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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 6

Coordinate Geometry

6
1. (a) AB = 
(1 4)2 + (2 6)2


(a 2) + [(a + 1) + 1]2 = 
16

= 5 units

(a 2)2 + (a + 2)2
a2 4a + 4 + a2 + 4a + 4
2a2 + 8
a2
a

(b) PQ = 
(1 + 3)2 + (2 4)2
= 
16 + 36
= 
52 units

(c) RS = 
(3 + 1)2 + (4 2)2

4.

= 
4+4
8 units
= 

(p + 1)2 + 16
(p + 1)2
p+1
p

= 
25 + 25

(e) CD = 
(2 2)2 + (0 5)2

1 + 5 ,
3+7
5. (a) Midpoint of AB =
2
2
= (3, 5)

(f) EF = 
(0 3)2 + (4 + 4)2
= 
9+0
= 3 units

1 + 9 ,
51
(b) Midpoint of CD =
2
2
= (4, 2)




 

2

1 4 + (5 + 0.3)2

2 4 ,
3+5
(c) Midpoint of EF =
2
2
= (3, 4)

7 2 + ( 4.7)2

= 
34.34
= 5.86 units

8 2 ,
10 6
(d) Midpoint of GH =
2
2
= (5, 8)

AB = 
10

(2 1)2 + (y 3)2 = 
10
1 + (y 3)2
(y 3)2
y3
y
y

= 16 + 9
=9
= 3
= 3 1
= 4, 2

Since C is in the quadrant IV, therefore p = 2.

= 
0 + 25
= 5 units

AC = AB


(p + 1) + (2 2)2 = 
(3 + 1)2 + (5 2)2

= 
50 units

(g) GH =

= 16
= 16
= 16
=4
= 2

(d) UW = 
(1 4)2 + (0 + 5)2

2.

16
PQ = 

3.

= 
9 + 16

0 + 8 ,
42
(e) Midpoint of IJ =
2
2
= (4, 1)

= 10
=9
= 3
= 3 + 3
= 0, 6

1
8
3 ,
0.6 + 6
(f) Midpoint of KL =
2
2
25
= , 3.3
6




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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 6

6.

7.

12. (a)

Midpoint of AB = (3, 4)

=4
=8
=6

1(1) + 2(4) 1(0) + 2(5)


(x, y) = ,
2+1
2+1
10
= 3,
3
10
The coordinates of P are 3, .
3

Midpoint of PQ = (1, 3)

2 + r = 1

2
2 + r = 2
r=0

(c)

+4
1
+
0.2
2
10. (p, q) = ,
2
2
9

= 0.4,
4
9
Hence, p = 0.4, q =
4

1
A(, 4)
2

 

5 11
The coordinates of P are , .
3 3

(d)
1 0)
B( ,
2

2
1

P(x, y)

A(3, 2)

B(6, 10)

A(2, 4)

nx1 + mx2 ny1 + my2


(x, y) =
,
m+n
m+n
2(2) + 1(6) 2(4) + 1(10)
= ,
1+2
1+2
10
= , 6
3

1
1
1
1 + (3) 1(0) + (2)
2
2
2

(x, y) = ,
1
1
+1
+1
2
2
2
2
= ,
3
3

P(x, y)

2
2
The coordinates of P are , .
3
3

10
The coordinates of P are , 6 .
3

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P(x, y)

5 11
= ,
3 3

1
1(6) + 2
1(3) + 2(4)
2
(x, y) = ,
1+2
1+2

The coordinates of C are (9, 6).

B(6, 3)

2 + y
= 2
2
2 + y = 4
y= 6

and

46
t =
2
= 1

11.

3(1) + 2(3) 3(5) + 2(1)


(x, y) = ,
2+3
2+3
3 13
= ,
5 5
3 13
The coordinates of P are , .
5 5

2 + y
1 + x ,
= (4, 2)

2
2 

B(3, 1)

P(x, y)

1 + 3 ,
4 6 = (s, t)

2
2 
and

A(1, 5)

8. PQ = QR,
that is, Q(s, t) is the midpoint of PR.

1 + x = 4

2
1 + x = 8
x=9

(b)

t4 =3

2
t 4= 6
t = 10

and

1 + 3
s =
2
=1

B(4, 5)

P(x, y)

A(1, 0)

2 + r ,
t 4 = (1, 3)


2
2

9.

 = (3, 4)

1 + 5 ,
t+2

2
2
t+2

2
t+2
t

Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 6

13.

QR
1
=
RS
3
3QR = RS
QR : QS = 1 : 2

2
1

(b) Area of ABC


1 1 4 5 1
=
2 3 2 6 3
1
= (2 + 24 + 15) (12 10 6)
2
1
= 41 + 4
2
45
= unit2
2

S(2, 5)

Q(x, y)

R(1, 4)




2(1) + 1(2) 2(4) + 1(5)


(x, y) = ,
1+2
1+2
13
= 0,
3
13
The coordinates of Q are 0, .
3

(c) Area of ABC


1 0 4 2 0
=
2 1 3 5 1
1
= (0 20 + 2) (4 + 6 + 0)
2
1
= 18 2
2
1
= 20
2
1
= (20)
2
= 10 unit2

14.

1
PS = RS
3
PS
1
=
RS
3
PS : PR = 1 : 2
S(0, 8)

1
2

P(x, y)

 

1
2(0) + 1
2(8) + 1(4)
2

,
(x, y) =
1+2
1+2

1
= , 4
6

1
The coordinates of P are , 4 .
6
15.
A(1, 5)

B(x, y)

1(1) + 2(x) 1(5) + 2(y)


(2, 3) = ,
2+1
2+1

(b) Area of ABCD


1 1 2 3 2 1
=
2 1 1 5 7 1
1
= (1 + 10 + 21 + 2) (2 3 10 7)
2
1
= 34 + 22
2
= 28 unit2

5 + 2y
= 3
3
y=2

and

7
The coordinates of B are , 2 .
2

1 1 4 3 2 1
=
2 2 5 6 3 2
1
= (5 + 24 + 9 + 4) (8 + 15 + 12 + 3)
2
1
= 42 38
2
= 2 unit2

Q(2, 3)

1 + 2x
= 2
3
7
x=
2

17. (a) Area of ABCD

(d) Area of ABC


1 1 2 3 1
=
2 2 4 6 2
1
= (4 + 12 + 6) (4 + 12 + 6)
2
= 0 unit2

1 4)
R( ,
2

1 0 1 3 0
16. (a) Area of ABC =
2 4 2 5 4
1
= (0 + 5 + 12) (4 + 6 + 0)
2
1
= 17 10
2
7

=
unit2
2
3

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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 6

(c) Area of ABCD


1 0 1 2 3 0
=
2 3 4 1 1 3
1
= (0 + 1 + 2 9) (3 8 + 3 0)
2
1
= 6 + 8
2
1
= 2
2
= 1 unit2

21. (a) y = 2x + 1
When x = 0, y = 2(0) + 1
=1
When y = 0, 0 = 2x + 1
1
x=
2
1
x-intercept = ; y-intercept = 1.
2

(b) 2x y + 3 = 0
When x = 0, 0 y + 3 = 0
y=3
When y = 0, 2x 0 + 3 = 0

(d) Area of ABCD


1 0 1 2 3 0
=
2 1 3 5 7 1
1
= (0 + 5 + 14 + 3) (1 + 6 + 15 + 0)
2
1
= 22 22
2
= 0 unit2

3
x=
2

3
x-intercept = ; y-intercept = 3.
2
x
y
(c) + = 2
2
3
x
y

+
=1
4
6
x-intercept = 4; y-intercept = 6

1 1 2 3 1
18. Area of PQR =
2 3 6 9 3
1
= (6 + 18 + 9) (6 + 18 + 9)
2
= 0 unit2
Since the area is zero, therefore the points P, Q and
R are collinear.

64
22. (a) Gradient =
23
= 2
25
(b) Gradient =
43
= 3
4 2
(c) Gradient =
3 (1)
6
=
4
3
=
2

13
Area of OBC =
2
x
0
3
0
13
1

=
2
2 0 2 5 0

19.

(0 + 15 + 0) (0 + 2x + 0) = 13
15 2x = 13

3 0
(d) Gradient =
4 (5)
= 3

15 2x = 13
or 15 2x = 13
2x = 15 13
2x = 15 + 13
x= 1
x = 14

y-intercept
23. (a) Gradient =
x-intercept
3
=
2
2
(b) Gradient =
3
2
=
3
4
(c) Gradient =
2

3
3
= 4
2
= 6

20. Area of PQRS


1 0 1 2 3 0
=
2 1 4 7 10 1
1
= (0 + 7 + 20 + 3) (1 + 8 + 21 + 0)
2
1

= 30 30
2
= 0 unit2
Since the area is zero, therefore P, Q, R and S are
collinear.

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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 6

(d)

x
y

=2
2
5
x
y

=1
4
10

(c) The equation of line AB is


y5
2 5
=
x (1)
0 (1)
y5
= 7
x+1
y 5 = 7(x + 1)
= 7x 7
7x + y + 2 = 0

10
Gradient =
4
5
=
2
(e)

x
y
1

+=
4
3
2
x
y
1
2 + = 2
4
3
2
x
2y
+ = 1
2
3
3

2
Gradient =
2
3
=
4

26. (a) The equation of the straight line is


x
y

+ = 1
x-intercept y-intercept
y
x

+
=1
3
4
y
x
(b) + = 1
3
1
x
y=1
3
y
x
(c) + = 1
1
2
y
x=1
2

 

24. (a) The equation of the straight line is


y 2 = 4(x 1)
y = 4x 4 + 2
y = 4x 2

y
x
(d) + = 1
1

2
y
2x = 1
4

(b) The equation of the straight line is


y 3 = 4(x + 1)
y = 4x 4 + 3
y = 4x 1
(c) The equation of the straight line is
1
y + 6 = (x 2)
4
1
1
y = x 6
4
2
1
13
y = x
4
2

27. (a) y = 3x + 1
Gradient, m = 3
y-intercept = 1
When y = 0, 0 = 3x + 1
1
x=
3
1
x-intercept =
3
(b) 2y = 4x 3
3
y = 2x
2
Gradient, m = 2
3
y-intercept =
2
3
When y = 0, 2x =
2
3
x=
4
3
x-intercept =
4
(c) 2x + y = 5
y = 2x + 5
Gradient , m = 2
y-intercept = 5
When y = 0, 2x = 5
5
x=
2
5
x-intercept =
2

25. (a) The equation of line AB is


y1
41
=
32
x2
=3
y 1 = 3(x 2)
= 3x 6
3x y 5 = 0
(b) The equation of line AB is
y (3)
5 (3)
=
1 (2)
x (2)
y+3
= 2
x+2
y + 3 = 2(x + 2)
= 2x 4
2x + y + 7 = 0

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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 6

29. (a) y = 3x 1 ....................... 


y = 4x + 5 ....................... 

1
(d) 2y x + 5 = 0
2
1
2y = x 5
2
1
5
y = x
4
2
1
Gradient, m =
4
5
y-intercept =
2
1
5
When y = 0, x =
4
2
x = 10
x-intercept = 10

 = ,

Substitute x = 6 into ,
y = 3(6) 1
= 19
Point of intersection = (6, 19)
(b) x + 2y = 1 ................................... 
x

4 = 3y.................................. 
2
 2,

y
x
(e) + = 1
2
3

(b)

=0
= 4
4
=
4

(c)

=1

(c) 2x + 3y = 5 .................................. 
6x 2y = 1 ................................ 
 3, 6x + 9y = 15 ................ 
 ,
11y = 16
16
y =
11
16
Substitute y = into ,
11
16
2x + 3 = 5
11
48
2x = 5
11
7

=
11
7
x =
22
7 16
Point of intersection ,
22 11

 

2
x
6
2
3x
3x 2y 6

y
=+1
3
y
=6 +1
3
= 2y + 6
=0

x+1

3
4(x + 1)
4x + 4
4x 3y + 4

y
=
4
= 3y
= 3y
=0

7
y=
8

11
7
Point of intersection = ,
4
8

2y = 3x 1
3x 2y 1 = 0

 

8y = 7

7
Substitute y = into ,
8
7
x+2 =1
8
7
x=1+
4
11
=
4

12
Gradient, m =
8
3
=
2
x-intercept = 8
y-intercept = 12
28. (a)

x 8 = 6y
x 6y = 8 .................... 

 ,

3
Gradient , m =
2
x-intercept = 2
y-intercept = 3
1
1
(f) x y + 4
2
3
1
1

x y
2
3
1
1
x
y
2
3

4
4
y
x
+
8
12

3x 1 = 4x + 5
4x 3x = 1 5
x = 6

30. (a) y = 2x 1
Gradient = 2
2y = 4x + 3
3
y = 2x +
2
Gradient = 2
Hence, the two lines are parallel.

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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 6

3y kx 4 = 0
3y = kx + 4
k
4
y = x +
3
3
k
Gradient =
3
Since the two lines are parallel,
k
= 2
3
k = 6

(b) 3x y + 4 = 0
y = 3x + 4
Gradient = 3
3x + y 5 = 0
y = 3x + 5
Gradient = 3
Hence, the two lines are not parallel.
y
x
(c) + = 1
2
3
3
Gradient =
2
2y = 3x 5
3
5
y = x
2
2
3
Gradient =
2
Hence, the two lines are parallel.

32. (a) y = 3x 6
Gradient = 3
The equation for the parallel line is
y 2 = 3(x 1)
y = 3x 3 + 2
y = 3x 1
(b) 2y = 4x + 3
3
y = 2x +
2
Gradient = 2

31. (a) y = 3x 1
Gradient = 3

The equation for the parallel line is


y 3 = 2(x + 1)
y = 2x + 2 + 3
y = 2x + 5

y = kx + 4
Gradient = k
Since the two lines are parallel,
k = 3

(c) 4x y + 1 = 0
y = 4x + 1
Gradient = 4

(b) y = 4x + 3
Gradient = 4
k
y = x 5
2
k
Gradient =
2
Since the two lines are parallel,
k
=4
2
k= 8

The equation for the parallel line is


y + 2 = 4(x 0)
y = 4x 2
y
x
(d) = 1
2
6
6
Gradient =
2
=3

(c) x + 2y = 4
1
y = x + 2
2
1
Gradient =
2
y 2kx + 3 = 0
y = 2kx 3
Gradient = 2k

The equation for the parallel line is


y + 3 = 3(x + 1)
y = 3x + 3 3
y = 3x
33. (a) y = 4x 1
Gradient = 4

Since the two lines are parallel,


1
2k =
2
1
k=
4
y
x
(d) + = 0
2
4
4
Gradient =
2
= 2

1
y = x + 3
4
1
Gradient =
4
1
m1 m2 = (4)
4
= 1
The two lines are perpendicular.

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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 6

(b) 2y = 6x + 5
5
y = 3x +
2
Gradient = 3

34. (a) y = kx 1
Gradient = k
y = 4x + 3
Gradient = 4

1
y = x 4
3
1
Gradient =
3

m1 m2 = 1
(4)(k) = 1
1
k=
4
(b) 2x + ky = 1
ky = 2x + 1
2
1
y = x +
k
k
2
Gradient =
k
1
y = x 1
6
1
Gradient =
6
m1 m2 = 1
2 1
= 1
k 6
1
= 1
3k
3k = 1
1
k=
3
(c) 2y + 4kx = 3
2y = 4kx + 3
3
y = 2kx +
2
Gradient = 2k

 

1
m1 m2 = (3)
3
= 1
The two lines are perpendicular.
(c) x + 2y = 5
2y = x + 5
1
5
y = x +
2
2
1
Gradient =
2
2y 4x = 7
2y = 4x + 7
7
y = 2x +
2
Gradient = 2

1
m1 m2 = (2)
2
= 1
The two lines are perpendicular.
(d) x y = 8
y=x8
Gradient = 1
2x + y = 1
y = 2x + 1
Gradient = 2

y
x

+=1
2
6
6
Gradient =
2
= 3

m1 m2 = (1)(2)
= 2
The two lines are not perpendicular.

m1 m2 = 1
(2k)(3) = 1
6k = 1

y
x
(e) = 1
2
4
4
Gradient =
2
=2

1
k=
6
1
(d) kx + 2y = 5
2
1
2y = kx +
2
1
y = kx +
4
1
Gradient = k
4
4x + 3y = 6
3y = 4x + 6
4
y = x + 2
3
4
Gradient =
3

3y = x + 6
1
y = x + 2
3
1
Gradient =
3

1
m1 m2 = (2)
3
2
=
3
The two lines are not perpendicular.

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5
5

Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 6

m1 m2 = 1



The equation of the line is


y + 5 = 3(x + 2)
y = 3x + 6 5
y = 3x + 1

1
4
k = 1
4
3
k

= 1
3
k = 3

37. 2x y = 4
y = 2x 4
Gradient = 2

35. (a) y = 4x 1
Gradient = 4

The equation of the line is


y 2 = 2(x + 1)
y = 2x + 2 + 2
y = 2x + 4

The equation of the perpendicular line is


1
y 3 = (x 1)
4
1
1
y = x + + 3
4
4
1
13
y = x +
4
4

6 (3)
38. Gradient of AB =
5 (1)
9
=
6
3

=
2
2
Gradient of PQ =
3

1
(b) y = x + 4
2
1
Gradient =
2
The equation of the perpendicular line is
y 2 = 2(x + 1)
y = 2x + 2 + 2
y = 2x + 4

The equation of line PQ is


2
y 6 = (x 5)
3
2
10
y = x + + 6
3
3
2
28
y = x +
3
3

(c) 2x y = 2
y = 2x 2
Gradient = 2
The equation of the perpendicular line is
1
y + 3 = (x 0)
2
1
y = x 3
2
y
x
(d) + = 1
3
4
4
Gradient =
3
The equation of the perpendicular line is
3
y + 2 = (x + 1)
4
3
3
y = x + 2
4
4
3
5
y = x
4
4

39. (a) The equation of locus is



(x 0)2 + (y 0)2 = 2
x2 + y2 = 4
2
x + y2 4 = 0
(b) The equation of locus is


(x 1)2 + (y 2)2 = 3
(x 1)2 + (y 2)2 = 9
x2 2x + 1 + y2 4y + 4 9 = 0
x2 + y2 2x 4y 4 = 0
(c) The equation of locus is


(x + 1)2 + (y 3)2 = 4
(x + 1)2 + (y 3)2 = 16
x2 + 2x + 1 + y2 6y + 9 16 = 0
x2 + y2 + 2x 6y 6 = 0

36. y = 2x 1............................................ 
y = 4x + 3 ........................................... 

40. (a)

PA
= 1
PB
PA = PB

 = , 2x 1 = 4x + 3
2x = 4
x = 2


(x 0)2 + (y 1)2 = 
(x 2)2 + (y 3)2

Substitute x = 2 into ,
y = 2(2) 1
= 5
Point of intersection = (2, 5)

x2 + (y 1)2 = (x 2)2 + (y 3)2


x2 + y2 2y + 1 = x2 4x + 4 + y2 6y + 9
4x + 4y 12 = 0
x+y3=0
Hence, the equation of locus is x + y 3 = 0.

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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 6

Substitute x = 10 into ,
y = 10

1
PA
=
PB 2
PB = 2PA

(b)

The points of intersection are (10, 10) and (10, 10).


(x + 2)2 + (y 3)2 = 2
(x 1)2 + (y 2)2
(x + 2)2 + (y 3)2 = 4[(x 1)2 + (y 2)2]
x + 4x + 4 + y2 6y + 9 = 4(x2 2x + 1 + y2 4y + 4)
= 4x2 8x + 4 + 4y2 16y + 16
3x2 + 3y2 12x 10y + 7 = 0

44.

5 units
0

Hence, the equation of locus is


3x2 + 3y2 12x 10y + 7 = 0.

The equations of locus are y = 5 and y = 5.

2
PA =

PB 3
3PA = 2PB

(c)

45.

(x + 1)2 + (y 4)2 = 2 


(x + 2)2 + (y + 3)2
3
9[(x + 1)2 + (y 4)2] = 4[(x + 2)2 + (y + 3)2]

y
P(x, y)

9(x2 + 2x + 1 + y2 8y + 16)
= 4(x2 + 4x + 4 + y2 + 6y + 9)

A(1, 2)

PA = y


(x 1)2 + (y 2)2 = y

5x + 5y + 2x 96y + 101 = 0
The equation of locus is
5x2 + 5y2 + 2x 96y + 101 = 0.

(x 1)2 + (y 2)2 = y2
x2 2x + 1 + y2 4y + 4 y2 = 0
x2 2x 4y + 5 = 0
The equation of the locus of P is x2 2x 4y + 5 = 0.

41. Substitute y = 0 into x2 + y2 = 4,


x2 = 4
x = 2
The points of intersection are (2, 0) and (2, 0).
42.

PA = PO

1.


(x 1)2 + (y 2)2 = 
x2 + y2
(x 1)2 + (y 2)2 = x2 + y2
x2 2x + 1 + y2 4y + 4 = x2 + y2
2x + 4y 5 = 0
The equation of locus P is 2x + 4y 5 = 0.

2
3

R(t, 2t)

Q(r, s)

P(2r, 5s)

2(2r) + 3(t) 2(5s) + 3(2t)


(r, s) = ,
3+2
3+2

When x = 0, 4y 5 = 0
5
y=
4
5
y-intercept =
4
When y = 0, 2x 5 = 0
5
x=
2
5
x-intercept =
2

4r + 3t 10s + 6t
= ,
5
5
4r + 3t
r =
5
5r = 4r + 3t
r = 3t ............................................. 
10s + 6t
and s =
5
5s = 10s + 6t
6t = 5s
5
t = s .................................... 
6
Substitute  into ,
5
r = 3 s
6
5
r = s
2

43. x2 + y2 200 = 0 ................................. 


y x = 0 ................................. 
From , y = x .................................... 
Substitute  into ,
x2 + x2 200 = 0
2x2 = 200
x2 = 100
x = 10

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

9x2 + 18x + 9 + 9y2 72y + 144


= 4x2 + 16x + 16 + 4y2 + 24y + 36
2

x
5 units

10

Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 6

x = 1
2

2. y = mx c
Gradient = m

2
x=
5

y = (3 c)x + m
Gradient = 3 c

2
Substitute x = into ,
5
2
y = 2 + 1
5
9
=
5

m1 m2 = 1
(m)(3 c) = 1
1
3c=
m

1
c=3+
m

2 9
The coordinates of Q are , .
5 5

3. 2x + 4y 1 = 0
4y = 2x + 1
1
1
y = x +
2
4
1
Gradient =
2
y
x
=1
6
3
y
x
+
=1
6
3
6
Gradient =
3
=2
1
m1 m2 = (2)
2
= 1
The two straight lines are perpendicular to each
other.




1 x1 x2 x3 x1

2 y y y y
1
2
3
1

6.

1 1 4

2 3 h

2 1
0




= 8

= 8

[(h + 0 + 6) (12 + 2h + 0)]


2
h + 6 12 2h
3h 6
3h
3h = 16 + 6 ,
3h = 22
,
22
h =
3

= 8
= 16
= 16
= 16 + 6

3h = 16 + 6
3h = 10
10
h =
3
10
=
3

y
x
7. (a) The equation of PQ is + = 1.
4
8
(b)
1

y
x
4. + = 1
5
4

 

5
Gradient =
4
5
=
4
Coordinates of P = (4, 0)

Q(0, 8)

S(x, y)

P(4, 0)

1(4) + 3(0) 1(0) + 3(8)


(x, y) = , )
3+1
3+1
= (1, 6)
The coordinates of S are (1, 6).

The equation of the perpendicular line is


4
y 0 = (x + 4)
5
16
4
y = x
5
5

y
x
(c) + = 1
4
8

5. y = 2x + 1
Gradient of QR = 2
1
Gradient of PQ =
2
The equation of line PQ is
1
y = x + 2 ...................................
2
y = 2x + 1 ...................................

8
Gradient of PQ =
4
=2
1
Gradient of RS =
2
Let the coordinates of R be (x1, 0).
06
1
=
x1 (1)
2
6
1
=
x1 (1)
2
x1 + 1 = 12
x1 = 11

1
 = , x + 2 = 2x + 1
2
1

x + 2x = 1 2
2

Hence, the x-intercept of RS is 11.


11

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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 6

8. (a) (i)

Radius of the circle = 


(6 3)2 + (0 2)2
= 
9+4
13 units
= 

(ii)

Substitute  into ,
x + 2(2x 5) 6 = 0
x + 4x 10 6 = 0
5x = 16
16
x =
5

13
PB = 


(x 3) + (y 2)2 = 
13
2

(x 3)2 + (y 2)2 = 13
x2 6x + 9 + y2 4y + 4 13 = 0
x2 + y2 6x 4y = 0

16
Substitute x = into ,
5
16
y = 2 5
5
7
=
5
16 7
The coordinates of Q are , .
5 5

The equation of the locus of point P is


x2 + y2 6x 4y = 0.

 

(ii) Substitute D(t, 4) into the equation of


locus,
t2 + 42 6t 4(4) = 0
t2 6t = 0
t(t 6) = 0
t = 0 or t 6 = 0
t=6
(b)

y = 2x 5 .................. 
x + 2y 6 = 0........................... 

(b)
S(x, y)
3

y
B(3, 2)
O

2
C(6, 0)

16 )
7
Q(,
5 5

R(1, 3)

3(3) + 2y

16 7
3(1) + 2x
,  =  , 

2+3
5 5
2+3
3 + 2x 2y 9
= ,
5
5

E(0, y1)

20
Gradient of BC =
36
2
=
3
3
Gradient of CE =
2

16
3 + 2x
=
5
5
3 + 2x = 16
13
x =
2

(c)

RM = 3


(x 1)2 + (y + 3)2 = 3
(x 1)2 + (y + 3)2 = 9
x2 2x + 1 + y2 + 6y + 9 = 9
x2 + y2 2x + 6y + 1 = 0

1
Area of COE = 6 9
2
= 27 unit2

The equation of the locus of point M is


x2 + y2 2x + 6y + 1 = 0.
10. (a) Area of ABC
1 0 2 2 0
=
2 3 1 4 3
1
= (0 + 8 + 6) (6 + 2 + 0)
2
1
= 14 + 4
2
= 9 unit2

x + 2y 6 = 0
2y = x + 6
1
y = x + 3
2
1
Gradient of PQ =
2
Gradient of RQ = 2

The equation of line RQ is


y + 3 = 2(x 1)
y = 2x 2 3
y = 2x 5
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2y 9
7

=
5
5
2y 9 = 7
y= 8

13
The coordinates of S are , 8 .
2

Let the coordinates of E be (0, y1).


y1 0
3

=
2
06
3
y1 = (6)
2
y1 = 9

9. (a) (i)

and

12

Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 6

3(2) + 1(2) 3(4) + 1(1)


(b) D = ,
1+3
1+3
11
= 1,
4




(c) (i)

AB : AC = 1 : 3
AB : BC = 1 : 2

2(2) + 1(x) 2(0) + 1(y)


(0, 4) = ,
1+2
1+2
y
x4,
=
3
3
y
x4 =0
=4
and

3
3
x=4
y = 12
The coordinates of C are (4, 12).

PA = 2PC


(x + 2)2 + (y 4)2 = 2
(x 2)2 + (y + 1)2
(x + 2)2 + (y 4)2 = 4[(x 2)2 + (y + 1)2]
x2 + 4x + 4 + y2 8y + 16
= 4[x2 4x + 4 + y2 + 2y + 1]
= 4x2 16x + 16 + 4y2 + 8y + 4
3x2 + 3y2 20x + 16y = 0

(ii) Assume the locus intersects the x-axis,


substitute y = 0 into the equation of locus.
3x2 20x = 0
x(3x 20) = 0
20
x = 0, x =
3
Hence, the locus intersects the x-axis at two
points.

6. Area of quadrilateral PQRS


1 0 5 2 1 0
=
2 3 2 6 1 3
1
= (0 + 30 + 2 + 3) (15 4 6 + 0)
2
1
= 35 + 25
2
= 30 unit2

= 
16 + 9
= 5 units
AB = 2BC
5
BC = units
2

AB = 16


(k + 1)2 + (4 3)2 = 16
= 256
= 255
255
= 
= 
255 1

= 255 1, 
255 1

7.

Area of ABC = 16
1
0 k 1
1

= 16
2 2 3 4 2

(3 + 0 + 2k) (0 + 3k 4) =


1 k =
1k=
k=

1 + 7 ,
2+6
E =
2
2
= (4, 4)

32
32
32 or 1 k = 32
31
k = 33

5 (1)
8. (a) Gradient =
3 (3)
=1

4.
2
1

3. E is the midpoint of AC.

1 0 5 3 0
Area of BCD =
2 3 2 6 3
1
= (0 + 30 + 9) (15 + 6 + 0)
2
1
= 39 21
2
= 9 unit2

1. AB = 
(5 1)2 + (5 2)2

(k + 1)2 + 1
(k + 1)2
k+1
k

5. Let the coordinates of D be (0, y).


Gradient of CD = Gradient of AC
y6
61
=
3 (2)
03
y 6 = 3(1)
y=3

The equation of the locus of point P is


3x2 + 3y2 20x + 16y = 0.

2.

C(x, y)

The equation of line ABCD is


y 5 = 1(x 3)
y= x 3 + 5
y= x + 2

B(0, 4)

A(2, 0)

13

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 6

(b) Substitute x = 2 and y = k into the equation,


4 + k2 + 2(2) 4k 20 = 0
k2 4k 12 = 0
(k 6)(k + 2) = 0
k 6 = 0 or k + 2 = 0
k=6
k = 2

(b) y-intercept = 2
When y = 0, 0 = x + 2
x = 2
x-intercept = 2
9. (a) Gradient of RQ = 2
1
Gradient of PQ =
2
The equation of PQ is
1
y + 1 = (x + 4)
2
1
y = x + 2 1
2
1
y = x + 1
2

12.

(x 1)2 + (y 4)2 = 2


(x 3)2 + (y + 2)2
3
2
2
9[(x 1) + (y 4) ] = 4[(x 3)2 + (y + 2)2]
9(x2 2x + 1 + y2 8y + 16)
= 4(x2 6x + 9 + y2 + 4y + 4)
9x2 18x + 9 + 9y2 72y + 144
= 4x2 24x + 36 + 4y2 + 16y + 16

(b) For y = 2x + 1,
when y = 0, 0 = 2x + 1
1
x=
2
1
The x-intercept of RQ is .
2

5x2 + 5y2 + 6x 88y + 101 = 0


The equation of the locus of point P is
5x2 + 5y2 + 6x 88y + 101 = 0.

10. (a) 2x y = 4
y = 2x 4
Gradient of CD = 2
Gradient of AB = 2

13. (a) Substitute x = 1 and y = k into x2 + y2 = 4,


1 + k2 = 4
k2 = 3
3
k = 

The equation of line AB is


y 5 = 2(x 2)
y = 2x 4 + 5
y = 2x + 1
(b)

3 0
(b) Gradient of OA =
10
3
= 
1
Gradient of tangent at A =
3
The equation of the tangent at A is
1
3 = (x 1)
y 
3
1
1
y = x + + 
3
3
3
4
1
y = x +
3
3

y = x 2 ............................ 
2x y = 4 .................................... 
Substitute  into ,
2x (x 2) = 4
2x + x + 2 = 4
3x = 2
2
x=
3
2
Substitute x = into ,
3
2
y= 2
3
8
=
3

 

14. (a) Let the coordinates of C be (x, y).


2 + x 2 + y
(4, 0) = ,
2
2
2 + y
2+x
= 4 and = 0
2
2
x=6
y= 2
The coordinates of C are (6, 2).

2
8
The coordinates of D are , .
3
3
11. (a)

PA = 5


(x + 1)2 + (y 2)2 = 5

0 (2)
(b) Gradient of BC =
42
=1
Gradient of AD = 1

(x + 1)2 + (y 2)2 = 25
2
x + 2x + 1 + y2 4y + 4 25 = 0
x2 + y2 + 2x 4y 20 = 0

The equation of line AD is


y 0 = 1(x 4)
y = x + 4

The equation of the locus of point P is


x2 + y2 + 2x 4y 20 = 0.

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

AP : PB = 2 : 3
AP
2
=
3
PB
3AP = 2PB

14

Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 6

(b) Gradient of AD = Gradient of BC


4 (8)
=
3 (1)
=3

(c) Let the point of intersection of BC at the y-axis


be E(0, y).
Gradient of BD = Gradient of BE
y (2)
1 =
02
2 = y + 2
y = 4
The y-intercept of line BC is 4.

The equation of line AD is


y 6 = 3(x + 3)
= 3x + 9
y = 3x + 15
(c) Let the coordinates of D be (x, y).
Midpoint of BD = Midpoint of AC
3 + (1) 6 + (8)
3+x 4+y
, = ,
2
2
2
2
= (2, 1)

15. (a) Area of PQR


1 3 2 6 3
=
2 5 3 1 5
1
= (9 2 + 30) (10 + 18 + 3)
2
1
= 37 11
2
= 13 unit2

3+x
= 2
2
x = 7

(b) Let the intersection of line PQ and the y-axis be


S(0, y1).
Gradient of PS = Gradient of PQ
y1 5
53
=

3 (2)
03
2
y1 5 = (3)
5
6
y1 = + 5
5
19
=
5
19
The y-intercept of line PQ is .
5
1
(c)
QM = MR
2
QM : MR = 1 : 2
Q(2, 3)

2 7
= ,
3 3

Substitute  into ,
x 2(x 2) + 4 = 0
x + 8 = 0
x=8




17. (a) Gradient of BC = Gradient of CD


0 (3)
=
2 (1)
=1
The equation of line BC is
y 0 = 1(x 2)
y = x 2 .........
Equation of AB, x 2y + 4 = 0 ...............

R(6, 1)

4+y
= 1
2
4 + y = 2
y = 6

and

(d) Area of rectangle ABCD


1 3 3 7 1 3
=
2 4 6 6 8 4
1
= (18 + 18 + 56 4) (12 42 + 6 24)
2
1
= 88 + 72
2
= 80 unit2

2(2) + 1(6) 2(3) + 1(1)


(x, y) = ,
1+2
1+2

The coordinates of D are (7, 6).

1
M(x, y)

 

Substitute x = 8 into ,
y=82
=6

2 7
The coordinates of M are , .
3 3
16. (a) Let the intersection of line BC and the y-axis be
E(0, y).
Gradient of BE = Gradient of BC
4 (8)
y4
=
03
3 (1)
12
y 4 = 3
= 9 4

The coordinates of B are (8, 6).


(b)

B(8, 6)
3

 

C(1, 3)

E(x, y)

y = 5
The y-intercept of line BC is 5.

15

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 6

3x + 2(8) 3y + 2(6)
(1, 3) = ,
2+3
2+3
3x + 16 3y + 12
= ,
5
5
3y + 12
3x + 16
= 1 and = 3
5
5
3x = 21
3y = 27
x = 7
y = 9

Use y-coordinate,
(3)n + 2m

m+n
2m 3n
2m
m

=0
= 3n
3
=
2
CE : EB = 3 : 2

The coordinates of E are (7, 9).


(c)

Area of BCF
1 0 1 8 0
=
2 2 3 6 2
1
= (0 6 + 16) (2 24 + 0)
2
1
= 10 + 26
2
= 18 unit2

19. (a)

18. (a) y = 2x + 6
Gradient of AB = 2
Gradient of CD = 2

(b) Substitute x = 2 and y = k into y = 2x + 6,


k = 2(2) + 6
k=2
Gradient of CE = Gradient of BC
0 (3) 2 (3)
=
p1
21
3 = 5(p 1)
3
p1=
5
8
p=
5

(c) Substitute y = 0 into 3x2 + 3y2 + 4x 8y = 0,


3x2 + 4x = 0
x(3x + 4) = 0
x=0
or 3x + 4 = 0
4
x=
3
4
The points of intersection are (0, 0) and ( , 0).
3

B(2, 2)

8 0)
E(,
5

(d) Substitute x = 0 into 3x2 + 3y2 + 4x 8y = 0,


3y2 8y = 0
y(3y 8) = 0
y = 0 or 3y 8 = 0
8
y=
3
Since there are values for y-coordinate, then the
locus intersects the y-axis.

C(1, 3)

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PA : PB = 1 : 2
1
PA
=
2
PB
PB = 2PA

(x 2)2 + (y 0)2 = 2
(x 0)2 + (y 1)2
(x 2)2 + y2 = 4[x2 + (y 1)2]
x2 4x + 4 + y2 = 4(x2 + y2 2y + 1)
= 4x2 + 4y2 8y + 4
2
2
3x + 3y + 4x 8y = 0

4
(b) Substitute x = and y = 0 into
3
3x2 + 3y2 + 4x 8y = 0,
LHS = 3x2 + 3y2 + 4x 8y
4 2
4
= 3 + 3(0)2 + 4 8(0)
3
3
16
16

3
3
=0
= RHS
4
Hence, the point , 0 lies on the locus of P.
3

The equation of line CD is


y + 3 = 2(x 1)
= 2x + 2
y = 2x 1

(c)

1 0 1 2 0
(d) Area of BOC =
2 0 3 2 0
1
= (0 + 2 + 0) (0 6 + 0)
2
1
= 2 + 6
2
= 4 unit2

x 2y + 4 = 0
When x = 0, 2y + 4 = 0
y=2
F(0, 2)

=0

16

Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 6

Substitute x = h, y = k into the equation of PQ,


5
4
k = h ................................ 
3
3
Substitute  into ,
5
4
3h + 5 h = 50
3
3
25
20
3h + h = 50
3
3
25
20
3 3h + h = 3(50)
3
3
9h + 25h 20 = 150
34h = 170
h=5

20. (a) Area of ABC


1 1 8 4 1
=
2 2 3 7 2
1
= (3 + 56 + 8) (16 + 12 7)
2
1
= 61 21
2
= 20 unit2

Let d be the perpendicular distance from B to line


AC.
Distance of AC = 
[(8 (1)]2 + (3 2)2
= 
81 + 1
= 
82 units

Substitute h = 5 into ,
3(5) + 5k = 50
k=7

Area of ABC = 20
1

82 = 20
d 
2
40
d =

82
= 4.417 units

1
PA
=
2
PB
PB = 2PA

21. (a)


(x 0)2 + (y + 2)2 = 2
(x 0)2 + (y 1)2

(b)

x2 + (y + 2)2 = 4[x2 + (y 1)2]


x + y2 + 4y + 4 = 4(x2 + y2 2y + 1)
= 4x2 + 4y2 8y + 4
3x2 + 3y2 12y = 0
x2 + y2 4y = 0

Q(h, k)

P(1, 3)

The equation of the locus of point P is


x2 + y2 4y = 0.

1 + h ,
3 + k
Midpoint of PQ =
2
2
Since the midpoint of PQ lies on the perpendicular
1 + h and
bisector, so we substitute x =
2
3 + k into 3x + 5y 16 = 0,
y =
2

 

1 + h + 5
3 + k 16
3
2
2
3
+
3h
15
+ 5k 16
+
2
2
3 + 3h 15 + 5k 32
3h + 5k
3x + 5y 16 = 0
5y = 3x + 16
16
3
y = x +
5
5

(b) Substitute x = 2 and y = 2 into x2 + y2 4y = 0,


LHS = x2 + y2 4y
= 22 + 22 4(2)
=0
= RHS
Hence, C(2, 2) lies on the locus of point P.

=0

21
(c) Gradient of AC =
20
1
=
2

=0
=0
= 50 .........

1
Equation of AC, y = x + 1....................
2
Equation of locus, x2 + y2 4y = 0 ..........
Substitute  into ,
2
1
1
x2 + x + 1 4 x + 1 = 0
2
2
1
2
2
x + x + x + 1 2x 4 = 0
4
5 2

x x 3= 0
4
2
5x 4x 12 = 0
(5x + 6)(x 2) = 0
5x + 6 = 0
or
x2=0
6
x=
x=2
5

3
Gradient of perpendicular bisector =
5
5
Gradient of line PQ =
3
The equation of line PQ is
5
y + 3 = (x + 1)
3
5
5
= x +
3
3
5
4
y = x
3
3

17

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 6

6
Substitute x = into ,
5
6
1
y= +1
5
2
3

=
+1
5
2
=
5

The equation of the locus of point R is


16
x2 + 16y2 100 = 0.
9

16
(ii) Substitute y = 0 into x2 + 16y2 100 = 0,
9

16
x2 100 = 0
9
9
x2 = 100
16
900
x =
16
30
=
4
15
=
2
15
The x-coordinate of R is .
2

 

6 2
The coordinates of D are , .
5 5
1
(d) Gradient of AC =
2
2

(2)
5
Gradient of BD =
6
0
5
12
5
=
6
5
= 2

 



23. (a) Gradient of PQ Gradient of RQ = 1


52 t2
= 1
14 r4
t2
(1) = 1
r4
t2=r4
t=r2
(b) Area of PQR
1 1 r 4 1
=
2 5 t 2 5
1
= (t + 2r + 20) (5r + 4t + 2)
2
1
= (t + 2r + 20 5r 4t 2)
2
1

= (3t 3r + 18)
2
3
3
= t r + 9
2
2
3
= 9 (r + t)
2
(c) Given the area of rectangle PQRS = 30 unit2
Area of PQR = 15 unit2
3
9 (r + t) = 15
2
3
(r + t) = 6
2
r + t = 4 ................ 
From (a),
t = r 2 ............ 

1
Gradient of AC Gradient of BD = (2)
2
= 1
Hence, lines AC and BD are perpendicular to each
other.
22. (a)

PQ = 10


(q 0) + (0 p)2 = 10
2

p2 + q2 = 100
(b) (i)

RQ = 3PR
PR : RQ = 1 : 3
Q(0, q)

3
1
R(x, y)
P(p, 0)

3p + 0 0 + q
(x, y) = ,
1+3 1+3
3p q
= ,
4 4
3p
q
= x
and = y
4
4
q = 4y
4x
p =
3




4x
Substitute p = and q = 4y into
3
q2 + p2 = 100,
4x 2
(4y)2 + = 100
3
16
16y2 + x2 = 100
9
16 2
x + 16y2 100 = 0
9







Substitute  into ,
r + r 2 = 4
2r = 2
r = 1

 

Substitute r = 1 into ,
t = 1 2
= 3
The coordinates of R are (1, 3)

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18

Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 6

Based on the diagram, x = 2


Substitute x = 2 into ,
y=2

1. Substitute x = 2, y = t into equation x2 + y2 = 16,


22 + t2 = 16
t2 = 12
12
t = 

The coordinates of P are (2, 2).


Area of trapezium PQRS

Based on the diagram, t = 


12


12 0
Gradient of OA =
20

12
=
2
3
2
=
2
= 
3


12 = 
43
= 
4 
3
= 2
3

1
Gradient of tangent AB is
3

3. Gradient of AC
k (2)

h (1)
k+2

h+1
k+2
k

Equation of tangent AB is
1
12 = (x 2)
y 
3
2
1
y = x + + 
12
3
3
2
1
3
= x + + 2
3
3

y (1)
42
=
x (1)
0 (2)
=1
y+1 =x+1
y = x ............................ 



=3
=3
= 3h + 3
= 3h + 1 .................... 
= 1

 = 1

 = 1
= 1(h 3)
= h + 3
= h + 15.........

Substitute  into ,
2(3h + 1) = h + 15
6h + 2 = h + 15
7h = 13
13
h =
7

mPS mPQ = 1

=3

Gradient of AB Gradient of BC
6 (2)
k6

h3
3 (1)
k6
2
h3
2(k 6)
2k 12
2k

2. Let P(x, y)
Gradient of PQ = Gradient of RS

y+1
y4

x+1
x0
y4 y+1

x+1
x
(y 4)(y + 1)
y2 3y 4
y2 3y + x2 + x 4

1 0 2 1 2 0
=
2 4 2 1 2 4
1
= [(0 + 2 2 + 8) (8 2 2 + 0)]
2
1
= [8 (12)]
2
1
= (20)
2
= 10 unit2

= 1

 = 1

13
Substitute h = into ,
7
13
k = 3 + 1
7
39
= + 1
7
46
=
7

= x(x + 1)
= x2 x
= 0...................... 

 

Substitute  into ,
x2 3x + x2 + x 4 = 0
2x2 2x 4 = 0
x2 x 2 = 0
(x + 1)(x 2) = 0
x = 1 or x = 2

19

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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 6

t9
= 2
r4
t 9 = 2(r 4)
= 2r 8
t = 2r + 1

4. (a) Area of ABC = 4


Since there are two possible positions for point
C,
1 1 2 k 1
therefore
= 4
2 1 5 2k 1
[(5 + 4k k) (2 + 5k + 2k)] = 8
5 + 3k (2 + 7k) = 8
5 + 3k + 2 7k = 8
7 4k = 8
4k = 7  8
= 7 8 or 7 + 8
= 1 or 15
1
15
k = or
4
4

(b) Gradient of AB Gradient of BC


5 (1)
2k + 1

k1
21
2k + 1
6
k1
6(2k + 1)
12k + 6
13k

(c) If r = 2,
t = 2(2) + 1
= 3
2
PQ = 
[4 (2)]2 + [9 (3)]

= 
36 + 144
180
= 

= 
36 5
5 units
= 6

= 1

 = 1

6. (a) (i)

= 1

y
D

= 1(k 1)
= k + 1
= 5
5
k =
13

E
F

A(14, 0)

(c) Gradient of AB = Gradient of BC

5 (1)
2k (1)
=
21
k1
2k + 1
6 =
k1
6k 6 = 2k + 1
4k = 7
7
k =
4

y + 3x 6 = 0

When x = 0,
y + 3x 6 = 0
y + 3(0) 6 = 0
y= 6
The coordinates of E are (0, 6).

4+r 9+t
5. (a) Midpoint of PQ = ,
2
2
(b)

When y = 0,
y + 3x 6 = 0
0 + 3x 6 = 0
x= 2

The coordinates of F are (2, 0).

Let B = (x, y)
Since E is the midpoint of BF,
x+2
then = 0
2
x = 2

P(4, 9)

A
B

y+0
= 6
2
y = 12
Therefore, the coordinates of B are
(2, 12).

2y + x = 7

Gradient of PQ Gradient of AB = 1
7

t9
2
= 1
r4
7
t9
1
= 1
2
r4

 

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20

Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 6

7. (a) y = 2x .......................................... 
8 .......................................... 
y =
x

(ii) Area of quadrilateral OABE


1
= 0 0 2 14 0
2 0 6 12
0
0
1
= [(0 + 0 + 0 + 0) (0 12 168 + 0]
2
1
=  180
2
= 90 unit2

 = ,
8
2x =
x
x2 = 4
x = 2
Based on the diagram, x = 2.

(b)

Substitute x = 2 into ,
y = 2(2)
=4
The coordinates of A are (2, 4).

D(x, y)
3

(b) Let B(x, y)


1(x) + 3(0)
= 2
1+3
x=8
1(y) + 3(0)
= 4
1+3
y = 16
The coordinates of B are (8, 16).

B(2, 12)

A(14, 0)

(1)x + 3(14)
= 2
1+3
x 42 = 2

4
x 42 = 8
x = 34

1
(c) The gradient of the perpendicular line is .
2
The equation of the straight line is
1
y 16 = (x 8)
2
1
= x + 4
2
1
y = x + 20
2

(1)y + 3(0)
= 12
1+3
y = 4 12
= 48
The coordinates of D are (34, 48).
(c) (i)

mAC = mAB
y0
12 0
=
0 + 14 2 + 14
12
y

=
12
14
y = 14
The coordinates of C are (0, 14).

8. (a) Substitute y = 0 into equation y = 3x2 12,


3x2 12 = 0
3(x2 4) = 0
x2 4 = 0
x2 = 4
x = 2

Let the moving point be P(x, y).


PE = 2PC

Based on the graph, the coordinates of P are


(2, 0).


(x 0)2 + (y 6)2 = 2
(x 0)2 + (y 14)2
x2 + (y 6)2 = 4[x2 + (y 14)2]
x2 + y2 12y + 36 = 4(x2 + y2 28y + 196)
= 4x2 + 4y2 112y + 784
2
2
3x + 3y 100y + 748 = 0

The coordinates of Q are (0, 19).


0 (19)
Gradient of PQ =
20
19
=
2
The equation of line PQ is
19
y 0 = (x 2)
2
19
y = x 19
2

(ii) At the y-axis, x = 0


3y2 100y + 748 = 0
b2 4ac = (100)2 4(3)(748)
= 1024 0
The locus intersects the y-axis.

21

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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 6

Area of ABC = 22(8)


= 32 unit2

2
(b) Gradient of line PS =
19
The equation of line PS is
2 (x 2)
y 0 =
19
2 x +
4
y =
19
19
2 x +
4 ......................... 
(c) y =
19
19
y = 3x2 12 ................................. 

Area of PQR : Area of ABC


= 8 : 32
=1:4
(c) Let B(x, y)
Since P is the midpoint of AB
y + 14
x+8 =6
= 8

and
2
2
y= 2
x=4

 = ,

Therefore, the coordinates of B are (4, 2).

2 x +
4
3x2 12 =
19
19
2 x
232 = 0
3x2 +
19
19
19, 57x2 + 2x 232 = 0

10. (a)

4k2 + k2 = 80
5k2 = 80
k2 = 16
k = 4
Since k 0, therefore k = 4.


2 
(2)2 4(57)(232)
x =
2(57)
x = 2 is ignored
52 900
2 
=
because it is
114
x-coordinate for
116
= , 2
point P.
57
116
Substitute x = into ,
57

(b) x-coordinate of B = 2k
= 2(4)
=8
4
y-coordinate of B =
2
= 2

116
4
2
y = +
57
19
19
460
=
1083

86
Gradient of PR =
68
= 1
Gradient of AC = 1

2 0
(c) Gradient of OB =
80
1
=
4

1
The equation of OB is y = x.
4
Since PR//AC

11. (a) When y = 0,


y2 = 6x + 9
02 = 6x + 9
6x = 9
9
x=
6
3

=
2

The equation of line AC is


y 12 = 1(x 10)
= x + 10
y = x + 22
(ii) The perpendicular bisector of BC is PR.
Gradient of PR = 1

3
The coordinates of Q are ( , 0).
2

The equation of line PR is


y 6 = 1(x 8)
y 6 = x + 8
y = x + 14

When x = 0,
y2 = 6(0) + 9
y2 = 9
y = 3
The coordinates of P are (0, 3).

(b) Area of PQR


1 6 10 8 6
=
2 8 12 6 8
1
= |[(72 + 60 + 64) (80 + 96 + 36)]|
2
= 8 unit2

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Given AC : CB
=2:1

Therefore, the coordinates of B are (8, 2).

116 460
The coordinates of S are , .
57 1083
9. (a) (i)

OA = 
80
2
2


(2k) + k = 80

22

Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 6

(b) P(7, 20), Q(14, 11), R(6, 5), S(1, 4)


Let T(x, y) be the point of intersection of diagonals
PR and QS.
T(x, y) = Midpoint of PR
6+h
x =
2
6
+
7
=
2
13
=
2
2k
5
y =
2
20 5
=
2
15
=
2
Therefore, the point of intersection of diagonals
13 15
PR and QS is T(, ).
2
2

The equation of PQ is
30
y 3 = (x 0)
3
0
2
y 3 = 2x
y = 2x + 3

1
(b) Gradient of QS =
2
The equation of line QS is
1
3
y 0= x +
2
2
1
3
y = x
2
4

(c)

mPQ mQS = 1

1
3
y = x ............................ 
2
4
y2 = 6x + 9 ................................... 
Substitute  into ,

 12 x 34 



 

1
3
3 2
1 2

x + 2 x +
2
4
4
4
1 2 3
9

x + x +
4
4
16
3
9
1
16 x2 + x +
4
16
4
4x2 + 12x + 9
2
4x + 12x + 9 96x 144
4x2 84x 135
(2x + 3)(2x 45)
2x 45

45
Substitute x = into ,
2

 

3
1 45
y =
4
2 2
45
3
=
4
4
= 12

= 6x + 9

11 + 5
(c) Gradient of QR =
14 6
16
=
8
=2

= 6x + 9
= 6x + 9

The equation of line passing through T and is


parallel to QR is
13
15
y = 2 x
2
2
= 2x 13
15
y = 2x 13 +
2
11

y = 2x
2

 = 16(6x + 9)

= 96x + 144
=0
=0
=0
=0
45
x =
2

3
x = is ignored
2
because it is
x-coordinate of Q.

1 + 3 ,
8 10
13. (a) A =
2
2
= (2, 1)
(b)

Midpoint of PR = Midpoint of QS
1 + 3 ,
8 10 =
k+5

  h 2 4 ,

2
2
2
h 4 ,
k+5
(2, 1) = 

2
2

45
Therefore, the coordinates of S are (, 12).
2
12. (a) Since PQRS is a parallelogram,
Midpoint of PR = Midpoint of QS

h4 =2

2
h4 =4
h =8

h + 6 , 2k 5 = 2h 1 , k + 1 + 4
  

2
2
2
2
k+5
h + 6 = 2h 1 and 2k 5 =

2
2
2
2
h + 6 = 2h 1
2k 5 = k + 5
h =7
k = 10

and

k + 5 = 1

2
k + 5 = 2
k = 7

(c) P(1, 8), S(4, 5)


85
Gradient of PS =
1 ( 4)
3
=
5

23

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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 6

Let h be the perpendicular distance from O to


AB.
Area of AOB = 6
1

(h)AB = 6
2
1

(h)(5) = 6
2
26
h =
5
12
= units
5

The equation of the line passing through A and


parallel to PS is
3
y (1) = (x 2)
5
3
6
y + 1 = x
5
5
3
6
y = x 1
5
5
3
11
y = x
5
5
14. (a) For B, substitute y = 0 into 3y 4x + 12 = 0,
4x + 12 = 0
x=3

15. (a) y 3x 5 = 0
y = 3x + 5 .......................................
(2 + k)x + 4y 6 = 0
4y = (2 + k)x + 6
(2 + k)
3
y = x + .............
4
2

Therefore, the coordinates of B are (3, 0).


For A, substitute x = 0 into 3y 4x + 12 = 0,
3y + 12 = 0
y = 4

Since  and  are parallel,


therefore the gradients are the same.
(2 + k)
3 =
4
2 + k = 12
k = 14

Therefore, the coordinates of A are (0, 4).


1(h) + 2(0)
(b) = 3
1+2
h + 0= 9
h= 9

Substitute x = 1, y = t into y 3x 5 = 0,
t 3(1) 5 = 0
t =8

1(k) + 2( 4)
= 0
1+2
k 8= 0
k= 8
(c)

(b) A(1, 8)
The line which is perpendicular to y 3x 5 = 0
1
has gradient of .
3
The equation of the line is
1
y 8 = (x 1)
3
1
1
y = x + + 8
3
3
1
25
y = x +
3
3

B(3, 0)

A(0, 4)

Area of AOB
1
= (3) (4)
2
= 6 unit2

(c)

AB = 
32 + ( 4)2
= 
25
= 5 units

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24

(2 + k)x + 4y 6
[2 + (14)]x + 4y 6
12x + 4y 6
6x + 2y 3

=0
=0
=0
= 0 ...............................
1
25
y = x + .............
3
3

Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 6

Substitute  into ,
1
25
6x + 2 x + 3
3
3
2
50
6x x + 3
3
3
2
50
3 6x x + 3
3
3
18x 2x + 50 9
20x + 41

17. (a) Gradient of CD = Gradient of AB


5

tt
60
2
=
52
30
3t

=2
3
3t

=6
2
2
t=6
3
=4
x
y
The equation of AD is + = 1.
2
4
(b)

=0
=0

 =0

=0
=0
41
x =
20

41
Substitute x = into ,
20
41
25
1
y = +
3
3 20
41
25
= +
60
3
153
=
20

 

E(x, y)

1
B(5, 6)

Therefore, the point of intersection is


41 153
(, ).
20 20

A(2, 0)

16. (a) Let P(x, y)

3x + 1 2

1+3
3x + 2
3x
x

PB = 2PA


(x 4) + (y 1) = 2
(x 1)2 + (y 3)2
2

Square both sides,


(x 4)2 + (y 1)2 = 4[(x 1)2 + (y 3)2]
x2 8x + 16 + y2 2y + 1
= 4(x2 2x + 1 + y2 6y + 9)
= 4x2 8x + 4 + 4y2 24y + 36

=5
= 20
= 18
=6

3y + 1(0)
= 6
1+3
3y = 24
y =8

x2 + y2 8x 2y + 17 = 4x2 + 4y2 8x 24y + 40


4x2 + 4y2 8x 24y + 40 x2 y2 + 8x + 2y 17 = 0
3x2 + 3y2 22y + 23 = 0

Therefore, the coordinates of E are (6, 8).


18. (a)

(b) When y = 0,
3x2 + 23 = 0
23
x2 =
3
23
x =
3



P(x, y)

Q(2, 3)

R(6, 3)

Since x does not have real values, therefore the


locus does not intersect the x-axis.
When x = 0,
3y2 22y + 23 = 0
(22)2 4(3)(23)
(22) 
y =
2(3)
22 
208
=
6
= 1.263, 6.070
Therefore, the locus intersects the y-axis at two
points.

Gradient of PQ Gradient of PR = 1
y3 y3
= 1
x2 x6
(y 3)2 = 1(x 2)(x 6)
2
y 6y + 9 = (x2 8x + 12)
= x2 + 8x 12
y2 6y + 9 + x2 8x + 12 = 0
x2 + y2 8x 6y + 21 = 0

25



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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 6

(b) x2 + y2 8x 6y + 21 = 0 ........................

1
(c) Area of ADC = Area of ABC
3
1
9
=
3
2
3
= unit2
2

x = 2y
1
y = x .....................................................
2
Substitute  into ,
1 2
1
x2 + x 8x 6 x + 21 = 0
2
2
1
x2 + x2 8x 3x + 21 = 0
4
5 2

x 11x + 21 = 0
4
4,
5x2 44x + 84 = 0
(x 6)(5x 14) = 0
5x 14 = 0
14
x =
5

 

 

20. (a) P(1, 3), Q(5, 9), R(2, 12), S(x, y).
Midpoint of PR = Midpoint of QS
1 + 2 3 + 12
x+5 y+9
, = ,
2
2
2
2
1 + 2 x + 5
3 + 12
y+9
= and =
2
2
2
2
x + 5= 1
y + 9 = 15
x = 4
y= 6

 

1 14
From , y =
2 5
14
=
10
7
=
5

14 7
Therefore, the coordinates of P are (, ).
5 5
19. (a)
C(4, 6)

12 3
(c) Gradient of PR =
2 (1)
9
=
3
=3

A(1, 3)

1( 4) + 2(4)
p =
1+2
4

=
3

The equation of PR is
y 3 = 3(x + 1)
y 3 = 3x + 3
y = 3x + 6

1(3) + 2(6)
q =
1+2
=5
4
The coordinates of D are (, 5).
3
(b) Area of ABC
1 1 4 4 1
=
2 3 3 6 3
1

= |[(3 24 + 12) (12 + 12 6)]|


2
1
= |9|
2
9
= unit2
2

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2
B(4, 3)

(b) Area of PQRS


1 1 5 2 4 1
=
2 3 9 12 6 3
1
= |[(9 + 60 + 12 12) (15 + 18 48 6)]|
2
1
= |[51 (21)]|
2
1
= (51 + 21)
2
1
= (72)
2
= 36 unit2

Given x 6

D(p, q)

 

26