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Plants Animals

8y Roslyn Kay

Foreword
The

Active Science series has been designed to make science tun and understandable for teachers and students alike. Each of the seven books available in this series covers an entire year of the primary curriculum. These books can be used as a basis for the year's work, or to supplement and enrich an existing curriculum.

The four major areas of primary-level science are covered in this book, these being plants, animals,

matter and energy. A variety of activities are provlded in each section, including experiments, observation exercises, concept reinforcement exercises and research topics, in an easy-to-use, reproducible format. Enrichment activities and assessment exercises are also included. Many ofthe activities are designed to be selfxplanatoryfor the student, but aliactivities also encourageteacher input and peer group discussion.

Contents

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Temperatu.e..... Conductors and lnsulators .....
Guessing the

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.................................. 36

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Aclive Science 4

Ieachers Notes
Science can be funl

Using this package Children should keep all worksheets, pictures and information in a large scrapbook. Written activities can be done in an exercise book or pad.

. . . .

Visit the library with children prior to the introduction of each topic so that fiction and nonjiction materials and resources can be collected for reading and display.

Allworksheets and activities should be thoroughly discussed with children prior to them attempting them. This ensures that they understand the concepts to be mastered.
Keep a science equipment box in the corner of the classroom from the beginning of the year for students to bring corks, buttons, pieces of string etc. so that most of your equipment is already collected. To avoid keeping a whole pile of rubbish, sort the box occasionally with the children. This makes a great language activity. 0r ask the children to invent craft ideas for lunk' material.
The worksheets in this book presume that the children always have a ruler, rubber, pencil or pen, coloured pencils or crayons, paper glue and scissors handy.

. . . .

Enrichment activities are included in most areas. These can be used as extra class activities or given to early finishers.

Safety
Compile a list of science safety rules for the children to follow. This should be stapled in the front of the scrapbook.
The collection of plants and animals must be supervised. Animals should be treated humanely during capture, captivity and release. Students should be aware that live animals should only be kept for a short time for observation and then set free where they were captured. They should also be made aware of the dangers of eating plants, as there are many poisonous varieties growing in gardens. The class should be encouraged to take responsibility for classroom pets. Pets should not be left at school on weekends or holidavs and children should be rostered to feed the animals and maintain their enclosures.
lvlake the class continuously aware of the dangers involved in smelling, tasting, touching and

. .

looking at substances. Insist on safety procedures at all times, especially when dealing with heat or open flames.

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Aclive Science 1

Background and Materials


Plants
BackEround Germination is the process which occurs when a plant seed begins to grow. A seed needs warmth, oxygen and moisture to grow. As a seed grows into a plant it develops roots, a stem and leaves.
Fruits and vegetables come from plants which growfrom seeds. Fruits and manyvegetables contain seeos. Many plants are cultivated by people for food. Wheat is a staple grain in Western society. lt is used in the manufacture of many foods, including breakfast cereals and breads. Rye and barley are also grown and used in bread and other food. The growing of grain involves soil preparation, sowing, fertilisation and harvesting. When the grain has been harvested it is stored in silos prior to being used in manufacturing.

. . . .

Materials For the bean growing experiment: Iima beans, paper towels, plastic bags. For the plant seeds experiment: tomatoes, oranges, apples, watermelons, pumpkins, peaches, cucumbers, avocadoes, grapes, knives, chopping boards. For the seed soaking experiment: dry lima or red kidney beans, iars with lids. For the crop growing experiment: rye, barley, wheat and oat seeds, milk cartons, potting mix.

Animals
Background Flies are winged insects. Afly's lifecycle has four stages. The adult fly lays eggs. These eggs hatch into fly larvae, called maggots. The maggots feed and grow. When they have grown large enough, the maggots dig themselves into the soil and grow a hard outer covering. This stage of the lifecycle ls called a pupa. While in this stage the fly cannot move. Within the pupa the fly larva undergoes a metamorphosis from a maggot into an adult fly. Frogs are amphibians. Like all amphibians the lifecycle of the frog involves metamorphosis from a juvenile or larvalform into an adultform. Frogs lay their eggs in water. Frog eggs are soft and have no shells. The eggs hatch into tadpoles. Tadpoles are the larval stage ofthe frog. Tadpoles live and feed in the water. Some time after they hatch the tadpoles undergo a metamorphosis into an adult frog. First the tadpole grows hind legs. Then it grows front legs, Finally the tadpole's tail disappears completely and it becomes an adult frog. Adult frogs can move about on land but most spend the rest of their lives near water. Materials For the fly catching experiment: plastic cool drink bottles, glue or masking tape, For the animal footprints experiment: drawn examples of animal footprints. Alternatively, you could look around outside to find and draw animal footprints. For the frog experiments: frog eggs or tadpoles, an aquarium, aquarium sand, rocks, sticks, water and marsh olants, flies.

. . .

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Backglrund and Materials


Matter
Background There are three phases of matter: solid, liquid and gas. A solid changes to a liquid if it is heated beyond its melting point. A liquid changes to a gas if it is heated beyond its boiling point. The molecules in a solid cannot move. The molecules in a liquid can move. This is why liquids can flow. The molecules in a gas move around rapidly. They are much further apartfrom each other than the molecules in a liquid.
Water is an unusual substance in thatthe solid form takes up more space than the liquid form" That is, when water turns from a liquid to ice, it expands. The opposite is true for all other substances.

. . . .

Materials For the ice experiment: a plastic container (margarine tub), a freezer. For the freezing liquids experiment: plastic containers, salt, full-cream milk, skim milk, orange juice, vinegar, cooking oil, a freezer For the melting ice experiment: ice blocks, five identical saucers, refrigerator. For the evaporation experiment: four jar lids, tablespoon measure, food colouring, sand, salt.

Energy
Background Sounds are caused by vibrations. When an objectvibrates it makes the air around it vibrate. A sound is a wave of these vibrations travelling through the air. We perceive different vibrations as different sounds. The ear picks up and amplifies vibrations in the air. lt converts the vibrations into a signal which is sent down nerves to the brain. This signal is interpreted by the brain as sound.
lvlusical instruments can be classified according to how they produce a sound. Percussive instruments make a sound by being struck. Drums, tambourines, triangles and glockenspiels are percussive instruments. Wind instruments make a sound by creating a vibrating column ofairwithin a tube. The sound is varied by changing the height of the column of air. This is done by opening or closing holes in the tube. Examples of wind instruments include the recorder, flute, oboe and trumpet. String instruments produce a sound by amplifying the vibrations from taut strings. The strings are made to vibrate by being strummed, plucked or bowed. Examples of string instruments include the guitar, violin, cello and harpsichord. The piano is unusual in that it may be considered to be both a string instrument and a percussion instrument. The sound of a piano is made by vibrating strings. These strings are made to vibrate

by being struck by hammers.

. . . . .

Materials For the musical sounds worksheet: a variety of musical instruments, with at least one instrument from each instrument family. For the temperature experiments: thermometer, ice, bowls, hot and cold water. For the heat experiment: sago, sugar, lemons, treacle, water, pan, stove or hotplate, measuring and mixing utensils. For the conductors and insulators experiment: wood, metal, plastic, ceramic and glass bowls, butter or margarine, saucepan of hot water or stove. For the magnets experiment: a variety oJ magnetic and non-magnetic objects (see sheet).
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Growing Beans
Plants need certain conditions fot gtowth,

Experiment: Growing beans


You will need: Some lima beans, paper towel, plastic bag.

Place several lima beans on a wet paper towel. Place the towel with beans inside a plastic bag. Check the beans in a few days to see i{ they have changed. Draw what has happened.

Germination

is when a plant seed sprouts.

The seed has started to grow into a plant.


To

germinate or sprout a seed must have:

warmm
Seeds grow into new plants. Study the pictures below.

moisture

Explain the process of germination in four simple sentences.

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Plant Seeds
There arE many dilferunt kinds 0f plants.

Gather the following fruit and vegetables. Cut them open to see their seeds. Draw the seeds in the spaces provided below.

. Tomato

2. 0range

3. Apple

4. Watermelon

5. Pumpkin

6. Peach

7. Cucumber

8. Avocado

9. Grape

Which fruit or vegetable had the most seeds?

Which one had the fewest seeds? Which one had the largest seeds? Which had the smallest seeds?
Find out the cost of the following fruits (per kg).

tomatoes watermelon

oranges
pumpkin

appres

peaches

What do you think would make some fruit more expensive than others?

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Aclive Science 1

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Describe and draw:

Soaking Seeds
Plants need certain conditions lor gruwth.

Half fill a jar with seeds. Fill the jar to the top with water and put the lid on tightly.

What kind of seed did vou use?

Before they were put in the jar.

After a few days.

1.

The mass of the seeds.

2.

The colour of the seeds.

3.

The size and shape of the seeds.

4.

The surface texture of the see0s.

5.

The water level in the jar.

Carefully open yourjar of seeds. Look very carefully at some ofthe seeds. Can you see anything that looks like a tiny plant on a side ofthe seed? Was this a good way of getting

seeds to germ inate?

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Active Science 4

Making Breakfast
Plants may be carud l0r and cultivated for use by people.

The sequence below shows how breakfast cereal is made. Complete the page by drawing the missing pictures.

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In

April the Jarmer burns off the

In

May the farmer waits for good

In

late May the farmer ploughs

old crop stubble.

rainfall so weeds germinate.

in the weeds.

ln early June the farmer sows the crop and fertilises.

In late June the crop starts to grow. The farmer sprays for pests and weeds.

ln November lhe farmer harvests the crop.

The wheat is transported to the

The wheat is bought by the

The factory makes breaKast

factory.

cereal out of the wheat.

The breakfast cereal is sold to

We buy the cereal from the

We eat the cereal for breakfast.

food stores.

store.

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Aclive Science 1

Growing Crops
Plants gmw and change at dilferunt rates.

Experiment: Growing Crops .


You wlll

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need:

three different crop seeds (rye, barley, wheat), three milk carton bottoms.

tr

Half fill each milk carton bottom with soil. Plant 10 to 20 of one kind of seed in each carton. Cover the seeds lightly with more soil. Water and put in a sunny place. Water the plants regularly, and fill out the growth charts for each seed below.

l.

Crop name
Length (cm) Colour
Changes?

Day
3
5 7 11 15

2. Crop name
Day
3
5 7

Leneth {cm)

Colour

Changes?

II
15

3. Crop name
Changes?

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1.
What is germination?

Plants Review

2.

Draw the correct seeds inside each fruit:

avocado

watermelon

apple

3.

Use each of these words once to complete the paragraph below

sprays harvests sows pests


The farmer

fertilises

the crop and


the crop to kill

The crop starts to grow. Then the farmer

the

and weeds. When the crop has matured, the farmer

the crop.

4.

Which of the following can damage crops? Tick them.

nutrients

hail

sunlight

raln

lare

fertiliser

frost

5.

What are three crops that farmers plant?

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Actve Science 4

life of a Fly
Animals vary in thek lilecycles,

Look at the lrfe cycle diagram of a fly below. Fill in the missing words.

List five ways that you can prevent flies from breeding:
1.

2. 3.
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Active Science 1

Invent

and barbecues. Describe your product and explain how it works. Draw a picture of your new

a product guaranteed to stop bush flies from ruining family picnics

productberow.

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At which stage of the lifecycle would it be best to eradicate flies? Explain.

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Active Science 4

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Catching Flies
Animals need f00d, water and apprupriate climatic c0nditions.

Usingthe instructions below, make four fly catchers from plastic cooldrink containers.

Cut the

Turn the trap

container in
half with

over and tape


a handle to

scissors.

Fill the four fly catchers

nothing fly catcher 2: honey pieces of fly catcher 4: water Then hang them out on a tree in the playground. Check them after an hour, two hours and a day. Count how many flies they've caught each time, and write the numbers in the table below. Draw the container after a dav.

fly catcher fly catcher

1: 3:

meat

Number of flies caught

after an hour

after two n0urs

after a day

Draw fly catcher after a day

Fly catcher 1

Fly catcher 2

Fly catcher 3

Fly catcher 4

What was the best substance for attracting the flies?


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Animal Footprints
Most animals can move lrom place t0 place.

Find footprints for the following animals.

human, dog, cat, horse, duck, sheep, cow.


lf you can't find footprints for all of these, look them up in a book or guess what they might look like. lVake a full-size copy of each footprint on a piece of paper and cut this
OUI.

For each animal, measure how many footprints end{Gend it takes to gei f[om one end

of your desk to the other. Before you start, predict: Which animal will take the least number of footprints to get across the desk?
Which animal will take the most number of footprints to get across the desk?

Record your measurements on the graph below

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Active Science 1

Favourite Footprints
Animals can moye lrum place t0 place.

What are vour three favourite animal footprints?


1. 2.

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3. Draw them. 2. 3.

Draw and colour a pattern using your favourite animal footprints.

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Pdacations

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ldentifying Tracks
Animals can be glouped and identified by theil charactedstics. in the

)raw what you would expect to find at the end of these tracks if you found them
;and. They may not all be animals.

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Clues in the Sand


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Animals can be gruuped and identified by their characte stics.

Use the clues in the text and pictures below

to solve the mysteries.

Mystery

Police are investigating the mysterious disappearance of a valuable dingo from the local zoo. The only clues are given in the picture below"

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your conclusions?

Mystery 2
rs Adams heard strange noises coming from outside her bedroom window during the right. In the morning she went to investigate and found the following in the garden bed.
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V/hat are your conclusions?

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Active Science 4

Frog Lifecyle
Animals Yary in their life cycles.

Below are the stages in a frog's life. Describe the changes that you can see.

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Frog Habitat
Some animals live in water.

Write a few sentences explaining why you think water is so important to frogs"

Design a layout for a frog aquarium. Draw your design in the space provided below. It must contain a suitable habitat for eggs, tadpoles and adult frogs. Hint: Think about the sort of environment frogs need at each stage of their life cycle.
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Frogs and Toads


Animals can be gruuped and identilied by theh charactedstics,

Collect live specimens of a frog and a toad, or find pictures of them in the library. Describe and draw them below.
Describe the physical features of a frog and draw a picture.

Describe the physical features of a toad and draw a picture.

What differences can vou see?

Measure how far each can jump.


Which jumped the furthest? Which jumped the highest?
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Active Science 4

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Animals Review

1,

Draw these two stages in the life cycle of a fly. (a) maggot (b) adult flY

2.

ldentify the five tracks hidden in this puzzle.


1.

2.

3. 4.
5. 3. Give two differences between a tadpole and a frog.
(a)

(b)

4.

Fill in the missing words, from the list given below" Use each word only once.

tails, rough, tongue, fatter, damp, cold, same, shorter, swim, insects
Frogs and toads look the
have
.

Toads are

and and
The feet on the

back legs. A toad's skin is


Frogs and toads have no

frog's back legs help

it

to

Frogs and

toads

eat

They use their long sticky

to catch food.

Frogs and toads are


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-blooded.

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Active Science 4

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Some substances can be rcadily changed

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one state to another.

A liquid will change to a solid if it is cooled to its freezing point. The molecules in the Iiquid slow down as it cools. When the liquid reaches freezing pointthe molecules stop moving and the liquid becomes a

solid.

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Experiment: freezing water


Fill a plastic container with water. Observe the water in the container and record your findings in the table below. Put the container in a freezer. Take the container out of the

freezer after one hour, two hours and a day and record your observations below.

After one hour

temperarure

shape of container

colour

transparency

weight

How was solid water different from liquid water?

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Active Science 4

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Freezing Liquids
Substances can be changed under the inlluence 0f appropriate conditions.

iind seven plastic containers that are the same size and shape. Half fill each contalner ,,rith equal amounts of the following liquids:
:ap water, salty water, fullcream milk, skim milk, orange juice, vinegar, cooking oil
Dlace the containers in the freezer at the same time. Check on them quickly every half nour. 0n the graph below record how long it takes for each liquid to freeze.

Discuss:

. .

Which liquid froze first? Did any liquids notfreeze after five hours? Was there anydifference in freezingtime between the tap water and salty

water? Why did this

happen? Was there any difference in freezing time between the skim milk and fullcream milk? Why?

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rVhy do you think they didn't freeze?
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lVhich liquids didn't freeze after five hours?

Active Science 4

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Melting lce
Some substances can be readily changed fmm one state t0 another.

Place five ice blocks of the same shape and size on five Put one saucer in each of the following locations:

saucers.

3. 4. 5.

Outside in full sunlight. Outside in the shade of a tree Inside near a window. In a cupboard. In a refrigerator.

In what order do you think

the ice blocks will melt?


3rd
4th 5th

1st

2nd

Watch the ice blocks as they melt and record vour observations in the table below.

c o

60
mrnutes

melting 0r0er

It'a!'e your predictions correct?

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Active Science 4

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Evaporation
Substances can be changed undel the inlluence of appropriate c0nditi0ns.

Evaporation is the process where a liquid turns into a gas. Molecules in a liquid are
constantly moving. Every now and then they collide. Sometimes when two molecules collide one is given enough of a bump to leave the surface ofthe liquid and move away rn the air. lt evaporates from the liquid, taking some heat, or energy, with it. The hotter the liquid gets, the faster the molecules move around and the more often they collide. lVlore molecules are given enough of a bump to leave the liquid, and it evaporates more quickly.

Evaporation Experiment Collect four jar lids. Put the following ingredients on each lid.
Lid Lid Lid Lid

1: 2: 3: 4:

3 3 3 3

tablespoons tablespoons tablespoons tablespoons

of of of of

water.

water, water, water,

1 1

tablespoon of food colouring. tablespoon of sand. tablespoon of salt.

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Draw and describe the contents of each jar lid below:

Lid 1: Water

Lid 2: Water and food colouring

Lid 3: Water and sand

Lid 4: Water and salt

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Predict what will happen if you leave each lid in the sun for a few days. Lid 1:
Lid 2: Lid 3: Lid 4:

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Now leave the lids in a sunny spot for two to three days. What has happened to the contents of each lid? Draw and describe below:

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Lid 1: Water

Lid 2: Water and food colouring

Lid 3: Water and sand

Lid 4: Water and salt

Do you think the water evaporates as pure water or do some of the other ingredients

evaoorate with the water? Explain

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Actve Science 4

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Volcanoes
Suhstances can be changed under the influence 0f apprupriate c0nditions.

volcano is an opening in the earth's crustfrom which lava, cinder and hot gases erupt, Volcanoes form when hot liquid rock and gases force their way to the surface of the earth from deep below the ground. The liquid rock, called magma, comes from deep rvithin the earth's crust. When the magma reaches the surface and flows out of the volcano it is called lava. This lava, as well as rock cinders, piles up around the opentng, forming a cone-shaped mountain. When a volcano has lava and cinders coming out t i< qeid tn hc prr rntino
There are many thousands of volcanoes around the world. lvlost of the volcanoes are located in a ring around the Pacific 0cean, called'The Ring of Fire'. lVlostvolcanoes are inactive. This means that they don't often erupt. When they do erupt, volcanoes can be very dangerous.

Labelthe diagram belowwith the words provided. Then match each word to its meaning.

crater

magma

volcano

vent

tava

asn

pipe

Mountain or hill with a central pipe through which lava, ash and gas erupt onto the earth's surface.

Very fine pieces of lava blown into the air during an


eruptron.

Molten rock deep inside the crust.


Hole through which lava and gas reaches the surface.

Passage through which the magma rises. Circular opening of a volcano. Molten rock ooured onto the earth's surface"
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Matter Review
1. (a)

Waterisal-----. {b) lce is water in its s


(c) Steam is water in its g

2. How is solid water different from liquid water?

- form. - -

form.

3.

Number these liquids in the order in which they would freeze. Explain your answer. pure water salty water

skim milk

cooking oil

4.

What is evaporation?

5.

(a)

v----

isa mountain or hili with a central pipe through which

lava, ash and gas may erupt onto the earth's surface.

(b) Unjumble these volcanic words.


mmaag
aavl sha pepl

tnev
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Active Science

Environmental Sounds
Sounds can be pr0duced by both living and nonliving obiects.

Sound is around you all the time. In the morning you may be greeted by the sound of an alarm clock, or birds singing. During the day you can hear many different sounds, produced by both living and non-living things in our environment. You may hear the voices of other people, the whistling of the wind, the hum of air-conditioning or the sound of traffic. All the sounds you hear have one thing in common. All sounds are produced by vibrations. When an oblect vibrates it makes the air around it vibrate as well. These vibrations travel through the air to your ears. Your ears pick these vibrations up and tell your brain about them. The brain then interprets the vibrations as different sounds. While the sounds that you normally hear travel through the air, sound can also travel through liquids and solids.

1. List four

sounds you can hear in each of the following school areas:

(a) Classroom

(b) Library

(c) Playground

(d) Music room

(e) Bike racks

(f)

Street

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2.

Predict and describe the sounds you would hear in the following locations:
Rock concert

Hospital

Airport

7oo

Beach

3.

How do you think the sounds at the zoo and the beach might be the same? How might they be different?

4.

How do you think the sounds at a rock concert and an airport might be the same? How might they be different?

5.

How does the surrounding environment affect what sounds are heard in an area?

6.

Can we change the sounds we hear around us? How?

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Aclive Science 4

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Voices
Sound is detected by the ear.

1. Listen carefully as your partner says the names of four obj

(a) in a whisper from the front of the classroom; (b) in a normal voice; and (c) in a normal voice while the radio is turned uo loudlv. Record what you heard on the back of this sheet. Then get your partner to recor0 what he or she said next to your answers.

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2.

Repeat the activity using a rolled-up sheet of paper placed over one ear. Record the results on the back of this sheet aeain. Did the paper trumpet make the sounds easier to hear?

3.

Would having a larger outer ear improve your hearing?

Animals and their hearing


A bat's exceptional navigational skills depend on its ears and vocal

chords. Bats make

very high-pitched sounds, beyond the range of normal human hearing. These sounds bounce off objects around the bat. The bat listens to this reflected noise with its large sensitive ears. lt interprets the reflected noise to'see'its environment. The owl also has sensitive hearing. lts ears are hidden in the feathers on its head. When an owl listens it spreads out the feathers and skin that cover its ears. These form into large funnels which collect even the tiniest sound.

Library Research
Find a clear picture of any animal showing at least one of its ears. Draw the picture 0etow. What do you notice about the shape, size,

position, mobility and flexibility of this


animal's ears?

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Active Science 4

Musical Sounds
Sound can be pmduced hy nonliving 0biects.

A musical instrument is any device that can produce a musical soundYou can make a simple musical instrument, called a maraca, by putting some small stones into a plastic bottle. When you shake the bottle it will make a sound. Try varying the amount of stones in the bottle to make different sounds. The maraca is a percussive instrument, because the sound it makes is produced by

objects hitting each other. you fillthe bottle lf you blow across the top of an open bottle itwillalso make a sound. lf with different levels of water it will make different sounds" The sound is made when the air in the bottle vibrates as air passes over the opening at the top. This kind of musical instrument is called a wind instrument, because wind is used to make the sound. String instruments produce musical sounds when a string or strings are plucked or strummed. These strings vibrate and produce a sound. ComDlete the table below.

lnstrument

Materials used to make this instrument

How sound is made

tamDounne triangle

xylophone

from scrap materials. Draw a diagram of your instrument on the back of this sheet.
lVlake your own musical instrument

What materials did you use?

How is the sound made?

Describe the sound it makes.

a.l.C. Publications

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Guessing the lemperature


Temperature is the mea$ulement 0f the heat 0l a substance.

Temperature is the measure of how hot or cold something is. A thermometer is an instrument for measuring temperature.

Predicttoday's minimum and maximum temperatures. Record your prediction in the table below. Then watch the weather reoort on the news and record what the minimum and maximum temperatures were for your area. Continue predicting and recording the temperature for a week.
Predicted TemDerature
Day Date

Actual TemDerature Minimum Maximum

Minimum
l\.4onday

Maximum

Tuesday

Wediesday
Thursday
Ft day Saturday
SLrnday

How accurate were your predictions?

2.

Estimate the temperatures ofthe following. Ask your teacher for the answers to see if you were correct. Use a thermometer if possible to measure the temperature of an ice block and taD water.

prediction
baking a cake

actual

measured

making ice blocks


normal body temperature

tap water temperature

3.

Your body is not very good at accurately measuring temperature. Test this by placing your left hand in a bowl of (bearably) hot water and your right hand in a bowl of icy cold water. Leave for a minute- Now place both hands in a bowl of lukewarm water.

How does the hand from the hot water bowl feel?
How does the hand from the cold water bowl feel? Explain on the back of this sheet why you think this happened.
a,i.C. Puhlications

Activ Science 4

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Heat
The gain or loss of heat in a substance can cause changes in that substance.

Heatis a form of energy. Heat flows from hotthings to cold things. You cannot see heai, but you can feel it. When you hold a cup of hot water, heat from the water flows througn the cup andwarmsyour hands. lf you don't dress warmly on a cold day, heatflows from your body and you feel cold.
All things are made of tiny invisible particles called molecules. When a substance is heated these molecules move around faster. In a cold piece of chocoiate, all the molecules are packed very closely together and don't move much. lf you hold the chocolate in your warm hand it will become soft and melt. You have given heat to the chocolate, and the molecules in the chocolate have started to move faster. The heat you have given to the chocolate has made these molecules move about a lot more, so the chocolate isn't solid any more. lf you put the chocolate in a saucepan on a stove and add more heat to the chocolate it will melt and become a liquid. From the following list of items, tick the changes that occurred as a result of heating.

Colour
rce

Smell

Taste

Volume

Other Observations

p0pc0rn

carrot

raw meat
nce

butter
0nton

chocolate macar0nl
bread

jelly

Further Activity

Lemon Sago

Ingredients: 1 cup sago, syrup, 4 cups water.

cup sugar, juice of 2 lemons,

tablespoon treacle or golden

Put all the ingredients into a saucepan and bring to the boil, stining to keep free from lumps until it is thick and clear. Draw and describe the ingredients on the back of this sheet before and after heating.
R.I.C. Publications

M.ricsroup.com.au

34

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Conductons and Insulatorc


Some substances conduct heat readily, while olherc do

not

A substance that allows heat to move through it easily is called a conductor. For example, metals are good heat conductors. A substance that does not conduct heat very well is called an insulator. Wood and wool are good insulators. Insulators help to keep hot things hot and cold things cold, because they stop heat from flowing out of or into things.
With bare feet stand on a tiled floor. Then stand on a carpeted floor. Both floor coverings are the same temperature but the tiles feel colder. Tiles are good conductors because

theyallowthe heatto flow awayfrom yourfeeteasily, making them feelcold. The carpet is a good insulator because it does not conduct the heat away from your feet very well. Your feet don't lose heat and so they stay warm.

0n the back of this sheet draw yourself dressed in warm clothing for winter. Label each item of clothing and what it is made of.
Exoeriment Collect a variety of different bowls made of wood, plastic, metal and ceramics. Into each bowl put a small piece of butter. Place each bowl in turn into a sauceoan of hot water or onto a stove. Warning: Be careful when handling hot water or using a hot stove. Time how long ittakes forthe butterto melt in each ofthe bowls, from when you start heating the bowl until when the butter has completely melted. Fill out the table below"
Made of Bowl
1

2.

Time taken in minutes for butter to melt

Good conductor or good insulator?

wood metal plastic ceramrc glass

Bowl 2 Bowl 3 Bowl 4 Bowl 5 Bowl 6

Which material made the best conductor? Which material made the best insulator?

R l,C. Publicabbrs

Acaive Science

"it -V

Magnets
Magnets haye an effect 0n some substances and not on 0thers.

Sort the following objects into the two groups below. You can include more objects if you like. plastic spoon, piece of wood, copper pipe, eraser, coin, iron nail, glass marble, ball bearing, brass screw, strip of cloth, lead pencil, pin, needle, iron filings, paper, paperclip, staples, crayon, chalk. A. Magnetic objects: items which you think will be attracied to a magnet. B. Non-magnetic objects: items which you think will not be attracted to a magnet.
A. lvlagnetic objects B. Non-magnetic Objects

0bject

Test

0bject

Test

Nowtry picking up each objectwith a magnetto see if your guesses were correct. Tick every correct guess in the table. How are the magnetic objects the same as each other and different from the non-magnetic objects?

R.l.C. Publication.

ActNe Scienee 1

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Compasses
Magnets can be identified hy theil elfects 0n certain substances.

Fill in the missing words on the compass below.

Words: West

South

North

South-east North-west South-west

East North-east

N-w

N-e

Draw a plan of your classroom below. Put in a compass rose to show what directions north. south, east and west are in the classroom.

R.l.C. Pubnbations

Active Science 4

vr
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loud high Glass breaking School siren Dog barking Person whispering Guitar strumming

Energy Review
trey

Choose two words for each item from the following list to describe tne sounds maKe.

soft
row

preasant clear

unpleasant muffled

2. Name the instrument used to measure temperature:

At__
3. classify the following materials as either heat conductors or heat insurators. List one use for each material as a conductor or an insulator. Conductor ot insulator?
Use as a conductor or insulator

4.

Name the four major compass points:


1.

3.

5.

Circle the items below that would be attracted to a masnet.

U\

R.l.C. Plblications
I

38

Acttve Scbnce

www. ricp u blicatio n s,co m. a u

Copyr'ight lnlormation
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purpos

of @pbduclion.

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