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A physical model for design and retrofitting of reinforced concrete slabs against punching

Prof. Dr. Aurelio Muttoni cole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne - Suia

A physical model for design and retrofitting of reinforced concrete slabs against punching

Contents

1. 2. 3.

Fundamentals of the Critical Shear Crack Theory Their application to punching shear design of reinforced concrete slabs Punching shear provisions of the first complete draft of fib Model Code 2010 (based on the CSCT) Innovative strengthening technique using post-installed shear reinforcement Application of CSCT to design of strengthening

4. 5.

Introduction

Load test 1908

Load test 1909

Robert Maillart (1872-1940)

Claude A. P. Turner (1869 1955)


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Introduction

Bluche, Switzerland, 1981 Geneva, Switzerland, 1976

Cagliari, Italy, 2004

Wolverhampton, UK, 1997


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Introduction
Design based on empirical formulas without taking into account sizeeffect and slab-to-column moment transfer No shear reinforcement, no integrity reinforcement Brittle behaviour

Gretzenbach, Switzerland, 2004

Introduction

200% 180% 160% 140% 120% Force 100% 80% 60% 40% Without punching shear reinforcement With punching shear reinforcement

Jonen, Switzerland, 2007 (Photo courtesy HALFEN AG, Switzerland)

20% 0% 0% 100% 200% Deformation capacity 300% 400%

Need for a mechanical model for slabs without and with shear reinforcement
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Introduction

1.

Development of a mechanical model: the Critical Shear Crack Theory

2.

Extensive validation by testing

The CSCT: experimental verification in Lausanne

120 102 100 80 60 40 28 20 7 0 125 250 320 Thickness [mm] 400 500 3 1

Number of tests

The CSCT: experimental verification in Lausanne

120 102 100 80 60 40 28 20 7 0 125 250 320 Thickness [mm] 400 500 3 1

Number of tests

The CSCT: experimental verification in Lausanne

120 102 100 80 60 40 28 20 7 0 125 250 320 Thickness [mm] 400 500 3 1

Number of tests

The CSCT: experimental verification in Lausanne

120 102 100 80 60 40 28 20 7 0 125 250 320 Thickness [mm] 400 500 3 1

Number of tests

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The CSCT: experimental verification in Lausanne

120 102 100 80 60 40 28 20 7 0 125 250 320 Thickness [mm] 400 500 3 1

Number of tests

Total #: 141 tests

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Introduction

3.

Code proposals

SIA 262 (1989, 2003, 2011)

MC 2010

4.

Development of innovative solutions for shear reinforcement and retrofitting of slabs

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Fundamentals of the CSCT

Walraven J.C. 1981, Fundamental Analysis of Aggregate Interlock, Journal of the Structural Division, Vol. 107, No. 11, pp. 2245 2270.

d/2

extreme parameters

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Fundamentals of the CSCT

theoretical model based on aggregate interlock simplified failure criterion Failure criterion: average values

Failure criterion: characteristic values

Muttoni A., 2008, Punching shear strength of reinforced concrete slabs without transverse reinforcement, ACI Structural Journal, V. 105, No 4, pp. 440-450

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Fundamentals of the CSCT: punching shear design

Failure criterion (strength):


Load-rotation curve

VR

Failure criterion

Load-rotation curve (k factor):


Simplified formulas Analytical integration of moment-curvature relationship Non-linear finite-element programs
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Physical model: application to non-symmetrical cases (moment transfer)


MC 2010 EC 2

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Physical model: application to bridge deck slabs

Vaz Rodrigues, R., Fernndez Ruiz, M., Muttoni, A., 2008, Punching shear strength of R/C bridge cantilever slabs, Engineering Structures, Elsevier, Vol. 30, No. 11, pp. 3024-3033

Avg: 1.07; CoV: 13%


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Physical model: application to shear-reinforced slabs

Fernndez Ruiz, M., Muttoni, A., 2009, Applications of the critical shear crack theory to punching of R/C slabs with transverse reinforcement, ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 106, No. 4, 2009, pp. 485-494

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Physical model: application to shear-reinforced slabs (2nd failure mode)

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Physical model: application to shear-reinforced slabs (1st failure mode)

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Physical model: application to shear-reinforced slabs

Fernndez Ruiz, M., Muttoni, A., 2009, Applications of the critical shear crack theory to punching of R/C slabs with transverse reinforcement, ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 106, No. 4, 2009, pp. 485-494

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Physical model: fibre-reinforced concrete

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Physical model: fibre-reinforced concrete

Voo, J.Y.L. and Foster, S.J., 2004, Tensile Fracture of Fibre Reinforced Concrete: Variable Engagement Model, Sixth Rilem Symposium on Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC), Varenna, Italy, 20-22 September, pp. 875-884

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Code provisions
MC-2010: 8 pages (with commentary)

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Code provisions
MC-2010: 8 pages (with commentary)

EC-2: 10 pages

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NMC-Calculation of Load-rotation curve: Levels-of-Approximation approach

Assessment of existing structures, design of special cases Typical design Preliminary design

Muttoni A., 2003, Introduction, Documentation SIA, D 0182 Introduction la norme SIA 262, Zrich, Switzerland, pp. 5-9

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NMC: Levels-of-Approximation approach


http://ibeton.epfl.ch/MC2010Punching

Level I of approximation
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NMC: Levels-of-Approximation approach


Level II of approximation

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Strengthening of flat slabs: introduction

Strengthening against punching shear :


1. 2. 3.

increase of applied loads deficiencies during design or construction to comply with more stringent code requirements

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Strengthening of flat slabs: introduction

enlargements of the support area by the addition of column capitals

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Strengthening of flat slabs: introduction

enlargements of the support area by widening of the columns

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Strengthening of flat slabs: introduction

strengthening of the flexural reinforcement by casting a concrete topping or gluing reinforcement

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Strengthening of flat slabs: introduction

installing shear reinforcement

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Strengthening of flat slabs: introduction

Those possibilities can, however, be impractical in many situations, as they require accessing the upper face of the slab, which is usually covered by soil or floor, or enlarging the support area, which is not always possible due to architecture or space requirements.

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Strengthening of flat slabs against punching shear using post-installed shear reinforcement

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Strengthening of flat slabs against punching shear using post-installed shear reinforcement

holes are hammer-drilled at 45 degrees from the soffit of an existing slab

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Strengthening of flat slabs against punching shear using post-installed shear reinforcement

Adhesive mortar Hilti HIT-RE 500 is injected into the drilled holes and the Hilti Tension Anchors HZA-P are set into the mortar filled holes. The Hilti tension anchor consists of a reinforcement bar of diameter 16mm or 20mm in the upper part.

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Strengthening of flat slabs against punching shear using post-installed shear reinforcement

After curing of the mortar, the lower anchor head is installed. In order to create a slipfree anchorage the annular gaps are filled through the injection washer with Hilti HITRE 500. The anchor head can be installed on the concrete surface with washers inclined at 45 or be embedded in an enlarged part of the drilled hole.

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Strengthening of flat slabs against punching shear using post-installed shear reinforcement

The embedded anchorage has the advantage that it can be covered with a fire protection mortar and is not visible after the installation.

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Physical model: application of the CSCT to strengthening of slabs

Fernndez Ruiz, M., Muttoni, A., Kunz, J., 2010, Strengthening of flat slabs against punching shear using post-installed shear reinforcement, ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 107, No. 4, pp. 434-442

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Physical model: application of the CSCT to strengthening of slabs

Fernndez Ruiz, M., Muttoni, A., Kunz, J., 2010, Strengthening of flat slabs against punching shear using post-installed shear reinforcement, ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 107, No. 4, pp. 434-442

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Physical model: application of the CSCT to strengthening of slabs

Fernndez Ruiz, M., Muttoni, A., Kunz, J., 2010, Strengthening of flat slabs against punching shear using post-installed shear reinforcement, ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 107, No. 4, pp. 434-442

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Conclusions The CSCT is grounded on a consistent mechanical model and has been checked against extensive experimental data

The theory can be easily adapted to unusual cases, providing the designer with a clear understanding of the structural behaviour The CSCT can be consistently used to investigate and to design shear-reinforced, fibre-reinforced slabs and retrofitted slabs The theory has been implemented efficiently into design codes

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