redistribution capacity of continuous RC slab strips flexurally strengthened by the NSM technique. According to the results, shown in Figure 3, the load carrying and the moment redistribution capacities strongly depend on the flexural strengthening arrangement described by the equivalent reinforcing ratio: S,eq = As/bds + (AfEf/Es)/bdf Where b is the width of the slab cross section; ds and df are the effective depth of the longitudinal steel and

1 0

-1 -2

1.1
1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5

1.2
1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7

1.3
1.8 1.8

1.4 1.5 1.6 S H 2.0 /2.1 s.eq 2.2 2.3 1.9 s.eq 2.1
1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3

1.7
2.4 2.4 2.5 2.5

1.8
2.6 2.6 2.7 2.7

b) SL30
4 3 R = 0.8835 2
MRI = 1.3659(s.eq/s.eq ) - 2.0989
S H

MRI

1 0

G P B D H LC

K O

E I N M

FJ

-1 -2 1.4

1.6

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2.0 2.2 S H s.eq/s.eq

2.4

2.6

c) SL45 Figure 3. Relationship between the moment redistribution index and Ss,eq/ Hs,eq.

FRP International Vol. 10 No. 3

The moment redistribution index (MRI) is the ratio of moment redistribution factors of the strengthened and reference slabs: MRI = streng/ref ; where is the moment redistribution ratio at the formation of the second hinge (in the sagging region). According to the results, the MRI increases with Ss,eq/ Hs,eq, and positive values (indicating that the moment redistribution of the strengthened slab is greater than its corresponding reference slab) are obtained when Ss,eq/ Hs,eq > 1.09, Ss,eq/ Hs,eq > 1.49, and Ss,eq/ Hs,eq > 2.27 for equal to 15%, 30% and 45%, respectively. Thus, the moment redistribution percentage can be estimated if Ss,eq/ Hs,eq is known. Figure 3 presents the relationship between MRI and Ss,eq/ Hs,eq for series SL15, SL30 and SL45. The results demonstrate that the use of efficient strengthening strategies can provide an adequate level of ductility and moment redistribution in statically indeterminate structures, with a considerable increase in the load carrying capacity. A flexural strengthening strategy composed of NSM-CFRP applied in both hogging and sagging regions has a deflection ductility performance similar to the corresponding RC slab. Finally, the rotational capacity of the strengthened slab strips decreases with the increase of Hs,eq, and increases with Ss,eq. In the slab strips strengthened in both hogging and sagging regions, a rotational capacity lower than the reference slabs was obtained. Analytical formulation To predict the load-deflection response up to the collapse of statically indeterminate RC structures, an analytical model was developed and its predictive performance was appraised using the data obtained in experimental programs (Dalfr 2013). The proposed approach is based on the force method of establishing a number of displacement compatibility equations that can provide the unknown variables. To determine the tangential flexural stiffness in these equations, moment-curvature relationships are determined for the cross sections representative of the structure. This model can be easily implemented in a design environment, and is applicable to statically determinate or indeterminate RC structures strengthened with the NSM or externally bonded (EB) reinforcement techniques. The predictive performance of the model was appraised by simulating the slab strips tested in the experimental program. The results, shown in Figure 4, showed that the developed numerical strategy is capable of capturing with enough accuracy the relevant features observed experimentally.

90 80 70
SL15-H F(522) F(123) Analytical Model

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SL15s25-H F(522) F(123) Analytical Model

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b) SL15s25-H Figure 4. Relationship between applied load and deflections at spans of the slab strips. ETS technique for shear strengthening RC elements The effectiveness of the NSM technique can be compromised by the detachment of the concrete cover that includes the NSM-CFRP laminates and by formation of shear cracks in the hogging region of the flexurally strengthened elements (Figure 5). Moreover, in some cases, the failure mode shifts from ductile flexural failure to brittle shear failure following flexural strengthening. Shear failure of the retrofitted system must be avoided, since this failure is often brittle and occurs with little or no visible warnings. In this context the Embedded ThroughSection (ETS) was applied for the shear strengthening of RC beams.

FRP International Vol. 10 No. 3

a) SL45s25-HS

a) reference slab; F = 203.4 kN

b) SL45s50-HS Figure 5. Failure mode of strengthened slab strips. To assess the contribution of the bond mechanism of the ETS bars in the context of shear strengthening, and to better select the type of strengthening bars and adhesive materials, a comprehensive pull-out program was firstly executed (Dalfr 2013). Based on the results of this, steel bars and epoxy-based adhesive were selected for an ETS shear strengthening program with RC beams. The influence of the following parameters on the ETS shear strengthening effectiveness was investigated: spacing of the existing steel stirrups (225 and 300 mm), spacing (225 and 300 mm) and inclination (vertical and 45-degree) of the strengthening bars, and width of the cross section of the beam. The results obtained showed that, for the same shear strengthening ratio, the ETS technique provides increased levels of load carrying and deflection capacities, higher than those attained by FRP-based shear strengthening techniques (Dalfr 2013). An example of crack patterns and failure loads of ETSstrengthened slab strips is shown in Figure 6. According to the results, the ETS technique can be used to avoid the occurrence of shear failure in RC beams. Furthermore, the ETS technique uses low cost steel bars bonded to concrete with a cement based matrix that incorporates a small percentage of resin based-component. Since ETS steel bars have a relatively thick concrete cover, corrosion and injuries due to vandalism acts are not a concern. [copy edited by Kent A. Harries] Reference G. M. Dalfr, Flexural and shear strengthening of RC elements, PhD Thesis, University of Minho, Portugal (2013).

b) steel stirrups at 90o and spacing of 300mm; F = 232.3 kN

c) ETS bars at 90o and spacing of 300mm; F = 238.9 kN

d) ETS bars at 45o and spacing of 300mm; F = 336.2 kN Figure 6. Crack pattern and failure load.

CICE 2012 Proceedings available on IIFC website


The complete Proceedings of CICE 2012 are now available on the IIFC website: www.iifc-hq.org. All proceedings of official IIFC conferences presently archived on the IIFC website are: CICE 2012, Rome, Italy, 13-15 June 2012 CICE 2010, Beijing, China, 27-29 September 2010 APFIS 2009, Seoul, Korea, 9-11 December 2009 CICE 2008, Zurich, Switzerland, 22-24 July 2008 APFIS 2007, Hong Kong, 12-14 December 2007 CICE 2006, Miami, USA, 13-15 December 2006 BBFS 2005, Hong Kong, 7-9 December 2005

FRP International Vol. 10 No. 3

This article was prepared based upon a keynote lecture delivered at CECOM 2012 in Krakow, Poland, 22-23 November 2012.

slots cut into the concrete cover of the element to be strengthened. Strengthening with CFRP products requires special adhesives for bonding to the concrete substrate. In general, these are classified into two categories: Epoxy-based resin adhesives - these may be bicomponent viscous mixtures for adhering strips and Lshaped elements or saturants for impregnating for sheets and fabrics; Mineral adhesive mortars or resin adhesives with inorganic binder these are mainly used for sheets, fabrics and grids. In order to reduce the stress concentration between the adhesive and the concrete substrate, typical for stiff epoxy adhesive layers, new research on CFRP-toconcrete bond behaviour using flexible polymer adhesives has been proposed. Such a stress reduction in the bond layer protects the concrete substrate from brittle local failure due to the presence of a shear stress singularity which may result in abrupt CFRP debonding in the concrete cover layer. Due to the stress reduction, a significant increase in the ultimate load of the strengthening system is observed, leading to an increase in effectiveness of the strengthening system. Technological economy and material solutions versus

Structural Strengthening With CFRP Products What We Know and What We Dont Know
Dr. Renata Kotynia, Lodz University of Technology, Poland; renata.kotynia@p.lodz.pl Prof. Wojciech Radomski, Lodz University of Technology and Warsaw University of Technology, Poland; w.radomski@il.pw.edu.pl Structural strengthening using CFRP systems belongs to the most modern and advanced methods of structural strengthening. Beginning from 1991, when the method was first used to strengthen the Ibach Bridge in the canton of Lucerne, Switzerland, considerable development of structural FRP application has occurred all over the world. CFRP products are used for structural strengthening of concrete, masonry, steel and timber structures. However, a great majority of their applications involve concrete structures. Therefore, this article focuses mainly on strengthening of concrete structures. The authors summarize the current Polish state-ofknowledge and identify several problems requiring further investigation. There is a relatively great variety of CFRP products available for structural strengthening. The most popular examples applied for strengthening concrete structures are unidirectional laminates, bars, sheets, Lshaped elements and bidirectional fabrics and meshes. External CFRP tendons have been rarely used for structural strengthening in Poland so far. CFRP laminates and sheets are commonly used both for flexural and shear strengthening of reinforced concrete members such as beams and slabs; while in the case of columns, their strengthening for confinement is made by wrapping flexible CFRP fabrics, sheets or meshes. In general, CFRP structural strengthening systems can be classified into following groups: Externally bonded (EB) reinforcement the CFRP products are bonded with special adhesives to the external surface of RC members. The CFRP (mainly strips or sheets) can be bonded without or with prestressing (passive or active system, respectively) as well as without or with mechanical anchors; Near surface mounted (NSM) reinforcement the CFRP products, mainly strips or bars, are bonded into

Technology and material solutions should be considered in their economic context. Therefore, it is justified to try to formulate criteria for the proper choice of the CFRP strengthening solutions. In the case of strengthening for flexure, the choice is rather limited: CFRP strips and sheets are commonly used for EB (in passive or active form) or NSM (passive) as described in Table 1. In the case of strengthening for shear, the choice is relatively wider: passive strips, sheets, fabrics and L-shaped elements can be used. Prestressed CFRP shear strengthening, according to the authors knowledge, has not been applied. Strengthening for confinement also has a limited choice of sheets and fabrics which may be wrapped around the columns in passive or slightly prestressed form. It is obvious that the strengthening costs are variable and highly dependent on the strengthening configuration. The other parameter that should be considered in the strengthening decision is the substrate strength to which the FRP product is to be bonded. Above all, pulloff tests are necessary to determine the tensile strength of the substrate.

FRP International Vol. 10 No. 3

Economic analysis should be performed including not only the direct costs but also so-called the social costs. In other words, the time of strengthening operations should be considered as a very important parameter. It should be emphasized that the basic advantage of the use of passive CFRP strips for flexural strengthening is their very short installation time compared to other equivalent strengthening methods such as bonding thin steel plates. It is worth recalling that when the Ibach Bridge was strengthened in 1991, the unit CFRP material cost was 40-50 times higher than the unit price of steel. However, instead of 175 kg of steel, 6.2 kg of CFRP strips were used, making the comparable material cost for CFRP only 160% greater. Taking into account the considerably shorter installation time, it can be concluded that this innovative method has been economically competitive from its very inception! Today, CFRP prices have fallen considerably in relation to steel.

It should be also pointed out that the use of passive CFRP strips for flexural strengthening does not permit their very high tensile strengths to be fully utilised. Strength utilisation is typically only 30-40%. Considering a high unit cost, this further affects the apparent economy of CFRP strengthening techniques. However, again considering savings in installation and deployment, this opinion also seems questionable. On the other hand, taking advantage of the high tensile strength of CFRP is economically and technically justified. More recently, several practically useful methods of prestressing CFRP have been developed and implemented. Even though prestressing CFRP improves effectiveness of the material for flexural strengthening and enables higher CFRP strength utilisation, the prestressing technique is more time consuming and results in higher costs of installation and maintenance mainly due to the anchorage systems required. Therefore, the use of CFRP prestressing systems for flexural strengthening requires detailed

Table 1. Technical and economical factors for preliminary selection of CFRP strengthening methods for RC structures.
Required strengthening A.1 Low (<15% strength increase) A.2 Medium (15-30% strength increase) A.3 High (>30% strength increase Strengthening Relative cost with comments effectiveness A. Flexural strengthening of RC beams and slabs Low proper surface preparation of the RC member is EB - passive strips / sheets High required Low longitudinal grooves may be made without NSM - passive strips Very high surface preparation Medium more than one CFRP ply/ layer may be EB - as in case A.1 Medium required NSM - as in case A.1 High Low as in case A.1 Prestressed CFRP strips used to High - strengthening operations are more complex Very high reduce passive strips used compared to passive strengthening EB - as in case A.1 Low Very high more CFRP strips are needed NSM - as in case A.1 Medium Medium more CFRP strips are needed Prestressed CFRP strips Very High High as in case A.2 B. Strengthening for shear EB side bonding passive Low some problems occur due to geometric limitation Low strips/sheets of effective bond lengths of CFRP strips EB bonding passive L-shaped strips Medium bonding of U and L-shaped elements requires Medium or Ushaped sheets preparation of corners EB - passive sheets/fabrics wrapping High Medium around the entire cross-section EB - strips, sheets, fabrics or U or LMedium Medium shaped elements - as in case B.1 NSM passive strips placed into High Medium vertical or inclined grooves are required grooves on sides of the beam EB passive sheets/fabrics wrapping High more CFRP layers are needed; interference with High around the entire cross-section slabs can increase complexity significantly C. Strengthening for compression (axial/eccentric load) EB - wrapping of columns with High Low if one CFRP layer is adequate passive sheets or fabrics EB - as in case C.1 High Medium more CFRP layers are needed EB - wrapping of columns with High strengthening operations are more complex Very high prestressed sheets or fabrics compared to passive strengthening Possible solution

B.1 Low

B.2 Medium B.3 - High C.1 Low C.2 Medium C.3 High

FRP International Vol. 10 No. 3

Table 2. Future research issues in CFRP application.


Research issue R.I.1. Thermal properties of separate CFRP products and strengthening systems R.I.2. New generation of CFRP materials with properties more compatible with the those of the strengthened structures R.I. 3. Optimise properties of adhesives Comments R.I. Materials issues The problem is understood in quantitative terms, particularly associated with the negative coefficient of thermal expansion of CFRP and AFRPs. There is very limited knowledge the qualitative aspect and the influence of thermal factors on the long-time durability of the strengthening system when a large temperature gradient occurs. CFRP products generally have higher characteristic strength and stiffness than the strengthened structural members. Therefore, strengthening with CFRP products, both in passive and active form, leads to a redistribution of internal forces in the structure. This can be a local or global effect. It is necessary to analyze the influence of the strengthening system used on this redistribution (e.g., too strong local strengthening can lead to weakness of other parts of the structure compared to the original situation). There are a great variety of adhesives available to bond CFRP products to strengthened structures. Normally, the adhesives are provided as part of the CFRP strengthening system. However, the properties, particularly the stiffness, of the adhesives can vary significantly, resulting in different effectiveness of strengthening. Therefore, criteria for optimal selection of the adhesive is of prime interest for practitioners R.II. Strengthening system issues It is known that the CFRP products themselves show high fatigue resistance. However, in situ, fatigue behaviour has been shown to vary considerably, largely associated with the adhesive performance. Additionally, very little data is available for fatigue behaviour in low or high temperature environments; an issue critical for bridge structures. It known that the fire resistance of the CFRP systems is relatively low; again largely associated with the adhesive systems used. Protection of CFRP systems is an item of key importance for the broad acceptance of these systems. R.III. Strengthening effectiveness and durability In some strengthening solutions the prestressed CFRP strips are not bonded to the structural members (external tendons analogous to post-tensioning). Such solutions reduce cost and complexity. However issues of long-term performance, especially creep and relaxation remain unaddressed. A great majority of research and applications address the strengthening of beams. Limited information is available on the strengthening effectiveness of plate or shell elements. The required two-dimensional strengthening and the interaction of orthogonal layers of CFRP must be addressed.

R.II.1. Fatigue resistance

R.II.2. Fire resistance

R.III.1. Active (prestressed) strengthening R.III.2. Strengthening of plates and shells

technical and economic analysis, with consideration of other general factors. These are described in Table 1 along with a commentary that may be useful for preliminary analysis and selection of strengthening methods. A few additional comments regarding Table 1 are appropriate: i) The required level of structural strengthening should be determined based on the real condition of (e.g.: the loss of its original characteristics), and load demand (e.g.: strength and stiffness) on the structure. Moreover, it should be known whether the strengthening is required to restore the original structural characteristics or to upgrade these because of new service functions of the structure. ii) Effectiveness of strengthening can be different depending on the application method. However, all methods have technical and economic limits. In some cases, regardless of approach, structural members may not be reasonably repaired and must be replaced. iii) The costs presented in Table 1 are relative and concern strengthening with CFRP systems only.

Research problems It is common that parallel to the development of practical applications of any engineering method, new issues appear requiring investigation and solution. This is no less true with CFRP strengthening techniques. The authors contend that the current state-of-art for CFRP strengthening is sufficient for the majority of practical applications. This is the baseline of what we know. Nonetheless, research based on experimental and theoretical investigations and practical experience indicated many issues requiring further analysis and research. There are many important problems about which we do not know. Similarly, we contend that there remain issues that we do not know what we do not know. Some of the most important of these issues are presented in Table 2, presenting the authors subjective opinion on these matters. [copy edited by Kent A. Harries]

FRP International Vol. 10 No. 3

Innovative Research and Products Behaviour of Pultruded GFRP Compression Members


Mr. Daniel C.T. Cardoso, University of Pittsburgh and Federal University of Rio de Janeiro Dr. Kent A. Harries, University of Pittsburgh, USA kharries@pitt.edu Dr. Eduardo de M. Batista, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Although significant efforts are underway worldwide to develop reliable standards for the design of glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) pultruded structural members, there remain a number of important gaps in the knowledge and understanding of the behaviour of these members. The majority of previous studies have addressed I-shaped sections comprised of slender flange plates, from which the following conclusions have been obtained: short column compressive strength is governed by local buckling; long columns fail by global buckling; and intermediate columns exhibit interaction between local and global buckling. A very limited number of works have investigated the behavior of square tube columns and none have established a relationship between wall slenderness and failure modes, an issue critical to the understanding of the overall column behavior.
2.5 I-shaped sections tested by others tubes tested by others Present study - square tubes

combinations of column and wall slenderness, defined, respectively, as:

l min Fcr Fcr , Fc Fcr l p Fc Fcr

Where Fcr is the critical global buckling stress, Fcr is the critical local buckling stress and Fc is the material strength. Figure 1 presents a summary of recent experimental works plotted according to and p, from which it can be observed that the present study covers an important area with limited available data. The experimental program was carried out in four stages: i) cataloguing cross-section geometry; ii) material characterization; iii) stub column tests; and iv) column concentric compression tests. From these stages, actual dimensions and properties to be used for accurate correlation between theory and experiments were obtained, critical loads and compressive strengths were captured, overall column behavior, including interactions between crushing, local and global buckling and post-buckling, were observed and column and wall imperfections were estimated. Figure 2 shows photographs from stub and column tests and failure patterns observed.

Relative Plate Slenderness, lp

2.0

1.5
intermediate

slender

1.0

a) stub test showing local buckling

b) crushing at column end and midheight

compact

0.5

0.0 0.0

short 0.5

intermediate

long 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

1.0

Relative Column Slenderness, l

Figure 1. Summary of recent experimental works plotted according to wall and column slenderness. Motivated by filling these gaps, an experimental program on the behavior of GFRP columns was undertaken at the Watkins-Haggart Structural Engineering Laboratory at the University of Pittsburgh. The study focused on square tube columns having different sections and lengths, resulting in

c) column test d) column test showing global showing buckling buckling interaction Figure 2. Stub and column tests.

FRP International Vol. 10 No. 3

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In the study, the critical loads were experimentally obtained using Southwell plots and a very good agreement between theory and experiments was obtained. The observed failure modes were mapped according to wall and column slenderness (Figure 3). From this, the following conclusions were drawn: i) long columns exhibited large lateral deflection, regardless of wall slenderness; ii) short columns failed by either crushing or local buckling followed by crushing; iii) buckling interaction followed by crushing was observed for intermediate columns with p > 1; and iv) crushing following global buckling was observed for intermediate columns with p < 1. In the same Figure, colors indicate ranges of experimentally observed reduction factors , defined as the ratio of observed ultimate strength to the predicted perfect column capacity. It can be seen that the greatest strength reductions were observed for intermediate columns comprised of intermediate plates, a combination that has received little previous attention, despite being critical for pultruded tubular members.
2.5 crushing at column end column buckling and crushing column buckling plate buckling and crushing plate and column buckling interaction
slender

Innovative Research and Products Innovative Pedestrian Bridge Made of Textile-Reinforced Concrete
Mr. Roland Karle, Groz-Beckert KG, Germany roland.karle@groz-beckert.com Prof. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hegger, RWTH Aachen University, Germany imb@imb.rwth-aachen.de Textile-reinforced concrete (TRC) uses mesh-like reinforcement structures, which are made of alkaliresistant glass or carbon filaments. Due to the noncorrodible properties of the textiles, the concrete cover can be reduced to some millimeters. In contrast to reinforced concrete structures, which need more than 40 mm for outdoor applications, slender and lightweight concrete constructions can be realized. One example is the pedestrian bridge in Albstadt, Germany, which has a TRC superstructure. The 97 m long bridge is subdivided in six precast elements each having a length of 17.2m. With a span of L = 15 m and a construction height of only H = 435 mm, an extremely slender construction was achieved (H:L = 1:34). Next to the textile reinforcements, single-strand cables and GFRP-bars were arranged in the webs of the T-beam. Due to a concrete cover of only 15 mm, savings of 40% in weight and a reduction of 30% of carbon dioxide emissions allowing for a greener construction with economic advantages.

Relative Plate Slenderness lp

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

compact

intermediate

0.0 0.0

short
0.5

intermediate
1.0

long
1.5

1.0 > 0.9 0.9 > 0.8 0.8 > 0.7 0.7 > 0.5 2.0 2.5

Relative Column Slenderness l

Figure 3. Column failure modes and capacity reduction factors based on column and plate slenderness. Finally, it is remarked that the majority of previous studies have focused on I-shaped columns comprised of slender plates (see Fig. 1); these are not as critical and do not represent the greatest reductions in theoretical capacity. Thus, it is recommended that additional studies be carried out focusing on tubular column sections with both column and wall slenderness, and p, classified as intermediate. Ongoing research is expanding this study and including other shapes in the intermediate slenderness category.

TRC pedestrian bridge in Albstadt, Germany.

FRP International Vol. 10 No. 3

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ASCE Journal of Composites for Construction


The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Journal of Composites for Construction (JCC) is published with the support of IIFC. As a service to IIFC members and through an agreement with ASCE, FRP International provides an index of ASCE JCC. The ASCE JCC may be found at the following website: http://ascelibrary.org/cco/ ASCE JCC subscribers and those with institutional access are able to obtain full text versions of all papers. Preview articles are also available at this site. Papers may be submitted to ASCE JCC through the following link: http://www.editorialmanager.com/jrncceng/ ASCE Journal of Composites for Construction , Volume 17, No. 2, pp 167-291. April 2013. Flexural Behavior of Concrete Beams Internally Prestressed with Unbonded Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Tendons S. Heo, S. Shin, and C. Lee
______________

New Method of Strengthening Reinforced Concrete Square Columns by Circularizing and Wrapping with Fiber-Reinforced Polymer or Steel Straps Muhammad N. S. Hadi, Thong M. Pham, and Xu Lei
______________

Full-Scale Testing of CFRP-Strengthened Reinforced Concrete Columns Katarina Gajdosova and Juraj Bilcik
______________

Slender

Structural Behavior of Arch Models Strengthened Using Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Strips of Different Lengths Luisa Rovero, Francesco Focacci, and Gianfranco Stipo
______________

Retrofitting Earthquake-Damaged RC Structural Walls with Openings by Externally Bonded FRP Strips and Sheets Bing Li, Kai Qian, and Cao Thanh Ngoc Tran
______________

Behavior of Hybrid FRP-Concrete-Steel Double-Skin Tubular Columns with a Square Outer Tube and a Circular Inner Tube Subjected to Axial Compression T. Yu and J. G. Teng
______________

Concrete-Filled FRP Tubes: Manufacture and Testing of New Forms Designed for Improved Performance Togay Ozbakkaloglu
______________

ASCE Journal of Composites for Construction , Volume 17, No. 3, pp 293-419. June 2013. Design of RC Columns Using Glass FRP Reinforcement Hany Jawaheri Zadeh and Antonio Nanni
______________

Laboratory Characterization and Evaluation of Durability Performance of New Polyester and Vinylester E-glass GFRP Dowels for Jointed Concrete Pavement Mathieu Montaigu, Mathieu Robert, Ehab A. Ahmed, and Brahim Benmokrane
______________

Effect of Prestressing on the Performance of GFRPReinforced Concrete Slab Bridge Strips Martin Nol and Khaled Soudki
______________

Axial Load Behavior of Concrete Columns Confined with GFRP Spirals Chris P. Pantelides, Michael E. Gibbons, and Lawrence D. Reaveley
______________

Flexural Behavior of Unbonded Posttensioned Concrete Members Strengthened Using External FRP Composites F. El Meski and M. Harajli
______________

Bond Strength of Lap-Spliced GFRP Bars in Concrete Beams M. Reza Esfahani, Mehrollah Rakhshanimehr, and S. Roohollah Mousavi
______________

Experimental Study on the Flexural Behavior of RC Beams Strengthened with Steel-Wire Continuous Basalt Fiber Composite Plates Gang Wu, Yi-Hua Zeng, Zhi-Shen Wu, and Wu-Qiang Feng
______________

Anchorage System to Prestress FRP Laminates for Flexural Strengthening of Steel-Concrete Composite Girders Raafat El-Hacha and Mohamed Y. E. Aly
______________

Bond-Slip Model for FRP Laminates Externally Bonded to Concrete at Elevated Temperature Jian-Guo Dai, W. Y. Gao, and J. G. Teng
______________

Mechanical Behavior of FRP-Strengthened Concrete Columns Subjected to Concentric and Eccentric Compression Loading Xiaobin Song, Xianglin Gu, Yupeng Li, Tao Chen, and Weiping Zhang
______________

Combination of Bamboo Filling and FRP Wrapping to Strengthen Steel Members in Compression Peng Feng, Yanhua Zhang, Yu Bai, and Lieping Ye

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Volume 17, No. 3, pp 293-419. June 2013, continued Statistical Characterization of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with FRP Sheets Yail J. Kim and Kent A. Harries
______________

Congratulations to Structural Technologies, LLC.


Their 2012 IIFC Photo Competition winning entry will be featured on the cover the ASCE Journal of Composites for Construction throughout 2013.

Numerical Investigation on the Hysteretic Behavior of RC Joints Retrofitted with Different CFRP Configurations A. Dalalbashi, A. Eslami, and H. R. Ronagh
______________

Functionality of Damaged Steel Truss Systems Strengthened with Posttensioned CFRP Tendon Garrett Brunell and Yail J. Kim
______________

Structural Optimization of FRP Web Core Decks Ishan Srivastava, Tushar Kanti Dey, Anupam Chakrabarti, and Pradeep Bhargava
______________

Progressive Failure and Ductility of FRP Composites for Construction: Review Lawrence C. Bank
______________

Installation of 11,000 m2 of CFRP sheets in a 140 m high chimney for seismic flexural strengthening.

IIFC members awarded ACI Chester Paul Siess Award for Excellence in Structural Research
Prof Luke Bisby and Dr Tim Stratford, along with Edinburgh University Master of Engineering students Jason Barrington and David Dickson, were recently awarded the American Concrete Institute's 2012 Chester Paul Siess Award for Excellence in Structural Research. This honor was bestowed by the ACI Board of Direction at its fall 2012 meeting for their coauthored paper that investigates the performance of FRP-wrapped square and rectangular columns. This paper is published in the Proceedings of the 10th International Research Symposium on Fiber Reinforced Polymers for Reinforced Concrete Structures (FRPRCS-10), which were also published as ACI Special Publication SP-275. Formal announcement of the award was made at the Opening Session and Awards Program of the ACI Spring 2013 Convention, Sunday, 14 April 2013 in Minneapolis, MN. The paper abstract is below:

Luke Bisby and Jason Barrington (right) receiving Chester Seiss Award from ACI President President James K. Wight (left) (photo courtesy of the American Concrete Institute) Strain Development and Hoop Strain Efficiency in FRP Confined Square Columns Abstract: The performance of FRP-wrapped square/rectangular columns depends on their corner radius, with larger corner radii resulting in superior confinement. However, the specific impacts of corner radius on the development of hoop strains in the FRP wraps are not well known. Most existing models for square FRP confined columns only indirectly consider the impacts of corner radius by inserting shape factors into empirically calibrated models based on circular FRP confined columns. This approach cannot rationally account for the phenomena resulting from corner effects. This paper presents an investigation into the mechanics of square FRP confined concrete columns. It is shown that accounting for corner radius requires the inclusion of at least two modification factors: (1) a shape factor which accounts for the area of effectively confined concrete as well as the columns side aspect ratio, and (2) a variable strain efficiency factor which accounts for the adverse effects of decreasing corner radius. For additional information please email Luke.Bisby@ed.ac.uk or Tim.Stratford@ed.ac.uk.

FRP International Vol. 10 No. 3

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Recent Dissertations
Behavior and Modeling of Infill Masonry Walls Strengthened with FRP using Various End Anchorages Dillon Lunn, PhD (2012) North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA Advisor: Prof. Sami Rizkalla http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/resolver/1840.16/8270 Many existing unreinforced masonry infill walls are vulnerable to extreme out-of-plane loading such as the differential pressure caused by a tornado. Out-of-plane collapse of these structures is often catastrophic and could lead to severe property damage and loss of life. Retrofitting masonry infill walls with Fiber-reinforced Polymers (FRP) has recently been considered to increase strength and ductility and therefore reduce the risk of collapse under extreme loading conditions. Previous research has shown the potential for premature failure of the FRP strengthening system within the anchorage region where the FRP is connected to the supporting structure, which reduces the effectiveness of the strengthening system. The objective of this research program is to characterize the influence of end anchorage on the behavior of masonry infill walls strengthened with FRP materials subjected to out-of-plane loading through both experimental and analytical study and to provide a rational approach for the design of FRP-strengthening systems for masonry infill walls. The experimental program comprised twelve full-scale specimens consisting of two reinforced concrete (RC) caps (which simulate the supporting RC elements of a building superstructure) that were in-filled with solid concrete brick masonry and strengthened with FRP. The specimens were loaded by out-of-plane uniformly distributed pressure in cycles up to failure. The parameters investigated were the type of FRP material and the type of end anchorage. A finite element analysis (FEA) was conducted to predict the upper and lower bounds of the response, understand the effects of various design parameters, and characterize the failure mechanisms. A rational approach was developed based on four potential mechanisms: (1) arching, (2) shear sliding, (3) debonding of the FRP in the overlap region and (4) anchorage failure. Predictions based on the proposed rational approach agreed well with the measured values from this thesis as well as previous testing by the author of two-way infill walls and therefore it can

be used effectively for the design of both the FRPstrengthening system and the end anchorage.

FRP-strengthened infill masonry wall using CFRP anchors, near failure. ______ IIFC encourages the announcement of recently completed theses and dissertations in FRP International. Announcements should conform to the format shown and be sent directly to the editor at kharries@pitt.edu.

FRP International Vol. 10 No. 3

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Invitation to APFIS 2013


Profs Riadh Al-Mahaidi, Xiao-Ling Zhao and Scott Smith Co-Chairs of APFIS 2013 On behalf of the Asia-Pacific Conference on FRP in Structures (APFIS2013) Committee, it gives us great pleasure to invite all to APFIS 2013 in Melbourne, Australia from 13 to 15 December 2013.

Melbourne is home to the Westgate Bridge. The citys iconic structure is also of primary importance to the national transportation network. The 38 approach spans of the bridge were recently retrofitted with FRP, making it the worlds largest FRP retrofitting project [see FRP International, Vol. 8, No. 3; available online at www.iifc-hq.org]. The bridge currently services approximately 160,000 vehicles per day compared with only 40,000 vehicles when it opened 30 years ago, with future predictions indicating escalating demands expected. The increased traffic volume is accommodated by the introduction of two additional lanes through the main carriageway to carry peak hour traffic. The retrofitting comprised of nearly 40 km of carbon fibre laminates along with 11,000 sq. m of carbon fibre fabric applied to the structure.

Melbourne is a vibrant community, typical of many cities in Australia. It has a well-developed infrastructure and a network of roads and bridges which serve a growing demand from users, particularly freight and road-users. Its bridge engineers, who are faced with many maintenance and rehabilitation challenges, will benefit greatly from exposure to the experience and knowledge of international FRP researchers and practitioners. APFIS 2013 promises to be intellectually engaging and socially enjoyable. The following six keynote speakers will provide perspectives beyond those normally covered within the APFIS series. They come from varying backgrounds and therefore promise to be thought provoking. Prof .Zdenk Baant, Northwestern University, USA Dr. Geoff Taplin, AECOM, Australia Prof. Hui LI, Harbin Institute of Technology, China Prof. Yiu-Wing Mai, University of Sydney, Australia Prof. Alper Ilki, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey Dr. Jian-Guo Dai, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong The conference will be held prior to the end of year summer festive season. You may therefore use this opportunity to spend time in and around Melbourne and the state of Victoria in Australia. You may also use the opportunity to travel to other parts of Australia such as Sydney, Canberra and the Gold Coast. We look forward to welcoming APFIS2013 delegates to Melbourne in December 2013.

Upcoming Conferences and Meetings


2nd Conference on Smart Monitoring, Assessment and Rehabilitation of Civil Structures, September 9-11, 2013, Istanbul, Turkey. www.smar-2013.org ACIC 2013 6th Advanced Composites in Construction, September 10-13, 2013, Belfast, UK. www.acic-conference.com Innovative Composites Summit Americas 2013, October 2-4, 2013, Boston, USA. www.jeccomposites.com. APFIS 2013 4th Asia-Pacific Conference on FRP in Structures, December 11-13, 2013, Melbourne Australia. www.apfis2013.org CICE 2014 7th International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering, August 19-22, 2014, Vancouver, Canada. www.cice2014.ca Abstracts due: July 15, 2013 CICE 2016 8th International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering, June 2016, Hong Kong.

FRP International Vol. 10 No. 3

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International Institute for FRP in Construction


Dr./Mr./Ms./Prof.
Surname

Membership Application and Renewal

IIFC Member Number (if applicable):


First/Middle Names

Job Title/Position: Employer/Company: Employer type: Address: City: Country: email: State/Prov./Pref.: homepage (optional): alternate email (optional): Postal/Zip Code: Academic Corporate Government Self-employed Retired

Education/Experience: Please attach a current resume or CV (new members only) I/we wish to join the International Institute for FRP in Construction (IIFC) as a (please tick one box) Member (US$100) Student Member (US$25) Patron Member (US$500)

Patron Membership includes two designated individuals who shall have all the privileges of IIFC membership. If applying for a Patron Membership, please nominate one additional colleague to receive the privileges of membership:
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Surname First/Middle Names

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email:
Cheques and money orders to be made payable to IIFC For Office Use Only
Date of Receipt: Membership Number: Transaction Date: Amount: Authorization No: Invoice No: Journal Entry No:

Credit Card No. Name on Credit Card Signature of Cardholder

Expiration Date CVC number

Submit to: IIFC Administrative Center c/o Queens University Department of Civil Engineering, Ellis Hall 58 University Ave. Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6, Canada Tel: (613)533-6000 (Ext. 79359) Fax: (613)533-2128 Email: treasurer@iifc-hq.org Website: www.IIFC-hq.org

By submitting this application you agree to share your contact information with fellow IIFC members and any conference/organization associated with IIFC.

FRP International Vol. 10 No. 3

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FRP INTERNATIONAL
FRP International needs your input
As IIFC grows, we are also expanding the utility and reach of FRP International. The newsletter will continue to report the activities of IIFC and focus on IIFC-sponsored conferences and meetings. Nevertheless, we also solicit short articles of all kinds: research or research-in-progress reports and letters, case studies, field applications, or anything that might interest the IIFC membership. Articles will generally run about 1000 words and be well-illustrated. Submissions may be sent directly to the editor. Additionally, please utilize FRP International as a forum to announce items of interest to the membership. Announcements of upcoming conferences, innovative research or products and abstracts from newlypublished PhD dissertations are particularly encouraged. FRP International is yours, the IIFC memberships forum. The newsletter will only be as useful and interesting as you help to make it. So, again, please become an FRP International author.

the official newsletter of the International Institute for FRP in Construction

International Institute for FRP in Construction Council


Australia R. Al-Mahaidi T. Aravinthan M. Griffith S.T. Smith Canada R. El-Hacha A. Fam China J.G. Dai P. Feng Y.F. Wu X. Xue Denmark J.W. Schmidt Egypt H.M. Seliem France E. Ferrier Germany L. De Lorenzis Iran M. Motavalli Israel A. Katz Italy G. Monti Japan Z.S. Wu S. Yamada Swinburne University of Technology University of Southern Queensland University of Adelaide Southern Cross University University of Calgary Queens University The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Tsinghua University City University of Hong Kong Tongji University Technical University of Denmark Helwan University Universit Lyon 1 Technical University of Braunschweig University of Tehran/EMPA, Switzerland Technion-Israel Institute of Technology Sapienza University of Rome Ibaraki University Toyohashi University of Technology Korea J. Sim Poland R. Kotynia Portugal J. Barros Singapore K.H. Tan Spain M.D.G. Pulido Switzerland T. Keller Turkey A. Ilki UK L.A. Bisby J.F. Chen M. Guadagnini T.J. Stratford S. Taylor USA C.E. Bakis L.C. Bank M. Dawood N.F. Grace I.E. Harik K.A. Harries F. Matta R. Seracino B. Wan Hanyang University Technical University of Lodz University of Minho National University of Singapore San Pablo University Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Istanbul Technical University University of Edinburgh Queens University Belfast University of Sheffield University of Edinburgh Queens University Belfast Pennsylvania State University City College of New York University of Houston Lawrence Technological University University of Kentucky University of Pittsburgh University of South Carolina North Carolina State University Marquette University

International Institute for FRP in Construction Advisory Committee


J.G. Teng (Chair) K.W. Neale S.H. Rizkalla L. Taerwe Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China University of Sherbrooke, Canada North Carolina State University, USA Ghent University, Belgium T.C. Triantafillou T. Ueda L.P. Ye X.L. Zhao University of Patras, Greece Hokkaido University, Japan Tsinghua University, China Monash University, Australia

NetComposites helps composites companies work together by creating powerful collaborations and networks. We achieve this through four key areas of activity: Events Consultancy Associations & Networks Training

Venue
This event will take place at Riddel Hall, just south of the main campus at Queens University Belfast, with the conference dinner being held in the prestigious Great Hall in the historic Lanyon Building. Web: www.qub.ac.uk

Advanced Composites in Construction


Highlighting the use of FRP Composites in New and Existing Structures 10th - 12th September 2013, Queens University Belfast, UK The sixth biennial Advanced Composites in Construction conference will focus on current topics within the construction industry to highlight the use of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials in new and existing all-FRP structures as well as strengthening, refurbishment and reinforcement applications in traditional infrastructure. It will bring together practicing engineers, asset managers, researchers and representatives of regulatory bodies in order to promote an active exchange of scientific and technical information on the rapidly changing scene of advanced composites in construction.

Insight
NetComposites helps composites companies work together by creating powerful collaborations and networks. We achieve this through four key areas of activity: Events Consultancy Associations & Networks Training

Call for Papers


Proposed Session Themes Proposed sessions for the conference include but are not limited to: Strengthening of concrete and masonry structures Strengthening of metallic and timber structures Internal reinforcement and prestressing Wholly polymeric structures FRP Materials and systems Long term performance and durability Damage mechanics and failure criteria Analysis and design Inspection and monitoring

For more information on NetComposites Insight as well as NetComposites Technology, Information and Store, please visit the website at www.netcomposites.com.

Abstracts Abstracts should be limited to 250 words and should include the contact details of the corresponding author and affiliation of co-authors. Abstracts may be emailed to the conference organiser, Claire Whysall at: info@acic-conference.com, before Monday 12th November 2012. Website More information can be found on the conference website at: www.acic-conference.com.

NetComposites Ltd 4A Broom Business Park Bridge Way, Chesterfield S41 9QG, UK Tel: +44 (0)1246 266244 Fax: +44 (0)1246 266249 Email: info@netcomposites.com Web: netcomposites.com

SMAR 2013 Second Conference on Smart Monitoring, Assessment and Rehabilitation of Civil Structures

SMAR 2013
Key dates
Submission of Abstracts: 30 June 2012 Abstract Acceptance Notication: 15 September 2012 Submission of Full Lengths Papers 31 January 2013 Paper Acceptance Notication 15 April 2013 Submission of Final Revised Papers 30 June 2013 Early Registration 30 April 2013 SMAR 2013 Conference 9 11 September 2013 The ofcial language of the conference is English

Call for Abstracts

SMAR 2013 Istanbul

Registration Fee
Early Bird Registration until 30 April 2013 500.00, and 250.00 for students Standard Registration after 30 April 2013 600.00, and 350.00 for students Registration fee includes: Conference proceedings hard cover including extended abstracts and CD with full papers, conference reception and conference dinner, 3-days catering, coffee breaks and lunches Accompanying persons and visitors to exhibition 200.00* *Including: Conference reception, conference dinner, 3-days catering coffee breaks and lunches Accommodations see: website: www.smar-2013.org

Scientific Tours
to be announced on Conference website: www.smar-2013.org

Conference Secretaries:
Caglar Goksu (ITU, Turkey) 34469 Maslak, Istanbul-Turkey Phone: +90 212 285 3795-9 Fax: +90 212 285 61 06 Email: secretariat@smar-2013.org Bernadette Havranek (Empa Switzerland) CH 8600 Duebendorf Phone: +41 58 765 44 33 Fax: +41 58 765 44 55 Email: secretariat@smar-2013.org

Conference website: www.smar-2013.org

Second Conference on Smart Monitoring, Assessment and Rehabilitation of Civil Structures SMAR 2013, Istanbul TR 9 11 September 2013 Istanbul Technical University in Istanbul (ITU) Conference website: www.smar-2013.org

SMAR 2013 Second Conference on Smart Monitoring, Assessment and Rehabilitation of Civil Structures

SMAR 2013 Second Conference on Smart Monitoring, Assessment and Rehabilitation of Civil Structures

SMAR 2013
Scope
The International Conference on Smart Monitoring, Assessment and Rehabilitation of Civil Structures, SMAR 2013, will provide a forum for international scientists, engineers, enterprisers and infrastructure managers to present and discuss the state-of-the-practice and recent advances in testing and monitoring technology, in structural modelling and assessment methods, and in the application of advanced materials for structural rehabilitation. The conference will provide a platform for exploring the potential of international cooperation.
SMAR 2013 is the second conference and will be sponsored jointly by the International Society for Structural Health Monitoring of Intelligent Infrastructure (ISHMII) and the International Institute of FRP in Construction (IIFC)

SMAR 2013
Conference Venue
City/Country: Dates: Venue: Istanbul / Turkey 9 11 September 2013 Suleyman Demirel Cultural Center (SDKM) Istanbul Technical University (ITU) Ayazaga Campus 34469 Maslak, Istanbul-Turkey

Conference Chairs:
Professor Alper Ilki (Istanbul Technical University, Turkey) Professor Masoud Motavalli (Empa, Switzerland)

Topics
Structural health monitoring Smart sensors Wireless sensor networks Implementation of structural monitoring Monitoring of off-shore structures and oil pipelines Monitoring of high rise buildings and bridges Advanced inspection and testing System identication and model updating Performance and damage assessment Safety evaluation and reliability forecast Damage control, repair and strengthening External strengthening using FRP composites Strengthening of concrete, timber and steel structures Strengthening of masonry and historic structures Connement of concrete columns Near surface mounting reinforcement Seismic Retrotting Durability issues as related to harsh environments Fire protection systems Practical applications and case studies Visionary Concepts

Local Organisation Committee (LOC), (ITU, Turkey)


Metin Aydogan, Mehmet Hakki Omurtag, Yilmaz Akkaya, Ercan Yuksel, Barlas Ozden Caglayan, Medine Ispir, Cem Demir, Mustafa Comert

International Scientific Committee


Council members of ISHMII, IIFC and others, see conference website www.smar-2013.org

Keynote Lectures
Farhad Ansari University of Illinois at Chicago UIC James MW Brownjohn University of Shefeld Urs Meier Empa Dbendorf Jin-Guang Teng The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Several other distinguished keynote speakers will be announced soon

Sponsors
Local and international companies and institutions providing sensors, monitoring systems, FRP composites and other materials and systems for structural rehabilitation.

Exhibition
Manufacturers and exhibitors in the eld of smart monitoring, assessment and rehabilitation of Civil Structures are invited to reserve their stands at the conference.

Mirko Ro award for the best papers


- 1 paper in the eld of "monitoring and assessment" and - 1 paper in the eld of "rehabilitation of civil structures" Selected best papers will be proposed to be published in a Journal Special Issue dedicated to SMAR 2013 Conference

THE FOURTH ASIA-PACIFIC CONFERENCE ON FRP IN STRUCTURES


IMPORTANT DATES
Abstract Submission Abstract Acceptance Notification Full-Length Paper Submission Paper Acceptance Notification Submission of Final Paper APFIS 2013 Conference By 30 NOV 2012 15 JAN 2013 By 01 MAY 2013 01 AUG 2013 15 SEP 2013 11 - 13 DEC 2013

ANNOUNCEMENT AND CALL FOR ABSTRACTS

REGISTRATION
Early Bird Registration by 15 JUN 2013 Standard Registration AUD 880 (general) AUD 440 (students) AUD 980 (general) AUD 490 (students)

APFIS
2013
11 - 13 DECEMBER 2013 MELBOURNE , AUSTRALIA

Registering for the APFIS 2013 Conference means : - attending scientific and professional practice paper presentations. - learning from international leading keynote lectures. - joining an event, where both scientific and real business experts are brought together. - enjoy our social networking events (including: conference reception, banquets, three days catering refeshments and lunches). - 2014 IIFC membership.

Please visit www.apfis2013.org for more information on the APFIS 2013 Conference, to register and to submit your abstracts.

CONTACT
Prof. RIADH AL-MAHAIDI Conference Chair
Faculty of Engineering & Industrial Sciences Swinburne University of Technology, Australia Phone: +61 3 9214 8429 Email : ralmahaidi@swin.edu.au

Dr. YU BAI Technical Secretary


Department of Civil Engineering Monash University , Australia Phone: +61 3 9905 4987 Fax : +61 3 9905 4944 Email : yu.bai@monash.edu

Towards sustainable infrastructure

with FRP composites

www.apfis2013.org

Towards sustainable infrastructure


THEMES

with FRP composites


Prof. RIADH AL-MAHAIDI Conference Chair
Faculty of Engineering & Industrial Sciences Swinburne University of Technology, Australia Phone: +61 3 9214 8429 Email : ralmahaidi@swin.edu.au

APFIS
2013
ORGANISATION

APFIS 2013 will continue to promote the themes related to basic research and application of FRP (Fibre Reinforced Polymer) in civil and architectural engineering structures in the Asia-Pacific region and elsewhere in the world. APFIS 2013 will, however, promote a new overarching theme of sustainability. Sustainability issues will be emphasized via special sessions and keynote addresses and will be more comprehensively defined prior to the call for papers.

Prof. XIAO-LING ZHAO Conference Co-Chair


Department of Civil Engineering Monash University , Australia Phone: +61 3 9905 4972 Fax : +61 3 9905 4944 Email : ZXL@monash.edu

Dr. SCOTT T. SMITH Conference Co-Chair


Department of Civil Engineering The University of Hong Kong, China Phone: +852 2241 5699 Fax : +852 2559 5337 Email : stsmith@hku.hk

Dr. YU BAI Technical Secretary


Department of Civil Engineering Monash University , Australia Phone: +61 3 9905 4987 Fax : +61 3 9905 4944 Email : yu.bai@monash.edu

AIMS AND SCOPE


The aim of APFIS conference series is to provide a forum for young and experienced academics, practitioners, researchers, and research students in the Asia-Pacific region and elsewhere in the world, to share the latest developments in research and application of FRP in civil infrastructure. In keeping with the tradition of the APFIS conference series, topics will include but are not limited to: Materials and products Strengthening of concrete, metallic, timber and masonry structures Bond behavior and debonding failures Confinement and seismic retrofit Concrete structures reinforced or prestressed with FRP Durability and long-term performance Fire, impact and blast loading Structural health monitoring and intelligent sensing Field applications and case studies Codes and standards Hybrid structures and all FRP structures

For more information on members of the Local Organisation Committee and International Scientific Committee, please visit the website www.apfis2013.org

CALL FOR ABSTRACTS


Authors or organisations interested in submitting papers are invited to submit an abstract of no more than 300 words outlining the aims, contents and conclusions of their paper. All abstracts will be reviewed by the Conference Committee. Presentations will be selected to provide a program that offers a comprehensive and diverse treatment of issues related to the conference theme. Authors will be notified by email of the outcome of their abstract submission. Please note: 1. Abstracts should contain a maximum of 300 words and must be submitted in English. 2. Abstracts can be submitted via the conference website or email (as Ms. Word file) to : Dr. YU BAI at yu.bai@monash.edu and cc to Prof. RIADH AL-MAHAIDI at ralmahaidi@swin.edu.au

www.apfis2013.org

11 - 13 DECEMBER 2013

MELBOURNE , AUSTRALIA

The 7

th

International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering International Institute for FRP in Construction

INTRODUCTION
After the successful conferences in Hong Kong 2001, Adelaide 2004, Miami 2006, Zurich 2008, Beijing 2010, and Rome 2012, the 7th International conference on Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites in Civil Engineering (CICE 2014), the official conference of the International Institute for FRP in Construction (IIFC), is to be held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada from August 20-22, 2014. The conference is co-hosted by the University of Calgary and the University of British Columbia.

THE SPECTACULAR BEAUTY OF VANCOUVER


Vancouver is the third largest city in Canada; voted one of the worlds premier meeting and convention destinations, and ranked #4 on the list of the worlds 10 best places to live. Vancouver is located on Canadas spectacular West Coast, surrounded by mountains and ocean side beaches, and has one of the mildest Canadian climates. Located halfway between Europe and the Asia Pacific region. The city of Vancouver is a cosmopolitan city with a vibrant and multicultural population of two million; it is safe, clean, and pedestrian friendly. Vancouver, the host city of the 2010 Winter Olympics and Paralympics Games, offers an unprecedented range of activities and experiences and unique attractions. The CICE 2014 conference will be held at The University of British Columbia (UBC), only 20 minutes to downtown or the Vancouver International Airport.

OBJECTIVES
CICE 2014 aims to provide an international forum where leaders, engineers, researchers, practitioners and industrial partners in the field of FRP composites in civil engineering can discuss, exchange, and share recent advances and developments and future perspectives of the use of FRP in bridges and other structures.

CONFERENCE TOPICS
Papers are invited in several focus areas including: FRP Strengthening FRP for Sustainability FRP in Seismic Retrofitting Hybrid FRP Structures Bond and Interfacial Stresses Concrete Filled FRP Tubes Confinement of Concrete All-FRP and Smart FRP Structures FRP Internal Reinforcement Fire, Impact and Blast Loading Prestressing with FRP Inspection and Quality Assurance Durability/Long-Term Performance Codes and Design Guidelines Field Applications and Case Studies FRP in 2020: Visions and Reality

REGISTRATION*
Early Registration $850 (General) $550 (Students) Registration after May 1, 2014 $950 (General) $650 (Students) * Registration covers attendance at the conference, the conference proceedings, the welcome reception, banquet, all refreshments and lunches, and includes the IIFC membership for 2015. The technical tours and social program are not included.

INTERNATIONAL SCIETIFIC COMMITTEE


This committee consists predominantly of IIFC Council members.

TECHNICAL AND SOCIAL PROGRAM, EXHIBITION


The three-day program will consist of keynote lectures and general sessions. The IIFC member meeting and council meeting will be held during the conference. Technical tours and social programs will be arranged. Products and services exhibition will be open during the conference. If you are interested in having a display booth, please contact the conference secretariat at cice2014@ucalgary.ca.

IMPORTANT DEADLINES
July 15, 2013 August 1, 2013 January 1, 2014 April 1, 2014 May 1, 2014 Submission of Abstracts (300 words) Notification of Acceptance of Abstracts Submission of Full Papers for Review Notification of Acceptance of Full Papers Final Submission of Revised Full Papers

Abstracts/Papers can be submitted to: cice2014@ucalgary.ca SPECIAL JOURNAL ISSUE

CONTACT

www.cice2014.ca
Honorary Chair: Nemkumar Banthia University of British Columbia

Selected papers from this conference will be invited to submit an expanded paper for special issues of the Journal of Construction and Building Materials and the Journal of Composites for Construction.

Conference Chair: Raafat El-Hacha University of Calgary