You are on page 1of 13

DRAFT FOR DISCUSSION

Perspectives on China-Africa Oil Ties A Trilateral Discussion Paper Luo Zhenxing Institute of American Studies Chinese Academy of Social Sciences

DRAFT FOR DISCUSSION

Introduction As China continues to rise, its demand for oil will grow rapidly. In order to ensure its oil security China has to secure oil from the global world because its domestic oil resource is not enough to meet the thirsty appetite for its rapid economic growth. Whatever ways that China takes, whether depending on buying or investing, its huge oil demand will impact the world oil market and influence the existing international oil order and system. As parts of its energy strategy, Chinas enterprises have gone to almost every corner of the world to buy oil or make investment in oil field if there are seemly opportunities for them disregarding the potential huge risks in some places. Among these activities of Chinas national oil companies (NOCs) their investments in some African countries are very outstanding, and apparently Chinas large import of oil from Africa also attracted the worlds eyes. Thus, China-African oil ties mainly based on the oil purchase from and oil investment in Africa are increasingly emphasized and concerned by many policy-makers and experts in the world, especially in the United States, Europe, China, and African oil producing countries. China-Africa oil ties as well as Chinas other activities in Africa have been rapidly deepening and expanding since 1995, which became the subject of debates and attention internationally, especially in the press and popular journals. Many argued that Chinas involvement into Africa eroded the western developed countrys interests and influence on the continent. Some criticized that Chinas oil companies, which are viewed as the instrument implementing Chinas concerted energy strategy and have been supported by Chinese government, undermined American and European efforts to maintain a level playing field for foreign investors, promote good governance and human rights. 1 But on the other hand, some experts insisted that Chinas internationally exploitative activities increased the total oil supply and are contributed to mitigate the intensive situation in the world oil market and the global energy security. Also, some people argued that Chinas engagement with Africa had facilitated Africas economic growth and increased their abilities. This paper examines various views on China-Africa oil ties. Section one describes some typical facts about China-Africa oil ties and other relative energy relations. Section two analyzes the differences between two important views which make some opposite policies suggestions because they may bring about some significant results and will influence relevant parties seriously if they are accepted and implemented. Section three explains what we can infer from the typical facts and trends. Section four makes some analysis of the two views. 1. Typical Facts There are some basic facts that should be attached to China-Africa oil ties and other energy relations as follows. . Oil for transportation is very difficulty to be substituted by other kind of energy. More than 97 percent of the volume of oil consumed in U.S. is used in its transportation sector. More and more oil is used in transportation sector in China as its number of passenger car and
2

DRAFT FOR DISCUSSION

commercial truck increase rapidly though 70 percent of the current volume of oil consumed is used in its industry sector. .The world oil market is globally integrated and other energy markets such as natural gas, coal gas etc. are increasingly interacted with and affected by it, which means there is no any country that can become an isolated island immune from oil impact. . The spatial distribution among the reserve, production and consumption of oil across the world is unbalanced. More than 60 percent of the world proved oil reserves is concentrated in Middle East (about 72 percent is concentrated in OPEC in 2011 according to BP), while its share of world oil production and consumption is about 33 percent and 9 percent in 2011, respectively. Africa accounted for 8 percent, 10 percent and 4 percent in the world oil reserve, production and consumption in 2011, respectively. On the contrary, some countries like U.S. and China hold much less oil reserves but produced and consumed much more. In 2011 the oil production of China and U.S. accounted for around 5 percent and 9 percent in the world total oil production, respectively, although these two countries only possessed less than 1 percent and 2 percent of the world proved oil reserves in 2011,respectively. U.S. and China consumed about 20 percent and 11 percent of the world oil in 2011, respectively. Both of them are among the biggest oil producers in the world and especially U.S. is the largest oil consumer while China is the second, both of which have significant influences on the world oil market. . U.S. is the biggest net oil importer and China is the second. In 2011, U.S. imported crude oil reached to about 8.9 million barrels a day, of which about 50 percent and 20 percent came from the Western Hemisphere and Middle East respectively. The American imported oil from Africa, mainly from North Africa and West Africa was 2.3 million barrels a day in 2011, which accounted for about 20 percent of its total imported oil. In the same year, China imported crude oil almost 5 million barrels a day, of which almost 50 percent and 20 percent came from Middle East and Former Soviet Union respectively. Also Chinas imported crude oil from African was 1.23 million barrels a day, which accounted for about 20 percent of the Chinas total imported crude oil. . National oil companies (NOCs) control most of world proven oil reserves and dominate the world oil production. Approximately 77 percent of world proven oil reserves are under the control of NOCs with no equity participation by foreign, international oil companies (IOCs). The Western IOCs now control less than 10 percent of the worlds oil and gas resource base. Whats more, of the top 20 oil producing companies in the world, 14 are NOCs or newly privatized NOCs. 2 . Most oil producing countries in Africa still keep open to foreign investment in exploration and production because they lack money, technology, skill and experts in this regard. On the contrary, most of other major reserve holders in the worlds other regions dont allow foreign oil companies to have access their oil resources or are limiting the opportunities and incentives for foreign investors. 3 Thus almost all of main international oil companies come to
3

DRAFT FOR DISCUSSION

African continent to compete its oil resources. . China has overtaken U.S. to become Africas largest trade partner. In 2012, trade volume between China and Africa totaled to more than 120 billion dollars. The majority of Africas exports to China and U.S. are in oil and other primary commodities. Whats more, there are some important trends about world oil market. (a).The world oil demand will continue to grow by more than one third over the period to 2035 with China, India and the Middle East accounting for 60 percent of the increase according to the IEAs New Policies Scenario. Chinas oil demand will increase during this period and oil import will continue to grow, which means that China will overtake U.S. to become the most important oil export destination. According to the IEAs prediction, China will become the worlds largest net importer of oil by 2020 and the number of its net oil import will reach to around thirteen million barrels a day by 2035, which means nearly 80 percent of its oil consumption will depend on imported oil. On the contrary, US oil demand may reduce or keep unchanged and US oil import will continue to fall, to the extent that North America becomes a net oil exporter around 2030. (IEA ,WEO,2012) (b). With the continued rebound in US oil production, by around 2020, the United States is projected to become the largest global oil producer (IEA, WEO, 2012). (c). Oil demand would peak just before 2020 and would be almost 13 mb/d lower by 2035, a reduction equal to the current production of Russia and Norway combined, easing the pressure for new discoveries and development (IEA, WEO, 2012). 2. Two Different Views Chinas deepening engagement with Africa has caused so many intense debates among international observers, policy-makers and pundits, of which the core lies in how to evaluate Chinas new role in the Africas development and how to response Chinas different ways or models by which China can build consolidated bilateral and multilateral relations with many African countries. Apparently, China-Africa oil ties lies in the center of the debates. There are two different views or opposite sides concerning to the China-Africa oil ties. One side in general insists opposition position and disapproves of Chinas model, which I will call it as the negative side as follows. The other side usually maintains supportive views and appraises Chinas approach to secure African oil, which I will call it as the positive side as follows. The negative side emphasized that the activities of Chinas oil companies in Africa threatened to western interests and brought about various new problems and intensified the existing perplexing difficulties in African oil-producing countries. Most advocates of the negative side are U.S. policy makers, international observers and experts who view China as a threat to the western world and some criticizers in NGOs for environmental protection and human rights.
4

DRAFT FOR DISCUSSION

The negative side has four main arguments as follows. First, Chinas acquisition of African oil not only threatens the western oil interests and also erodes their influence on Africa, especially the Americas hegemony. Some analysts believe that the African continent has now become a vital arena of strategic and geopolitical competition for old and new powers because it is one of the most promising regions of the world for future oil production. 4Chinas quest for Africas will undermine American oil interest in Africa. Some U.S. governmental reports note that China is following a mercantilism policy, trying to lock up oil supplies around the world by seeking close ties with major oil producers, including Angola and Sudan. Chinas oil diplomacy in Africa is challenging US foreign policy and has been US economic and security concerns. 5 Iran Taylor emphasizes that Chinas oil quest in Africa are provoking particular concern in western capitals and Chinas particular focus on African oil is potentially problematic. He argued that Chinas policy is based on the desire to circumvent an over-reliance on the global oil market through either actually acquiring major stakes in Africas oilfields or safeguarding access to them. Because the nature of Chinese oil companies is state-owned, Chinas quest for oil overseas may have less to do with Beijings energy security than with other long-term considerations. And he even conjectured from the upsurge in Chinese oil diplomacy that the first priority of Chinese strategists is the long-term goal of being in charge of oil resources at their source to enable them to manipulate future prices. 6 Stphanie Giry insists that China's efforts don't bode well for Washington because although China's hunt for African resources is not a direct threat to U.S. energy security, it is, however, a threat to other U.S. interests on the continent. At worst, it will hurt the fight against terrorism and weapons proliferation. 7 Second, the nature of Chinas oil expansion in Africa is neo-colonialism. Charges of Chinese neo-colonialism in Africa have been made by some western journalists and very high governmental officials. For example, Jack Straw has stated Most of what China has been doing in Africa today is what we did in Africa 150 years ago. 8Secretary Clinton has emphasized that We dont want to see a new colonialism in Africa.9 According to the criticism, Chinas hunt for Africas oil is not based on the fair and moral approaches but in reality is depended on the way of exploitation and deepened Africas dependency. Some have depicted chinas actions as unbridled plunder of African raw materials and natural resources driven by narrow commercial interest. 10 Thirdthe activities of Chinas oil companies in Africa have undermined the western efforts to promote good governance and improve human rights in Africa, damaged the local environment, and weakened the emergent international regime. Chinas oil companies only operate in some problem or unstable countries like Sudan and Angola, in which there have been serious human rights violation and corruption. Some analysts have cautioned that currently China has adopted a discourse in Africa that effectively legitimizes human rights abuses and undemocratic practices under the guise of state sovereignty and non-interference. 11 Stphanie Giry has claimed that China's efforts don't bode well for African democracy, which at best complicate African and U.S. efforts to bring good
5

DRAFT FOR DISCUSSION

governance and human rights to the continent. Other observers have criticized that Chinas actions, including China's oil purchases and arm sales, have intensified African unstable regional situation. Some analysts have criticized the negative effects of Chinese investment on Africas local environment and communities, which has shown in some different cases of mineral exploitation and timber extraction. 12 Fourth, governmental support for Chinas oil companies by oil diplomacy, finance, foreign aids and concerted government strategy is unfair to western oil companies competing for acreage in Africa. Some analysts have pointed that China has pursued Africas oil by offering integrated aid packages. For example, in order to get oil deals China extended large oil-backed loan and helped to build infrastructures and train workers for Anglo. 13Fanie Herman and Tsai Ming-Yen have stated that An economic approach focusing on enlarging its commercial interests is the driving factor for China's engagement with petroleum producing states. 14Some observers believe that China has a comprehensive energy strategy and highly coordinated policies to support the action of Chinas oil companies in Africa. Also, some have convicted that China has a grand Africa strategy of which acquiring Africas oil accounts for a big share by the so many Chinese high-level official visits to Africa. 15 The positive side, however, has opposite opinion on China-Africa oil ties. Peter Brookes has indicated this as follows: While some are critical of China for seeking exclusive access to oil and gas supplies in Africa, others applaud Beijing's willingness to take risks in markets where some Western energy firms can't-or won't-go for a variety of reasons, arguably adding to world energy supplies, lowering prices, and benefiting consumers. 16 In general, the positive side touts the potential for increasing the world oil supply by the activities of Chinas oil companies in some problem and unstable oil-producing countries in Africa, which at the same time help to promote the Africas development and bring about fruitful economic interest for China and the oil producer countries. Most of policy makers and pundits in China and Africa, many energy exports and some of international observers stand by the positive side. There has four parts in the positive side as follows. First, Chinas oil companies overseas investments in oil field are actually increasing the world oil supply, helping to stabilize the world oil market and mitigate the upward pressure of oil price, and improving the world oil security, which shouldnt be thought of as a threat to American interests. . Eric Downs has argued that Chinas oil companies expansion has positive impacts on the world oil markets by pumping oil abroad, especially at oil fields in which other companies are unable or unwilling to invest. She also thinks that Chinas oil companies quest for reserves and profit are the primary drivers, which is as same as the international oil companies, and their activities are not a threat to American energy security. 17Some specialists have challenged the existence of a New Scramble or a USChinese race in Africa and the significance of USChinese rivalry or, more generally, a commercial race for Africas resources, which should be limited in the an increased international interest in African oil resources focused largely on the Gulf of Guinea. Whats
6

DRAFT FOR DISCUSSION

more, they have emphasized that Africans tend to be the driving seat today and can independently attract the desired external sources of investment and political support while the Chinese loans and investments in particular have opened new policy options to African leaders. 18 Undoubtedly, most of Chinese officials and scholars admit that Chinas oil companies have no competitive advantages over the international oil companies in Africa, whatever on the aspect of technology or international operating experiences, and also regard Chinas oil companies engagement with African is good for China and Africas oil-producing countries. 19 Second, the expansion of China-Africa oil ties plays important roles in promoting Africas economic development. Deborah Brautigam has argued that the quest for oil by package approach which China learned from Japan is win-win for China and African oil producer countries. China extends very large credits to some oil-producing countries which are tied to Chinese machinery, equipment, and construction services with repayment in oil or other resources. This approach provides a new opening for the construction of badly needed infrastructure and is a practical way to address the natural resource curse that plagues so many African countries. 20 A World Bank report also has concluded that Chinese finance is on a scale large enough to make a material contribution toward meeting Africas vast infrastructure needs. As such, it offers an important development opportunity for the region. 21 Edward Friedman has found that China is already in the process of transforming Africa and plays an important role in ending of Africas poverty. 22

Third, charges that Chinas acquirement of African oil by non-interference policy hurts Western efforts to strengthen democracy, human rights and governance of African countries are unfair and neglect other much more important factors. The behavior of Chinese oil companies is the same as that of international oil companies which have operated in Africa for more than fifty years. Whats more, Chinas oil companies are not only latecomers but also relatively small players in Africa. Thus, some specialists have argued that only focusing on Chinas oil companies is unfair and the international oil companies should set a good example for others. At the same time, Eric Downs has noted that Many of the concerns expressed by American policy makers and pundits about what China is doing to meet its oil requirements are things that the U.S. itself has done. 23Furthermore, she has analyzed that Narratives about how Chinas search for oil is seriously threatening Western interests and influence on the continent overlook the role of other, more powerful factors. 24 Fourth, Chinas governmental supports for its oil companies are exaggerated and overly emphasized. After examining the roles of Chinas oil companies and government in its go global strategy, many energy specialists have found that Chinas oil companies are not arms of its government and the motivation of their go global is driven by profit which makes them act like the international oil companies. Whats more, there isnt a comprehensive and concerted energy strategy. Also, Chinas government agencies, which are under-staffed and under-funded, cant effectively implement and coordinate national energy policies because they lack adequate legal authorities and insufficient information. In fact, Chinas oil companies rely on their government for diplomatic support of foreign acquisitions, which
7

DRAFT FOR DISCUSSION

shows no difference with companies around the world. 25 3. What can we infer from the typical facts and trends? Before I review the views above, I should warn that the dichotomy approach above is not perfect and cant accurately reflect everyones opinion because I has simplified or dropped some supportive evidences and only sum up everyones opinion. But we can take them as the starting point for further analysis. Each of two sides is trying to persuade the public and policy maker t believe what they says is true. But unfortunately it is very difficult to make clear judgments between their personal preferences and motivations. At the same time, to some extent, everyones opinions or conclusions are based on some facts, fictions and implicit preconditions, which are necessary to be discerned very carefully. So which view is much closer to the fact? How receptive will the public be to both arguments? Can we reach at least to some extent consensus so that we can give some relative targeted policy recommendations to policy maker? In order to answer theses questions, the next step is to use the typical facts, which are accepted by majority of the public, policy maker and academia, link some preconditions and IEAs predictions, and infer the conclusion. Then I will set the same standard for the conclusion so that I can compare them. A. China, like U.S., will continue to ensure its oil security by increasing domestic exploration and development and securing overseas oil by trade and investment, which is the important element of its energy strategy. From the typical fact and with trend (a), we can infer this conclusion. Everyone should agree that China has the right to use overseas oil resources to meet its demand by fair trade and investment although as a result Chinas oil demand may bring about the pressure on the world oil market and lead to the increasing of the oil price. Thats the cost of Chinas entry into the world and we should prepare and accept this reality. So the core of solution lies in how the global oil system should be adjusted to respond and adapt with this new situation. For China and U.S., from the typical fact, we can infer that maintaining the stability of global oil market and ensuring the free flow of the world oil are the critical common interests even if U.S. becomes the largest oil producer and the North America becomes the net exporter in the future. Then on this precondition we can discuss how China should take some measures to reduce, restrain or slow down its oil demand growth rate, such as economizing oil, improving the fuel economy standards and increasing alternative energy production. Also we can provide some recommendations that how China should strengthen international cooperation with other major oil-producing and oil-consuming countries to mitigate the negative impact of Chinas engagement on the world oil market and highlight the positive influence of Chinas entry on the world oil producing. The world oil system has experienced several impacts of new entry, for example, after World War II oil companies of France and Italy begun to enter into international oil-producing regions, and then followed by the Japanese oil companies.
8

DRAFT FOR DISCUSSION

Also, some small U.S. domestic oil companies have been grown big oil companies by internationally competing with the international oil companies in Libya and other oil-rich regions since then. B. Africas oil resources implies different importance to China and U.S. and should play different roles in each countrys energy strategy in the future, which means that Africas oil-producing countries should carefully treat the involvement of China and U.S. How did Africa become the hopeful continent from the hopeless continent which was labeled by the same magazine-the Economist twelve years ago? But ironically to some extent when we talk about the hopeful continent we also implicitly refer to the most undeveloped continent and its huge potential for future development. After Africa suffered lost ten years in 1980s, in which many western companies felt very pessimistic about the future of Africa and retreated back from Africa, it is that Chinese enterprises and foreign traders as newcomers renewed the hope of Africa, which gradually entered into Africa for pursuing the profits in the 1990s . The reason is that the deepening division of labor in the world makes China and Africa to become complementary partners in the section of global integrated supply chains. Then, both Chinese and American government began to be interested in Africa, which seemly focused in Africas oil. But actually Africas oil resources are apparently different meanings for China and U.S. respectively. How important are Africas oil resources to China and U.S. respectively? U.S. merchandise imports from sub-Saharan Africa during 2011 were $74.2 billion, of which crude oil imports totaled $59.8 billion and accounted for more than 80 percent.From 2000 to 2010, petroleum products accounted for roughly 89 percent of U.S. imports from Africa, with no less than 40 percent of Nigerias oil exports head westwards to the U.S. In contrast with U.S., in 2011, about 62 percent of African exports to China consisted of crude oil while Africa-China bilateral trade reached $166 billion. Thus, what U.S. wants from Africa is almost only oil but what China wants more goods other than oil, which is decided by the different roles of U.S. and China in the global division of labor. That means Africa cant provide U.S. with much more goods other than oil, and at worst even for the small volume of other goods other than oil that Africa exports to U.S. they can be substituted by other regions similar goods. Given the facts above and combined the trend (a), (b) and (c), we can infer that Africa oil resources will play less and less important roles in U.S. energy strategy and the bilateral trade between U.S. and Africa will be favor of U.S., which means the strategic economic value of Africa for U.S. will inevitably reduce and Africa cant acquire or win the equal economic position in the future. On the contrary, Africa oil resources will play more and more important roles in Chinas energy strategy and bilateral trade between China and Africa will be interdependent, which means that Africa will have more voices and initiatives, in other words, the economic relations between Africa and China will be more equal. C. China is and will be a stable and large oil demand side and the oil-producing countries should keep good relations with China.
9

DRAFT FOR DISCUSSION

From the typical fact , and with the trend (a),(b) and (c), we can infer this conclusion. China is and will be a stable and large oil demand side, which means that for oil exporter China is a desired destination. Whats more, the oil histories tell us that the world oil market has always suffered many boom-bust cycles. With the supply excess of demand, China, as the largest net oil importer in the future, will acquire much more market power. Africa, its strategic value of oil resources is less important than that of Middle East, should keep good relations with China. D. There will be more and more oil companies that will be engaged with Africas oil. From the typical fact, , and with the trend (a), we can infer this conclusion. All of oil companies will try their best to quest oil if they can make huge profits. Because the exploration and development can make a lot of money given the high oil price and growing oil demand, and Africas oil-producing countries are open and welcome the investment of foreign oil companies, many oil companies, including Chinas oil companies, will compete against each other for Africas oil for a long time. 4. Analysis of the two views Then, with these four conclusions combined some preconditions, we can review the two views above as follows. The negative side has committed some incorrect conclusions. One, they has not distinguished the difference between the goal of Chinas governmental policy and oil companies behavior, which has led to the false conclusion that Chinas oil companies are arms of Chinas government. For Chinas government, the primary goal of its oil strategy is to ensure stable, reliable, affordable and adequate oil supply by keeping the free flow of oil and maintain the world oil order stable. Also, oil security is only part of Chinas national interests; there are other more important national interests in some cases, such as sovereignty, territories etc. For Chinas oil companies, the primary goal of its going out is to make more profits as possible as they can. These both goals are not always kept pace with each other. For example, Chinas oil companies compete against each other or their bids for oil in some countries like Iran maybe bring about negative impact on Chinas foreign policy. Second, some of their conclusions are inferred from some anecdotes, fictions and implicit assumptions, most of which are built on the unverified reference points. For example, they often suppose the western oil companies and countries have good records on helping to improve Africas human rights, governance and democracy. They dont notice that there are so many cases of bribe among the western oil companies in Africa. Most of them have a prejudice against China and have been concerned with Chinas rising. In their eyes, China is the trouble-maker who is always scuttling the western efforts and makes the things to get worse. With their biases, the impacts of some sporadic bad events on local comminutes,
10

DRAFT FOR DISCUSSION

environment, and labors have been exaggerated. Whats more, they seldom think what African people really want and how the local residents evaluate the influence of Chinese oil companies. Third, their criticism about Chinas non-interference policy has imposed their criterion on Chinas foreign policy. Every state has its own priorities of foreign policy that can be changed as time passes. Can China be qualified to require Africa oil-producing to improve their human rights, governance and democracy? If it does so, how should it address its unexpected domestic repercussions or negative impacts on its domestic political stability? So, at the present, that China puts its economic interests as its priority of foreign policy is to some extent reasonable and practical. Like U.S., its priorities of foreign policy in Middle East is to ensure energy security, which makes the goal of improving democracy to become much less important and keep good relations with Saudi Arabia. Even in Africa, U.S. is still keep good relations with some oil-producing countries that have seriously violated human rights in spite of its domestic pressures. Undoubtedly, the priority of .U.S. foreign policy toward some countries is to improve human rights, governance and democracy because U.S. government must suffer its domestic criticism and maybe produce negative political results if it cant do this. In nature, China and U.S. have not fundamental differences in this regard. Fourth, their question about Anglo model has neglected two things. On the one hand, Anglo has an independent, full sovereignty that can make its own policy without external interference otherwise its policy discriminates some foreign oil companies. On the other side, the package referred to designated relative loans to build infrastructures may be better than the situation in which we dont know how and where the oil revenues will be used. The positive side also has some deficiencies as follows: First, although they refute many fallacies of the negative side using detailed facts and data, they neglect much more important facets. Indeed, the western oil companies have many bad behaviors, including bribing local officials, polluting local environment, and etc, but this doesnt mean Chinas oil companies can shift off their own social responsibilities. It is simple: That someone commits a fault doesnt mean you should do the same thing. So, the core of the question lies in how we should make the reasonable rules to regulate the action of all companies. Second, they dont take into account the position of Africas oil-producing countries too. Todays friend may become tomorrows enemy. For example, Iran in 1977 was still Americas ally, but soon became its deadly enemy. Before 2011, Libya seemly was considerable stable, but soon the regime of Muammar Gaddafi was overthrown. Non-interference policy in nature is beyond reproach, but how it can adapt or address the political risk to protect Chinas overseas economic interests. That may need more thinking. We cant only defend ourselves successfully in oral disputes. Non-interference policy should undergo many great shocks from political risks. If we want to reach this aim, there is a lot of jobs to be done, including adjusting Chinas domestic policy.
11

DRAFT FOR DISCUSSION

Third, the competition among all the oil companies for Africas oil is real. From African oil producer countries, the involvement of Chinas oil companies into rivalry with other oil companies is helpful to provide them with more choices. But for China and other countries, how to evade cut-throat competition is a critical problem which should be carefully dealt with because they maybe damage the existing world oil order and make all stakeholders into trouble. In conclusion, the positive side is closer to the reality of China-Africa oil ties. Also, it is more easily to be accepted by African leaders and the public in China. But it is necessary to make some targeted adjustment of Chinas policy so that it can adapt to more complicated world. The road to consensus is based on the facts and data, not the personal preferences, experiences and anecdotes.

Erica S. Downs .(2007). The Fact and Fiction of Sino-African Energy Relations, China Security, Vol.3 No.3 Summer 2007, pp.42-68, 2 Jaffe, Amy Myers and Ronald .Soligo. (2007). "The International Oil Companies." The James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy, Rice University. http://hdl.handle.net/1911/20467 3 Erica S. Downs .(2007). The Fact and Fiction of Sino-African Energy Relations. 4 Klare, Michael and Daniel Volman.(2006), America, China and the Scramble for. Africa's Oil, Review of African Political Economy, Vol. 33, No. 108 ( June, 2006). 5 For examples, see DoD's annual report to Congress: The Military Power of the People's Republic of China 2005,.U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission, Report to Congress 2004; The White House, The National Security Strategy of the United States of America, March,2006,pp.41-42. 6 Taylor, Ian (2006), Chinas Oil Diplomacy in Africa. International Affairs, 82: 5 (2006) 937959, p.938. 7 Giry, Stephanie.(2004) Chinas Africa Strategy.Out of Beijing,The New Republic, Nov., 5,2004. 8 Quoted in Tom Stevenson, Chinese Moves Spur a New Order, but there is. Nothing New about this Colonisation, Daily Telegraph (D T), August 23, 2006, p. 4. See Sautman, Barry and Yan Hairong, East Mountain Tiger.(2006). West Mountain Tiger: China, the West, and Colonialism in Africa, Maryland Series in Contemporary Asian Studies, Number 3,2006 (186). 9 Interview on Africa 360: Interview Hillary Rodham Clinton ,June 11, 2011, http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/2011/06/165941.htm 10 Sautman, Barry and Yan Hairong, East Mountain Tiger.(2006). West Mountain Tiger: China, the West, and Colonialism in Africa. 11 Taylor, Ian (2006), Chinas Oil Diplomacy in Africa. p.958. 12 G. Mohan .(2008) .China in Africa: A Review Essay, Review of African Political Economy, 35, 1, 155-173 13 Campos ,Indira and Alex Vines, Campos, Indira & Alex Vines (2008). 'Angola and China: A Pragmatic Partnership '. Working Paper Presented at a CSIS Conference, Prospects for
12

DRAFT FOR DISCUSSION

Improving U.S.-China-Africa Cooperation, December 5, 2007, 14 Herman, Fanie and Tsai Ming-Yen.(2011). Preference over outcomes: Explaining US-Sino oil diplomacy in Sub-Saharan Africa .African Journal of Political Science and International Relations. Vol. 5(8), pp. 396-408, August 2011 15 Taylor, Ian (2006), Chinas Oil Diplomacy in Africa. 16 Brookes, Peter .(2007).Into Africa: Chinas Grab for Influence and Oil, Heritage Lectures, No.1006, March 26, 2007, http://www.heritage.org/research/lecture/into-africa-chinas-grab-for-influence-and-oil 17 Erica S. Downs .(2007). The Fact and Fiction of Sino-African Energy Relations. Erica S. Downs.(2007)., Chinas Quest for Overseas Oil. 18 Frynas, Jedrzej George and Manuel Paulo(2007). A New Scramble for African Oil? Historical, Political, and Business Perspectives. African Affairs, Vol.106, No.423, 2007, pp.229~25. 19 Information Office of the State Council, the Peoples Republic of China, China-Africa Economic and Trade Cooperation. December 2010, Beijing. Li Anshan, Chinas Engagement in Africa: Singular Interest or Mutual Benefi.t Heinrich Boell Foundation, Expert Round Table on Resource Governance in Africa in the 21st Century, March 26-28, 2007, http://hbs.boell-net.de/downloads/intlpolitics/China_Li_Anshan.pdf 20 Brautigam, Deborah.(2009). The Dragons Gift: The Real Story of China in Africa, Oxford University Press, 2009. 21 Vivien Foster et al., Building Bridges: Chinas growing role as infrastructure financier for Africa, World bank, 2008, p. vi. 22 Friedman ,Edward (2009) How Economic Superpower China Could Transform Africa. Journal of Chinese Political Science,Vol.14, No.1, 2009, pp.1-20. 23 Erica S. Downs.(2007)., Chinas Quest for Overseas Oil., p. 55. 24 Erica S. Downs .(2007). The Fact and Fiction of Sino-African Energy Relations., p.63 25 Erica S. Downs.(2007)., Chinas Quest for Overseas Oil.

13