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10 - 1

(Open Channel Flow)

10 - 2

(Natural Channel)

(Channel Flow)

()

(Hydraulic
Engineering)

10 - 3

10 - 4

(Longitudinal
)(TransverseLateral)(
Vertical)x
yz

(Artificial Channel)

u(z)

x
u(y)

m
1

10 - 5

uvw
u(x)

10 - 6

(Steady flow) (Unsteady


flow) VQ

dV
0
dt

(Uniform Flow)(Non-Uniform Flow)


Vh
x
dV
0
dx

dQ
0
dt

dh
0
dx

10 - 7

10 - 8

10.2 (Steady, Uniform Flow)


x

(Uniform Flow)

(GVF,
Gradually Varied Flow)

FP1

(Non-Uniform Flow)

(RVF,
(Rapidly Varied Flow)

FP2

Fp1 Fp2 + W sin o Px = 0

Fp1 = A1h1/2Fp2 = 2h2/2


xP
(Wet perimeter)
10 - 9

10 - 10

FP1

FP2

r
L

( < 5o)

h1 = h2
A1 = A2Fp1 = Fp2

sin S
= 3o =

A
o = sin
P

(Hydraulic radius) :

180

= 0.0526

radian

sin 3 = 0.05238
R

A
=
P

[L]
Slope

o = sin Rh
10 - 11

S=

H r

=
L r
10 - 12

( < 5o)

sin S

S = H/L()

p = B + 2h

o = SRh

A
Bh
=
P B + 2h

Rh =
L

B >> h
Rh h

10 - 13

10 - 14

(Manning equation)

(Chezy equation)

V 2
o = cf
= S Rh
2

V=

1 2/ 3 1/ 2
Rh S
n

V=

cf()V

2g
R hS = C
cf

(Manning)

R hS

: Rh (m)
: V (m/s)

n RhS

C = 30 ~ 100cf
C

Q =

1
A R h2 / 3 S 1 / 2
n

: Rh (m)
Q (m3/s)

10 - 15

(Manning equation)

(Manning coeff.)

10 - 16

1
: Rh (m)
V = R 2 / 3 S1 / 2

()

0.012

0.020

0.030

()

0.014

0.025

0.035

0.016

0.030

0.040

0.025

0.035

0.050

n
1
Q = AR 2h / 3S1 / 2
n

: V (m/s)
: Q (m3/s, cms)

V=

Q=

n
10 - 17

1.486 2 / 3 1 / 2
Rh S
n

1.486
AR h2 / 3S1 / 2
n

: Rh (ft)
: V (ft/s)
: Q (ft3/s, cfs)
10 - 18

B = 1.2 m0.001
0 .3 =

n = 0.02Q = 0.3 cms


h

1
(1.2 h ) 1.2 h
0.02
1 .2 + 2 h

2/3

(0.001)1 / 2
h

(1.2 h )5 / 3
(1.2 + 2h )2 / 3 = 0.190

h = 0.33 m
h = 0.40 m

Q=

h = 0.41 m

1
A R h2 / 3 S1 / 2
n

h = 0.407 m

(1.2 h )5 / 3 = 0.142
(1.2 + 2h )2 / 3
(1.2 h )5 / 3 = 0.185
(1.2 + 2h )2 / 3
(1.2 h )5 / 3 = 0.192
(1.2 + 2h )2 / 3
(1.2 h )5 / 3 = 0.190
h 0.407 m
(1.2 + 2h )2 / 3

10 - 19

10 - 20

cos = h 0.05.D5 D = 0.30.20.2

D = 0.4 m
S = 0.001h = 0.3 mQ

P = D

= 60

240 o 2
= D
360 o 3

A=

2 2 D2
sin cos = 0.101 m 2
D +
3 4 4

Rh =

A
= 0.12 m
P

n = 0.012
Q=

1
A R h2 / 3 S1 / 2
n

Q = 0.065 m3/s
10 - 21

10 - 22

(Compound Channel)

10.3 (Compound Channel)

(Main
channel) (Overbank area
Flood plain)

10 - 23

10 - 24

(Compound Channel)

0.0006
n1 = 0.03 n2 = 0.04

i =1

i =1

Q = Qi =
Q1

200 m

150 m

4m

1
A i R 2hi/ 3S1 / 2
ni
Q2

100 m

1m

2m

Q3

10 - 25

100 m

200 m

10 - 26

(Froude number)

150 m

4m

1m

2m

Fr =

0.03

0.04

0.04

A (m2)

800

200

150

P (m)

205

102

151

Rh (m)

3.90

1.96

0.99

So

0.0006

0.0006

Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3

V (m/s)

2.02

0.96

0.61

1619

192

91

Fr = 1.0

(Critical flow)

Fr > 1.0

(Super-critical flow)

= 1619 + 192 + 91 = 1902cms

V=

0.0006

Q (m3/s)

V
gh

Fr =

Q
1902
=
= 1.654 m / s
A 200 + 800 + 150

V
gh

Fr < 1.0

1.65
= 0.33
9.81 2.556

(Sub-critical flow)

10 - 27

10.7 (Weir)

10 - 28

1. (Rectangular weir)
b

dz

Ho

10 - 29

0.1H

0.1H

10 - 30

(Rectangular weir)

Q = V2dA =

V2
V2
H + Ho + 1 = z + Ho + 2
2g
2g

2g ( H z ) b dz

0.1H

2
2g b H 3 / 2
3

0.1H

b
0.1H

Ho

Q=

Ho12
HV1

V2 = 2g (H z )

2
2g (b 0.2H ) H 3 / 2
3

Qa
Q a = Cd

2
3

2 g ( b 0.2 H ) H 3 / 2

Cd(Discharge coeff.)
10 - 31

(Triangular weir)

2. (Triangular weir)

1
2

dz

10 - 32

b = 2 z tan
2

b
H

dz

b
z

V = 2g (H z )

Q = V dA =

V(V notch)

2g (H z ) b dz =

8
2g tan H5 / 2
15

Qa
Qa = Cd
10 - 33

8
2g tan H 5 / 2
15

Cd(Discharge coeff.)

10 - 34

Summary
(Manning equation)

V=

1 2 / 3 1/ 2
Rh S
n

Q=

1
AR 2h / 3S1/ 2
n

i =1

i =1

Q = Qi =

1
A i R 2hi/ 3S1 / 2
ni

Suggested exercises:
10.1, 10.4, 10.9, 10.11

(Froude no.)
Fr =

V
gh
10 - 35

10 - 36