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A RESEARCH ON CHIP FLOW BOUNDARY OF MDF MILLING BASED ON

HIGHSPEED CAMERA AND DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING METHODS

A DISSERTATION
SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF WOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
AND THE COMMITTEE ON GRADUATE STUDIES
OF NANJING FORESTRY UNIVERSITY
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF
BACHELOR

Bo Zhou
May 2009

c Copyright by Bo Zhou 2009
All Rights Reserved

ii
Abstract

The research on chip flow is a important thema in wood science, especially in milling of MDF. We tried
to use highspeed CCD camera to capture the key frame during milling, and determined the stable boundary
distribution of chip turbulent flow by CG(Computer Graphics) and numerical analysis tools with the conditions
of varying feeding speed and velocity of the principal axis. We have been successful to prove that the speed of
principle axis is the main reason which can effect the cutting angle, that would be valuable to guide the dust
separation and protection on operation.

iii
Contents

Abstract iii

1 Introduction 1

2 Digital Image Processing 2


2.1 Highspeed Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.2 Color Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.3 Resampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.4 Thresholding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.5 GPGPU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

3 Numerical Analysis 8
3.1 Approximation Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.2 Least Squares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.3 Level Set Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.4 Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

4 Research on MDF cutting diffusion angle 14


4.1 Image capture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.2 Data fitting and analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

5 Conclusions 23

Bibliography 24

iv
List of Figures

2.1 Panasonic WV-CP430 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2


2.2 Curves of unormalized filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.3 Image Lenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.4 Comparison of four image filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.5 Performance Comparision of GPU and CPU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.6 Applications of OpenVIDIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

3.1 Least squred fit noisy data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9


3.2 Implicit function φ(x) = x2 − 1 defining the regions Ω+ , Ω− , the boundary ∂Ω . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.3 Level Set active contour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

4.1 Diagram of experimental devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14


4.2 Image proceessing workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.3 A1 A2 A3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.4 A4 A5 A6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.5 A7 A8 A9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.6 A10 A11 A12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.7 A13 A14 A15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.8 A16 A17 A18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4.9 Results comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

v
Chapter 1

Introduction

The CG have been widely used in nearly most of scientisfic regions. Most problems from sciencfic regions
and entertainment industry could be solved by CG and CV(Computer Vision), includes
Mathmatics topology and differential geometry [10] [9] , numerical analysis

Physics dynamics simulation [7], n-body problem [6]

Chemistry quantum chemistry [33] [32]

Engineering Visualization earthquake research [21], gas exploration [19]

Entertainment film and video game


The CG have been developed for nearly 30 years. In 1969, the ACM founded a department names A Spectial
Interest Group in Graphics (SIGGRAPH) to organize activities within the field of computer graphics. Most
of important early breakthoughts occured at the University of Utah, include research on BRDF(Bidirectional
Reflectance Distribution Function), RT(Ray Tracing), Programmable Shading Pipeline. In 1980s, the CG had
been involved into entertainment industry, the artist and graphics researcher began to design on personal com-
puter, the SGI graphics workstation was used to make short films. The basic usage of CG is to generate or
processing digital 2D image, such as drawing text, 2D geometric primitive, pixels images. In 3D CG, people use
3D representation of geometric data and perspective method to simulate the projection from 3D virtual world
to 2D pixels plane. The CG is still running ahead, there will be more and more applications with help of it.
At the sametime, digital image processing has benefited from CG very much. It performs image processing
on digital images, it allows apply wide range of algorithms to input data compared with analog image processing
to avoid problems such as noise and signal loss. It was developed since 1960s at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory,
MIT, Bell Labs, with application to satelite imagery, image analysis, cinematic post-production workflow. By
using PCA(Principal Components Analysis), digital signal processing, we can solve these problems,

Pixel Processing generate histogram, modifiy RGB color, implement color management

Pattern Recongnition human face detection

Feature Extraction edge detection, optical flow

We could use CG to solve lot’s of problems in wood science, such as, volumetric visualization about CT
dataset [26], fast rendering forest landscape [27], wood-pulp chips analysis[20].
We will focus on the MDF chip flow diffusion angle, which is a important element during milling, capture
the image by highspeed CCD camera with digital image processing methods. It’s important to measure the
diffusion boundary and the diffusion angle in order to understand the vortex flow. As we known, there is no
similar research subject as ours yet.

1
Chapter 2

Digital Image Processing

2.1 Highspeed Camera


A high speed camera is a device used for recording slow-motion playback films, or used for scientific study
of transient phenomena.
A normal motion picture is filmed and played back at 24 frames per second, while television uses 25 frames/s
(PAL) or 30 frames/s (NTSC), IMAX use 48 frames/s. High speed cameras can film up to 250,000 frames/s by
running the film over a rotating prism or mirror instead of using a shutter, thus reducing the need for stopping
and starting the film behind a shutter which would tear the film stock at such speeds. Using this technique one
can stretch one second to more than 10 minutes of playback time (super slow motion). The fastest cameras are
generally in use in scientific research, military test and evaluation, and industry. An example of an industrial
application is crash testing to better document the crash and what happens to the automobile and passengers
during a crash, or bullet power testing. We use Panasonic WV-CP430 camera to capture detailed milling progress
here,

Figure 2.1: Panasonic WV-CP430

Its key features are,

• 480 lines of horizontal resolution

• DSP noise reduction

• 50 dB signal-to-noise ratio

• F1.4 maximal aperture

2.2 Color Correction


Because most of digital color capture devices(digital camera, highspeed camera) work in device-dependent
RGB color space, so before we convert the pixels data into absolute luminance, we have to know the color space

2
which the pixels data is in and the others conditions such as device white balance, illumination environment,
etc.
In cinematic post-production, there are two stages about color correction: the first is to modify the integral
appearance, the second is to correct the object’s color one by one according the artistic requirement. We could
also borrow this idea to our application. To get the illumination graylevel map precisely, we need to transform
the all color data into one uniform color space, eg., sRGB [23](Standard RGB), AdobeRGB [15]. We choose
sRGB as our uniform color space because nearly most of monitor and digital camera use this colorspace as their
standard.
The chromaticity values for the sRGB primaries are as follows:

Red x = 0.6400 y = 0.3300


Green x = 0.2100 y = 0.7100
(2.1)
Blue x = 0.1500 y = 0.0600
W hite x = 0.3127 y = 0.3290

The color in sRGB could be converted to CIE XYZ tristimulus by this matrix,
    
Rlinear 3.2410 −1.5374 −0.4986 X
Glinear  = −0.9692 1.8760 0.0416   Y  (2.2)
    

Blinear 0.0556 −0.2040 1.0570 Z

and the reverse transformation


    
X 0.4124 0.3576 0.1805 Rlinear
 Y  = 0.2126 0.7152 0.0722 Glinear  (2.3)
    

Z 0.0193 0.1192 0.9505 Blinear

Before applying any operation on color data in a prescribed colorspace, we should apply CAT(Chromatic
Adaptation Transform) on CIE XYZ tristimulus values by the von Kries transform from one viewing condtion
to another,     
L 0.4002 0.7076 0.0808 X
M  = –0.2263 1.1653 0.0457  Y  (2.4)
    

S 0.0 0.0 0.9182 Z

L2 = 2L1 /Lwhite2 M2 = (M1 /Mwhite ) · Mwhite2 S2 = (S1 /Swhite ) · Swhite2 (2.5)

     
Xadapted 1/Lwhite 0.0 0.0 X
−1 
 Yadapted  = M ·  0.0 1/Mwhite 0.0  · M ·  Y  (2.6)
    

Zadapted 0.0 0.0 1/Swhite Z


L2 , M2 , and S2 are the predicted cone responses of the perceptual match for the original LMS responses,
though under the second viewing conditions. Lwhite , Mwhite , and Swhite are the cone responses of the white
point in the original viewing condition, while Lwhite2 , Mwhite2 , Swhite2 are cone responses of the.The M is the
Hunt–Pointer–Estevez transformation matrix in 2.4.

3
2.3 Resampling
In fact, the 2D image could be considered as a 2D discrete function. The most common resampling operation
is to scale the pixels plane with filter. The filters are the most important in generating the output data because
they owns different frequency response [31]. The most common resampling filters used in digital image processing
are Box, Triangle, Gaussian, Sinc, etc. Here is their shape within the range x ∈ [−2, −2], the difference

1.2
Box
1.0 Sinc
Gaussian
0.8 Triangle

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

0.2

0.42.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

Figure 2.2: Curves of unormalized filters

between shapes of these filters is distinct.


Most of resampling operations are Convolution. In mathmatics and functional analysis, convolution is
a operation about two function f, g. It has applications that includes statistics, signal processing, eletrical
engineering, differential equations, and here image processing. The convolution could be written f ∗ g, that
means a integral of the production of these two functions, and it is a particular kind of integral transform:
Z ∞ Z ∞
(f ∗ g)(t) ≡ f (τ )g(t − τ )dτ = f (t − τ )g(τ )dτ (2.7)
∞ ∞

It could be also discreted, if gN is a periodic function with peroid N,

N
X −1 ∞
X
(f ∗ gN )[n] = ( f [m + kN ])gN [n − m] (2.8)
m=0 k=−∞

In image processing, this operation could be done easily. The pseudo-code could be like this [29],

4
Require: Image I, Filter f
r = f .radius
nx = I.width
ny = I.height
S[0, . . . , nx − 1] ⇐ 0
Iout [r, . . . , nx − r − 1][r, . . . , ny − r − 1] ⇐ 0
for y = r to ny − r − 1 do
{convolution on x-axis}
for x = 0 to nx − 1 do
{convolution on y-axis}
S[x] ⇐ 0
for i = −r to r do
S[x] = S[x] + f [i]I[x][y − i] {process on y-axis in the radius}
end for
end for
for x = r to nx − r − 1 do
{process on x-axis in the radius}
for i = −r to r do
Iout [x][y] = Iout [x][y] + f [i]S[x − i]
end for
end for
end for
return Iout
Algorithm 1: Image downsampling pseudo code

Downsampled the Lenna 2.3 picture from 5122 to 2562 , we noticed that the Sinc and Box filter could
improve the signal intensity on boundary, these pixels forms a high frequency regions there 2.3.

2.4 Thresholding
Sometimes we need to divide the RGB or luminance image into a two-valued image in order to break mark
”object” pixels from ”background” pixels. We have to choose a threshold value, the pixel values which are greater
than this threshold value it turns to ”1” otherwise ”0”, that means,

1 if I(x, y) ≥ t
f (x, y) = (2.9)
0 if I(x, y) < t

We choose the Otsu’s algorithm [25] to perform this image processing progress. It is used to automatically
perform histogram shape-based image thresholding, reduction of a graylevel image into a two-valued image. It
marks ”foreground” and ”background” by choosing the optimum threshold value that minimizeds the intra-class
variance, defined as a weighted sum of variances of two classes,

σω2 (t) = ω1 (t)ω12 (t) + ω2 (t)ω22 (t) (2.10)

The goal turns to maximize inter-class variance,

2
σb2 (t) = σ 2 − σw
2
(t) = ω1 (t)ω2 (t) [µ1 (t) − µ2 (t)] (2.11)

We will use this algorithm to divide the diffusion angle from background.

5
Figure 2.3: Image Lenna

(a) Result of Box filter (b) Result of Sinc filter

(c) Result of Gaussian filter (d) Result of Triangle filter

Figure 2.4: Comparison of four image filters

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Require: Graylevel image I
{Compute histogram and probabilities of each intensity level}
ωi (0) ⇐ 0
for t = 1 to maximum intensity do
{Update ωi and µi }
{Update σb2 (t)}
end for
return the t corresponds to the maximum σb2 (t)
Algorithm 2: Pseudo-code of Otsu’s algorithm

2.5 GPGPU
When NVIDIA released Geforce FX graphics card in 2002, the programmable shading pipeline has been
involved into realtime rendering. Until today, more and more applications have used GPGPU(General Pro-
posed Graphics Processing Unit) to accelerate the program in parallel, most of them are computional numerical
problems, such as Monte Carlo simulation [30], linear system [1] [22], computer vision [8], fluid simulation, etc,.
Compared with traditional CPU, the architecture of GPU could supply high parallel power to achieve amazing
FLOPS(FLoating point Operations Per Second).

Figure 2.5: Performance Comparision of GPU and CPU

(a) Canny edge filter (b) Corners Locator

Figure 2.6: Applications of OpenVIDIA

We could map nearly the all digital image processing into GPGPU, such as color space transform, reshape,
resampling, crop, etc. In fact, there have been some commercial cinematic post-production products using
GPGPU to accelerate the progress, such as SideFX Houdini
c [14], da vinci Resolve
c 4K [11].

7
Chapter 3

Numerical Analysis

3.1 Approximation Theory


For given data sites x1 < x2 < . . . < xN and function values f1 , . . . , fN , we could find exactly one polynomial
pf ∈ πN −1 (R1 ) that interpolate these data sites. We neeed to process the scatterd data by interpolation or fitting.
This kind of problems are very common in applied mathmatics and computer science, with with quantitatively
characterizing the errors introduced thereby. There are two major problems, they are

1. approximate known target function by a specific class of functions, for example, polynomials or others
rational functions

2. approximate unknown target function by known data sites, for example, fitting scattering data as a
curve

The Weierstraß proved his famous theorem on approximation of continuous functions by algebraic polynomials,

Lemma 1 (Weierstraß approximation theorem [2]). Suppose we want to approximate function f which are
continuous on an interval [a, b]. For every ε > 0, there exisits a polynomial function p over C such that for all
x in [a, b], the supremum norm | f − p |< ε.

A popular approximation solution is orthogonal polynomials, eg. first and second kind of Chebyshev poly-
nomials,
T0 (x) = 1
T1 (x) = x
(3.1)
Tn+1 (x) = 2xTn (x) − Tn−1 (x)
P∞ n 1−tx
n=0 Tn (x)t = 1−2tx+t2

U0 (x) = 1
U1 (x) = 2x
(3.2)
Un+1 (x) = 2xUn (x) − Un−1 (x)
P∞ n 1
n=0 Un (x)t = 1−2tx+t2

or generialized Fourier series for periodic function. Once the domain and degree of the polynomial are
chosen, the polynomial itself is chosen in such a way as to minimize the worst-case error, we need to minimize
the maximum value of | P (x) − f (x) |, P (x) is the polynomial, f (x) is the actual function.

8
3.2 Least Squares
Least squares is a powerful often applied in statistical context, eg. regression analysis. This method was first
destribed by Carl Freidrich Gauß in 1790s, Legendre published this method firstly. It grew out of astronomy
and geodesy during the age of exploration.
Supposed we have a data set consists of n points (xi , yi ), i = 1, . . . , n, where xi is independent variable and
yi is dependent variable whose value is found by experiment. This method would find parameters for which the
function model ”best” fits the data. The least squares method defines the squared residuals S is a minimum,

ri = yi − f (xi , β̂)
Pn 2 (3.3)
S = i=1 ri

For example, if we think some measured data follow a sinusoidal pattern,

f (x, β) = β0 sin(β1 2πxi + β2 ) (3.4)

the residual vector is


ei =| yi − β0 sin(β1 2πxi + β2 ) | (3.5)

15
Fit
Noisy
10 True

10

15
0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06

Figure 3.1: Least squred fit noisy data

Linear least squares, or ordinary least squares (OLS), is an important computational problem, that arises

9
primarily in applications when it is desired to fit a linear mathematical model to measurements obtained from
experiments. The goals of linear least squares are to extract predictions from the measurements and to reduce
the effect of measurement errors. It can be stated as the problem of finding an approximate solution to an
overdetermined system of linear equations. In statistics, it corresponds to the maximum likelihood estimate for
a linear regression with normally distributed error. Linear least square problems admit a closed-form solution,
in contrast to non-linear least squares problems, which often have to be solved by an iterative procedure.
The algebraic solution of the normal equations can be written as

β̂ = (X> X)−1 X > y = X + y (3.6)

where X> is Moore–Penrose pseudoinverse of X, it satisfies

XX> X = X
X> XX> = X>
(3.7)
(XX> )H = XX>
(X> X)H = X> X

If the matrix X> X has full rank, continue to use Cholesky decompostion R> R, the R is an upper triangular
matrix,
R> Rβ̂ = X> y, (3.8)

to solve for z
R> z = X> y, (3.9)

to get the β̂
Rβ̂ = z. (3.10)

The errors on known data can be obained by error propagation. Let the variance-covariance matrix for the
observations be denoted by M and that of the parameters by Mβ , we have

Mβ = (X> WX)−1 X> WMW> X(X> WX)−1 , (3.11)

when W = M−1
Mβ = (X> WX)−1 . (3.12)

When unit weights are used (W = I) it is implied that the experimental errors are uncorrelated and all equal:
M = σ 2 I, the σ 2 is the variance of an observation, I is the identity matrix. Let S denote the minimum value of
objective function, we have
S
Mβ = (X> X)−1 , (3.13)
n−m
the Mβii gives variance of parameter βi , Mβij gives the covariance between βi and βj , and the Mβij = Mβji .

3.3 Level Set Method


The LSM(Level Set Method)was development by Stanley Osher and James Sethian in 1980s, it’s a numerical
technique for tracking interfaces and shapes by project the low-dimension function to hyper-dimension to solve.
It has been popular in many research regions,

Image processing PDE(Partial Differential Equation)-based image restoration [24], medical image segmenta-
tion track [18] [4]

10
Computional geometry point cloud reconstruction [17]

Computational dynamics fluid dynamics [5], deformable dynamics [28]

Given a function embedded in an space Rn , its interface Γ represents the space to Rn−1 , eg., in 3D space,
the Γ represents a 2D space. Similarly in 2D space, Γ is a curve that represent a 1D space(a curve). We define
a implicit level set function φ(x, t) with following properties,

φ(x, t) > 0 for x ∈


/Ω
φ(x, t) = 0 for x ∈ Γ (3.14)
φ(x, t) < 0 for x ∈ Ω

and we could define a signed distance function as

d(~x) = min(| ~x − ~xI |), ~xI ∈ ∂Ω (3.15)

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0 φ >0,Ω + φ <0,Ω− φ >0,Ω +

0.5

1.02.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

Figure 3.2: Implicit function φ(x) = x2 − 1 defining the regions Ω+ , Ω− , the boundary ∂Ω

In level set formulation of active contours, the fronts are represented by the zero level set

C(t) = {(x, y) | φ(x, y, t) = 0}, (3.16)

the evolution equation of level set function φ(x, y, t) can be written in the following general form,

∂φ
+ V · | ∇φ |= 0 (3.17)
∂t
where V = Vn n̂ + Vs ŝ is the velocity of the surface (in 2D), which may be a function of both position and time.
For image segmentation, the function V depends on the image data and the level set function φ. To improve
the accuracy of computation, we need to initialize φ as a SDF before evolution. The re-initialization method is

11
to solve the following equation,
∂φ
= sign(φ0 )(1− | ∇φ |). (3.18)
∂t
In image segmentation, active contours are dynamics curves that moves toward the object boundaries. We
could explicitly define an external energy that can move the zero level curve toward the boundaries. Let the I
be the image, g be the edge indicator function defined by

1
g= , (3.19)
1+ | ∇Gσ ∗ I |

where the Gσ is the Gaussian function with standard deviation σ. The external energy for the function φ(x, y)
is
Eg,λ,υ (φ) = λLg (φ) + υAg (φ) (3.20)

where λ > 0 and υ are constants. The Lg φ and Ag φ are defined by


Z
Lg (φ) = gδ(φ) | ∇φ | dxdy (3.21)

and Z
Ag φ = gH(−φ)dxdy, (3.22)

where δ is Dirac function and H is the Heaviside function,



0 if | x |> 
δ (x) = (3.23)
 1 [1 + cos( πx )] if | x |≤ .
2 

The total energy functional


E(φ) = µP (φ) + Eg,λ,υ (φ) (3.24)
∂E
And we know it will satisfie the Euler-Lagrange equation ∂φ when it’s stable,

∂E ∇φ ∇φ
= −µ[∆φ − div( )] − λδ(φ)div(g ) − υgδ(φ), (3.25)
∂φ ∇φ ∇φ

combined with 3.17, the steepest descent process for minimization of the functional E is the following gradient
flow,
∂φ ∇φ ∇φ
= µ[∆φ − div( )] + λδ(φ)div(g ) + υgδ(φ). (3.26)
∂t ∇φ ∇φ

(a) init (b) 450 iterations (c) 650 iterations

Figure 3.3: Level Set active contour

12
3.4 Software
To solving these numercial problem, we will use GNU Octave [13], GNU Scientific Library[12], fit the scatterd
data with linear least squared. The lsmlib [16] and the matlab code [3] has been used to experiment the LSM-
based image segmentation detection.

13
Chapter 4

Research on MDF cutting diffusion


angle

4.1 Image capture

PC
CCD

MDF Board

Milling Machine

Figure 4.1: Diagram of experimental devices

The experimental devices included

- MX160 single vertical spindle milling machine,

- Leitz carbide-tipped milling cutter, D = 190mm, BO = 40mm, SB = 20mm, γ = 20◦ , α = 20◦ ,

- Panasonic WV-CP 430 Camera

- PC

We captured the image data under these conditions,

- f 2.8, 1/50s

- Color Temperature 5300k (midday, measured by Nikon D80 DSLR with KODAK 18% graycard)

14
Number feed speed(m/min) princple axis speed (r/min)
A1 7.17 4500
A2 7.50 4500
A3 8.33 4500
A4 9.38 4500
A5 10.71 4500
A6 12.50 4500
A7 15.00 4500
A8 18.75 4500
A9 22.50 4500
A10 10.00 6278
A11 10.00 6000
A12 10.00 5400
A13 10.00 4800
A14 10.00 4200
A15 10.00 3600
A16 10.00 2000
A17 10.00 2400
A18 10.00 2000

Table 4.1: 2 groups of experimental plans

- Varying feed speed and velocity of the milling

Our image processing workflow is

RGB
Capture Mark Out
Resampling To Thresholding
Frames Chip Flow
Graylevel

Figure 4.2: Image proceessing workflow

In first stage, we resampled origin sized frames at the beginning of milling to half size with Sinc filter to
enhance the boundary distribution on GPU. Then we apply CAT to convert the image to sRGB(D65) color
space, continue to convert them to luminance graylevel image. To break the chip flow from background, we
applied Otsu’s algorithm to the manually selection regions around the flow boundary, marked the chip part as
white, residual part as black.

4.2 Data fitting and analysis


We consider the coordinates of boundary on image as the scattered data sites, use linear least squared fitting
to fit the data to y = ax + b straight line mode. The angle between each pair of up and bottom boundary was
calculated by
k2 − k1
tanθ =| | (4.1)
1 + k1 k2

15
40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5 λ =3.21504964457 ◦
00 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5 λ =3.05752586835 ◦
00 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5 λ =3.67697182933 ◦
00 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

Figure 4.3: A1 A2 A3

16
40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5 λ =5.02784769423 ◦
00 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5 λ =4.57657422166 ◦
00 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5 λ =3.94347736538 ◦
00 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

Figure 4.4: A4 A5 A6

17
40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5 λ =2.16182015624 ◦
00 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5 λ =3.1504271861 ◦
00 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5 λ =4.66159186493 ◦
00 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

Figure 4.5: A7 A8 A9

18
40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5 λ =6.71009669847 ◦
00 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5 λ =8.0103744916 ◦
00 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5 λ =6.67520621659 ◦
00 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

Figure 4.6: A10 A11 A12

19
40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5 λ =5.45387442024 ◦
00 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5 λ =5.27493278342 ◦
00 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5 λ =5.51052959245 ◦
00 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

Figure 4.7: A13 A14 A15

20
40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5 λ =1.50716983512 ◦
00 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5 λ =3.42060434553 ◦
00 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5 λ =4.98015840473 ◦
00 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

Figure 4.8: A16 A17 A18

21
Number Up boundary Bottom boundary Angle(λ)
A1 y = 0.460413x + 19.321951 y = 0.530300x + 8.734146 3.21504964457◦
A2 y = 0.464728x + 21.137805 y = 0.531332x + 11.289024 3.05752586835◦
A3 y = 0.488462x + 18.100000 y = 0.570638x + 7.047561 3.67697182933◦
A4 y = 0.441557x + 21.314634 y = 0.550938x + 9.831707 5.02784769423◦
A5 y = 0.460694x + 20.141463 y = 0.561445x + 8.926829 4.57657422166◦
A6 y = 0.473546x + 18.265854 y = 0.560788x + 7.914634 3.94347736538◦
A7 y = 0.500750x + 19.135366 y = 0.548874x + 9.471951 2.16182015624◦
A8 y = 0.499719x + 19.830488 y = 0.570450x + 10.701220 3.1504271861◦
A9 y = 0.503283x + 20.060976 y = 0.609850x + 11.582927 4.66159186493◦
A10 y = 0.516792x + 19.097561 y = 0.675516x + 5.402439 6.71009669847◦
A11 y = 0.494184x + 20.463415 y = 0.682364x + 7.043902 8.0103744916◦
A12 y = 0.528330x + 19.347561 y = 0.687899x + 5.760976 6.67520621659◦
A13 y = 0.587899x + 18.260976 y = 0.724015x + 6.981707 5.45387442024◦
A14 y = 0.592026x + 17.530488 y = 0.723921x + 6.658537 5.27493278342◦
A15 y = 0.613133x + 16.893902 y = 0.754221x + 6.092683 5.51052959245◦
A16 y = 0.683396x + 14.398780 y = 0.722702x + 7.007317 1.50716983512◦
A17 y = 0.652158x + 15.682927 y = 0.740807x + 7.579268 3.42060434553◦
A18 y = 0.625610x + 15.775610 y = 0.753846x + 5.250000 4.98015840473◦

Table 4.2: Analysis formulas of fitted lines

fit λi ,i =1, ,18 to y = ax + b


9
λ1−9
8 λ10−18
y =0.032733x +3.594188
7 y = −0.520778x +7.385588

10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Figure 4.9: Results comparison

22
Chapter 5

Conclusions

We have seen the experimental results distinctly :

• Spindle speed is the main reason which could strongly affect the MDF chip flow diffusion
angle compared with the feed speed.

To improve the accuracy of fitting, we could choose some others function model, add more samplers, so the
limitation of this experiment is our fitted linear mode it too coarse. We should invove more realtime video
image processing methods in future research, use GPGPU to process the countious frames streamly, indicate the
boundary and fit the parametric curve. In fact, to cut off scar of lumber is a intuitionistic extension, segment
the scar by edge detection or level set based ”Snake” method, convert the parametric curve into CNC program
source code.
We could also apply multiphase fluid method to this subject. The milling is a kinds of mass-conservation
progress, we could model the inter-exchange interface by the MCLS(Mass Conserving Level Set) to simulate.

23
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