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Concentration

Air pollution law in most industrial countries based on concentration of contaminants

NAAQS in US

Any given set of pollutant Meteorological conditions At any location For any time period

But even best currently available concentration models are far from ideal

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Concentration

Commonly express concentration as ppm or g g/m3 Parts per million (ppm) = 1 volume of

1 ppm = __1 1 volume gaseous pollutant pollutant__ 106 volumes (pollutant + air)

Physical nature of effluents Chemical nature of effluents Meteorology L Location i of f the h stack k Nature of terrain downwind from the stack

Stack Effluents

Gas and particulate matter Particles < 20 m behave same as gas

Low settling velocity

P Particle ti l > 20 m have h significant i ifi t settling ttli velocity l it Only gases and Particles < 20 m are treated in dispersion models Others are treated as particulate matter Assumes effluents leave the stack with sufficient momentum and buoyancy

Hot gases continue to rise

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Assumptions

Effluents leave the stack with sufficient momentum and buoyancy

Hot g gases continue to rise

Plume is deflected along its axis in proportion to the average wind speed (u)

Gaussian distribution model Dispersion in y and z directions uses a double gaussian distribution -- plumes Dispersion in (x, y, z) is three-dimensional Used to model instantaneous puff of emissions

Pollution dispersion follows a distribution function Theoretical form: gaussian distribution function

= standard deviation

Gaussian distribution used to model probabilities, in this context formula used to predict steady state concentration at a point down stream

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What are some properties of the normal distribution?

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68% of the area fall within 1 standard deviation of the mean ( 1 ). 95% of f area f fall ll within i hi 1.96 standard d d deviation d i i of f the mean ( 1.96 ). 99.7% 99 7% of the area fall within 3 standard deviations of the mean ( 3 )

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Dispersion in y and z directions are modeled as Gaussian Becomes double Gaussian model Why doesnt doesn t it follow a Gaussian distribution in the x direction?

Direction Di ti of f wind i d

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For localized point sources stacks General appearance Plume exits at height, hs Rises an additional distance, h

buoyancy of hot gases called plume rise reaches distance where buoyancy and upward momentum cease

E Exit it velocity, l it Vs Plume appears as a point source emitted at height hs + h Emission rate Q (g/s) Assume wind blows in x direction at speed u

H=

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Stack gas transported downstream Dispersion in vertical direction governed by atmospheric stability Dispersion in horizontal plane governed by molecular and eddy diffusion x-axis oriented to wind direction z-axis oriented vertically upwards y-direction di ti oriented i t d transverse t to t the th wind i d Concentrations are symmetric about y-axis and zaxis

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Z-axis through stack

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Image source: Cooper and Alley, 2002

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Image source: Cooper and Alley, 2002

Assumes no interference or limitation to dispersion in any direction

x0 and d z0 are location l i of f centerline li of f plume l y0 taken as base of the stack z0 is H Q = emission strength of source (mass/time) g/s u = average wind speed thru the plume m/s C = concentration g/m3 (Notice this is not ppm) y and z are horizontal and vertical standard deviations in meters

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Wind speed varies by height International standard height g for wind-speed p measurements is 10 m Dispersion p of p pollutant is a function of wind speed at the height where pollution is emitted But difficult to develop relationship between height and wind speed

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3 terms gives concentration on the centerline of the plume gives concentration as you move in the sideways direction ( y direction), direction doesnt matter because ( y)2 gives a positive value gives concentration as you move in the vertical direction ( z direction) direction doesn direction), doesnt t matter because ( (z H))2 gives a positive value Concentrations are symmetric about y-axis and z-axis Same concentration at (z-H) = 10 m as (z-H) =10 10 m Close to ground symmetry is disturbed

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Equation 4-6 reduces to

Note in the book there are 2 equation 4-8s (2 different equations just labeled wrong) This is the first one

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A factory emits 20 g/s of SO2 at height H (includes plume rise) Wind speed = 3 m/s (u) At a distance of 1 km downstream, y and z are 30 m and 20 m (given, otherwise we would have to look l k up) ) What are the SO2 concentrations at the centerline of f the th plume l and d at t a point i t 60 meters t to t the th side id and 20 meters below the centerline

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0

ZH=0 Q = 20 g/s of SO2 u = 3 m/s (u) y and z are 30 m and 20 m y = 0 and z = H So reduces to: C(x,0,0) ( , , ) = __20 g g/s __ = 0.00177 g g/m3 = 1770 g g/m3 2(*3*30*20)

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What are the SO2 concentrations at a point 60 meters to the side and 20 meters below the centerline

c = ____Q____ exp-1/2[(-y2) + ( (z-H)2)] 2 u y z [y2 z 2] = ___20 g/s___ exp-1/2 [(-60m)2 + (-20m)2] = 2 3*(30)(20) [(30m)2 (202m)] (0.00177 g/m3) * (exp 2.5) = 0.000145 g/m3 or 145.23 g/m3

At 20 and 60 meters

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Horizontal and vertical dispersion coefficients -- y z are a function

downwind position x Atmospheric stability conditions

Correlated y and z to atmospheric stability and x

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Pasquill-Gifford Curves

Concentrations correspond to sampling times of approx. 10 minutes Regulatory models assume that the concentrations predicted represent 1-hour averages Solid curves represent rural values Dashed lines represent urban values Estimated concentrations represent only the lowest several hundred meters of the atmosphere

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z less certain than y

Especially for x > 1 km

For neutral to moderately unstable atmospheric conditions and distances out to a few kilometers, concentrations should be within a factor of 2 or 3 of actual values Tables 3-1: Key y to stability y classes

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Example

For stability class A, what are the values of y and z at 1 km downstream (assume urban) From Tables 4 4-6 6 and 4 4-7 7

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200

y ~ 220 m

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z ~ 310 m

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Example

For stability bili class l A, what h are the h values l of f y and z at 1 km downstream F From T Tables bl 4-6 4 6 and d 4-7 47

y = 220 m z = 310 m

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Empirical Equations

Often difficult to read charts p equations q Curves fit to empirical y = cxd z = axb

Where

x = downwind d i d distance di t (kilometers) (kil t ) a, b, c, d = coefficients from Tables 4-1 and 4-2

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Example: E l what h are values l of f y and d z at 1 km k downstream for stability class A using equations rather than charts? y = cxd z = axb

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Example: what are values of y and z at 1 km downstream for stability class A using equations rather than charts? y = cxd z = axb Using table 4-2 where x = 1 km a = 453.850 b = 2.11660 2 11660

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Example: what are values of y and z at 1 km downstream for stability class A using equations rather than charts? y = cxd c = 24.1670 24 1670 a = 453.850 453 850 z = axb d = 2.5334 b = 2.11660 Solution y = cxd = 24.1670(1 km)2.5334 = 24.17 m z = axb = 453.85(1 453 85(1 km)2.11660 = 453.9 453 9 m

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Previous equation for concentration of plumes a considerable distance above p ground Ground damps out vertical dispersion Pollutants reflect back up from ground

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Accounts for reflection of gaseous pollutants back into the atmosphere Reflection R fl i at some distance di x is i mathematically equivalent to having a mirror i image i of f the h source at H H Concentration is equal to contribution of both plumes at ground level

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Notice this is also equation 4-8 in text, it is the second equation 4 4-8 8 on the bottom of page 149

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Nitrogen dioxide is emitted at 110 g/s from stack with H = 80 m Wind speed = 5 m/s Plume rise is 20 m Calculate ground level concentration 100 meter from centerline of plume (y) Assume stability class D so y = 126 m and z = 51 m

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Q = 110 g/s

H = 80 m u = 5 m/s h = 20 m y = 100 m

y = 126 m and z = 51 m Effective stack height =80 m + 20 m = 100 m y = 126 m and z = 51 m Solving in pieces _____100 100 g/s g/s____ = 0.000496 2*5*126*51

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Q = 110 g/s

H = 80 m u = 5 m/s h = 20 m y = 100 m

y = 126 m and z = 51 m Solving in pieces exp -[__1002 ] = 0.726149 [2*1252] Solving in pieces exp -[ [ (0 (0-100m) 100m)2 ] = 0.146265 [2*512]

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Q = 110 g/s

H = 80 m u = 5 m/s h = 20 m y = 100 m

y = 126 m and z = 51 m Solving in pieces both sides of z portion are same so add c = 0.000496 * 0.726149 * (2 * 0.14625) = 0.000116 g/m3 or 116.4 g/m3

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Often want ground level

People, property exposed to pollutants

Previous eq. gives misleadingly low results near ground Pollutants reflect back up from ground

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Equation for ground level concentration 1 Z=0

1

1 + 1 cancels 2

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C- stability class H = 50 m Q = 95 g/s p is 3 m/s Wind speed What is ground level concentration at 0.5 km downwind, along the centerline? From Figure 4-6, y = 90 m, From Figure 4-7, z = 32 m

C= 95 x 106 g/s * (3 m/s)(90 m)(32 m) exp[-(502)] exp [0] = 1023.3 g/m3 [ 2(32)2]

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Effect of ground reflection increases ground concentration Does not continue indefinitely Eventually diffusion in y-direction y direction (crosswind) and z-direction decreases concentration

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For moderately unstable to neutral conditions z = 0.707H Cmax, reflection = 0.1171Q u y z

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What is maximum ground level concentration and where is it located downstream for the following? g Wind speed = 2 m/s H = 71 m Stability Class B Q = 2,500,000 g/s Solution: S l i z = 0.707H = 0.707(71m) = 50.2 m From Figure g 4-7, , this occurs at x = 500 m

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At 500 m, y = 120 m

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What is maximum ground level concentration and where is it located downstream for the following? g Wind speed = 2 m/s H = 71 m Stability Class B Q = 2,500,000 g/s Solution: S l i z = 0.707H = 0.707(71m) = 50.2 m From Figure g 4-7, , this occurs at x = 500 m From Figure 4-6, y = 120 m Cmax, reflection = 0.1171Q = 0.1171(2500000) = 24.3 g/m3 u y z (2)(120)(50.2)

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H = h s + h h depends on:

Stack characteristics Meteorological conditions Physical and chemical nature of effluent

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Equation 4-18 Where: h = plume rise (meters) Vs = stack gas exit velocity (m/s) ds = stack exit diameter ( (meters) ) us = wind speed at stack exit (m/s) Qh = heat emission rate in kilojoules per second

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Holland concawe

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Example: From text H t emission Heat i i rate t = 4800 kj/s kj/ Wind speed = 5 mph Stack gas velocity = 15 m/s Stack diameter at top is 2 m Estimate plume rise

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Concentrations calculated in previous examples based on averages over 10-minute 10 minute intervals Current regulatory applications use this as 1-hour average concentration For other time periods adjust by:

3-hr multiply 1-hr value by 0.9 8-hr multiply 1-hr value by 0.7 24-hr multiply 1-hr value by 0.4 annual l multiply lti l 1-hr 1 h value l by b 0.03 0 03 0.08 0 08

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For other time periods adjust by:

3-hr 3 h multiply lti l 1-hr 1 h value l by b 0.9 09 8-hr multiply 1-hr value by 0.7 24-hr multiply u t p y 1-hr va value ue by 0.4 0. annual multiply 1-hr value by 0.03 0.08

Conversion of 1-hr concentration of previous example to an 8hour average = c8-hour g/m3 x 0.7 = 25.5 g g/m3 8 hour = 36.4 g

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Line Sources

Imagine that a line source, such as a highway, g y, consists of an infinite number of point sources The roadway can be broken into finite elements, each representing a point source, and contributions from each element are summed to predict net concentration

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Line Sources

When wind direction is normal to line of emission Ground G dl level l concentration i downwind d i d C( 0) = ___ 2q C(x,0) 2 ___ exp(-0.5H ( 0 5H2) (2)0.5 z u z2 q = source strength per unit distance (g/s * m) Concentration should be uniform in the y-direction at ag given x

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Line Sources

For ground level (H = 0), could also use breathing height 1 C(x 0) = ___ 2q ___ exp( C(x,0) exp(-0.5H 0 5H2) (2)0.5 z u z2

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Pollutant released quickly E l i Explosion Accidental spill Release time << transport time Also based on Gaussian distribution function

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Equation q 4-41 to p predict maximum g ground level concentration Cmax = _____2Qp____ (2)3/2 x y z Receptor downwind would see a gradual increase in concentration t ti until til center t of f puff ff passed d and d then th concentration would decrease Assume x = y

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Puff Example

A tanker spill on the freeway releases 400 400,000 000 grams of chlorine chlorine. What exposure will vehicles directly behind the tanker (downwind) receive if x =100 m? Assume very stable conditions. From Table 4-7,

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Puff Example

A tanker spill on the freeway releases 400 400,000 000 grams of chlorine chlorine. What exposure will vehicles directly behind the tanker (downwind) receive if x =100 m? Assume very stable conditions. From Table 4-7, y = 0.02(100m)0.89 = 1.21

0 61 = 0.83 F From T Table bl 4-7, 4 7 z = 0.05(100m) 0 05(100 )0.61 0 83

x = y = 1.21

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Puff Example

A tanker spill on the freeway releases 400 400,000 000 grams of chlorine chlorine. What exposure will vehicles directly behind the tanker (downwind) receive if x =100 m? Assume very stable conditions. From Table 4-7, y = 0.02(100m)0.89 = 1.21

0 61 = 0.83 F From T Table bl 4-7, 4 7 z = 0.05(100m) 0 05(100 )0.61 0 83

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