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Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery

Waste Water Treatment


[1]
:-
Technically, wastewater can be defined as any liquid that contains infirmities
or pollutants in the form of solids, liquids or the gases or their combination in
such a concentration that in harmful if disposed to the environment.
The treatment of wastewater means the partial reduction or complete
removal of exercise impurities present in wastewater. The incursive
impurities imply to the constituent (s) that is more them their acceptable
levels (s) the partial reduction or complete removal of impurities depends on
the intended level of treatment.
The task at hand therefore is to transform harmful substances into ----
harmful & probably inert substances. The sludge & other by products
produced can be used in many possible ways. The activated sludge produced
can be, after mechanical & chemical dewatering, be used as a weed
suppreuor if placed on the ground absorbing sunlight. It may also be used as
a soil amendment since it contains nitrogen or hosts species that assimilate
nitrogen from air.
TREATMENT MECHANISMS:-
Usually physical, chemical or biological means are applied for wastewater
treatment 2 the treatment with are designed to carry out the specific
formations on the principles of either one or a combination of the means
employed. Based on the means used, the treatment methods are classified
as Unit operations and Unit Processes.
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Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Unit operations:
The means of treatment in which the application of physical forces
predominates are known as unit operations. Major treatment methods falling
in this category are:
Screening
Mining
Flocculation
Sedimentation
Floatation
Elutriation
Vacuum filtration/ Pressure filtration
Heat transfer & drying
Unit Processes:-
The types of treatment in which removal of contaminants is brought about
by the addition of chemicals or the use of biological mass or microbial
activities are k/a unit processes. Based on the type of agent used, they are
further classified as:-
1. Chemical unit Process:
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Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Reduction or removal is brought about by the addition of chemicals &
their subsequent reactions. It includes chemical neutralization,
chemical coagulation chemical precipitation, chemical oxidation, and
chemical disinfection. However, these processes are often expensive
due to the chemicals employed & the expenditure in handling large
volumes of these chemicals.
2. Biological Unit Process:
Reduction or removal in brought about by microorganism. Major
treatment methods falling under this category are classified as follows:
Suspended growth process: Activated sludge Process, Aerated lagoon,
Oxidation Pond, Aerobic & anaerobic digestion etc.
Attached growth Processes: trickling filter, Rotating Contactors, Bio towers,
Up-flow filters. Such plants are normally designed to remove floating
materials & inorganic & organic solids.
Treatment Systems:
Preliminary Treatment Systems:
The preliminary treatment system in mainly selected to remove floating
materials & large inorganic particulate content of wastewater that usually
causes maintenance operational problems in primary Secondary treatment
systems.
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Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
This system includes:
1) Sump & Pump unit
2) Approach channel
3) Grit chamber
Primary Treatment Systems:
The major equipments include primary setting tank or primary clarifier. It in
compares the removal of most of the large floating naturals & reduces fire
solids by about 60-70% which includes 30-32% of organic suspended solids,
colloidal & soluble (dissolved) organic matter is not removed.
Primary treatment
Secondary treatment system:
After primary treatment, if wastewater in further treated for removal of
colloidal & soluble organic matter present in wastewater, then it is k/a
secondary treatment of wastewater. The treatment system consists of
Activated sludge Process (ASP) or Trickling filter/Bio tower (a basin with
fined-filter media filter) & secondary settling tanks.
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Sump &
pump
Primary
Treatment
Primary Setting
Yank
Primary
settling Tank
Trickling filter Aeration Tank Secondary
Settling Tank
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Secondary Treatment
Tertiary or Advanced treatment system:
If the effluent from the secondary treatment system in further treated to
reduce or remove the concentration of residual impurities, then it is k/a
tertiary treatment of wastewater. It is employed for rearing of industrial
wastewater & is usually very expensive.
For a refinery the advanced treatment units employed are
Pressure sand filter
Activated carbon filter
Dual Media filter.
Biology of the Biological processes:-
A wastewater treatment plant hosts species from several tropics revels & it is
not possible model all of them. Bacteria are the most common group of
microorganisms in wastewater treatment plant they are divided into
autorophs & heterotrophs based are their required source of carbon.
Heterotrophs assimilate organic carbon that is also used for beneficial
energy conversion. Autotrophs absorb carbon dioxide & oxidize ammonium
for energy purposes. Heterotrophic strands grow with in the absence &
present of oxygen & without oxygen nitrate in used as an e
-
accepter &
reduced to nitrogen gas. This anaerobic respiration in an efficient than
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Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
aerobic & produces less biomass & more Co
2
from the substrate. Autotrophs
have lower growth rates due to their choice of food.
A separation based on appearance gives flock forming bacteria &
filamentous bacteria. Hocks have desirable settling properties & are the
preferred type. However, a small amount of filamentous bacteria will
improve the settle ability as they form the backbone for flocks to adhere to.
At how sludge age flock forming proteins are not formed & settling in poor.
Protozoan, feed primarily on bacteria, improve the effluent quality by
reducing the amount of particles.
Also, when a bio film in used & the sludge age is high, the concentration of
higher organisms maybe too high that bacterial growth is impaired.
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Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
REFINERY WASTE WATER
[2]
Petroleum refineries constitute systems of multiple operations that depend
on the type of --- refined & the desired products there reasons, no two
refineries are alike. With a refinery, the water usage is as unique as the
processes inside it.
Overall refinery water balance:
Many processes in a petroleum refinery use water, however not each process
needs raw or treated water & water can be cascaded & reused in many
places. A large portion of the water in a petroleum refinery can be recycled &
reused. There are louses to the atmosphere including steam bosses &
cooling tomes evaporation & drift. Understanding water balance is a key step
towards optimizing the wastewater treatment & recycle.
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REFINERY
PROCESS
UNITS
Surface
Water
Purchased
Water
Water in
crude
Waste
Water
Water in
product
Recycled
Water
Ground
Water
Rain/ Storm
Water
Steam
losses
Evaporator and cooling
tower drift
A schematic diagram for the water balance in an
oil refinery
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
SOURCES OF WATER:
i) Surface water: water to the refineries can be supplied from
various surface water sources such as rivers & lakes in some cases
it might also be from the seas. Addition sources are ground water
located in a aquifers.
Typical characteristics of surface water includes, total suspended
solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS) & turbidity. The water may
require pretreatment based on the level of solids & salts that are
compatible in the process.
ii) Purchased water: water can also be sufficed from municipalities
which generally supply portable water. The water can be used for
other better purposes than for use in refinery.
iii) Water in crude: When crude arrives at a refinery, it often carrier
untrained water that remains from the oil well extraction process
and for picking up during shipment. The water is typically removed
as storage tank bottom sediment or in the De Salter & dehydrator
setup in refinery & might be sent to wastewater treatment.
iv) Rain: Another source of water is the rain. Rain that falls within the
refinery battery limits is typically started before discharge. Storm
water harvesting can be a technique that is used to capture all
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Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
contaminated storm water. With proper storage, the storm water
can be used for processes like equipment washing.
WATER LEAVING THE REFINERY:
i) Wastewater: refineries can generate a significant amount of
wastewater that has been in contact with the hydrocarbons.
Wastewater can refer to the cooling water blow down steam or even
once through cooling water doesnt receive any treatment before
discharge. Cooling tower blow down water & wastewater from raw
water tanking may or may not receive treatment at the WWTP
before discharge. Contaminated water in either sent to a WWTP that
is located is the facility or that owned by a third-party. Water that
has not been in direct contact with the hydrocarbons or which has
only minimal contamination can be sure for sense.
ii) Steam losses:- Low pressure steam that in produced in the
refinery is vented to the atmosphere when in excess. Proper
provisioning of the steam system in the refinery will help minimize
the production of excess steam & the need for venting it.
iii) Cooling water losses:- as water is cooled in the tomes by
evaporation, this results in a low of water in the refinery. Some of
the water in the cooling tomes is untrained by the air moving
through the tower & are lost to the atmosphere. These losses are
k/a cooling tower drift.
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Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Oil refineries Wastewater:
Post independence, refineries in India are located away from the sea share &
therefore discharge all their waste water into land water bodies.
The major sources of wastewater for Indian refineries are as follows:
- A large quality of it comes out after getting polluted by oil & other toxic
substances.
- Major requirement in from cooling purpose. The extent of recycle &
reuse of this water will determine the amount of wastewater generated
by refinery.
- Another major use of water in for boiler feed. The steam obtained in
utilized for different operations like desalting of crude oil, steam
stripping in hopping etc. steam is also used in stripping of the spent
catalyst before the latter is sent for regeneration.
- Water is also used to wash products like gas alive to strip off the
reagents used in its processing earlier.
MAJOR CONTAMINANTS OF INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER:
Thus, the wastewater contains, in small or large amounts, varying
proportions of:
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Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
- Free & emulsified oil
- Spend caustic
- Impurities of oil like NH
3
, phenols, H
2
s & CN
-
- BOD as a result of the organic content.
- Dissolved & suspended solids.
MAJOR CONTAMINANTS OF OIL REFINERY WASTEWATER:-
Contaminant Problems it can cause Removal Methods
Turbidity Washes water cloudy &
deposits in water lines &
process equipments
Coagulation, settling &
filtering
Sulphates Adds to the solids
content of water &
combines with calcium
to from calcium sulfate
scale
Demineralization &
desalting
Oil Source of scale, sludge,
foaming in boilers,
impedes water change.
Oil/water separators
strainers, regulation &
filtrations
Oxygen Corrosion of water lines,
heat exchange
equipment, boilers etc.
De aeration, corrosion
inhibitions, etc.
Hydrogen sulphide Cause of rather egg
odor, corrosions toxicity.
Highly basic anion
exchange
Dissolved solids Dissolved solids are the Various softening
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Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
total measure of the
amount of discoursed
material. It integers with
process & causes
sealing.
processes --- as time
softening & cation
exchange processes.
Suspended solids These plug flow lines,
cause deposits on that
exchange equipment &
erosion of equipment.
Sedimentation,
filtrations, usually
preceded by coagulation
& settling
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Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTEWATER FROM AN OIL REFINERY:
BOD: Biological oxygen demand stands for the organic matter present in the
wastewater in the form of carbonaceous & nitrogen matter. It is most
commonly measured in the form of BOD
5
i.e. for a period at 20.
COD: stands for the chemical oxidation demand & in the oxygen equivalent
of those constituents in a sample which are susceptible to permanganate or
dichromate oxidation in an acid solution. COD in always greater than BOD
5

TOC: Total organic carbon in the total amount of organic carbon present
wastewater.
Total solids: Analytically, the total solid content of wastewater is defined as
all the matter that remains as residue upon evaporation at 103C. settable
solids are those solids which settle at the bottom of cone shaped container
called an Imhoff cone in a 60 minute period. Settle able solids are an
approximate measure of the sludge that will be produced during primary
sedimentation. Total solids are further classified into suspended solids of
filterable by passing a known volume of liquid through the filter.
Each of the categories of solids may be further classified on the basis their
volatility at 550t50C. the organic fraction will oxidize & will driver off as gas
at this temperature & the inorganic fraction will remain behind as ash. Thus
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Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
the terms, volatile suspended solids & fined suspends solids are given to the
organic & inorganic fractions respectively.
Oil & grease: oils have a deleterious effect on the treatment system &
receiving water bodies. Oil may be free, simplified or soluble.
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SAMP
LE
Evaporatio
n
Total
Solids
Imhoff
cone
Settle
able
solids
Filter
(Glass
Fiber)
Evaporati
on
Evaporatio
n
Suspended
Solids
Fixed Solids
Muffle Oven
Muffle Oven
Volatile
Suspended solids
Fixed Suspended
solids
Total Volatile
solids
Total solids
Volatile
Filterable solids
Fixed Filterable
solids
Total Fixed solids
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Phenolic compounds: Persistent in refineries & is toxic to aquatic life &
causes an oxygen demand.
Acidity: Acidity in of note as the pH of water in the bio-treatment must be or
near to neutral for proper growth of micro organisms. Mostly inorganic
contribute to acidity.
Alkalinity: Spent caustic containing Na, Ca & K salts. N
2
in ammonia can
generate alkalinity.
Inorganic ions: Cl
-
, so
4
2-
,

3
No etc. This parameter in important in quality
control for cooling tower & voiles blow down waters.
Ammonia, nitrogen & sulphides: there enter the water during steam
washing of various H/Ls where they are removed as volatiles.
Taste & dour: The foul taste & odor of a rotten egg from wastewater is due
to the presence of H
2
S in the water.
Temperature: an increase in temperature results in the die in solubility of
oxygen in the available water bodies.
Heavy Metals: heavy metallic ions are generally common to industrial
wastewater resulting from corrosion inhibition additives, catalyst usage &
product additives.
Color & Turbidity: wastewater contains suspended particles that tend to
scatter light & the water is then said to be turbid.
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Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Schematic Representation of the sources of wastewater:
NORMAL PROCESS OPERATIONS
Primary pollutant, dissolved organics, oil &
grease.
UTILITY OPERATIONS
Primary pollutants, dissolved salts,
temperature, cooling tower additives.
SANITARY SEWAGE
Primary pollutants, organics, pathogens
nutrients
CONTAMINATED STORM RUN-OFF
Primary pollutant, dissolved oxygen oil &
grease
Primary pollutants, dissolved oxygen oil &
grease
MISCELLANEOUS DISCHARGES
Primary pollutants dissolved oxygen oil &
grease.
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COMBINED
EFFLUENT
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
POLLUTANTS PRESENT AND THEIR EFFECTS
[3]
Major pollutants present in refinery efficient water & their effects are as
follows:
OIL
In refinery crude oil in procured & this oil, through different sources find its
way into the water used for various purpose e.g.: cooling, product washing,
tank draining it has the following effects:-
i) It imparts unpleasant taste & odor to waste.
ii) Destroys algae & other mater plants thus destroying the food
supply of fish.
iii) Blocks the atmospheric oxygen by water bodies (line fish) & coated
on fish & other animals & water birds affecting their survival.
iv) Creates fire hazard when oil gets accumulated in stagnant portion
of water.
v) Organic content present in oil may deplete the dissolved oxygen
sufficiently to kill the fish.
vi) The presence of timidity of films affects the aesthetic of beaches or
seas used for recreation.
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Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
PHENOL
Phenol is a chemical compound formed during cracking operation of
petroleum fractions, for e.g.
i) Phenol imports unpleasant taste & odor to water.
ii) In high cone, phenols are tonic to many living organisms.
SULPHIDES
Wastewater from cracking, desulphurization unit, distillation unit & spent
caustic from caustic treatment system contains sulphides. Their cone
depends on type of crude used.
i) Sulphides import objectionable taste & odor to waste.
ii) They rapidly consume oxygen present in water & thereby depriving
fish & other water organisms of oxygen & read to their death.
iii) Sulphides are also corrosive & toxic.
SUSPENDED SOLIDS
Suspended solids can be sand particles, iron compounds, algae/fungi, flocs
etc.
i) They cause diminished sunlight penetration & thereby retained
photo synthesis of replenishment oxygen.
ii) They injure fish gills & damage aquatic life.
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Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
iii) They deposit in the bottom of the water ways & affect the Bottom
Life.
iv) They tend to clog sewers & thereby restrict water flow.
BIOLOGICAL OXYGEN DEMAND
BOD is a characteristic & not a specific substance. It indicates the content of
demand of oxygen in eater. Microorganisms like bacteria etc. present in
water assimilate organic pollution & multiply.
For this process & also for respiration, microorganisms utilize oxygen
dissolved in water.
This less of oxygen is splashed by reservation from atmosphere. But if the
demand of oxygen is more, resulting less cannot be made up fast. That is
waste water containing pollutant like sulphides, phenol & hydrocarbons etc.
will have high BOD resulting in reduction of oxygen level in water bodies &
thereby affecting the survival of water bodies.
The effect of high BOD value is:
i) The water bodies become anaerobic & give rise to foul smell.
ii) The water bodies become unfit for beneficial use. BOD is measured
in terms of oxygen impressed in mg/L required to oxidize
component of wastewater.
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Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Chemical Oxygen Demand
Like BOD, chemical oxygen demand denotes the oxygen demand level of
water. The difference b/w BOD & COD is only the testing method in the
laboratory. In BOD testing, the oxygen requirements are determined by the
use of microorganisms like bacteria for oxidizing the imperatives & takes 5
days to complete the test.
COD is defined as the amount of oxygen expressed as nrg/L, required to
oxidize components of wastewater by chemical reaction.
pH value
The pH value indicates the hydrogen ion concentration, which is vital in
discharged water. It affects the test, corrosiveness & efficiency of
chlorination & other treatment, process.
Cyanides
Significant concentrations of cyanides occur in wastewater from cracker
units. These compounds vary in toxicity to aquatic life. Free cyanides are
very tonic.
Lead
The use of tetraethyl lead for boosting octane of motor spirit is the chief
source of read in refinery waste. In human body lead is acting as a
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Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
cumulative poison & may cause chronic poisoning if lead contaminated water
in used continuously.
TDS
Total dissolved solids in irrigation water have direct physical effect in
permeation of water uptake by plants by the osmotic effect. It also changes
soil structure, permeability & aeration.
Sulphates & Chlorides:
Moderate concentration of chloride in the root zone usually causes chloride
to a cumulate in the leaves to about 1-2% dry weight. At such concentration,
marginal leaf burn develops, leading ultimately to leaf chop. Sodium a
cumulate of 0.2-0.3% in leaves causes burns & injuries. Chloride salts are
highly soluble. Sulphates are less toxic. The potential salinity of water in
defined as chloride concentration press half of the sulphates concentration in
mg/L
Sodium
Soil dispersion & as a result drainage & soil aeration becomes poor due to
high radium content of the irrigation water. Soil irrigated with water having
high sodium content will have comes calcium content & effects plants
requiring high calcium.
TREATMENT PHILISOPHY
[4]
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Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
The principal contaminants present in these streams are mainly oil (free and
emulsified), suspended solids, phenols, sulphides and organic matter
contributing to BOD/COD. The treatment procedure for different
contaminants is as follows:
TREATMENT FOR FREE AND EMULSIFIED OIL
Free oil (Dai > 60 microns) present in the process stream is removed with
the help of gravity, by the density difference between the dispensed phase
(oil) and the dispersion medium (water). The efficiency of oil-water
separation is directly proportional to the unit surface area.
For this purpose, a highly efficient compact Tilted Plate Interceptor (TPI) unit
is used. Effluent is fed into the TPI, under laminar conditions and through a
number of closely spaced corrugated plates; oil globules rise and coalesce
with other globules. Heavier settling particles also slide down through these
plates. The floating oil is skimmed from the top while the solids are removed
from the bottom.
Emulsified oil (oil particle Dai. < 60 u) present in the effluent is removed by
chemical flocculation followed by floatation in a Dissolved Air Floatation Unit
(DAF). It essentially consists of a flash mixer, a flocculator and a floatation
unit. The DAF process relies on the release of dissolved air as a cloud of
micro bobbles into the incoming effluent stream.
These bubbles attach themselves to the emulsified oil globules (<60u) and
lift them on to the surface to form a floating blanket. De-emulsifying agents
are also employed in the floatation units to break the oil-in-water emulsion
by neutralizing the charge carried by the oil droplets. The oil layer is formed
at the surface and is skimmed away by a skimmer mechanism.
TREATMENT FOR SULPHIDE
Sulphides present in the effluent stream emanating from process unit are
removed by chemical precipitation using chlorinated copperas. Chlorinated
copperas, formed by the reaction of chlorine with Ferrous Sulphate, is very
effective for sulphide precipitation.
The following reactions occur during sulphide precipitation, in an alkaline pH
range.
2Na OH + H2S = Na2S + 2 H2O
3FeSO4 . 7H2O + 1.5 CL2 = Fe2 (SO4)3 + FeCl 3 . 21
H2O
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Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Fe2 (SO4)3 + 3 Na 2 S = Fe2 S3 + 3 Na2 SO4
Fe 2 S3 (Hydrolysis) = 2 FeS + S
FeCl3 + 3 NaOH = Fe (OH)3 + 3 Na Cl
Chlorinated copperas solution is dosed in the flash mixer of the DAF system
and the precipitate is separated in the floatation unit of the same. Presently
sulphide removal is done by Hydrogen Peroxide& chlorinated copperas
dosing facility is kept for emergency.
HYDROGEN PEROXIDE DOSING
To remove organic sulphide , we were using chlorinated copperas, which
results in sludge generation. It is difficult to dispose the sludge. To avoid
such problems we have started to dose H
2
O
2
and to maintain Eco-friendly
environment system.
Hydrogen Peroxide is a most versatile chemical used in effluent treatment.
Hydrogen Peroxide is an oxidizing agent. It gives active oxygen, which
is obtained by controlled decomposition of H
2
O
2
with water as a by-
product. Hence it provides a very clean process without producing
harmful or environmentally unsafe product.
Chemical Properties
The most important chemical property of Hydrogen Peroxide is its ability to
provide active Oxygen to process concerned. It reacts as:
A) as an oxidant
B) As a reductant
C) To perform other inorganic & organic peroxy compounds.
D) To form addition compounds.
O O
H
2
O
2 | | | | ||
A) R-S-R R-S-R R-S-R
B) 2C
e
4+
+ H
2
O
2
2C
e
3+
+ 2H
+
+ O
2
C) Peroxy compounds
CH
3
COOH + H
2
O
2
CH
3
COOH + H
2
O
E) Addition compounds
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Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
2Na
2
Co
3
+3 H
2
O
2
2Na
2
Co
3
.
3
H
2
O
2
decomposition takes place as follows
2 H
2
O
2
2H
2
O + O
2
HYDROGEN SULPHIDE CONTROL
Hydrogen peroxide also treats the toxic pollutants such as cyanides, phenols,
nitrites & sulphides. It is carried out by oxidation process. H
2
O
2
also serves
the purpose of oxygenation. As a potential source of oxygen, it is used in
biological treatment particularly at times of overload, for treatment of
bulking sludge, and for the prevention of denitrification in settling tanks.
TREATMENT CHEMISTRY
H2O2 as stated before is a strong oxidizing agent and reacts with sulphides
over a wide range of pH. Reactions are shown below for acidic / neutral as
well as alkaline conditions.
Acidic/ neutral conditions.
In acidic range and neutral conditions sulphide in the effluent mostly present
in the form of H
2
S. The H
2
O
2
reacts with H
2
S to give products of oxidation as
water and elemental sulphur as below.
H
2
O
2
+ H
2
S -- 2H
2
O +S
ALKALINE RANGE
In alkaline range sulphide present in the effluent is generally in the form of
Na
2
S. The H
2
O
2
reacts with Na
2
S to give end products as water & Na
2
So4 as
shown below.
2RSH+ H
2
O
2
- RSSR+H
2
O( for mercaptans)
SO
3

3
+ H
2
O
2
SO2 4 + H
2
O (for sulphites)
Fe++
C6H6O+14 H
2
O
2
----- 6CO
2
+17H
2
O(for phenols)
CN+ H
2
O
2
----- CNO+ H
2
O (acidic ph)
CNO+2H
2
O-- Co
2
+NH3 +OH ( for cynides)
50% H
2
O
2
( as commercially available) is used in feeding for removal
of sulphides.
TREATMENT FOR BOD/COD/RESIDUAL SULPHIDES/PHENOLS
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Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Organic matter, phenols, residual sulphides, non-recoverable oil and
hydrocarbons contribute to the effluents Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD),
and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD).
BOD is indicative of the quantity of oxygen required to biologically stabilize
the organic matter present in the waste water, while COD indicates the
oxygen requirement for oxidizing the organic matter by a strong chemical in
an acidic medium, an elevated temperature.
In order to stabilize the organic matter, biological treatment of waste water
is to be accomplished by aerobic digestion of the organic matter.
Waste water treatment plant (WWTP) in Panipat Refinery employs a Biotower
(Plastic media trickling filters), in conjunction with an activated sludge
process (Aeration tank).
BIOTOWER
The biotower consists of a bed of highly permeable media made of plastic
(Poly propylene) to which microorganisms are attached and through which
waste water is percolated. The organic material present in the waste water
is degraded by a population of microorganisms attached to the filter media.
ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS AERATION TANK
In the activated sludge system, the bacteria is continuously mixed with
waste water and aerated by motor operated aerators. Here also bacteria eat
away the impurities. The bacteria water mixture (mixed liquor) is then sent
to clarifier from Aeration tank where bacteria mass is separated from water.
The bacteria mass recycled back to aeration tank to maintain required level
of bacteria mass in Aeration tank. The balance material is pumped out to
sludge management system.
The part of treated water from clarifier is recycled back and the rest is
discharged to Guard Ponds.
The activated sludge process is an aerobic biological process, which uses the
metabolic reactions of variety of microorganisms to attain an acceptable
effluent quality by removing substance exerting an oxygen demand. In
simple form the reaction may be written as:
Food + Microbes + Nutrient + O2
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Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
(Organic waste) (Sludge) (N+P) (Air)
= New cells + CO2 + H2O + NOX + energy
The process basically involves two unit operations viz. contacting and liquid
solid separation. The contacting operation involves mixing of wastewater
and microorganisms and the microbial floc particles are brought into contact
with the organic components of the waste water. The organic matter serves
as a carbon and energy sources for microbial growth and is converted into
microbial cell tissues. After the treatment, the mixed liquor is separated in a
clarifier. The concentrated (settled) microbial solids are recycled back to the
system for maintaining bacteria population. As the microorganisms are
continuously produced, the mass of microorganisms would keep increasing
until the system could no longer contain them.
A purge stream is, therefore, withdrawn from microorganism recycle stream
for purging out of the system.
The concentration, at which the biological mass should be kept, depends on
the desired treatment efficiency and other consideration related to growth.
Since counting million of bacteria are impossible, weight of bacterial mass
present in one litre of water is used. This is expressed as Mixed Liquor
Suspended Solids (MLSS). This term is used to control bacteria population in
bioreactor operation at a particular level.
To know MLSS, one litre of water from aeration tank outlet is taken and
filtered. Filtered solids are dried and weighed and expressed in milligrams
per litre. However, solids thus filtered may contain inorganic material like
sand and iron sulphides. Our interest is in organic portion, which is bacterial
mass. To obtain sulphides this, MLSS is heated to 600 C; organic matter is
converted into carbon monoxide and water. The residue is the inorganic
matter. The difference of MLSS and inorganic matter is reported as Mixed
Liquor Volatile Suspended Solid (MLVSS). Generally the concentration of
MLVSS is 1800 mg/lt. in this system.
In the field, an operator can take aeration tank outlet sample in a bottle and
note the volume of MLSS after settling the sample for 30 mts. This gives fair
idea of MLSS, which can be correlated, to laboratory results. Another
characteristic that can be monitored is Sludge Volume Index (SVI). It is the
volume occupied by one gram of MLSS after a litre sample has been allowed
to settle for 30 mts. It indicates how bacteria can settle and separate out
26
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
from water. Sludge of higher SVI settles poorly in clarifier and is likely to be
carried away in clarifier over flow water. Then nutrients need to be
increased at the inlet of biological system.
TREATMENT FOR SUSPENDED SOLIDS AND UNTREATED
HYDROCARBON
In order to achieve supplemental removal of suspended solids (including
BOD contributed by particulate matter) from waste water, single/multimedia
filtration is one of the principal unit operations employed.
The removal of S.S. and residual BOD/COD are accomplished by a complex
process involving straining interception, impaction. Sedimentation and
absorption within the filters. The two most popular filters used in refinery
WWTPs are sand filters and Dual-media filter. In order to remove the
dissolved, untreated hydrocarbon, activated Carbon filters are employed,
which uses granular activated carbon to absorb the hydrocarbon on its
surface by chemical and physical bonding.
27
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
MATERIAL BALANCE CALCULATIONS
Basis: 1 day operation
F1 = 9600 m
3
/D
[4]
: oily water stream
F3 = 480m
3
/D
[4]
: surface run off/contaminated rain mater stream.
F1=F2=9600
[3]
/D
When the two streams of oily water & contaminated rain water are mixed,
the new waste water characteristics are:
Characteristic F2 (OWS) mg/L F3 (CRWS) mg/L F2+F3 (mg/L)
Free oil 600 190 580.476
Emulsified oil 400 35 382.619
BOD
s
500 65 479.286
COD 1000 125 958.334
TSS 150 350 159.523
Sulphides 60 57.143
Phenols 30 28.571
N1+
3
30 28.571
CN
-
5 4.762

1) GRIT CHAMBER: capable of removing grit particles of density 2650
kg/m
3 [5]
Grit removed =
3
3
3
3024 . 0 10080
1000
03 .
m
wastewater of m
m

Weight of grit removed = 0.3024 2650 kg/m


3
= 801.36 kg/d of grit removed.
Applying flow balance on grit chamber,
28
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
F5=F3+F2-F4=10079.697m
3
/D
2) TILTED PLAT INTERCEPTOR :
As per the data available on the EPA handbook, we assume, 80% free
oil removal, 20% suspended solids removal, 5% BOD removal & 5%
COD removal.
[6]

F5=10079.697 m
3
/D
Influent free oil = D kg / 022 . 5851
1000
476 . 580 697 . 10079

Fee oil removed = 4680.818 kg/D= 0.85851.022 kg/D


Effluent free oil = 1170.204kg /D
Flow rate of oil removal = D m / 876 . 4
960
818 . 4680
3

{ } D m oil of density / 960


3

Influent suspended solids road =
1000
23 . 159 697 . 10079
= 1607.943 kg/D
Suspended solids removed = 0.21607.943 kg/D
= 321.589 kg/D
Assuming 6% solids concentration & density of
[8]
29
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Primary sludge = 120 kg/m
3
as for Metcalf & eddy, wastewater
engineering,
Suspended solids removed = D m / 25 . 5
1020 06 . 0
589 . 321
3

Effluent & suspended solids = 1286.354 kg/D


Effluent flow rate = F8=F5-F6-F7
= 10079.697-4.876-5.25
= 10069.571 m
3
/D
Influent BOD
5
load = D kg / . 058 . 4831
1000
286 . 479 69 . 10079

BOD
5
removed = 241.553 kg/D=4831.0580.05 kg/D
Effluent BOD
5
= 4589.505 kg/D
Influent COD= D kg / 716 . 9659
1000
69 . 10079 334 . 985

COD removed = 482.986 kg/D


Effluent COD= 9176.73 kg/D.
Effluent flow = 10069.571 m
3
/D=F8
S.S = 127.75 mg/L
Free oil = 126.212 mg/L
30
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
BOD
5
= 455.78 mg/L
COD = 911.333 mg/L
3) PRIMARY SETTLING TANK: As per the EPA handbook, we can

safely
assume a reduction of 30% in BOD, 20% in COD, 50% in TSS & 60% in
free oil.
[6]

F8 = 10069.571 m
3
/D
Influent SS = 127.75 mg/L
Influent BOD
5
= 455.70 mg/L
Influent COD = 911.333 mg/L
Influent free oil = 126.212 mg/L
Influent TSS = D kg / 388 . 1286
1000
571 . 10069 75 . 127

S.S removed = 643.194 kg/D = 1286.3880.5 kg/D


Assuming 6% solids concentration & density of primary sludge
[8]
=
Flow rate =
1020 06 . 0
194 . 643

= 10.51 m
3
/D
Effluent T.S.S = 643.194 kg/D.
31
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Influent free oil = D kg / 205 . 1170
1000
571 . 10069 212 . 116

Free oil removed = 1170.2050.6 = 702.123 kg/D


Assuming, density of oil = 960 kg/m
3

[7]
Flow rate of free oil removed = 0.731 m
3
/D
Influent BOD
5
= D kg / 509 . 4589
1000
78 . 455 871 . 10069

BOD
5
removed = 4589.5090.3=1376.856 kg/D
BOD
5
removed = 3212.656 kg/D
Effluent COD = D kg / 732 . 9176
1000
871 . 10069 333 . 911

COD removed = 9176.7320.2 = 1835.346 kg/D


Effluent COD = 7341.386 kg/D
Applying flow balance,
F10=F8-F9- oil removed
= (10069.571-10.51-0.731)m
3
/D
= 10058.33 m
3
/D
Effluent free oil = L mg / 537 . 46
33 . 10058
1000 012 . 486

32
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Effluent S.S. = 63.946 mg/L
Effluent BOD
5
= 319.403 mg/L
Effluent COD = 729.881 mg/L
4) DISSOLVED AIR FLOATATION UNIT: as per the EPA handbook, the
following assumptions are made: 50% removal of suspended solids.
Free oil 75% emulsified oil removal 75%, BOD
5
removal 20% COD
removal 10%
[6]
Applying threw balance over the unit,
F10+RF12 = F12+F11 (i)
F10 = influent flow = 10058.33m
3
/D
R = recycle from total effluent F12, m
3
/D
F12 = Total effluent,
3
/D
F11 = solid sludge removal, m
3
/D.
As per, Metcalf & Eddy, wastewater engineering recycle ratio in large
treatment plant is assumed to be around 20%
[9]
F10+0.2F12=F12+F11+Oil removed.
F10=0.8F12+F11+oil removed. (ii)
To obtain sludge flow rate,
33
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
F11 =
sludge solids of density conc solids
removed TSS

(iii)
S.s. influent = in coming S.S. +S.S. in recycle stream
=
,
_


+
,
_


1000
5 . 0 946 . 63 12 2 . 0
1000
53 . 10058 946 . 63 F
= 643.19 + (6.39510
-3
) F12
S.S. removed = (643.19 + (6.39510
-3
) F12) 0.5
[8]
(iv)
Oil removal
Influent free oil =
,
_


+
,
_


1000
25 . 0 537 . 46 12 2 . 0
1000
33 . 10058 537 . 46 F
= 468.085 + (2.3310
-3
) F12) 0.75 -(v)
Influent emulsified oil =
,
_


+
,
_

+
1000
25 . 0 619 . 382 12 2 . 0
1000
33 . 10058 619 . 382 F
= 3848.508+ (19.1310
-3
) F12 -(vi)
Total flow rate of oil removed
(468.085 +3848.5058+(21.4610
-3
)F12)0.75 -(vii)
Using (vii) & (iv) in (ii)
10052.33 = 0.8F12+3.494+5.25+6.910
-5
F12
10049.586 = (0.8-6.910
-5
) F12
34
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
F12 = D m / 9825 . 12561
8 . 0
586 . 10049
3

Recycle rate = 0.2F112= 2512.397 m


3
/D
Effluent flow rate = 10049.59 m
3
/D
Now,
Influent suspended solids = 643.19 + (6.39510
-3
) 2512.397
= 659.257 kg/D
Suspended solids removal = 329.628 kg/D
Effluent suspended solids = 329.628 kg/D
Influent free oil = 468.085 + (2.3310
-12
) 2512.397
= 473.94 kg/D
Free oil removed = 355.454 kg/D
Effluent free oil = 118.486 kg/D
Influent emulsified oil = 3848.508 + (19.1310
-3
2512.397)
= 3896.563 kg/D
Emulsified oil removed = 3896.5630.75=2922.422 kg/D
Effluent emulsified oil = 974.141 kg/D
35
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Influent BOD
5
=
,
_


+
,
_


1000
8 . 0 403 . 319 397 . 2512
1000
10058.33 403 . 319
= 3854.533 kg/D
BOD
5
removed = 770.907 kg/D
Effluent BOD
5
= 3083.626 kg/D
Influent COD =
,
_


+
,
_


1000
9 . 0 88 . 729 2512
1000
33 . 10058 88 . 729
= 7341.384+1650.373
= 8991.757 kg/D
COD removed = 8991.7570.1=899.176 kg/D
Effluent Cod = 8092.581 kg/D
Now,
Effluent S.S. = 329.628 kg/D
20% of this passes in the recycle
Remaining S.S. = 263.702 kg/D =
59 . 10049
1000 702 . 263
= 26.24 mg/L
Effluent free oil = 118.486 kg/D
In recycle = 23.697 kg/D = 9.43 mg/L
36
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
In effluent = 94.789 kg/D = 9.43 mg/L
Effluent emulsified oil = 974.141 kg/D
In recycle = 194.828 kg/D = L mg / 547 . 77
397 . 2512
1000 828 . 194

In effluent = 779.313 kg/D = L mg / 547 . 77


59 . 10049
1000 313 . 773

Total effluent oil = 86.98 mg/L


Effluent BOD
5
= 3083.626 kg/D
In recycle = 616.725kg/D = 245.473 mg/L
In effluent = 2466.901 kg/D = 245.473 mg/L
Effluent COD = 3092.581 kg/D
COD in recycle 1618.8.516 kg/D = 644.212 mg/L
COD in effluent = 6474.065 kg/d = 644.212 mg/L
Influent phenol =
,
_


+
,
_


1000
9 28571 397 . 2512
1000
571 . 28 33 . 10058
= 351.98 kg/D
Phenol removed = 351.980.1 = 35.198 kg/D
Effluent phenol = 316.782 kg/d
Phenol in recycle = 316.7820.2= 63.356 kg/D
37
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
= 25.218 mg/L
Phenol in effluent = 253.426 kg/D
= 25.218 mg/L
Effluent flow = 10049.59 m
3
/D
COD = 644.212 mg/L
BOD
5
= 245.473 mg/L
Total oil = 86.98 mg/L
S.S. = 26.24 mg/L
Phenol = 25.218 mg/L
5) BIO TOWER
The bio tower is a trickling filter of greater media depth at a petroleum
refinery is made up of plastic media (polypropylene) with 90% void age.
Assuming, BOD reduction = 60%, COD reduction= 30%,
Suspended solids reduction = 60%, oil reduction = 50%
Phenols reduction = 70%, NH
3
=20%, sulphides =70%, CN
-
=80%
[6]
Applying flow balance,
F14+0.5+F15=F15
38
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
F14= influent flow
0.5 = recycle ratio from total effluent as per IOCL
[10]
Panipat, ETP-1 operating manual
F15 = Total effluent
F15 = D m
F
/ 18 . 20099
5 . 0
59 . 10049
5 . 0
14
3

F 16 (effluent) = 10049.59m
3
/D
Influent BOD
5
=
1000
4 . 0 473 . 245 59 . 10049
1000
473 . 245 59 . 10049
+

= 3453.664 kg/D
BOD
5
removed = 3453.6640.6 = 2072.198 kg/D
Effluent BOD
5
= 1381.466 kg/D
BOD
5
in recycle = 690.733 kg/D = L mg / 732 . 68
59 . 10049
1000 733 . 690

BOD
5
in effluent (F16) = 690.733 = 62.732 mg/L
Influent COD =
1000
7 . 0 212 . 644 59 . 10049
1000
212 . 644 59 . 10049
+

= 11005.913 kg/D
COD removed = 11005.930.3=3301.774 kd/D
Effluent COD = 7704.139 kd/D
39
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
COD recycle = 3852.069 kg/D = L mg / 306 . 383
59 . 10049
1000 069 . 3852

COD in effluent (F16) = 3052.069 kg/D= 383.306 mg/L


Influent suspended solids =
1000
4 . 0 24 . 26 59 . 10049
1000
24 . 26 59 . 10049
+

=369.102
kg/D
S.S. removed = 369.182 kg/D = 221.509 kg/D
S.S. in effluent = 147.673 kg/D
S.S. in recycle = 73.837 kg/D = 7.34 mg/L
S.S. in effluent (F16) = 73.837 kg/D = 7.34 mg/L
Influent oil =
1000
5 . 0 98 . 86 59 . 10049
1000
98 . 86 59 . 10049
+

= 1311.17 kg/D
Oil removed = 1311.170.5 = 655.585 kg/D
Effluent oil = 655.585 kg/D
Oil in recycle = 327.793 kg/D = 32.618 mg/L
Oil in effluent (F16) = 327.793 kg/D = 32.618 mg/L
Influent sulphides =
1000
3 . 0 143 59 . 10049
1000
146 . 57 59 . 10049
+

= 746.543 kg/D
40
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Sulphides removed = 522.58 kg/D
Effluent sulphides = 223.963 kg/D
Sulphides in recycle = 111.982 kg/D =
L mg / 143 . 11
54 . 10049
1000 982 . 111

Sulphides in effluent (F16) = 111.982 kg/D = 11.143 mg/L


Influent Phenols =
1000
3 . 0 218 . 25 59 . 10049
1000
218 . 25 59 . 10049
+

= 329.46 kg/D
Phenols removed = 230.622 kg/D
Effluent phenols = 98.838 kg/D
Phenols in recycle = 49.419 kg/D = L mg / 918 . 4 1000
59 . 10049
419 . 49

Phenols in effluent (F16) = 49.419 kg/D = 4.918 mg/L
Influent CN
-
=
1000
2 . 0 762 . 4 59 . 10049
1000
762 . 4 59 . 10049
+

= 57.427 kg/D
CN
-
removed = 45.942 kg/D
Effluent CN
-
= 11.485 kg/D
41
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
CN
-
is recycle = 5.743 kg/D = L mg / 571 . 0
59 . 10049
1000 743 . 5

CN
-
is effluent (F16) = 5.743 kg/D = 0.571 mg/L
Influent TKN (Total Kjeldahl nitrogen, i.e. the total nitrogen present as NH
3
,
+
4
NH or N
2
=
1000
8 . 0 59 . 10049 571 . 28
1000
59 . 10049 571 . 28
+

= 516.828 kg/D
NH
3
nitrified = 516.828 0.2= 103.366 kg/D
Effluent TKN = 413.462 kg/D
TKN in recycle = 206.731 kg/d = (206.731/10049.59) 1000=20.57
mg/L
TKN is effluent (F16) = 206.731 kg/D = 20.57 mg/L
De-nitrification Step =
As per Metcalf & Eddy, wastewater engineering, de-nitrification rate in given
b y the formula, U
DN
= U
DN
(1.09)
T-20
(1-DO)
Assuming operating temperature to be 30C,
D.O. = 0.07 mg/L
1 1
1 . 0
) 20 (

day U
C
DN
42
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
U
DN
= 0.1(1.09)
10
(1.0.07) = 0.22
D MLVSS kg
N No Kg
.
2
3

Now the minimum
I is
vactor in MLVSS
applied BOD
De-nitrification rate =
664 . 3453
.
22 . 0
3

D applied BOD kg
N NO kg
= 759.806 kg NO
-
3
-N/D
Since this value is greater than the available

3
NO , then, the whole

3
NO is
concerted to N
2
gas which leaves as bubbles.
Final effluent flow = 10049.59 m
3
/D
BOD
5
= 68.732 mg/L
COD = 383.306 mg/L
S.S. = 7.34 mg/L
Oil = 32.618 mg/L
Sulphides = 11.143 mg/L
Phenols = 4.918 mg/L
CN
-
= 0.571 mg/L
NH
3
= 20.57 mg/L
43
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS:
Consider a connectional plug flow type process. The critical parameter of
Food to microorganism (F/M) is taken as 0.3 we also assure
C
= mean we
credence time, of 10 days we also assure that the solids entering the
classifier are same as the solids leaving the aeration tank & that there is no
digestion in the clarifier.
As per the EPA standards, BOD
5
removal = 90%, COD removed = 50%, 55
removal = 60%,

oil removal = 80%, Phenol removed = 95% NH
3
removed =
50%,

sulphide removal = 97% CN
-
removal 95%
[6]

Applying flow balance,
F17+F21 = F19+F18
F19=F20+F21
X (bio mass present in the reactor, mg/L) = 2000mg/L
[11]
Influent flow = 10049.59 m
3
/D
By material balance on the aeration tank, me have (Q + Q
r
) X = Q
r
X
r
[12]
Xr = MLSS present in recycle stream, mg/L
X
r
= 10
6
/SVI
[11]
SVI = Sludge volume index
F/M =0.3 produces a sludge of SVI =100
[11]
44
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery

25 . 0
2000 1000
2000
2

X X
X
Q
Q
r
Q
r
= 2512.398 m
3
/D
D kg reactor the in MLVSS
D kg reactor the to applied BOD
/ ,
/ ,
3 . 0
MLVSS = D kg / 428 . 2302
3 . 0
732 . 68 59 . 10049

Amount of sludge removed:


(k
d
)
00
= 0.06 day

-1 [11]
(k
d
)
30
= 0.06 (1.047)
10
= 0.095 day
-1

[11]
(Y)
30
= 0.6(1.047)
10
= 0.95
[11]
(Y
obs
) = 487 . 0
10 0965 . 0 1
95 . 0

+
P
(ss)
=
] 11 [
] 487 . 0 8 . 0 732 . 68 59 . 10049 [
8 . 0
1

- [0.0952302.428]
= 62.971 kg/D
= 7.793 m
3
/D
Effluent flow = 10049.59-7.773 m
3
/D
= 10041.797 m
3
/D
45
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Influent BOD
5
= D kg / 728 . 690
1000
732 . 68 559 . 10049

BOD
5
removed= 690.7280.8 = 552.583 kg/D
Effluent BOD
5
= 138.145 kg/D = 13.76 mg/L
Influent COD = D kg / 068 . 3852
1000
06 . 383 59 . 10049

COD removed = 1926.034 kg/D


Effluent COD = 1926.034 kg/D = 191.8 mg/L
Influent oil = D kg / 798 . 327
1000
618 . 32 59 . 10049

Oil removed = 262.238 kg/D


Effluent oil = 65.56 kg/D = 6.529 mg/L
Influent suspended solids = D kg / 704 . 73
1000
34 . 7 59 . 10049

Suspended solids = 44.258 kg/D


Effluent suspended solids = 29.506 kg/D = 2.938 mg/L
Influent phenol = D kg / 189 . 42
1000
918 . 4 59 . 10049

Phenol removal = 40.079 kg/D


Effluent phenol = 2.11 kg/D = 0.210 mg/L
46
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Influent sulphides = D kg / 983 . 111
1000
143 . 11 59 . 10049

Sulphides removed = 108.623 kg/D


Effluent sulphides = 3.36 kg/D
Influent CN
-
= D kg / 738 . 5
1000
571 . 0 59 . 10049

CN
-
removed = 5.451 kg/D
Influent TKN = D kg / 72 . 206
1000
57 . 20 59 . 10049

TKN removed = 206.720.5=103.36 kg/D

3
NO in effluent = 103.36 kg/D
NH
3
= in effluent = 103.36 kg/D = L mg / 293 . 10 1000
797 . 10041
36 . 103

De nitrification step:
] 12 [ 20
) 00 1 ( ) 09 . 1 (
t
DN DN
U U
1
1 . 0

day U
DN
T= 30C
D.O. = 0.0+mg/L
U
DN
= 0.22
D MLVSS Kg
N NO Kg
/ .
2
] 12 [
3

47
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
MLVSS in reactor = 2302.428 kg/D
428 . 2302 22 . 0
3

N NO
= 506.534 kg/D
Since this value is greater than the available No complete change of No
3
-
N
2
occurs
Effluent flow = 10041.797 m
3
/D
BOD
5
= 13.76 mg/L
COD = 191.8 mg/L
Oil = 6.529 mg/L
S.S. = 2.938 mg/L
Phenol = 0.210 mg/L
Sulphides = 0.335mg/L
CN
-
= 0.028 mg/L
NH
3
= 10.293 mg/L
PRESSURE SAND FILTER:
48
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
As per EPA standards, assure S.S. removal = 75%, oil removal = 65%,
phenols removal =5%
[6]
Influent flow = 10041.797 m
3
/D
Influent suspended solids =
1000
797 . 10041 949 . 2
= 29.61 kg/D
S.S. removed = 22.209 kg/D
Effluent S.S. = 7.401 kg/D
= 0.737 mg/L
Influent oil = D kg / 804 . 65
1000
797 . 10041 553 . 6

Oil removed = 42.773 kg/D


Effluent oil = 23.031 kg/D
= 2.294 mg/L
Influent phenol: D kg / 119 . 2
1000
211 . 0 797 . 10041

Phenol removed = 0.05 N2.119 = 0.106 kg/D


Effluent phenol = 2.013 kg/D
= 0.2 mg/L
49
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Effluent flow rate = 10041.797 m
3
/D
Phenol = 0.2 mg/L
S.S. = 0.737 mg/L
Oil = 2.294 mg/L
8) ACTIVATED CARBON FILTERS:
As per the EPA standards, BOD removal = 91%, COD removal = 90%, S.S
removal =60%, oil removal = 70% phenol removal =90%, NH
3
removal=60%
Influent flow = 10041.797 m
3
/D
[6]
Influent BOD
5
= D kg / 175 . 138
1000
797 . 10041 76 . 13

BOD
5
removed = 125.739 kg/D
Effluent BOD
5
= 12.436 kg/D
= L mg / 239 . 1
797 . 10041
1000 436 . 12

Influent COD = D kg / 016 . 1926


1000
8 . 191 747 . 10041

COD removed = 1733.415 kg/D


Effluent COD = 192.601 kg/D = L mg / 1918
797 . 10041
1000 601 . 192

Influent suspended solids = D kg / 401 . 7


1000
797 . 10041 737 . 0

50
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Suspended
Solids removed = 4.441 kg/D
Effluent suspended solids = 2.960 kg/D
= L mg / 295 . 0
797 . 10011
1000 960 . 2

Influent oil = D kg / 036 . 23


1000
797 . 10011 294 . 2

Oil removed = 16.125 kg/D


Effluent oil = 6.911 kg/D = L mg / 69 . 0
797 . 10041
1000 911 . 6

Influent phenol = D kg / 008 . 2


1000
797 . 10041 2 . 0

Phenol removed = 1.808 kg/D


Effluent phenol = 0.2 kg/D
L mg / 02 . 0
797 . 10041
1000 2 . 0

Influent NH
3
= D kg / 858 . 102
1000
243 . 10 797 . 10041

NH
3
removed = 61.715 kg/D
Effluent NH
3
= 41.143 kg/D
= L mg / 10 . 4
797 . 10041
1000 143 . 41

51
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Effluent flow rate = 10041.797 m
3
/D
BOD
5
= 1.239 mg/L
COD = 19.18 mg/L
Suspended solids= 0.295 mg/L
Phenol = 0.02 mg/L
Oil = 0.69 mg/L
NH
3
= 4.10 mg/L
9) DUAL MEDIA FILTERS
As per EPA standards, are assume a reduction of 75% in suspended solids,
65% 65% in oil, phenol almost negligible.
[6]
Influent flow rate = 10041.797 m
3
/D
Influent suspended solids = D kg / 962 . 2
1000
797 . 10041 295 . 0

Suspended solids removed = 2.223 kg/D


Effluent suspended solids = 0.739 kg/D
= L mg / 074 . 0
797 . 10041
1000 739 . 0

52
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Influent oil = D kg / 93 . 6
1000
797 . 10041 69 . 0

Oil removed = 4.505 kg/D


Effluent oil = 2.425 kg/D
= L mg / 241 . 0
797 . 10041
1000 425 . 2

Final wastewater characteristics:


How rate = 10041.797 m
3
/D
BOD
5
= 1.239 mg/L
COD = 19.18 mg/L
Suspended solids = 0.074 mg/L
Oil = 0.241 mg/L
Phenol = 0.02 mg/L
CN
-
= 0.028 mg/L
NH
3
= 9.10 mg/L
Sulphides = 0.335 mg/L
OXYGEN REQUIREMENT OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS
53
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Theoretically the amount of oxygen required for the removal of
carbonaceous organic & nitrogenous organic content of waste water is
determined by:
For carbonaceous:-

] 13 [
2
/ ] [ 42 . 1
] [
) ( D kg Pexcess
f
S So Q
reqd O
o

1000 56 . 6
] 1376 732 . 68 [ 59 . 10049

- 1.42 [50.38]
= 914.971 kg/D
O
2
required for nitrogenous waste:-

4.57Q
0
(N
o
-N) kg/D
[13]
= 4.5710049.59(20.57-10.293)
Mass fractions of O
2
in air = 23.2%
Total air required = 5978.267 kg/D
During of air at 30C = --- PV/RT =
303 315 . 8
84 . 28 35 . 101

= 5153.679 m
3
/D
Assuming 8% efficiency of the aeration:
54
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Actual air requirement = D m / 988 . 64420
08 . 0
679 . 5153
3

SLUDGE DIGESTION/ TREATMENT


The sludge produced during the treatment of wastewater from primary
settling tank, tilted plate interceptor, DAF & waste activated sludge.
I) Sludge from PST & TPI = F6+F9
Not influent flow rate = (5.25+10.51)m
3
/d
= 15.76m
3
/D
Influent solids cone =
rate flow Not
PST in Solids TPI in solids +
( )
76 . 15
10 589 . 321 8194 . 641
3
+

= 61090.212 g/m
3
Influent solids = (61090.21215.76)/1000
= 962.782 kg/D
1) Gravity thickness: The combined flow from TPI & PST go into the
gravity thicker assuming 8% solids concentration & 90% solids
recovery
[14]

Applying solids balance, the solids in effluent will be 90% of those in
the influent.
55
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Effluent solids = 504 . 866 / 782 . 962
100
90
D kg
866.504=F220.081020
F22=10.619 m
3
/D
F23=5.141m
3
/D
i.e. water +dissolved solids
Effluent solids cone =
619 . 10
1000 504 . 66
= 73439.458 g/m
3
2) Centrifuge:
The sludge entering the centrifuge in mixed with DWPE (oily) (DE
metering poly electrolyte)
Influent solids = 866.504 kg/D
Amount of DWPE required for primary sludge =
solids of kg
g 3 . 2
Amount of DWPE required = 1.99 kg/D
Influent flow rate = 10.619 m
3
/D
Assuming 95% solids recovery & a sludge thickening of 35%
[14]
applying solids balance
56
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
866.5040.95=823.179 kg/D
823.179=2.306 m
3
/D
F24 = 2.306 m
3
/D
F25=8.313 m
3
/D (water + dissolved solids)
F24= effluent waste sludge = 1000
306 . 2
179 . 823

= 356972.68 kg/D
II) Sludge from DAF: Primary sludge of flow rate, F11=5.255m
3
/D
Influent solids cone =
3
/ 907 . 61197 1000
255 . 5
595 . 321
m g
1) Gravity thickener:
Assuming 8% solids concentration& a total of 90% solids recovery
[14]
Applying solids balance
321.5950.9=F260.081020
F26=3.547 m
3
/D
F2 = (water +dissolved solids) = 1.708 m
3
/D
Solids concentration In F26 =
547 . 3
1000 321.595 9 . 0
= 81600.085 g/m
3
57
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
2) Centrifuge :
Assuming solids concentration to be 35% & solids concentration to be
95%
[14]
Influent flow = 3.547 m
3
/D
Influent dry solids = 289.436 kg/D
DWPE (Chemical) = 2.5g/kg of dry solids
= 723.589 g/D
Applying solids balance,
0.95289.436=F280.351020
F28 = 0.770m
3
/D
F29 (water + D.S.)= 2.778 m
3
/D
3) Waste activated Sludge:
Influent from rate = 7.793 m
3
/D
Influent dry solids = 62.971 kg/D
DWPE (WAS) = 3.0g/kg of dry solids
= 188.913 g of DWPE /D
a) Gravity thickener:
58
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Assuming 2.5% solids concentration& 80% solids scenery (reduced due
to free formation)
[14]
Applying solids balance,
0.862.971= F30.0251010
F30 = 1.995 m
3
/D
F31 (water + D.S.) = 5.798 m
3
/D
Effluent solids concentration=
995 . 1
1000 971 . 62 8 . 0
= 25251.529 mg/L
b) Centrifuge: summing solids concentration to be 35% & solids
recovery to be 85%
[14]
Influent solids = 50.377 kg/D
Influent flow, F30= 1.995 m
3
/D
Applying solids balance
0.8550.377=F310.351010
F31= 0.121 m
3
/D
F32 (water + D.S.) =1.871 m
3
/D
Effluent solids concentration =
121 . 0
1000 377 . 50 85 . 0
59
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
= 353888.017 mg/L
ENERGY REQUIREMENT CALCULATIONS
Since, these are no heat trams for equipment involved in the plant design,
nor changes in the temperature of wastewater during flow condition, the
energy balance essentially involves the power requirements of the plant for
its various equipments, which is listed as below.
i) POWER REQUIRES BY THE AERATION TANKS IN THE ASP:
60
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
The power required for oxygenation in given by,
N
F
=
20
) 20 (
) , (
) 024 . 1 (

1
1
]
1


T
l alt temp s
o
Cs
C C
N

Where,
N : Rate of oxygen transfer under field conditions, Kg o
2
/HP-h
No: Rate of oxygen transfer at standard condition of 20C & zero D.O. in
water, kg O
2
/HP-h
a = oxygen transfer correction factor for wastewater, usually 0.95 for
industrial wastewater.
: Salinity correction factor, usually 1.0.
C
s (temp, alt)
: saturation concentration of dissolved oxygen on elevation at a
given temperature & altitude, mg/L
C
L
: concentration of dissolved oxygen in the reactor cooperating O
2
), mg/L
T- Operating temperature, C
C
s (20)
: Saturated concentration of DO in water at 20C
Now, assuming, = 1.0, = 0.95, 4=2.0 mg/L
& assuming plant operating at temperature of 30C & at an altitude of 200-
300m above sea level, F = 0.94
[15]
61
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Oxygen saturation concentration for water at field temperature is L
SW
= 8.24
g/m
3
at 25C
C
s (temp, alt)
= 10.948.24
= 7.756 mg/L
Now, assuming the oxygenation capacity of aerators is 1.5 kg of O
2
/HP-hr at
standard conditions, connecting this to field conditions:
N = No

. 20 ) , (
) 024 . 1 (

,
_


T L alt temp s
Cs
C C
= 1.5 (kg/HP-h)
95 . 0 ) 024 . 1 (
08 . 9
2 756 . 7 1
5

,
_


= 1.02 kg/HP-h
i.e. the aeration can supply 1.50kg of oxygen/HP-hr at standard condition &
1.02 kg of oxygen /HP-hr at field conditions
the total power requirement is,
P =
HP h HP o kg
HP h o kg
1006 ) / ( 02 . 1
127 . 1005 ) / ( 23 . 1025
2
2

Assuming 80% efficiency of the aeration,


P

= 1256.409 HP
1260 HP
62
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
DESIGN CALCULATIONS
1) GRIT CHAMBERS
Assuming a rectangular flow type grit chamber as a min of 2 channels is
required for the continuous operation of the chamber, n=2.
Average flow rate = 10080 m
3
/D
63
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Pleasing factor = 2.5
Peak flow rate = 10080 2.5 = 25200 m
3
/D
Peak flow rate for each channel =
D m / 12600
2
25200
3

= 0.146 m
3
/s
Cross sectional area
Q
1
= A
x
Vx
Q
1
= mass flow rate in one channel.
V
x
= flow through velocity = 0.2m/s as per design criteria
A
x
=
2
73 . 0
2 . 0
146 . 0
m
Length of the channel
Assuming residence time = 605 as per design criteria
[16]
L= V
x
t
= 0.260 = 12m
Total length = length + 10% of length for I/L & O/L provisions
= 12+1.2=13.2m ---- 14m
Breadth of channel = 1.5 m (assumed)
64
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Depth, D= A
x
/B = m 5 . 0 487 . 0
5 . 1
73 . 0

Total depth = net depth + free board+ depth for grit collection
= 0.5+0.3+0.2 (assumed)
= 1.0 m
Volume/capacity of each channel:
V
1
= 12

15
= 8.76 m
3
This value is too low & the design can be made more economic

assume V
x
= 0.1 m/S
Cross sectional area = A
x
=
2 1
46 . 1
1 . 0
146 . 0
m
v
Q
h

65
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Length of the channel = 0.160= 6m
Total length = 0.6+6=6.6 =7m
Depth of the liquid = A
x
/B = 0 . 1
5 . 1
46 . 1

Total depth = 1.0+0.3+0.2


1.5 m
Volume of the tank = 71.51.5=15.75 m
3
Check for volume of tank = v= Qt=0.14660
= 8.76m
3
This is more economic than the previous value
Check for solids loading rate = SLR =
S
A
Qmax
= D m m

2 / 1200
5 . 1 7
12600
3
Check for settling velocity:
Assuming 0.2 mm particle size
V
S
= g
Pw
Pw Pp
cd
d

3
) ( 4
=
7 . 995 3
81 . 9 10 2 . 0 ) 7 . 995 2650 ( 4
3



D
C
66
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
= 0.066/
D
C
Re = d V
s
Pw/
Assume V
s
= 0.02 m/s
Re = 5 497 . 0
10 8 . 0
7 . 995 02 . 0 10 2 . 0
3
3

it lies in the transition region


C
D
= 24/
Re
+
48 . 6 35 . 0 / 3
Re
+
Vs = 0.026
The assumed value is nearer to the range of 0.016-0.027 & hence our
assumption in correct.
Vs = SLR= s m/ 014 . 0
24 3600
1200

The value is slightly less but acceptable


The net dimensions are:
No. of channels =2
Length of channel = 7m
Depth of channel = 1.5 m
Width of channel = 1.5 m
67
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Width of chamber = 1.5+1.5+0.2+0.2+0.2
= 3.6 m
Detention time = 60 seconds
{0.2m side wall & centre partition thickeners}
Design of proportional flow control weir:
It is a simple plate with a cut through it to provide the required opening for
flow control normally fixed at the ends of the grit chamber.
No. of channels l=2
Passing factor = 2.5 peak flow rate = 0.146 m
3
/S
Total depth of flow, d = m 2 . 1 2 . 0 1
5 . 1
46 . 1
+
The values of coordinates of the points (x, y) on the parabolic section are
determined from the design crest.
68
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
H
max
= [1.2-(0.3+0.2)]
= 0.7m
Flow for each channel = 12600 m
3
/D
= 252m
3
/hr
In order to determine the points of crest for the proportional flow weir find
values of n (their width at liquid surface) & y (liquid depth), using:
Q= 15586 K x H
[17]
An h = H
max
= 0.7m the depth of waste water is maximum through the weir
in the grit chamber above the design crest.
525 = 15586K0.7
K= 0.0481
N=
y
0481 . 0
Tabulating these values,
Y 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
x 0.15 0.11 0.088 0.076 0.068 0.062 0.037
69
A & b are weir constants,
a= 0.3m
Q=0.45 m
K= n y
15586= constant
H= depth of liquid
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Therefore,
Width of design crest = 0.7+0.1=0.8m
Width of weir at H
max
= 0.06m
Man liquid depth = 0.7n
Total width of weir plate = 1.5m
Total depth of weir plate = 1.2m
2) TITLED PLATE INTERCEPTOR:
Parameter required for the design
- Man flow rate = 2.510079.697 m
3
/D
= 25199.242 m
3
/D
70
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
- Wastewater temperature = 30C
- Wastewater specific gravity- Sw=0.996
- Wastewater viscosity= = 0.810
-2
g/cms
- Fraction of oil specific gravity = So=0.960
- Globule size, usually, 0.0069 cm
[18]
Oil globule rise velocity:
As per the conditions, seminar flow prevails in a TPI & hence the stories low
for rice velocity is used.
u
S Sw d
g V
t
18
) (
0
2

V
t
= rise velocity cm/S
G = 981 cm/S
2
, acceleration due to gravity
Sw = specific gravity of wastewater
So = specific gravity of oil
= viscosity of wastewater, g/cm-S
D= globule size, cm
2
10 8 . 0
) 960 . 0 0996 . 0 ( 00196 . 0

t
v
71
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
= 0.0883 cm/sec
As per the design criteria V
t
0.1 cm/sec & the hence the value is acceptable
[18]
V
h
= 150.0883
= 1.32 cm/sec
Minimum vertical cross section area :
A
c
=
Vh
Q
m
100
Q
m
= man flow rate, m
3
/S
V
h
=horizontal velocity = 1.32 cm/S
100= factor to convert m-cm.
A
c
=
2
23 09 . 22
32 . 1
100
3600 . 24
242 . 25199
m

,
_

Channel & width & breadth:


As per the design criteria, B= 1.8-6 m & no. of channels = 2
Depth, d= m 2 91 . 1
6 2
23

Acceptable in the design range of 1-2.4m


72
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
d/B = 0.33
acceptable in the design range of 3-5
Separator length:-
L= F
t

] 18 [
d
V
V
t
h

,
_

F
t
= factor for turbulences.
95 . 14
t
n
v
u
Through the graph b/w F
t
& (V
h
/V
t
) we compute the value of F
t
to be= 1.63
[18]
length, L = 1.63(14.95) 2
= 48.737 m
Providing additional 10% for I/L & O/L provisions
Total length = 54m
Horizontal Surface area:
A
H
=
t
t
v
F
,
_

3600 24
100 242 . 25199
=
0883 . 0
3600 24
100 2 . 25199
63 . 1
,
_

73
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
= 545 m
2
Check for surface loading rate =
) (
) / (
2
3
m area horizontal
D m flow Peak
=
545
242 . 25199
= 46.24m
3
/m
2
-D
= 0.0535cm/sec
It is well within the acceptable range of
0.02-0.4 cm/sec.
Plates:
As per the design criteria
Perpendicular distances b/w the plates =2 cm
Angle between the plates = 45
[18]
direction of waste

flow = cross flow, down flow
V
t
=0.0883 cm/sec
Residence time per plate = 22.65 23 sec.
Overall residence time = V/Q
= h 1 . 1
25200
23 50 24
74
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
=3960 sec
Therefore no. of plates = . 173 17 . 172
23
3960
plates
Bottom hopper design
Mass of sludge produced = 321.589 kg/D
= 13.399 14 kg/r
Volume of sludge produced =
1020 06 . 0
14

= 0.229 m
3/
hr
Assuming that sludge in pumped out every 4 hours
Capacity of hopper = 0.915 m
3
= 1m
3
Let the bottom be trapezoidal in shape & lets assume
L=28, B=1m & D=0.5m
Volume of hopper = ) (
3
1
2 2
B LB l D + +
= ) 1 2 4 ( 5 . 0
3
1
+ +
= 1.2m
3
Since, 1.2 m
3
>1.0m
3
, the values are acceptable
75
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
The net dimensions are:
Length of channel = 54 m
Breadth of channel = 6m
Depth of channel = 2m
No. of plates = 173
Perpendicular distance between the plates = 2cm
Hopper length = 2.0 m
Hopper breadth = 1.0m
Hopper depth = 0.5m
3) PRIMARY SETTLING TANK:
Flow rate of water = 10069.571 m3/D
Peaking factor = 2.5
Assuming a circular tank
Assume surface loading rate = 35m
3
/m
2
-D
[19]
76
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Surface area =
2
2
288
70 . 287
35
571 . 10069
m
m
SLR
rate flow c crolumetri



Diameter of tank = , 20 14 . 19
287 4 4

m
n n
AS
The total volume of tank,
V= Q
avg
X t
t= 2 hours of detention time as per design criteria
[19]
V= 839.13840 m
3
We provide a tank of volume 840 m
3
Side water depth = D
1
v/As = m 2
288
839

Check for weir loading rate =


weir of lenght
D m flow ) / (
3
=
20
571 . 10069
pi
= 160.26 m
3
/m
2
-D
Acceptable in the range 25-600m
3
/m
2
D
[19]
Check for SLR at peak flow:
77
Acceptable in the range
3-5m
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
= D m m
A S
rate flow peak

2 3
/ 17 . 87
288
571 . 10069 5 . 2
. .
Acceptable in the range of 80-120 m
3
/m
2
-D
[19]
Since both the checks are acceptable in the recommended range of design
criteria, the compiled volume diameter of tank & depth of liquid an
acceptable.
Amount of sludge produced = 643.194 kg/D
= 26.8 kg/hr.
Volume of sludge produced =
1020 06 . 0
8 . 26

= 0.438 m
3
/hr
Assuming sludge is pumped every 4 hours,
The capacity = 40.438 m
3
= 1.8 m
3
The bottom hopper is normally trapezoidal in shape & so the length, breadth
& depth are assumed to be L= 3m, B=1m, D=0.5m
V= ) (
3
1
2 2
B LB L D + +
V= ) 3 1 9 ( 5 . 0
3
1
+ +
= 2.2 m
3
78
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Since 2.2 m
3
is greater than 1.8 m
3
, our design is acceptable
Overall depth liquid = liquid depth
= +fee board +depth for tank
Bottom slope
+ hopper bottom depth.
Depth for tank bottom shape = (d/2 B/2)0.1
= (10-0.5) 0.1
= 0.95m
Total depth = 3+0.3+0.95+0.5
= 4.95m 5m
Diameter of central food pipe
Assuming flow through velocity = 0.3m/min = 0.005m/sec
A
s
=
2
0233 . 0
005 . 0 3600 24
571 . 10069
m
velocity
flow

Diameter of food pipe = m


n
As
17224 . 0
4

= 173 mm.
Diameters of sludge removal pipe = 200 mm as per the design criteria
[19]
79
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Diameter of pipe = m
n
As
17224 . 0
4

= 173 mm
Diameter of sludge removal pipe = 200 mm as per the design criteria.
80
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
4) DISSOLVED AIR FLOATATION UNIT
Flow rate, average = 10058.530 m
3
/D
Recycle rate = 5.12.397m
3
/D
The crucial parameter in the design of DAF is the Air Solid ratio.
Q Si
Qr P f Sa
S
A

] 20 [
) 1 ( ' 3 . 1
A = volume of air in ml
S= mass of solids in mg
1.3 = weight of 1ml of air in mg
Sa = solubility of air in mg/L (temperature dependent)
F= fraction of air dissolved at pressure P in atm
P = operating pressure in atm
= kPa in ure Gaugepress P
P

+
,
35 . 101
35 . 101
Si = influent suspended solids mg/L
Qr = pressurized recycle flow m
3
/D
Q = mixed liquor in m
3
/D
81
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Assuming A/S = 0.04 ml/mg
[20]
T= 30C
Q= 10058.330 m
3
/D
Qr = 2512.397 m
3
/D
F= 0.5
[20]
Sa
1
= 15.7/L
[20]

With the above equation are can calculate the pressure acquired to
pressurize the recycle steam.
0.04 =
946 . 63 33 . 10058
397 . 2512 ) 1 5 . 0 ( 7 . 15 3 . 1

P
0.501 = 0.5 P-1
0.5 P = 1.502
P= 3.004
3.004=
35 . 101
35 . 101 + P
P = 203.105 kPa
Thus a gauge pressure of 203.105 kPa in required above the atmospheric
pressure to keep the recycle stream pressurized
82
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Surface area of the unit =
min / ,
,
2 3
3
m m SLR
m rate sludgeflow
As per the design criteria, SLR = 0.1m
3
/m
2
-min
S.A. =
2 2
88 296 . 87
24 60 1 . 0
397 . 2512 33 . 10058
m m
,
_


+
Now to compute the dimensions of the tank assume
L= 10 m LB=9m
Area = 90m
Since 90m
2
>88m
2
, our design is acceptable.
Volume of the unit = Q
tot
X t
T= 30min
V=
30 60 24
397 . 2512 33 . 10058

+
= 290.98 291 m
3
Depth = m
A S
Volume
31 . 3
. .

Total depth = 3.31+0.3m
83
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
= 3.61 3.7 m
Check for solids loading rate
=
2
,
/ , inf
m area
D kg oil luent
=
90
563 . 3896 94 . 473 +
= 48.561 kg/m
2
-D
[20]
This is acceptable in the range of 25-75 kg/m
2
-D

& hence Our Design Is
Acceptable
5) TRICKLING FILTERS/BIO-TOWER
Influent flow = 10049.59m
3
/D
Recycle ratio = 1
Recycle flow = 10049.59m
3
/D
Net influent flow = 210049.59 m
3
/D
= 20099.18m
3
/D
Influent BOD =
1000
4 . 1 473 . 245 59 . 10049
1000
473 . 245 59 . 10049
+

= 3453.664 kg/D
= 171.831 mg/L
84
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Effluent BOD = 1381.466 kg/D = 68.732 mg/L
By Velz equation,
] 20 [
10
KD
a
D
C
C

C
D
= BOD in mg/L at a depth D
C
a
= influent BOD in mg/L
D= depth, m
K= 0.15 = treatability constant in m
-1[21]
4)
KD
10
831 . 171
732 . 68
Taking log
10
on both sides,
Log
D
,
_

15 . 0
831 . 171
732 . 68
- 0.3979= -0.15D
D= 2.65 2.7m
Applying 0.5m of free board
Total depth = 3.2 m
= Surface Area.
The surface area in calculated using the Eckenfelder eq given as:-
85
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
] 21 [
) 1 (
log

,
_

+
+


,
_

R Se
Sa RSe
D K
A
Q
n
Where, Q= net influent flow rate in m
3
/D
A= area in m
2
,
K= treatability constant at 30C for a depth of 8.9 ft.
Se = effluent BOD in, mg/L
Sa = influent BOD in mg/L
R = recycle ratio
D = depth in m
Q = 210049.59 m
3
/D R=1
D = 2.7m n=0.5 {for vertical trickling filter}
Sc = 68.732 mg/L
Sa = 171.831 mg/L
Log
56 . 0
732 . 68 2
831 . 171 732 . 68
log
) 1 (

,
_

,
_

+
+
R Se
Sa Se R
K
20/D20
= treatability constant at 20C at a depth of 20ft.
As per Metcalf & Eddy, wastewater Engineering,
86
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
K
20/D20
=
ft
gal
5 . 0
min) / ( 07 . 0

20
20 / 20 20 /
) 035 . 1 (


T
D D T
K K
10
20 / 30
) 035 . 1 ( 07 . 0
D
K
[21]
= 0.1
5 . 0
20 / 30 5 / 30
5
20

,
_


D D
K K
5 . 0
) 4 ( 1 . 0
=
ft
m gal
5 . 0
) / (
2 . 0
m
D m
m
D m
5 . 0 3 5 . 0 3
5 . 0
) / (
54 . 1
) / (
3048 . 0
103 . 0
1
2 . 0

,
_

substituting all the values,


425 . 7
56 . 0
7 . 2 54 . 1
) / (

n
A Q
n = 0.5
A
s
=
2
2
365 573 . 364
) 425 . 7 (
2 59 . 10049
m

For a circular tank,


87
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
d = m
n
A
s
22 55 . 21
4

5) Volume of the tank = 1168 m


3
6) Check for by hydraulic loading =
365
59 . 10049 2

V
Q
= 55.066 (m
3
/D)/(m
2
)
It is acceptable in the recommended range of 11.79-70.4 m
3
/m
2-
D
[21]
Check for organic loading :
D m Kg
Vol
BOD
3 / ,
= D m hg

3
/ 9 . 2
2 . 3 365
664 . 3453
It is acceptable in the recommended range of 0.35-2.9 kg/m
3
-D
Since our checks are acceptable our design is acceptable
Retention time :- t= hours Q v 5 . 1
59 . 10049 2
24 1168
/

Rotational speed of diminutions:-


N=
] 21 [
. .
6 . 1
R D A
QT

A no. of arms =2
88
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
QT = total hydraulic rate =
2
ft
gPm
D.R. per in /pass of arm.
Total BOD applied =
D m
kg

3
957 . 2
1168
664 . 3453
Thus required dosing rate = 0.12
3 10 0160 . 0
957 . 2
3
ft
lbBOD
=2.2.178 in /pass of arm.
Qt = 55.066
2 2
2 2
3 2
3
9361 . 0
3048 . 0
/
min /
183 . 0
ft
gpm
ft
m
D m
gal
D m
m

n =
min 30 1
min / 0338 . 0
178 . 22 2
93671 . 0 6 . 1
every n revoulutio
rev

6) ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS:


Influent flow rate = 10049.89m
3
/D
Influent BOD = 68.732 mg/L
F/M = 0.3
Q
c
= 10 days
Kd = 0.095 day
-1
Y = 0.95
Yobs = 0.487
89
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Qr/Q = 0.25, Qr = 2512.398 m
3
/D
X = 2000mg/L
Amount of sludge to be wasted = 7.793m
3
/D
Effluent flow = 10041.497 m
3
/D
Effluent BOD = 13.76 mg/L.
Volume of reactor:
) 1 (
) ( ) (
] 22 [
2
2
c Kd X
removed BOD Y Q Q Q
V
c
+
+

=
) 10 095 . 0 1 ( 2000
) 76 . 13 732 . 68 ( 95 . 0 ) 398 . 1512 59 . 10049 ( 10
+
+
= 1682.127m
3
= 16.83m
3
Assuming depth = 6m for differed air aeration system, & 0.5m of free board,
Total depth = 6.5m
Assume 6 tanks, volume of each tank =
3
281 5 . 280
6
1683
m
Surface area of each tank =
2 2
44 231 . 43
5 . 6
281
m m
Now, as per design criteria, L:B=5:1
7) LB = 44m
2
90
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
5B
2
=44m
2
B=3m
8) L=15m
Residence time = Q = h 22 . 3
398 . 2512 59 . 10049
24 1683

F/M ratio =
3 . 0 256 . 0
22 . 3 2000
24 732 . 68

X Q
S
o
It is close to our assumed value & hence our design is correct.
Volume loading:
d m
kg

3
441 . 410
1683
1000
59 . 10049 732 . 68
Since, this is acceptable in the recommended range of
, 600 300
3
d m
kg

our design in correct


[22]
Design of secondary settling tank:
Influent flow rate = 10049.59 m
3
/D
The SST is designed on the basis of only Q & not Qr, as it passes out through
the SST back to the aeration tank.
Assuming over flow loading rate = 20 m
3
/
m
2
-d
[23]
surface area = A
s
=
2 2
503 48 . 502
20
59 . 10049
m m
OFR
Flow

91
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
9) Diameter of the tank = m
n
AS
26
4

Volume of tank =
Assure side mater depth = 3.7m
For a free board of 0.3m
Total depth = 4m.
Total volume = 5034=2012 m
3
Applying checks:
i) Check for weir loading rate at peak flow rate :
WLR =
D m m
n surface
flow peak

/ 585 . 307
26
59 . 10049 5 . 2
3
In a acceptable in the recommended range of 250-375m
3
/m-D
[23]
ii) Check for surface loading rate at peak flow rate:
SLR = D m m
A S
flow peak

2 / 95 . 49
503
59 . 10049 5 . 2
. .
3
It is acceptable in the range 40-64m
3
/m
2
-D
[23]
10) Solids loading rate at peak flow:
SL=
503
59 . 10049 5 . 2 10 2000
. .
3

A S
flow peak
92
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
= 99.89kg/m
2
-D
It is acceptable in the range <244 kg/D-m
2 [23]
11) Q = Retention time
. 8 . 4
59 . 10049
2012
hours
Rate flow
volume

It is acceptable in the recommended range.
Since, all our checks qualify the recommended ranges our design is
acceptable.
Design Summary
Aeration tank:
No. of tanks =6
Volume of each tanks = 28/m
3
Breadth of each channel = 3m
Depth of each channel = 6.5m
Length of each channel = 15m.
Retention time = 3.22h.
Secondary settling tank:
No of tanks =1
93
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Volume of tank = 2012 m
3
Diameter of tank = 26m
Side water depth =4m
Retention time = 4.8 h.
94
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
PLANT UTILITIES
The utility system consists of Air, drinking water, electricity for various
purposes:
Air
INSTRUMENT PNEUMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM
Instrument air is required in industry for pneumatic control of values &
various other devices. In industries, then are PT & P controllers. The function
of both the controller is to connect the signal from one form to the other. Os
other operation sends the signal in the form of electricity which is concerted
to pneumatic signal & the control is done pneumatically.
SERVICE AIR SYSTEM
The aeration process requires supply of air.
COMPRESSED AIR
Compressed air will be needed for DAF unit & for pneumatic controllers
DRINKING WATER
In must be made available for the personals there at the plant site at various
locations.
FIRE FIGHTING WATER LINES
95
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
In case of fire at the oily sludge jump, firefighting equipment must be left
handy.
ELECTRICITY:
Electricity is majorly used to run the aerators & the pumps. About 80% of the
electricity is used up here & the rest for other service purposes.
96
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
INSTRUMENTATION AND PROCESS CONTROL
Instruments are provided to maintain the process variables during plant
operation. They may also be part of an automatic computer data logging
system.
INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL OBJECTIVE
The primary objective of the designer when specifying instrumentation and
control are:
1) Safe plant operation
a) To keep the process variables within known safe operating limits.
b) To detect dangerous situations and to provide alarms.
c) To provide inter lochs & alarms to prevent dangerous operating
procedures.
2) Production Rates: To achieve the desired product/effluent product
3) To maintain effluent composition within accepted quality.
4) Lost.
THE WASTEWATER PERSPECTIVE:
The ultimate goal of the operation of wastewater treatment plant is to satisfy
the effluent criteria. They can be expressed in terms of organic material
content, total nitrogen & suspended solids. However, given the many steps
97
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
of the operations from the influent to the effluent it is most often almost
impossible to base any control action on measurements of the effluent
quality. A no. of intermediate goals have to be formulated in order to
synthesize same control action. Examples of such are:-
Growth of the right biomass population.
Maintain adequate mixing
Keep the level of dissolved oxygen at the light smel
Maintain are adequate air flow rate while minimizing the pressure.
Keep the sludge blanket level in the settler between given limits.
Avoid over load of the clarifier.
The two major energy consumers in wastewater treatment are cost of
pumping & aeration.
Aeration can be controlled by the connect amount of oxygen in the
tanks.
The major control instrument used in WWTP are enlisted bleow:-
Pressure control & indicator PIC
Dissolved oxygen indicator/sensor
Flow indicator & control FIC
98
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Liquid level control LLC
Sludge level control LLC
Biomass securer/indicator.
PRESSURE CONTROL :
Pressure controls are required in DAF unit where pressuried air at required
pressure as per the design calculations. Pressure controls are required in
aerations to control the amount of oxygen entering the aeration tank of the
activated sludge process & the biotower.
DISSOLVED OXYGEN INDICATOR/SENSOR:
The D.O. content of wastewater is errential for removal of the biodegradable
content of the water. A sensor to estimate the amount D.O. would control the
amount of Air of O
2
entering
Flow indicator: Flow indicator & control are used to estimate & control the
flow of wastewater to the respective tanks as the flow rate of water is an
essential factor in the efficiency of the equipments especially the secondary
waste water treatment processes where the shode loads can induce
inefficiency in the viological activity.
Liquid level control: These are essential in order to maintain proper level
of liquids in the I/L & O/L weirs. The height of wastewater in an equipment is
critical to its processing efficiency.
99
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Sludge level controller: The is inertial in secondary setting tanks where an
optimum level of sludge blanket is essential for proper removal of MLSS from
the effluent wastewater.
Biomass terror: This is critical in the Activated sludge process where a
biomass terror is installed inside the aeration tanks & recycle line where
active biomass cone. (MLCSS) is critically important.
PLANT LOCATION
One of the most important parameters in the final framing of the plant
location are enlisted below. If care in not taken it cripes of out average of
process of careful engineering, research & development works. The plant
should be located in such a location that yields maximum profit.
In selection of location of plant two major factors must be considered.
- Primary factors
- Secondary factors
PRIMARY FACTORS SECONDARY TALTORS
-RAW MATERIAL - LABOR
- ENERGY AVAILABILITY - TRANSPORTATION
-WATER - SITE CHARACTERISTICS
-CLIMATE - WASTE DISPOSAL
100
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
- FLOOD AND OTHER PROTECTION
OTHER IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS:
Equipment availability: the availability of equipment plays an important role
in process selection because of
(1) Need to provide redundant systems when there are beng delivery
times for spare parts & replacement units.
(2) When equipment delivery is critical to the construction schedule.
Most of the equipments in wastewater treatment plants are custom
manufactured except for pump & motors
5) Personal Requirement: the selection of a treatment process should
consider not only the amount of operating & maintenance personnel
needed but also the skills required. The simpler & less complex the
process, the few highly skilled people is required eq: Aerated lagoons
is less complex than Activated sludge process.
Proper instrumentation & controls can save labor & even allow some of the
small plants to operate unattended. However, this may require highly shelled
instrumentation technicians.
101
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
PLANT LAYOUT
Layout may have several objectives such as increased output, reduced rish
to health of employs, improved earning hour, lever product delays, searing in
floor space, reduced material washing, greater cultivation of main power
services & machinery. Reduce inventory in process, shorter manufacturing
time, easier adjustment to changing condition etc. the major objective is to
arrange the physical facilities in such a way that we have overall integration
of all these factors affecting the plant layout.
- Overall integration of all factors affecting plant layout
- All space effectively utilized
- Flexible arrangement
- Material meaning a minimum distance
- Safety of workers
- Protection against fires, fumes.
The plant layout in affected by:-
- Manufacturing process - Storage of materials
- Lightning & & ventilation - Future expression
- Butting & construction material - Movement of auxiliary equipment
102
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
- Plant machinery - Piping network
- Materials used
- Location & site of plants
- Material handling
PRINCIPLES OF PLANT LAYOUT
1) Storage layout: Storage facility of raw materials & located
wastewater be located in isolated areas or in adjoining areas.
Arranging storage of materials to as to facilitate simple handling is also
a paint to be considered in the design.
2) Equipment layout: Ample space should be assigned for each
equipment. Accessibility is an important factor for maintenance. All
equipment should be arranged in order with minimum pumping &
pipelines.
3) Plant expansion: Plant expansion must be left in mind for future
development of plant & to increases the capacity of the plant.
4) Floor space: The floor space major may not be a major factor in the
design. Space to permit working on parts of equipment. That frequent
servicing & safety consideration.
103
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
5) Building: It is fundamental in chemical engineering industries that the
buildings should be built around the process instead of process being
made to fill the buildings/commotional design.
6) Rail, Roads & Highways: The plan site should be near to rail, roads &
highways for easy transportation.
104
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
The protocol for evaluation of environmental imparts is set for the in the
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)of 1969. Environmental evaluations
should focus on social, technical, organization, & ecological, economic,
political, legal & institutional criteria. The NEPA regulations ensure that he
probable environmental effects are identified, that a reasonable no. of
alternative action & their environmental import ate considered, that the
information in available for public understanding searching & that all
government & Perivale agencies take part in the decision making process
.The social responsibility of the concerned refineries to produce wastewater
as per the pertaining regulations set for the by the local & national
authorities & ensure that the mask leaning the plant is safe to all living
species, whether aquatic or ground.
105
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
START-UP AND OPERATION
Some of the principal concerns in wastewater engineering are related to the
startup, operation & maintenance of treatment plants. The challenges faced
by the design engineer. & the plant operators include the following:
- Providing, operating & maintaining a treatment plant that consistently
meets its performance requirements;
- Managing operation & maintenance rest within the required
performance levels.
- Maintaining equipment to ensure proper operation & service
- Training operation personal.
One of the principal tools used for plant startup, operation & maintenance is
the operations & maintenance manual (0&M). the purpose of the O&M
manual is to provide treatment system personnel with proper understanding
of recommended operating techniques & procedures & the references
necessary to operate & maintain the facilities.
106
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
COST ESTIMATION
The plant design must obviously be capable of operating conditions, which
will yield profit. Since net profit is total income minus all expresses, it is
essential that chemical engineer be aware of many different types of costs
involved. For a processing plant like wastewater treatment which is more of
a social responsibility than a profit making process. However, if all the mater
processed is recycled after processing each to the refinery it can be used as
an impure cutter for the purchasing of new water from the local municipality
or water bodies which is sold at 40/m
3
in the northern region of India.
Also, the costs of all the equipments are rough approximates as per the
Environment Protection Agency, United States of America for Advanced
wastewater treatment with nitrification.
The plan includes construction costs & step III non construction costs which
include fields like Administration legal, land development, indirect costs.
ESTIMATION OF CAPITAL INVESTMENT:
Total cost capital investment (TCI) = fixed capital investment (FCI)=washing
Capital investment (WCI)
[24]
107
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
1) FIXED CAPITAL INVESTMENT
Process equipment cost (PEC)
[25]
S.No Equipment Estimated cost
(Rs)
1 Grit chamber
(1.4310
4
Q
0.76
)
150000/-
2 Titled plate interpretation
(2.1110
4
Q
0.45
)
1435000/-
3 Primary settling yank
(1.4310
4
Q
0.46
)
1415000/-
4 BIO-Tower
(1.6610
4
Q
0.46
)
1636000/-
5 Activated sludge Process with diffused
aeration system & SST
(1.1910
5
Q
0.45
)
9226000/-
6 Pressure Sand filter
(1.1410
5
Q
0.46
)
883800/-
7 Activated carbon filter
(1.1510
5
Q
0.46
8925000/-
8 Dual Media filter
(1.1610
5
Q
0.45
)
8683000/-
9 Thickener (Gravity)
(1.9110
4
Q
0.7
)
180000/-
10 Thickener (centrifuge) 1976000/-
108
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
(1.3110
4
Q
0.63
)
11 Pumps
(1.9410
4
Q
0.73
)
9091008
7266001-
12 Dosing tanks
(1.1710
4
Q
0.48
)
9080003
=2724000
Total 4.7 Crores (PEC)
(Q is in MGD)
TOTAL DIRECT COSTS
[24]
S.No Item %PEC Costs in Crores
(2)
1 Purchased equipment costs 100 4.7
2 Purchased equipment installation 45 2.11
3 Instrumentation & control 20 0.94
4 Piping (installed) 70 3.29
5 Electrical (installed) 12 0.56
6 Yard improvement 10 0.47
7 Utilities 25 1.18
8 Storage facility 18 0.85
9 Control room/lab building
(including secrecies of sanitation &
rest rooms)
60 2.82
10 Site work & excavation 8 0.38
11 Pilings & special foundation 2.4 0.11
12 HVAC 2.2 0.10
Total construction costs 217.51

Step III non construction cots
[15]
S.No Item % of TCC Costs in Crores
(Rs.)
1 Admin /Legal 1.17 0.21
2 Land, structure 4.72 0.77
109
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
3 Land development 0.96 0.17
4 Indirect costs (engg. & supervision) 0.37 0.06
5 Miscellaneous 2.97 0.52
Total 1.73

Step II non construction cost
[25]
2.33%of TCC Rs. 0.40 crore
Step I non construction costs
[25]

5.55%of TCC Rs. 0.96 crore
Total Rs. 1.36 crore
Total direct & indirect cost (TDIC) total direct costs Step III, Step II
& Step I non construction costs = Rs. 20.6 crore
Contingency = 25% of TDIC = Rs. 5.15 crore
FCI = TDIC + contingency
Fixed capital investment = 20.6+5015 = Rs. 25.75 crore
Total capital investment= working capital investment +fined capital
investment = 25.75+5.15 crore
= Rs. 30.9 crore
PROCESSING COST:
RAW MATERIALS
110
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Chemical Additives
[15]

(Alum, H
2
So
4
, Urea, Poly electrolytes)
OPERATING LABOUR COSTS :
Designation Salary/mont
h Rs.
Salary/Year
Rs.
No. Rs. N crores
Manager 22500 270000 1 0.027
Engineer 18000 216000 4 0.086
Operator 9000 108000 10 0.11
Worker 4500 54000 20 0.11
Watchman 3000 36000 4 0.014
Office staff 6000 72000 6 0.043
Peon 2250 27000 3 0.008
Lab staff 5250 63000 5 0.032
Total Rs. 0.43 crores
Power & utilities = 15% FCI = Rs. 3.86 crores
Maintenance & Repair = 5% of FCI = Rs. 1.28 crores
Operating supplies = 10% of maintenance cost
= Rs. 0.043 crore
Total direct processing cost = 0.141+0.43+3.86+1.28+0.13+0.043
= 5.884 crore
111
Cost = 1.3510
4
Q
0.75
= Rs. 0.141 crore
Q MGD
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Fined charges
Deprication = 20% of FCI = Rs. 5.15 crore
Local Taxes = 3% of FCI = Rs. 0.77 crore
Insurance = 1% of FCI = Rs. 0.26 crore
Total fined charges = Rs. 6.18 crore
Plant overhead costs = 1.5 operating labor cost
= 1.50.43
= Rs. 0.645 crore
Total processing cost = direct processing cost +fined charges +plant
overhead costs = Rs. 12.709 crore
General expresses
1) Financing Interest = 10% of FIC
= Rs. 0.26 crore
2) Administration cost = 10% of labor cost
= Rs. 0.043 crores
Total processing cost = of general expresses +processing cost
= 12.709+0.26+0.043
= Rs. 13.012 crore
112
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
Cost of water saved:
Price of water of industries = Rs. 40/m
3
Amount of water processed = 10080m
3
/D
Price of water saved per year = 147160000/-
= 147200000/-
Gross profit per year = Rs. 147200000-13.01210
7
crores
= Rs. 17080000/-
Payback period =
years
profit net on depriciati
FCI
75 . 3
71 . 1 15 . 5
75 . 25

+
Rate of Return = % 51 . 5 100
10 9 . 30
10 71 . 1
100
7
7


TIC
profit Gross
BREAK EVEN POINT
Considering 3 year for construction & commissioning of the plant,
Payback period = 3 years +3years 9 moths =6 years 9 months
113
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant For a Petroleum Refinery
REFERENCES
1. G.L. Karia & R.A. Christian, wastewater Treatment contents & design
Approach, Prentice Hall, India, 2006, wastewater & treatment
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