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FE Module handbook 1st Year

Level 3 Diploma in Agriculture

2013 / 2014

Index

Index Presentation of Assignments Assignment and-in dates Assignment submission & resubmission

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Unit 301 Understand Animal Anatomy and Physiology Unit 302 Understand the Principles of Plant Science Unit 303 Understand the Principles of Soil Science Unit 305 Undertake and Review Work Related Experience in the Land-based Industries Unit 307 Undertake Agricultural Crop Production Unit 308 Undertake Agricultural Livestock Production Unit 309 Understand Farm Power Units - Machinery and Operation Unit 310 Undertake Estate Skills Unit 311 Understanding Principles of Land-based Machinery Unit 312 Understand Agricultural Forage Crop Production Unit 315 Understand Grassland Management Unit 320 Undertaking Land-based Machinery Operations Unit 323 Manage Agricultural Environments

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Referencing assignments

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Unit 301

Understand Animal Anatomy and Physiology

Tutors have many opportunities to deliver the unit using a wide range of learning approaches including lectures, discussions, seminar presentations, supervised dissections and live animal handling. Where dissections are used this should be in the context of the centres ethical policies. Tutors should consider integrating the delivery and private study of this unit with other relevant units. It is expected that learners will be familiar with safe working practices around potentially hazardous equipment, materials and animals. The learner should be taught how to recognise hazards and risks and should also be able to use information to manage potential risks to themselves and others as appropriate. Outcome 1 covers the main body systems of animals. Delivery of this outcome should cover the structure and functions of the main systems, but tutors should bear in mind that specific systems are covered in further depth in Outcomes 2, 3 and 4 and so should plan delivery/lecture to avoid any unnecessary repetition or duplication. (Note some of the other systems are covered in some depth in the unit Understand the Principles of Animal Biology). Outcomes 1 and 2 cover the major body systems and reproductive processes in animals. It is expected that learners will observe the organs, through photographs, preserved specimens, or practical dissections. Veterinary operations could also be observed where opportunities allow. All practical work should be supervised and adequate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) must be used after production of suitable risk assessments. Guest speakers such as veterinarians, veterinary nurses and meat inspectors would contextualise the relevance of the subject for learners. The use of case studies, comparing healthy organs with diseased or injured counterparts, is recommended to help learners understand and relate the organs and systems of the functioning animal body. Outcome 3 covers the control mechanisms that contribute to homeostasis in the animal body. Independent research leading to group presentations could follow initial tutor input and case studies could be used to illustrate what happens when these tightly regulated systems are compromised by disease or injury. Outcome 4 will allow the learner to appreciate that the animal body has evolved from selective pressures in the natural environment. These environments should be experienced through the use of audio-visual materials such as Attenboroughs Life of Mammals. Learners could carry out independent research using the internet, books and journals, putting together a project comparing and contrasting animals from varying habitats, while visits to zoos or wildlife parks to see more exotic animals would help to illustrate the theory.
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References Books Boyle, M. & Senior, K., 2002. Biology.Collins Educational Jones, A. Reed, B.& Weyers, J., 2003. Practical Skills in Biology.Harlow. Pearson Education. Kent, M., 2000. Advanced Biology.Oxford.Oxford University Press. Toole, G. &Toole, S. 1992.Understanding Biology for Advanced Level.Cheltenham. Nelson Thornes, Williams, G., 2000. Advanced Biology for You. Cheltenham.Nelson Thornes. Pond, K. &Pond, W., 2000. Introduction to Animal Science.J Wiley & Sons Inc.

DVD Attenborough, D., 2003. Life of Mammals London: BBC.

Websites www.hse.gov.uk www.defra.gov.uk www.wales.gov.uk www.scotland.gov.uk www.dardni.gov.uk www.bbc.co.uk/nature/class/Mammal

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Unit 302

Understand the Principles of Plant Science

On completion of this unit, the learner will have developed an understanding of how plants grow and develop, through knowledge of their structure and physiology. It will be important that delivery relates to plants that are vocationally relevant to the learners- e.g. production crops for agriculture. Laboratory based practicals could help learners to explore plant physiology and structure, and a series of visits to growing crops could help learners better understand plant growth and development. Learners are required to study a range of monocotyledon and dicotyledon plants for this unit. Outcome 1 requires the learner to identify the main internal and external structures of both monocotyledon and dicotyledon types of plants and to explain the function of the main plant structures. The outcome is mainly theory based and can be delivered by formal lectures, discussion, internet research and directed study. Outcome 1 and 2 are directly linked as outcome 2 identifies the need for learners to explain the major processes of plant physiology and identify factors affecting photosynthesis. Learners may find it useful to undertake practical sessions, habitat surveys or site visits to a range of habitats to learn more about plant physiology and factors affecting photosynthesis. Outcome 3 requires the learner to explain the life cycle of plants which again can be linked into outcome 1 and 2 with careful planning. Learners should visit sites where plants can be studied at appropriate development stages i.e. at different times of the year. Formal lectures, directed study and research will be required to enhance the learners understanding of the complexities of plant physiology and life cycles. It is important that a risk assessment is carried out prior to any practical activity and that suitable Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is provided. Visiting speakers e.g. agronomist, rangers or plant breeders could enhance relevance of the subject to learners. Work experience may be beneficial to learners looking to develop careers in the field. Development of areas within a College environment where learners are able to modify and manipulate plant environments may enhance understanding of the complexities of plants and their life cycles References Books Adams, C.R. 2008. Principles of Horticulture. 5th ed. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinmann. ISBN 978-0750686945.

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Allaby, M. 2006. A Dictionary of Plant Science. 2nd ed. Oxford: OUP Oxford. ISBN 978-01986081912. Cutler D.F. et al. 2007. Plant Anatomy: An Applied Approach. Sussex: Wiley Publishing. ISBN 978-1105126793. Gunning, B.E.S. 1996. Plant Cell Biology: Structure and Function. London: Jones & Bartlett. ISBN 978-0867205046. Jones, R.L. et al. 2000. Biochemistry & Molecular Biology of Plants. Sussex: Wiley Publishing. ISBN 978-0943088396. Lack, A., Evans, D. 2005. Instant Notes in Plant Biology. 2nd ed. Oxford: Taylor and Francis. ISBN 978-1859961971. Mauseth, J.D. 2008. Botany: An Introduction to Plant Biology. 4th ed. London: Jones & Bartlett Publishers. ISBN 978-0763753450 Roberts, M., Reiss, M., Monger, G. 2000. Biology: Principles and Processes. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes. ISBN 978- 01744881768. Smith, A. et al. 2009. Plant Biology. Oxford: Garland Science. ISBN 9780815340256. Raven, P.H. et al. 2005. Biology of Plants. 7th ed. New York: WH Freeman & Co Ltd. ISBN- 978-0716762843. Taiz, L., Zeiger, E. 2006. Plant Physiology. 4th ed. Hampshire: Sinauer Associates. ISBN 978-0878938568. Wayne, R. 2009. Plant Cell Biology. Oxford: Academic Press. ISBN 9780867205046.

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Unit 303

Understand the Principles of Soil Science

This unit aims to provide learners with an understanding of the interrelationship between soil characteristics and crop growth and development, and explores soil characteristics through investigative experiments. As learners will be engaged in practical activity there should be an emphasis on safe working practices, including the use of appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and appropriate risk assessments should be undertaken. At Level 3 it is expected that learners will take an active part in completing risk assessments, so that this becomes an integral part of all practical activity. Delivery of this unit will involve classroom based activity, laboratory experiments and visits to sites with different soil characteristics, preferably also with a range of crop types. It is likely that learners will also need to undertake independent study and research. In Outcome 1, learners will need to investigate a range of soil types and carry out supervised basic soil experiments to identify different soil characteristics. These could include investigating the proportion of sand, silt and clay through suspending in water, investigating the water holding capacity of different soil types, and determining soil pH. For Outcome 2, learners will need to develop an understanding of the effects of soil characteristics on crop growth and development. This could be supported by some controlled experiments, where learners grow plants in different soil types. Delivery of this outcome could also be enhanced by visits to see different types of crops growing in different soil types. Visiting expert speakers, such as soil scientists or agronomists, could be useful, and could describe practical aspects of managing soil structure and plant nutrition. Outcome 3 covers the effect that choice of crop has on soil characteristics, which is the basis of crop rotation principles. Delivery will include consideration of the range of consequential effects of crop choice i.e. methods of planting and harvesting, use of machinery, crop requirement for supplementary nutrients. Delivery is likely to include both classroom activity and site visits, and could be linked to learners work placements. A guest speaker, particularly one able to discuss the relative merits of crop rotation, would add further vocational interest. References Books Ashman, M., Puri, G. 2008. Essential Soil Science: A clear and concise introduction to soil science. Sussex: Wiley Publishing. ISBN 0632048859.
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Davies D.B, Eagle, D. Finney, B. 2002. Soil (Resource Management Series). Ipswich: Farming Press. ISBN 0852365594. Green, N.P.O. et al. 1997. Biological Science 1. Organisms, Energy and Environment. 3rd ed. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521561787. Roberts, M, Ingram, N. 2001. Nelson Science Biology. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes. ISBN 0748762388. Reiss, M, Monger, G. 2000. Advanced Biology. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes. ISBN 9780174387329. Soffe, R. 2003. The Agricultural Notebook. 20th ed. Sussex: Wiley Publishing. ISBN 0632058293. White, R.E. 2005. Principles and Practice of Soil Science: The Soil as a Natural Resource. 4th ed. Sussex: Wiley Publishing. ISBN 0632064552.

Journals Arable Farming Farmers Weekly

Websites www.bbsrc.ac.uk www.defra.gov.uk www.wales.gov.uk www.scotland.gov.uk www.dardni.gov.uk www.hse.gov.uk www.lantra.co.uk www.pda.org.uk www.rothamsted.ac.uk www-saps.plantsci.cam.ac.uk www.soils.org.uk
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Unit 305

Undertake and Review Work Related Experience in the Land-based Industries

Learners on vocational courses should have experience of the type of work that they hope to do, and of the expectations of potential future employers. Many Level 3 learners are likely to have already had experience of working in the land-based and environmental industries, so this unit seeks to provide new experience opportunities for these learners. Ideally this unit should be undertaken in a real business environment relevant to the subject interest of the learner, but actual work experience may be gained by a number of routes, e.g. as part of an industrial placement whilst within the programme, whilst working on a planned daily or weekly basis on the centres commercial and/or educational facilities, whilst undertaking voluntary work within the industry, as previous relevant and current work experience in the industry or as a member of a group of learners invited to carry out practical work on a suitable business. Throughout the unit, the emphasis should be on safe working. It is expected that learners will be aware of safe working practices and familiar with accepted practices and behaviours within the context in which they are working. Learners should complete the equivalent of 8 weeks (or 300 hours) work experience to achieve this unit. If work experience is in the industry, centres should be mindful of their responsibilities for ensuring that work placements have appropriate supervision, insurance and health and safety policies in place. In Outcome 1, learners will explore the different job roles and responsibilities, and the job titles commonly associated with them in their specialist sector. This background understanding is likely to require some formal classroom teaching, and may be closely linked to material in the unit Business Management. Learners should be encouraged to explore the range of employment opportunities and career paths within their specialist sector. It would be appropriate for employers to be invited to outline to learners their expectations in the workplace. Learners will then consider the skills and qualifications that are required for appropriate jobs for themselves and should be encouraged to think about skills and qualifications that they may need to acquire to achieve their employment and careers ambitions. Evaluation of career and progression opportunities should include advantages and disadvantages of at least 3 possible career pathways within their specialist sector. This should help them to identify suitable work experience. Outcome 2 involves learners going through the process of applying for work experience. They will need to locate suitable job adverts or work experience opportunities, but can be supported by centres suggesting suitable placements.
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When applying for work experience learners should produce, as a minimum, a detailed curriculum vitae and letter of application using a computer. Learners may need to be given supported workshop time on computers to develop these documents. Before attending for a work experience interview it would be appropriate for learners to role play an interview and be given feedback on their interview technique. After attending for an interview they should reflect on their performance and how they could improve their effectiveness. Before commencing work experience they should set overall aims to be achieved during the period and SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, timescales) targets or objectives for learning and improvement in relation to future career aims. Outcome 3 requires that learners effectively complete their period of work experience, meeting the requirements of the workplace appropriate for their position. It would be advisable for their progress to be reviewed at least once during the period and they should have access to tutor support in case of difficulties arising. During their work placement learners must produce the details of their job role and working routine, maintain a diary at least weekly and collate other relevant information on their work placement, performance and achievements. It would be appropriate for tutors to complete a report in consultation with the work experience provider mid-way and at the end of the placement. In Outcome 4, learners will use evidence from outcome 3 to present a report, oral and/or written, on their work experience business, job role, learning and achievements. They will then review the effectiveness of the workplace, making realistic and justified suggestions for improvement. Review of their own workplace performance and achievements should include all of the content identified, with reference to relevant evidence, e.g. reports, progress reviews, and the extent to which their aims, objectives/targets have been achieved. Learners should consider further training and experience that will help them to achieve their career ambitions.

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Unit 307

Undertake Agricultural Crop Production

The delivery of this unit will involve practical delivery, theory sessions, visits to suitable locations and will have links to industrial experience placements. This unit focuses on the learner being involved in all the operations of farm combinable crop production and will imitate industry practice. Tutors need to offer the learner as wide a selection of learning opportunities as possible. This will involve lectures, regular crop walks, (both in taught time and learners own time) farm practical work experience, talks, visits (local machinery dealers), and use of an agronomist if possible. For the unit to be effective, tutors will need to choose carefully the timing of the assessments because of the importance of seasonality. In addition, the tutor needs to ensure that all relevant crops are included; this should include cereals, grass, oil-seed rape, peas, beans, and alternatives such as linseed. Other crops according to locality could be used at the tutors discretion. Learners will need access to farm recording data and relevant previous crop history. Outcome 1 will need to be delivered at the start of the unit, such as in the autumn. Learners may well have been working and involved in autumn cultivations and seedbed preparation. Tutors will need to arrange for learners to be practically involved in field cultivations, especially where the learner has very limited experience. Crop walks at this time of year will be primarily in observing cultivations and seedbeds for specific crops in the range. Alternatively, spring sown crops would equally lend themselves where it was not possible to observe all the autumn sown crops. Outcome 2 will need to be delivered to coincide with crop growth, which will likely be all year round, especially in the case of cereals. Crop walks and visits to local arable farms can be used to cover this outcome. Tutors could ensure that the learner has access to a farms fertiliser programme for selected crops; an introduction to a farm agronomist would also be useful, prior to the main spraying season. Outcome 3 will probably take place in the summer before the main harvesting season. Learners should be given the opportunity to view different storage and drying systems. Where a farm centre does not have a crop storage system that covers crops in the range, then alternative arrangements should be made, such as visits to exhibitions, other farms and crop storage specialists. Outcome 4 will need to look at previous crop history, since learners will not be in college during the summer to monitor and gather current crop harvesting, storage and marketing information. The learner will need access to farm information, current market prices, such as those in the regular farming press or on the internet.
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Crop walks both in taught time and learners own time are to be maximised. Health and safety must be regularly enforced especially with regard to machinery and chemicals. References Books Wilson, P. King, M. 2003. Arable plants- a field guide. (Wildguides, ISBN 1 903657 02 4 Davies,D. Finney, B, Eagle D. 2001. Resource management: soil. Farming Press, ISBN 0 85236 559 4 Finch,H. Samuel,A, Lane G. 2002. Lockhart & Wisemans Crop Husbandry including grassland. Woodhead publishing, ISBN 1 85573 5490 Younie,D. Taylor, B. 2002. Organic cereals and pulses. Chalcombe publications, ISBN 0 948617 47 0 Bell, B. 2005. Farm Machinery. Old Pond Publishing, ISBN 1 903366 68 2 Culpin,C and Bloxham P. 2006. Culpins Farm Machinery. Blackwell Science, ISBN0632051825 Nix ,J. Farm. 2009. Management Pocketbook, 39th Edition. (The Andersons Centre) ISBN0954120159 McClean, K. 1980. Drying and storing combinable crops. Farming Press, ISBN 0852361084 Ward,J. Basford, W. 1985. Oilseed rape. (Farming Press, ISBN 0852361556 Soffe, R. 2003. The Agricultural Notebook, 20th Edition. (Blackwell Science, ISBN0632058293 DEFRA .2008. Fertiliser Recommendations for Agricultural and Horticultural Crops RB209, 8th Edition. The Stationery Office Books

Journals Crops Farm Contractor Farmers Weekly Farm Business


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Websites www.fwi.co.uk www.efma.org.uk www.hgca.com www.newfarmcrops.co.uk www.niab.com www.defra.gov.uk www.wales.gov.uk www.scotland.gov.uk www.dardni.gov.uk www.combineworld.co.uk

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Unit 308

Undertake Agricultural Livestock Production

This unit is designed to introduce learners to the major types of agricultural livestock production in the UK, and to equip them with some practical husbandry skills. As learners will be engaged in practical activity there should be an emphasis on safe working practices, including the use of appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and appropriate risk assessments should be undertaken. At Level 3 it is expected that learners will take an active part in completing risk assessments, so that this becomes an integral part of all practical activity. Learners should also be made aware of the importance of animal welfare, and sustainability concepts should also be demonstrated where possible. For Outcome 1 learners need to gain an overview of the major production systems for beef and dairy cattle, sheep and pigs. It would be helpful if delivery includes visits to a number of different production systems. Where this is not feasible due to production systems not being available in the local area this should be supplemented by high quality and up to date audio visual resources. Outcome 2 and 3 are closely linked and it is anticipated they will be delivered alongside each other. Outcome 2 focuses on learners being able to understand the major husbandry requirements of production systems, whilst outcome 3 involves learners developing the skills to undertake these husbandry tasks and requirements in practice. Learners will need supervised access to a range of production systems to enable them to practice their skills. This could be linked to appropriate work placements. It is important that health and safety of the learner and welfare of the animal are emphasised in both theory and practice. It is not anticipated that learners will develop practical skills to carry out the full range of husbandry tasks across the full range of farm animals. Delivery should be planned to enable them to gain an overview of these, but then to take part in a range of six husbandry tasks or activities for at least two categories of farm livestock (where appropriate). Outcome 4 focuses on planning of production systems and health programmes. Learners should gain an understanding of the objectives of particular production systems and health programmes, and how planning and reviewing should be based on these objectives. Learners would benefit from visits to a range of production systems, and from guest speaker input, such as a vet or animal health official.

References Books Allen, D. 1990. Planned Beef Production and Marketing. (Blackwell Science, ISBN 0632026111
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Croston,D and Pollott,G. 1993. Planned Sheep Production. (Blackwell Science, ISBN 0632035765 Gillespie,J. 2000. Modern Livestock and Poultry Production.Delmar,ISBN 0766816079 Soffe, R and McConnell, P. 2003. The Agricultural Notebook. Blackwell Science, ISBN 0632058293 Speedy,A. 1980. Sheep Production: Science into Practice. (Longman Higher Education, ISBN 0582455820

Websites www.defra.gov.uk www.wales.gov.uk www.scotland.gov.uk www.dardni.gov.uk www.fawc.org.uk www.mdc.org.uk www.mlc.org.uk

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Unit 309

Understand Farm Power Units - Machinery and Operation

This unit is designed for learners who could potentially eventually have responsibilities for the management of machine/equipment fleet and will be involved with procurement and finance decisions. An understanding of operational costs, operator and machine suitability and operator training will feature in replacement/procurement decisions. For Outcome 1, learners will need to gain an overview of the principles of selecting machinery or equipment. A useful addition to classroom delivery of the information could be visits to farms or agricultural machinery sites to see how machinery is selected by employees in the industry for real tasks and work. Classroom discussions on the suitability and performance of different types of machines for farm tasks may also be a useful method for learners to explore and expand their knowledge. For Outcome 2, learners will need to develop an understanding of the procurement options for agricultural machinery. The classroom delivery of this outcome could benefit from discussions and presentations on the different machines by learners as well as guest speakers from companies/ organisations/ manufacturers. For Outcome 3, learners will need to gain an understanding of the legislation and operator training requirements associated with agricultural machinery. The delivery of this outcome could benefit from talks from or visits to training organisations or agricultural machinery manufacturers to explain or demonstrate how legislation relates to the use of machinery in the workplace. Outcome 4 focuses on the finances related to the operation of agricultural machinery. To assist with the delivery of this outcome and the learners understanding of the finances, visits to machinery manufacturers or farm sites could be beneficial. The delivery of this outcome could be linked to the delivery of Outcome 2. Centres are encouraged to introduce employers and specific professionals from industry to provide interesting and relevant information to the learner. Teaching would also benefit from visits to a variety of establishments to add depth to the learner experience. References Books Bell, B. 2005. Farm Machinery. (Old Pond Publishing, ISBN 1903366682
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Culpin, C.1992. Farm Machinery 12th edition. Blackwell Scientific, ISBN 063203159X

Periodicals Farmers Weekly Profi International

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Unit 310

Undertake Estate Skills

This unit has a very practical focus, and aims to enable learners to develop estate skills which can be applied to a range of situations and circumstances. The unit has been written such that naturally occurring and locally relevant opportunities can be used in selecting sites, structures and surfaces to construct, repair or maintain. As learners will be engaged in practical activity there should be an emphasis on safe working practices, including the use of appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), and appropriate risk assessments should be undertaken. At Level 3 it is expected that learners will take an active part in completing risk assessments, so that this becomes an integral part of all practical activity. Learners should also be made aware of the impact on the environment, and sustainability concepts should also be demonstrated where possible. Learners should have the opportunity to undertake estate skills activity in a landbased setting wherever possible to maximise the vocational relevance. It will be most beneficial if the structures, boundaries and surface selected are for a clear purpose above and beyond delivery of this unit. It is recognised that there will not be opportunities to carry out construction, repair and maintenance in each of the categories, but it would be appropriate for the skills of construction, repair and maintenance to each be developed in one aspect of the unit. In Outcome 1, learners will develop the practical skills needed to construct, repair or maintain at least two different boundaries, including a living boundary and a constructed one. In Outcome 2, learners will construct, repair or maintain at least two different structures. It is anticipated that learners will develop an understanding of how to construct a wooden structure, but are not expected to be able to construct larger structures such as animal or machinery housing. It is anticipated that delivery will include repair and maintenance of such larger structures as would be found in an estate setting. In Outcome 3, learners are required to construct, repair or maintain one surface from the range shown. Delivery may include visits to see a range of surfaces and their properties and maintenance requirements. In Outcome 4 it is anticipated that delivery of this outcome will be embedded in the practical skills development within the other three outcomes. These outcomes could also be developed in conjunction with learners work experience at an appropriate placement.

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References Books Agate E. 2001. Fencing: A Practical Handbook. BTCV. ISBN 094675229X Agate E. 2001. Footpaths: A Practical Handbook. BTCV. ISBN 0946752311 Agate E. 2000. Toolcare: A Maintenance and Workshop Manual. BTCV. ISBN 0946752249 Agate E. 2001. Tree Planting and Aftercare: A Practical Handbook. BTCV. ISBN 0946752257 Agate E. 2002. Woodlands: A Practical Handbook. BTCV. ISBN 0946752338 Brooks A and Agate E. 1998. Hedging: A Practical Handbook. BTCV. ISBN 0946752176 Brooks A and Agate E. 2001. Waterways and Wetlands: A Practical Handbook. BTCV. ISBN 0946752303 Brooks A, Adcock S and Agate E. 1999. Dry Stone Walling: A Practical Handbook. BTCV. ISBN 0946752192 MacLean M. 1992. New Hedges for the Countryside. Farming Press Books and Videos. ISBN 0852362420 Scottish Executive Rural Affairs Department. 2002. Prevention of Environmental Pollution from Agricultural Activity: Code of Good Practice Dos and Donts Guide. Scottish Executive. ISBN 0755905180 Stokes A. 1999. Health and Safety Overview for Practical Conservation Project: A Guide to Good Practice for Conservation Groups and Land Managers. BTCV

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Unit 311

Understanding Principles of Land-based Machinery

This unit is designed to provide learners with knowledge and understanding of the working principles of a range of land-based power units and equipment to be found in their area of study. It will also allow learners the opportunity to carry out routine maintenance tasks to manufacturers recommendations and specifications. At all times when practical tasks are carried out or assessed, an emphasis must be put on safe working practices and current legislations. The range of machinery covered should include electric vehicles and machines if appropriate. In Outcome 1, the learner will be required to investigate working principles of the range of engine types that power land based vehicles and machines. It is essential that the learner understands the limitations of engine types and why manufacturers designate their use to different purposes. The learners should be encouraged to develop understanding of topical issues regarding available fuel types, environmental pollution and running costs. Outcome 2 prepares the learner for the knowledge and understanding required prior to undertaking practical maintenance work on engines and powered machines. Emphasis should be directed to safe working practices, care of machines, tools and work areas. The learner should also be encouraged to develop forward thinking for the need for basic tool requirements which may be required on the work site where unscheduled maintenance tasks may have to be performed, hence the need for basic tools to be available on the vehicle or machine. Due to the complexity of modern vehicles and machines it is essential that learners understand that maintenance of machines and vehicles must be carried out to manufacturers recommendations and service documentation should be available and accurately followed when performing tasks. In Outcome 3, the learner will be required to assess all risks to themselves, others, the environment and equipment prior to commencing practical tasks.These risks should be recorded for future reference and appropriate control measures put in place and recorded against the risk. The learner must be aware of current legislations and safe working practices and be encouraged to adopt a clean, tidy and methodical approach to work ethic and must be aware of consequences for his actions should the work carried out be responsible for injury or damage to a third party. The importance of completion of maintenance and work records must be highlighted as should the need for retrieval of those records from file for future reference particularly when assessing warranty claims, recurring failures or valuation on replacement.
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Throughout the unit the emphasis will be on safe, legal practices, working to manufacturers recommended procedures and attention to detail when recording information. Depending on the land-based area the learner is studying, formal lecture delivery may be generic to all areas but practical experiences and learning should be appropriate to the area of study. In Outcome 4, the learner will be able to explain how power unit speed can affect performance and efficiencies and explain how different engine types have different performance characteristics. The learner will be able to demonstrate understanding of how power produced from the power unit can be distributed to a transmission system and hydraulic system to provide drives to propel a machine, provide mechanical and hydraulic drive to allow land-based machines to function The learner should be able to describe methods by which transmission settings can be used to control travel speeds and direction and by which hydraulic fluid speed and pressure settings affect performance of hydraulically driven and adjusted machines and equipment. This Outcome requires learners to be able to compare a range of power units and machines from different manufacturers to evaluate alternative designs and systems that produce similar outcomes. It will, therefore, be necessary for learners to have access to a range of modern equipment for these comparisons and evaluations to be made.

References Books Bell B. 2005. Farm Machinery. Old Pond Publishing. ISBN 1903366682 Culpin C. 1992. Farm Machinery,12th edition. Blackwell Scientific. ISBN 063203159X Manufacturers publications and manuals

Journals Horticultural Weekly Profi International Farmers Weekly

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Unit 312

Understand Agricultural Forage Crop Production

This unit deals with the role of forage crops within an arable cropping programme. Care will be needed by the tutor not only to ensure that the range of crops is covered, but also to be flexible in accounting for local growing conditions. For example, forage maize may not be suitable in all upland areas, so tutors need to be mindful of any events, local farms that can be used for visits. Some crops will be grazed in situ by livestock ( e.g. lambs on stubble turnips, cows on kale and so fairly seasonal; others will be used in yards ( e.g. fodder beet to beef cattle, maize silage to dairy and beef cattle ) and so tutors will need to link them with livestock feeding. Because of the nature of the seasonality of the crop and its use, tutors will need to plan the programme carefully. Outcome 1 needs to be delivered first, so that students can recognise the crops they are dealing with. It would lend itself to classroom, laboratory and field studies, such as crop walking. The use of a power point presentation to cover the range of crops might be useful. In Outcome 2, tutors needs to be aware that some forage crop establishment programmes are likely to have taken place before students start a course (e.g. stubble turnips). Autumn crop walks early on into the programme will be needed. Some crops will be established in spring (e.g. maize, beet) so this outcome may have a degree of flexibility in respect of its timing. Many fields, however, are likely to receive manure applications during the autumn /winter (e.g. for maize), so student involvement with machinery could be planned in liaising with a farm. Harvesting will vary according to locality and crop type in Outcome 3. Fodder beet and maize are machinery based and could involve students on trailers from field to clamp. Stubble turnips and kale will be largely strip grazed. Tutors must ensure that students experience both types of harvesting wherever possible. Where clamps are used (e.g. maize) students need to be shown a silage analysis and its interpretation. Outcome 4 is largely class based and might form a useful case study approach, whether individual or as a team exercise. It will probably be taught as the last outcome and so more likely in the summer term. References Books Wilson, P. King, M. 2003. Arable plants- a field guide. Wildguides, ISBN 1 903657 024 Davies,D. Finney, B. Eagle,D. 2001. Resource management: soil. (Farming Press, ISBN 0 85236 559 4
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Finch,H. Samuel,A. Lane,G. 2002. Lockhart & Wisemans Crop Husbandry including grassland. Woodhead publishing, ISBN 1 85573 5490 Eash,N.Green,C. 2008. Soil science simplified. Blackwell publishing, ISBN 13: 9780-8138- 1823-8 Younie,D. Taylor, B. 2002. Organic cereals and pulses. Chalcombe publications, ISBN 0 948617 47 0 Bell, B. 2005. Farm Machinery. Old Pond Publishing, ISBN 1 903366 68 2 Culpin,C and Bloxham, P. 2006. Culpins Farm Machinery. Blackwell Science, ISBN0632051825 Waltham, R and Raymond, F. 2002. Forage Conservation and feeding. The Crowood press, ISBN 0852363508 Nix,J. 2009. Farm Management Pocketbook, 39th Edition. The Andersons Centre, SBN0954120159 Soffe, R. 2003. The Agricultural Notebook, 20th Edition. Blackwell Science, ISBN0632058293 DEFRA . 2008. Fertiliser Recommendations for Agricultural and Horticultural Crops RB209, 8th Edition. The Stationery Office Books

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Unit 315

Understand Grassland Management

This unit deals with the management of grass as a crop. Learners will look at methods of optimising grass productivity though its use both by the grazing animal and for conservation. Care will need to be taken to contextualise the study of grassland production to meet the requirements of the learners in their locality. Different emphasis will need to be placed on dairy cow grazing systems in lowland western areas than in hill farming areas or equine areas. The assignment should be tailored to meet the individual needs of the learner. Outcome 1 serves as a general introduction to the unit as a whole, but will be common to all areas in the UK. The terminology could be given in the form of a dictionary A-Z at the start of the course so that students have a continual reference point. The growth pattern would ideally be taught to match the season of grass growth, which is likely to be mostly from early spring onwards. The agronomic characteristics of grasses and weeds could be taught both in a laboratory and in the field. Weeds should be observed at their different growth stages, especially when relatively small. Outcome 2 will need to be taught according to the season of grass establishment, which will be either autumn or spring. It would be useful for students to observe the results of a recent grassland establishment programme in order to base their comments from direct observation. Students should be made familiar withDepartment for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (England) (Defra), Welsh Assembly Government (Wales), Scottish Executive Environment and Rural Affairs Department (SEERAD), Department of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (DARD NI) RB209 Fertiliser Recommendations handbook and the updated NVZ guidelines for manure applications. Regular crop walking to monitor weeds, pests and diseases as well as signs of sward deterioration such as poaching will need to be continually borne in mind by the tutor. The unit should therefore contain an equal mix of classroom and field studies. Outcome 3 will usefully link with other crop units, where soil studies, estate skills such as fencing and machinery sessions such as fertiliser applications are dealt with. Tutors should be encouraged to liaise if possible with a farms manager where soil index information coupled with an agronomists report are a feature of farm management, so that students are involved with industry practice. The outcome would lend itself to a student-centred assignment/case study where planning considerations are required. The outcome will involve taught classroom work, student centred work, field walks, practical use of machinery and equipment and laboratory sessions.

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Much of Outcome 4 would be taught at the appropriate season, which is likely to be from mid February onwards, in preparation for the forthcoming grazing and conservation activities. Tutors will possibly need to account for flexibility in following grass growth with respect to the apparent changing seasons and milder winters. Where possible students should be involved in a farms preparation for both grazing and conservation, especially where silage takes place. There would need to be strict adherence to Health and Safety at all times where machinery and grazing livestock are concerned. References Books Bell B. 2005. Farm Machinery. Old Pond Publishing. ISBN 1903366682 Culpin C and Bloxham P. 2006. Culpins Farm Machinery. Blackwell Science. ISBN 0632051825 Davies B, Eagle D and Finney F. 2002. Soil. The Crowood Press. ISBN 0852365594 Finch H, Samuel A, Lockhart J and Wiseman A. 2002. Lockhart and Wisemans Introduction to Crop Husbandry: Including Grasslands. Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0080420028 DEFRA. 2008. Fertiliser Recommendations: For Agricultural and Horticultural Crops, (RB209). The Stationery Office Books. ISBN 0112430589 Frame J. 2002. Improved Grassland Management. The Crowood Press. ISBN 0852365438 Hubbard C. 1992. Grasses: A Guide to Their Structure, Identification, Uses and Distribution, 3rd Edition. Penguin Books. ISBN 0140132279 Nix J. 2009. Farm Management Pocketbook, 37th Edition. The Andersons Centre. ISBN 0954120159 Soffe R. 2003. The Agricultural Notebook, 20th Edition. Blackwell Science. ISBN 0632058293 Whitehead R. 2009. The UK Pesticide Guide. CABI Publishing. ISBN 1845930452 Wilkinson J. 2005. Silage. Chalcombe Publications. ISBN 0948617500

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Unit 320

Undertaking Land-based Machinery Operations

This unit is designed to give learners knowledge, understanding and practical skills to enable them to recognise and understand the working principles of land-based machines typically used in their area of study. Learners will be able to demonstrate pre start checks, initial settings and safe start up techniques for a range of selected machines prior to connecting the machine to a suitable power unit and preparing machine and power unit for work.An emphasis will be put on the correct use of manufacturers recommended procedures and respect for health and safety issues and conformation of relevant safe working practices. It is envisaged that all learners, prior to studying this unit will have received training in the use of tractors and have been assessed as having reached a level of competence to allow practical tasks to be demonstrated safely. Learners must show awareness and consideration of hazards and risks at all times, particularly during fieldwork situations where levels of risk may vary ay any given time. Where possible, non-simulated field work should be programmed into the learning period to take into account seasonal opportunities. Following field operations, learners will demonstrate simple maintenance and pre storage tasks to minimise degeneration of the machine and to ensure the machine is in a useable condition for subsequent operations. The range of machinery covered should include electric vehicles and machines if appropriate. In Outcome 1, learners must demonstrate knowledge and understandings of the construction and working principles of a selection of Land-based machines commonly used in their area of study and demonstrate knowledge of the work and performance parameters of such machines. In Outcome 2, learners will demonstrate an ability to prepare the machine for field operations and ensure that the machine is matched and correctly connected to a suitable power unit. Machines are to be selected from the range/scope list outlined in the unit content. It is essential that manufacturers recommendations be followed to enable machines to be initially set to achieve given fieldwork criteria. In Outcome 3, learners will need to explain safe operational procedures and carry out risk assessment prior to engaging in fieldwork. Suitable field procedures are to be demonstrated, regular checks to be made on machine performance and necessary adjustments made to both machine and power unit to meet given fieldwork criteria economically and efficiently. In Outcome 4, following fieldwork operations, learners must carry out pre-storage maintenance, carry out an inspection to identify and subsequently rectify any faults. Wearing components will need to be assessed and replaced if wear limits are
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reached. Throughout the unit the emphasis will be on safe, legal practices, working to manufacturers recommended procedures and attention to detail when recording information. References Books Balls, R. 1985. Horticultural Engineering Technology: Field Machinery. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0333364341 Bell, B. 2008. Farm Machinery. Ipswich: Old Pond Publishing. ISBN 1903366682. Culpin, C. 1992. Farm Machinery 12th ed. Sussex: Wiley Publishing. ISBN 063203159X

Journals Farmers Weekly Amenity Machinery and Equipment Profi International

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Unit 323

Manage Agricultural Environments

This unit aims to provide learners with an understanding of the impact that agricultural practices have on the environment, as well as the impact that the regulatory environment has on agricultural practices. It also provides learners with an opportunity to develop some practical skills in planning and implementing habitat management tasks. As learners will be engaged in practical activity there should be an emphasis on safe working practices, including the use of appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and appropriate risk assessments should be undertaken. At Level 3 it is expected that learners will take an active part in completing risk assessments, so that this becomes an integral part of all practical activity. Delivery of this unit will involve practical tasks, visits to suitable habitats, and visits to farms operating conventional and sustainable farming practices. Learners should have the opportunity to undertake habitat management in an agricultural setting wherever possible to maximise the vocational relevance. In Outcome 1, learners will investigate the different practices involved in conventional and sustainable farming systems, and will compare the positive and negative environmental impacts of both. It is anticipated that some classroom delivery will be required to help learners to understand the potential environmental impacts, and visits to different types of farming enterprise will be helpful. Guest speakers would also add relevance and interest. In Outcome 2, learners need to gain an overview of the significant legislation, and its impact on farming practices. Delivery will also need to enable learners to understand the requirement for those involved in farming to keep abreast of legislation, and the potential financial consequences. Learners also need to gain an oversight of the roles played by a range of environmental organisations. It is anticipated that this Outcome will be delivered through formal classroom activity, discussions and learner research. It may also be enhanced by a talk by a representative from an environmental organisation, or a visit, e.g. to an RSPB wildlife reserve. For Outcomes 3 and 4 the focus is on practical habitat management, which should ideally take place in an agricultural context. Classroom delivery is likely to be required to help learners appreciate the type of habitat management objectives that may be set, and how these will impact on the habitat tasks completed. It is anticipated that significant practical delivery will be required to enable learners to become confident in their approach to habitat management tasks, and complete them safely and effectively. A particular emphasis on health and safety is required
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for these Outcomes. These Outcomes could also be developed in conjunction with learners work experience at an appropriate placement. References Books Agate, E . 2001. Tree Planting and Aftercare: A Practical Handbook. BTCV, ISBN 0946752257 Agate, E. 2002. Woodlands: A Practical Handbook. BTCV, ISBN 0946752338 Brooks,A. and Agate, E. 1998. Hedging: A Practical Handbook. BTCV, ISBN 0946752176 Andrews,J. and Rebane, M. 1994. Farming and Wildlife: A Practical Management Handbook. Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, ISBN 0903138670 Blyth,J. Evans,J. Mutch, W. and Sidwell,C. 1991. Farm Woodland Management, 2nd Edition. Farming Press Books and Videos, ISBN 0852362196 MacLean, M. 1992. New Hedges for the Countryside. Farming Press Books and Videos, ISBN 0852362420 Mulvaghy,G. Fladmark, J. and Evans, B. 1991. Tomorrows Architectural Heritage: Landscape and Buildings in the Countryside. Mainstream Publishing, ISBN 1851583785 Parker, S. 2004. Green Files: Waste and Recycling. Heinemann Educational Books,ISBN 0431183015 Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. 1994. Ecosystems and Human Activity. CollinsEducational, ISBN 0003266443 Scottish Executive Rural Affairs Department. 2002. Prevention of Environmental Pollution from Agricultural Activity: Code of Good Practice Dos and Donts Guide. Scottish Executive, ISBN 0755905180 Stokes,A. 1999. Health and Safety Overview for Practical Conservation Project: A Guide to Good Practice for Conservation Groups and Land Managers. BTCV Watt, T. and Buckley.G. 1995. Hedgerow Management and Nature Conservation. Imperial College Press, ISBN 0862660378

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