You are on page 1of 19

As long as man has been on Earth the main questions throughout time were:”

who are we? “, “where come we from?”, from these two questions on, there are a
uncountable stuff to be questioned .To start with, we can say that from the religious
point of view there are as many answers as religions there are. From the scientific spot
we can say that the answers varied with time and paradigm valid at that moment. The
following question is why we have these two different positions if we are talking about
the same man since the very beginning; we have not a pious man and a scientific one;
man is a whole. However, it could be said that from religious stand we get dogmatic
answers and from the scientific stand we get paradigmatic answers. Nevertheless human
beings need a position where the two extreme positions can melt one in the other.
Humankind needs harmony. To illustrate this point Loren Eiseley1 said…”To those who
have submitted authoritarian science for authoritarian religion, individual thoughts is
worthless…. such men adhere to a dogma as men of fanatical religion”, this
knowledgeable words are as a prelude to a shift in human thinking. Now there is
another question, and with a very important impact for the future development of this
reasoning: “Are human beings free spirits or are we those tame gregarious individuals?”
Is there, between these two positions, a certain degree of consciousness? Are human
beings gregarious by nature o by need? Are humans behaviours learnt? Have human
beings learnt any kind of pattern or do human beings react on the spur of the moment
and totally free? Which is the role of consciousness?
There is –here- another player for this game, and by the way, is there any other
team to play against? Can one team be religious and the other scientific? If it were so;
consciousness, where has to play? At first sight there are too many questions to be
answered just now, but we can unwind this hank, step by step, and while we do this
work we will realised how the same question can get a different answer and be true in
both cases, depending only on what attitude we will abide (“colour of glasses”). There is
also another point to bear in mind while we are unwinding this hank; have we ever
stopped to think that writers have been always foreseen events in the evolution of
humankind ideas? Throughout this paper I will introduce some references to some
writers who had foreseen the future or used a paradigm to develop a plot or they had
dramatised a philosophical point of view. In fact what we need are answers, to get any
of them the proposal can be the change of paradigm and the way in which literature can
give us a path to go through. Actually, Humankind needs a new paradigm able to last a
long time according the necessities of this globalize world, though, if humans get stuck
to a paradigm the result that will turn out will be that nothing has changed. The
requirement nowadays is dynamism so we have to collect a lot of ideas and build
something mobile in order to be upgraded every day and to be flexible enough to suit
everyone.
As a very brief introduction to the core of this work, a short story2, written by
Loren Eiseley; …a man lived in a mountain place which shared with a crow. Both pay
each other a respectful treatment. However, one foggy day, when the limits of ground
and sky were not defined, the man was walking among the subtle gauzy clouds, when
the crow flew very near of the man and aiming his beak to the face of the man, who was
so scared that screamed so loud that he felt oddly. Every now and then he recalled the
1
Loren Corey Eiseley (September 3/1907-July 9/1977) was highly respected anthropologist,
science writer, ecologist and poet. He published books of essays, biography and general
science in the 1950s and ´60s and'70s.

2
The Night Country - Loren Eiseley wrote some classic popular texts on evolution, including
his most famous book, The Immense Journey

-1- 1
moment. Neither the crow nor the man dares to get near of either. What had happened?
The man had never seen a crow flying so near the ground, and the crow had never seen
a man walking in the realm of them. The moral: how can change the view only
changing the standpoint.
To begin, it could be said that what has been happening during these last
decades around a new paradigm has happened centuries ago as it is the case of Sir
Thomas Hobbes, (1588-1679), who really contributed to a change. He was a brilliant
young student; it was foreseeable to become a notable personality, by time a
philosopher. One day being in a library he took -by chance- a geometry book which was
about the Euclidean Geometry; he realised the precision in the concepts and the way to
get a proper scientific reasoning, so he adopted the axioms, postulates and premises as
the ideal to demonstrate certainty. So big was his interest in mathematic that he released
a second book which title was “A Short Treatise on First Principles” which presented a
mechanical interpretation of sensation.
To follow with the issue of paradigms there is also Sir Isaac Newton (1634-
1727), who -practically- was contemporary of Hobbes, an English physicist,
mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist and theologist, he laid the
ground for classical mechanics. Everybody approved his “Philosophiae Naturalis
Principia Mathematica” (1687) as the greatest work in history of science. In this work,
Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion, laying the
foundation for future researches; with this contribution Newton put the basis for modern
engineering. Although the laws of motion and universal gravitation became Newton's
best-known discoveries, he strongly warned against using them to view the universe as
a mere machine, as if akin to a great clock. He said, "Gravity explains the motions of
the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things
and knows all that is or can be done”.
There have been some cases where a person of middle age- forties- get the touch
with something important in their lives , maybe middle age bring some kind of epiphany
about the universe and achieve amazing thoughts; here we have three examples and they
related, Hobbes came across the Euclidean Geometry at his 38, Amit Goswami 3 -also
around forties-the theoretical nuclear physicist who had been teaching physics during 32
years had a period of distress in his private and professional life, so he started
researching in quantum cosmology, theory and application of the quantum mechanics to
the mid-body problems, as a consequence of this research is that he appears in the film
of What the Bleep do we Know. And the third person involved in this investigation of
the universe was Albert Einstein4 who got the famous equation that contributed in the
change of paradigm. To get to the point it will be useful to define some words that will
be used frequently during the development of this paper; for instance; what is
understood by paradigm. Basically is considered a model, so if the concept is applied to
daily life, it is the idea that rules all the actions connected with science and beliefs, it is
important to make a distinction because in the early times the word was only connected
with science.

3
Amit Goswami, Ph. D. is professor emeritus in the physics department of the University of
Oregon, Eugene, Oregon where he has served since 1968. He is a pioneer of the new
paradigm of science called science within consciousness.

4
Albert Einstein (March 14, 1879 – April 18, 1955) was born in Germany. theoretical
physicist. He is best known for his theory of relativity and specifically mass–energy
equivalence, E = mc2. Einstein received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to
Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect

-2- 2
T.S. Kuhn5 (1962) used the term “paradigm” to refer to the conceptual
frameworks/or worldviews of various scientific communities, for him, a scientific
paradigm includes models, theories, concepts, knowledge, assumptions and values.
Kuhn declared that to give way to revolutionary concepts, science should change the
model valid at that moment. Following Kuhn’s thought; it could be assumed that
Copernicus’6s thought gave way to a revolution. The previous model was the one that
had the Earth at the centre of God’s creation, since the on, the new model was that the
Earth was orbiting around the Sun with other planets; the circular orbits (the ones which
symbolised the perfection of God’s design) were reluctantly replaced by elliptical ones.
Then Galileo7 found some other’s imperfections in Heaven as the crates in the Moon. In
Kuhn’s words, scientific revolution exists when to paradigms co-exist. He called the
movement from the old paradigm to the new one ”paradigm shift”. Since Kuhn coined
the phrase was applied indistinctly to the realm of human experiences as to science,
however, in his own opinion the term has to be used in the restricted science
environment. Nonetheless since the 60´s the term was suitable also for non-scientific
contexts. Another assertion done by Kuhn was the fact that when a paradigm shift took
place the new one has to be always better than the previous and not only different.
Besides it is valuable to mention, that in 1900 Lord Kelvin8 said that “in physics
everything has been discovered, the only that remains is a more accurate measurement
“. Five years later Einstein published a paper on special relativity, where the set of rules
laid by Newton were challenged, and here occurred the paradigm shift.
Returning to the introduction there was the word consciousness, very relevant
throughout human evolution. This is one of those concepts that people have to deal with
throughout life especially that this term is the core of the new philosophical concept and
the place where the shift will take place. First of all it is necessary to know the origin of
the word; the etymology. Primarily in Latin was connected with the moral conscientia
and the word appeared in juridical texts written by Cicero9. In Christian theology the
word stands for the knowledge and awareness that the individual had from the events
and which were fully known by God. Thomas Aquinas10 describe,” conscientia the act
by which we apply practical and moral knowledge to our actions”. However Descartes11
5
Thomas Samuel Kuhn July 18,1922-June 17-1996 was an American intellectual who wrote
extensively on the History of Science and developed several important notions in the
Philosophy of Science
6
Nicolaus Copernicus (February 19, 1473-May 24-1543) was the first astronomer to
formulate a scientifically based heliocentric cosmology that displaced the Earth from the
center of the universe. His epochal book, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (the
Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres)
7
Galileo Galilei (15 February,1564-8 January 1642) was a Tuscan (Italian) physicist,
mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the scientific
revolution. His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent
astronomical observations, and support for Copernicanism
8
William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, (June 26, 1824-December 17, 1907) was an Irish
mathematical physicist and engineer. At Glasgow University he did important work in the
mathematical analysis of electricity and thermodynamics, and did much to unify the
emerging discipline of physics in its modern form. He is widely known for developing the
Kelvin scale of absolute temperature measurement.
9
Marcus Tullius Cicero (January 3,106BC-December 7,43BC) was a Roman Statesman,
lawyer, political theorist and philosopher. Cicero is widely considered one of Rome's greatest
orators and prose stylists.
10
Saint Thomas Aquinas,(1225-March 7,1274) was an Italian catholic priest in the
Dominican Order, a philosopher and theologian in the scholastic tradition, known as Doctor
Angelicus, Doctor Universalis and Doctor Communis. He was the foremost classical proponent
of natural theology, and the father of the Thomistic School of philosophy and theology.
11
René Descartes (March 31, 1596-February11, 1650) (also known as Renatus Cartesius)
was a highly influential .French philosopher and mathematician, scientist, and writer. He has
been dubbed the "Father of Modern Philosophy," and much of subsequent Western

-3- 3
disagreed in this traditional meaning of conscientia and when he was translated to other
languages like English or French coined new words to denote merely psychological
consciousness.
A homemade definition of consciousness could be that is an abstract pattern
achieved by the brain to be aware of what is going on around the individual, and all that,
is printed in our mind-brain-memory, this achievement will affect the future of the
individual’s and society’s behaviour. It is not an isolated experience. We have to
distinguish two types of consciousness, the first one, that was previously mentioned, is
individual and the second one is collective. Not only does Thomas Nagel attribute to
consciousness brain but also an organism. So consciousness spans in the range of mind-
body. It could be infer that it is necessary a reference, an environment, that in this case
is provided by the body. As the paradigm shift concerns it would be essential to
mention the Quantum Mind Theories which are based on the necessity of the quantum
mechanics to reach a fully understand of mind, brain and consciousness . In science this
approach is considered by a minority, however, it counts on the support of Roger
Penrose12 who has propose a quantum mind theory sharing this theory with Stuart
Hameroff13, Karl Pribram14, Henry Stapp15.The idea that upholds this theory is the fact
that classical mechanics -to which applied Newton and Galileo- was unable to explain
consciousness Locke, Hobbes and Descartes agreed with reality that secondary
qualities16were excluded. Some lines from Frijtof Capra´s will elucidate the point …”
To make it possible for scientists to describe nature mathematically, Galileo postulated
philosophy is a response to his writings, which continue to be studied closely. His influence in
mathematics is also apparent, the Cartesian coordinate system that is used in plane
geometry and algebra being named for him, and he was one of the key figures in the
Scientific Revolution.
12
Sir Roger Penrose, (born August 8, 1931) is an English mathematical physicist and
Emeritus Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics at the Mathematical Institute University of
Oxford, and Emeritus Fellow of Waltham College. He is renowned for his work in mathematical
physics, in particular his contributions to general relativity and cosmology. He is also a
recreational mathematician and philosopher. Roger Penrose is the son of scientist Lionel
Penrose and Margaret Leathes, and the brother of mathematician Oliver Penrose and
correspondence chess grandmaster Jonathan Penrose. He was born in Colchester, Essex,
England
13
Stuart Hameroff, MD, (Born in 1947 Buffalo, New York) is an anestheologist and professor
at the University of Arizona known for his promotion of the scientific study of consciousness,
and his speculative theories of the mechanisms of consciousness.
14
Karl H. Pribram (born February 25, 1919 in Vienna, Austria is a professor at Georgetown
University Georgetown University, and George Mason University, and an emeritus professor
of psychology and psychiatry at Stanford University and Radford University Board-certified as
a neurosurgeon, Pribram did pioneering work on the definition of the limbic system, the
relationship of the frontal cortex to the limbic system, the sensory-specific "association"
cortex of the parietal and temporal lobes, and the classical motor cortex of the human brain.
To the general public, Pribram is best known for his development of the holonomic brain
model of cognitive function and his contribution to ongoing neurological research into
memory, emotion, motivation and consciousness
15
Henry Stapp is an American physicist, well-known for his work in quantum mechanics
Stapp is perhaps most well known for his ongoing work in the foundations of quantum
mechanics, with particular focus on explicating the role and nature of consciousness
16
The primary/secondary quality distinction is a conceptual distinction in epistemology
and metaphysics, concerning the nature of reality. It is most explicitly articulated by John
Locke in his Essay concerning Human Understanding, but earlier thinkers such as Galileo and
Descartes made similar distinctions.
Primary qualities are properties that objects have independent of any observer, such as
shape, extension, number, solidity and volume.
Secondary qualities are properties that produce sensations in observers, such as colour,
taste, smell and sound.
Primary qualities are measurable aspects of physical reality. Secondary qualities are
subjective.

-4- 4
that they should restrict themselves to studying the essential properties of material
bodies - shapes, numbers, and movement - which could be measured and quantified.
Other properties, like color, sound, taste, or smell, were merely subjective mental
projections which should be excluded from the domain of science”.
At the same time unwinding this hank it comes across the concept of reality
connected with consciousness, while the person seizes totally reality; this state of
awareness is consciousness. Above all, it is possible to check that all the concepts are
intertwined, reality-consciousness–perception. Of course there will appear other point to
highlight about this matter, it is probable that there exists two types of consciousness;
there is a kind of consciousness that is the one which arouses like a sparkle and lasted
the same time, this one in which we are fully aware of the present moment, and
sometimes we feel that, that moment has been lived and as soon this feeling appears it
disappears leaving - deep inside us - a comfortable impression to have treasured a great
moment. Opposed to this is during the everyday life that we are awake but no
conscious; it looks like the same to be awake and conscious but the difference is in what
we get from the moment. When all our senses are there and we feel that magical
moment is consciousness the other is to be awake-aware acting mechanically during
daily life. To get this great moment it is necessary to line mind-reality-matter-brain-
belief and perception. There is another philosopher, that is necessary to mention and he
is George Berkley17 (1710 Empiricist philosopher) when he wrote the famous “Treatise
Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge” was to develop a thought opposite to
John Lock. Both agreed in the fact that exist an external world from where all was
gathered by human mind and from that knowledge, ideas were possible. Berkley said
“To Be” means “To Be Perceived”; he asserted that existence is the state of being
perceived, granted that it is necessary a perceiver and a perceived. This idea was known
by the name of Immaterialism. Whilst John Locke18 proponed a doctrine based on the
fact that any newborn lacks ideas, and these are developed by experience, this thought
was opposed to “Nativism” or the doctrine of Innate Ideas, which stated that human
beings have ideas since they are in their mother’s womb. Locke’s essay was a source for
the future Empiricist philosopher as David Hume19 and George Berkley. Hume had the
idea that experience and observation should be the foundation of all human knowledge;
he was the first great philosopher who rejected the “prevalent conception” was related
to the theological idea that human beings were created at the God’s image.
He started the naturalistic way of thinking which applies to the scientific method
where it is necessary hypothesize, predict, test and repeat. Through this new way of
thinking Hume had to be very cautious because who preceded this change Thomas
Aikenhead20 was hung with the charge of being blasphemous, at those times it was not
advisable to think opposite to religion, and here again the divorce between religion and
17
George Berkeley March, 12, 1685-January 12,1685, also known as Bishop Berkeley, was
an Irish philosopher. His primary philosophical achievement was the advancement of a theory
he called "Immaterialism" (later referred to as "subjective idealism" by others). This theory,
summed up in his dictum, "Esse est percipi" ("to be is to be perceived A Treatease Concerning
the Priciples of Huna knowledge (1710) and Three Dialogues between Hylas an Philonous
(1713), in which the characters Philonous and Hylas represent Berkeley himself and his
contemporary John Locke
18
John Locke August 29, 1632- October 28, 1704 was an English philosopher. Locke is
considered the first of the British Empiricist,. He is widely regarded as one of the most
influential Enlightenment thinkers and contributors to liberal theory. Locke was the first
philosopher to define the self through a continuity of "consciousness." He also postulated that
the mind was a "blank slate" or "tabula rasa"; that is, contrary to Cartesian or Christian
philosophy, Locke maintained that people are born without innate ideas
19
David Hume April 26, 1711-August 25, 1776 was an 18th century Scottish philosopher,
economist and historian, considered among the most important figures in the history of
Western philosophy and the Scottish Enlightenment.

-5- 5
science. Insofar there is the monistic idealism that rejects any notion of “consciousness”
being an “accident”, what is more from this point of view it has to be accepted that
consciousness is the previous state to any act, is the source of any event in the universe.
From this philosophy is that Amit Gowani starts his view on the subject. Against the
previous paradigm, now what it is accepted is that everything starts with consciousness.
In order with this idea Amit Goswani wrote a book whose title is “The Self Aware
Universe” in which it could be find a way to understand quantum physics and
consciousness. Throughout his work it could be assumed that there is no reality
independent of our consciousness as observer. In India this current of thought is known
as Vedanta and Amit Goswami refers to it as “monistic idealism” this idea reaffirms the
fact that many mystics throughout history have been stating in the essence of perennial
spiritual teaching that consciousness prevails over matter.
The concept of the author of “The Self-Aware Universe “ to assign the word
“idealism” is to show the real importance of consciousness and the opposition to the
philosophy of “material-realism”, which holds only matter as real. The present
worldview states that everything can be reduced to elementary particles of matter, the
basic constituent –building blocks- of matter. This statement leads to the fact that the
union of any of these blocks will build atoms, molecules, cells and then all the cells
organized will be a brain. Following in this direction the theory will be called “upward
causation”, as a consequence of that concept free will won’t exist, it is only a
epiphenomenon or secondary phenomenon, secondary to the causal power of matter; so
that “any causal power that seems to be able to exert on matter is just an illusion” this is
the current paradigm. Nonetheless, the new idea is opposite to this statement so it has to
be considered that everything starts with consciousness, is the ground of “being”, in this
way consciousness imposes a “downward causation” and here free will exists and has
sense. write about free will
Quantum physics starts in 1900 by 1925 the equations of quantum physic were
full-fledged and materialist physicists* saw in quantum physic some potential in order
to change paradigm. In 1982 there was an event that changed the story dramatically;
that was the experiment done by Alain Aspect and his collaborators. This experiment
conclusively established the veracity of the spiritual notion and specifically the concept
of transcendence. Amit Goswani said that “quantum physic applies to any object,
whether it is sub microscopic or macroscopic because is the physic we handle, although
our belief is that all reality, all manifest reality and all matter, is govern by the same
laws, and if it is so, then this experiment is telling us that we have to change because we
are quantum objects, too”. There is another author -a fine philosopher of science- who
wrote in 1975 “The Tao of the Physic”, his name: Fritjof Capra. He was exploring the
connections between modern physic (quantum physic) and Eastern mysticism
(philosophy). The purpose of this writer was to show how the dynamic of was the
Universe works, applying the Indian philosophy which sees the Universe as a vast web
exchanging vibrations what leads to think that this web is alive , it moves, changes and
grows constantly. The dynamic aspect of the matter shows the relationship with the
quantum theory and the properties of the subatomic particles can only be understood by
relative theory. The border which divides East from West is the fact that West handles
space and time, while East manages them through mysticism. In fact Brahman caused
and connected everything, and their knowledge is found in intuition. Newton taught that
20
Thomas Aikenhead 1678-1697 was a Scottish student from Edinburgh, who was
prosecuted and executed on a charge of blasphemy. He further predicted that Christianity
would be "utterly extirpated" by 1800. Aikenhead was in fact the last person hanged for
blasphemy in Britain.

-6- 6
objects are definite things; they can be seen all the time in definite trajectories; whilst
quantum physic does not depict in such way an object. For quantum physic objects are
seen as possibilities, possibility wave. Therefore in the quantum physic exists a paradox,
a point where the theory and the practice bear a contradiction, however, in the new view
as consciousness is the ground of being, so that who converts possibility into reality, is
consciousness because consciousness obeys quantum physic. It is consciousness,
through the conversion of possibility that creates what we see as manifest. To sum up
this paragraph it could be said that consciousness creates the manifest world and with it
reality.
It is hard to explain what reality is, however, an approach may be that is all what
surrounds us but also reality is what is intangible, as to say, love is reality, exists but is
perceived as a reality, people symbolises love through heart but the question is more
cultural than real, as love is an emotion and it is aroused chemically it is logical that the
heart will throb quicker as a physical manifestation ( but , a heart as an organ alone
detached from an alive body won’t feel the throbbing and less love, separated from the
organism in possession of a consciousness a heart is a mass of muscles anyway) . At this
point it could be state that realty is all what our perception and consciousness can
record. For instance, and going back to literature again; if La Hojarasca21 is analyzed to
understand reality it is possible be aware of that there exist as many reality as people
live. The book tells a story of a tiny town, a doctor committed suicide and the narration
unwinds a coil where the three main characters attend the mourning. The funeral
procession was: an old woman, a young woman and a child. It is impossible to mistake
or misunderstand reality from one standpoint, nevertheless, the view given by any of the
three is very different, because any of them captured that moment applying what they
had lived, known or maybe what can they comprehend. It is a very simple plot but the
valuable thing is this chance to be an outsider and feel what is understand by the village
people. As a consequence it can be sustain that the world basically handles two types of
reality, the objective and the subjective one. The objective is plausible to any human
being all varies in a range that perhaps it could be appreciated as standard. The other
one, the subjective, is the one that is plausible and real for the person and who will
affect that reality with the intervention of his/her mind, emotions, consciousness,
perception and why not magic. Here comes a word that is necessary to stop and analyse,
magic, and connected with literature, magic realism22 what will help the reader to infer
conception of reality. This also brings about the fact of consciousness because without
it, it is impossible to be full aware of the Universe. One conception toward life could be
the sense of magic as it is important to have a standard reality also is important the
21
Gabriel José de la Concordia García Márquez , March 6, 1927 is a Colombian novelist
and short stories writer, screenwriter and journalist and. In 1982 was awarded the Nobel Prize
of Literature. He has achieved significant critical acclaim and widespread commercial
success, most notably for popularizing a literary style labelled as magical realism in which he
uses certain magical elements and events in order to explain real experiences. Some of his
works take place in a fictional village called Macondo, and most of them express the theme of
solitude.

22
A daily used term which was coined by Franz Roh in order to describe painting, in
which reality was altered, later in Latin American literature was applied in order to
convey something weird but at the observer this quality does not seem odd. Alejo
Carpentier (Cuban writer) used to say”lo real maravilloso” (roughly “marvelous
reality”)

-7- 7
touch of magic which could be translated as attitude and in the book define as the colour
of the glasses. This last notion is what gives life a sense. If life is taken as an automatic
fact to wake up every day and build a monotonous task of breathing and throbbing the
“glasses” the person is wearing are wrong; this is the reason why attitude will construct
a magic lapse if the attitude is the correct one.
As human race is built on the basis of language -as an approach to reality- comes
up the need of names for every single thing, those concepts are universal so that a huge
part of reality is grasp through language and perception.
Then is possible to the observer get more information, sieve the content through
mind and initiate a most elaborated process as is perception and consciousness. Reality
includes two concepts “being” and “nothingness”. Everything that is “observable”
and “comprehensible” exists. As a consequence of this, reality is a philosophical
concept where the “nothingness” can be perceived by consciousness. Literature could
give an example of reality conveyed through meanings in the book “Travellers in the
Scriptorium”23is worth to illustrate an approach to reality. The book starts with a man,
sitting in a room, surrounded by labelled objects, the reader is oblivion if the man is in
hospital, in prison or maybe at home, why not at the three at the same time. Location is
vague. If the man is free or prisoner is not unveiled. The point here is that the labels are
moved –magically- so the man is incapable to realised if the chair is labelled chair o
maybe door, the observer is always the same, the objects are always the same too, but
with the labels changed . The important thing is the attitude of this enclosed man, his
state of mind is weakened by this constant change of labels, if his attitude is negative he
won’t survive, he has to be stacked to few stuff that he trust on but he lives with “cold
feet”. What demonstrate this event is that to build reality there have be a collective
standard of meanings so the attitude could be tuned properly
On the other hand there are the glasses (attitude) of the observer which can alter
the object; however, the essence of the object did not change. What is more, there exist
an objective and a subjective reality the subjective one is altered by the attitude (colour
glasses) and turns into subjective reality. To illustrate this concept, it is possible to bring
in mind of two different persons, an apple, there is one objective reality that is a round-
shaped fruit, mostly red or green, at this point each person could have brought the red
one or the green one just because a question of taste, or aesthetic or maybe because
his/her first approach was to one of them in particular; same reality; two different
perception/consciousnesses.
In the perception of reality there is a big influence of culture. This ingredient
make people decide which colour of glasses will wear affecting generally a group of
people which has a common denominator a race, West or East, traditions, environment
and the paradigms are valid at the moment. All these elements will play a very
important role at the moment the person will choose the glasses, and the consequences
that this option will have throughout the life of the individual. To illustrate this point it
would be interesting to bring Kafka´s24 work, “Metamorphosis”. There the author’s aim
is to show how attitude can modify a person, from the moment that Gregor Samsa (main
character, the one who will suffer the transformations) decides that he will turn into an
23
Paul Benjamin Auster February 3,1947 –Newark new Jerseyis a Brookliyn-based author
known for works blending absurdism and crime fiction, such as The New York Trilogy (1987),
Moon Palace (1989) and The Brooklyn Follies (2005).

24
Franz Kafka (July 3, 1883-June 3, 1924); was one of the major German-language fiction
writers of the 20th century. He was born to a middle-class Jewish family in Prague, Austria-
Hungary (now Czech Republic). His unique body of writing—much of which is incomplete and
was published posthumously—is among the most influential in Western Literature

-8- 8
insect (I will name as an insect,-following some critics because many controversies
exist around the fact if he turned into an cockroaches, a vermin or a beetle or a dung
beetle or only a parasite- this last possibility is regarding the fact that other people feed
Gregor while he remains closed inside his room). So from this book the conclusion is
that determination of a person (attitude) is the one which can build the environment and
the destiny of the person involved. However, it is impossible omit a very important fact
in “reality-colour glasses” and is perception. The concept goes further than what
implies sight, and as sight is mention it will be helpful define it as the body function
made by eyes and brain through which reality is perceived, in comparison with the
others components may sound the simplest one, this does not mean less important. What
about blinds? They have a perception that is not based on the pair “eyes-brain”, they
develop others senses in order to supply the one they lack and so with other handicaps.
Sight mechanism starts in the eyes but images are printed in the brain so when the
person has not the object physically, it can be brought by the brain process called
“memory” and in some way is also sight because the object will be materialized in such
way so that the person is conscious of the object in spite of being impossible to touch.
It is necessary to mention Aldous Huxley “The Doors of Perception”, where the
writer makes a detailed account how he can perceive the world after taken mescaline (a
drug which alters perception). In this way perception y totally distorted, colours, size,
shape, bright, sounds and so on a large list of changes in reality. But the question is;
does the person really need drugs to perceive reality in a different way? Any individual
has a different perception. For example the well known painter Modigliani, who was
famous for the women portraits and each of those women, had a very long neck, and a
thing face, (never a round one) and this was not a question of style, he had a visual
problem that made him see a face very large and the neck very long. Notwithstanding,
he hit the painters of that period. On the other hand is Descartes and his questioning
about perception. The deep question of perception aroused in Descartes when he first
started with his “Meditations. He worked hard with prejudices and the heavy burden
that humans bring with them just because tradition or knowledge handed down by
parents in the very early years. An illustration of his thought and his zeal to reach a clear
idea, he started from scratch, about what reality is and the real perception of the world-
Universe. Descartes’ doubts had began when he realised how easy the person could be
deceived, the example throughout it is possible to follow Descartes´ idea is about the
stick in the water, the person sees the stick bent but the stick is not bent; it is what the
person “perceives”, from that point on, his uncertainty about every single thought
rooted in his mind. If it is possible to apply this example to another point because this
looks like perception works, reality is one thing but after getting into perception the
reality changes (subjective reality), so it has to be born in mind the fact that the colour
of the glasses (attitude) interfere reality.
Therefore it is valuable to combine attitude and memory. When events are
brought back it is necessary to add memory, and the latter will bring back the emotion
that provoke this link so that a component in this chain is attitude. In others words, good
attitude store good memories and when they are calling back the person, he/she feels
good. It is a very easy rule: good leads to good, on the other hand what about sad, bad,
miserable and so on the long list of negative emotions? The response of the memory
will be a sad situation .What is printed in the brain is very difficult to change in the
future life. These connections between one neuron and the other are called here in this
book “neuronets”, and these nets could bring happiness and positive feelings-emotions
and the negatives one also, the smart attitude is to be able to break this linkers in order
to handle emotions and perception. Memory is a very tricky component, it could be

-9- 9
possible store there many facts while the person is unaware and these
details/images/perceptions could arouse when the person is not prepare to receive such
shock, reaction like this happens while the person is not conscious and suddenly by the
connection of those “neuronets” stir up a behaviour that was inserted in the brain by that
unconscious grasp of information. Going back to Auster´s book “Travellers in the
Scriptorium” the closed man received periodically some pills, could they be peptides?
which altered his perception, farther than the story written by the author, and applying
things got from the book-film, it is possible the use of the narration as a metaphor. As
was said above, there is a person (observed), then objects (lifeless) and others persons
who interacted with the observed (the main character); there is a reality seen by the
observers (people that interact and the reader), each of the observers has a perception
and an attitude toward the fact observed. In addition memory has emotions that are
related with the fact to be recalled.
To put forward an example, this leads again to the apple; imaging the first time
a person comes across an apple, it was an object of irregular shape with vivid colour,
maybe red maybe green, the first bite gave the flavour and the surprise that had juice
and why not the person who handed the apple was the mother of that person or better
the grandmother; for that person in his/her brain would be printed the image of the apple
with affection , related with his/her grandmother, here it starts to play emotion, the
object begins to have colour, flavour and feeling, unconsciously throughout his/her life,
apples for this person will engulf an emotion. The person will evoke apple-grandmother,
as here the facts entangled are positive, the other way round could be negative in the
vast range, from a bad memory to an addition or any other behaviour. Why does it not
use this metaphor, “emotions are ink and the brain paper” What about this print? Can
the person erase bad memories or, is this ink indelible? How could it be turned from
indelible to removable this ink? The secret are the formation of new neuronets, as it was
shown above, using peptides people can build chains of reactions. If the person uses
always de same the “ink” is indelible, but when the person wears the glasses of attitude
and changes the patterns of behaviour there are the new neuronets. The new
combination of peptides will enable the brain to react towards behaviour. Up to this
moment, it would be useful to have a kind of definition to deal with the big word
“emotions”; chemical components-peptides- that the body provides the brain in order to
elicit reactions, those reactions will have knowledge, reality and also consciousness.
Every time that some behaviour is nearly to bump into the person lots of
ingredients start to run to build up a response. It could be fresh or learnt so that always
arouses the same question: are people acting at free will? This old and extremely
delicate topic is hard to decide, culture and tradition have tamed the free will. Again it is
necessary to unwind a question very much connected with philosophy, free will. If free
will is analysed by the sight of religion would mean that the Omnipotent is unable to
assert on individual will and choice, while ethically means that the individual will be
held morally accountable for his/her actions and scientifically it may imply that the
actions of the body including brain and mind are not determined by physical causality.
After seeing these three positions the question still remains without an answer, the
problem is that the individual is the three things at the same split second, is a unity and a
whole. It is impossible to think as a moral individual without considering the scientific
one, and what is more the religious aspect is very important because man is melt in
Universe and the person could define Universe as God or a huge energy but always the
individual is subordinated to this great possibility of Energy-God-Universe. Man is not
an isolated phenomenon all around is mind and further soul and beliefs, so to handle a
concept as free will it has to be born in mind all these factors and also the influence of

- 10 - 10
collective consciousness, culture and traditions. Should it be thought as a mandate of the
consciousness? Or free will is something totally different from consciousness? When
the person decides an action; where is the decision taken? Is it in mind? Is it by the
brain? Is free will a combination of consciousness, culture and traditions? Is the will
subordinated to education? In those cases; is truly free will? Clearly, when free will is
subordinated to any other concept, then the idea of free is absent, it could be an election,
an option but never free will. To make clear these lines Nietzsche’s25 idea will be
helpful, if there is a person who decides no to steal because of the Ten Commandments
there is not working free will, because following the Ten Commandments was his/her
election, nevertheless, the same person decides by himself/herself not to steal here is
working free will.
As concerned to reality and dreams, connected with perception, it is also
possibly to build a new theory. Are dreams in the realm of reality? Or, is it another
reality? How does consciousness play in this match? Could it be possibly for human
beings live two realities in life? Might be possible that the realm of dreams is a reality
which lack prejudices, where the only valid knowledge is the one of mind-brain and
attitude; a realm where the sovereign is free will. This “Dreamland” is a place without
borders and is the inner sight the one suitable. Is perception distorted while the person is
dreaming or is reality distorted by perception while the person is awake and perhaps not
conscious? I dare state that dreams are realities, what changes is perception and what
lacks is consciousness. This free realm where everything is possible allows people to
find solution to problems, new hope because in this territory the brain is naked and
allows any new “neuronet” to find the truth. Furthermore this is an issue that every
person in his/her life has stopped and thought about. All of us at least once in our lives
have felt the impression of having seen or lived the moment that slipped a second before
and while the brain is trying hard to regain control over that slipped second the Universe
has changed, what had happened ? Has anybody any theory? Others lives, parallel
worlds that he/she is living at the same time because time is relative and while the
person is in another dimension the time abided in a different way and maybe
consciousness is the one that smugglers specks of reality from other Universe.
Connected with writers it is possible to read a play about Pedro Calderon de la Barca
“La vida es sueño”. The conception of this play is around the idea that man is in
darkness until the moment he starts to know himself and drift towards Light, when light
descents on him, man will be able to deal with his freedom, -this is also connected with
the myth of the carven (Plato) - Here the main themes are freedom and destiny. In this
play it is possible to come across an apparent drama but really is a philosophical work.
In this fluctuating reality it is possible to bump into the idea of quantic physic; that
people are living in many overlapped Universes. Going again to literature, is worth to
mention Vaclav Havel26 , who got a Nobel Prize. In one of his plays, “The Increased
25
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October15, 1844-August 25, 1900) was a nineteenth
century German philosopher and philologist. He wrote critical texts on religion, morality,
contemporary culture, philosophy, and science, using a distinctive German language style
and displaying a fondness for aphorism. Nietzsche's influence remains substantial within and
beyond philosopher, notably in existentialism and postmodernism.

26
Václav Havel, (born October 5, 1936) is a Czech writer and dramatist. He was the tenth
and last President of Czechoslovakia (1989-1992) and the first President of the Czech
Republic (1993-2003). He has written over twenty plays and numerous non-fiction works,
some of which have received international acclaim He has received the Presidential Medal of
Freedom, the Philadelphia Liberty Medal, and the Ambassador of Conscience Award.
Beginning in the 1960s, his work turned to focus on the politics of Czechoslovakia. After the
Prague Spring, he became increasingly active. In 1977, his involvement with the human
rights manifesto Carter 77 brought him international fame as the leader of the opposition in

- 11 - 11
Difficulty of Concentration” he introduces the fact that the main character let in the
concept of overlapping worlds. Dr Edward Hulm -a social scientist- is on stage with his
wife and in some moments he is “living” near his mistress. The context of the play is
on a stage where the spectator-observer can watch three rooms at the same moment and
while this scientist is ”performing” one scene he is also performing -in a different level
of consciousness- events with his mistress. There is also a parallel between his
fragmentised life and the wrong functioning of a form of artificial intelligence; the
whole play builds a metaphor of the human dilemma and the new paradigm. Connected
with dreams it is important to highlight that, Amit Goswami, the scientist who appears
also in the book and film, is in favour of lucid dreaming, which simultaneously allows
adopting the same force of being awake in a dreaming state and this process precipitate
creation. It has been checked scientifically the fact of the lucid dreaming are not only
possible but also very useful, Allan Hobson27 with his neurophysiological approach to
dream research have helped to push the understanding of lucid dreaming into a less
speculative realm.
Humankind is so young in Universe, as Universe like we know, that in the film,
is my personal view, the main character is a handicap person, what leads to think that
our perception (as Humankind) and knowledge- of the Universe- and the quantity of
events and realities that succeed one after the other or all at the same time, that our
brain, as marvellous as it is, is incapable to soak up the information going around and
process it. The brain could be capable, the problem stands in the person itself, because
consciousness and perception are not working at full. Human awareness is not always
focused in what it really matters, there are some functions of the brain that usually work
in “automatic” so to say, example of this is the breath and throbs. So that, sometimes
happens that other functions-like perception- are not employed as they should be. To
illustrate it could be show the difference between seeing and looking, the person can
look at the mountains but maybe does no see what type of tree compose the forest on
them. Again, the person can hear but not listen. As the result of these examples it is that
I think in the metaphor built by the filmmakers choosing the actress. To back up this
opinion Joachim E. Wolf28 in his papers postulates the multidimensional model of the
Universe, based on recent developments in physic and biology. Humans are not able to
grasp multidimensional reality because their senses are limited to three dimensions. This
limitation refers to the fact that the three dimensions are a subset (a set contained by a
larger set) of the multidimensional system. The author is not suggesting challenge the
facts that science has checked throughout centuries and are irrefutable, however, the
new approach should be stressed in interpretation. The attempt aims specifically to the
new relevant information that concerns quantum physic, and a holistic worldview. To a
better understanding it is important to state that the three dimensional space the human
beings have “three degrees of freedom”; time is felt as a stream of sequential events,
where only one is real present. Einstein´s relativity theory is focused to macro world
while the quantum theory works with the micro worlds of the atoms and subatomic
particles. Both theories assume a four-dimensional space in which our three dimensional

Czechoslovakia; it also led to his imprisonment.

27
James Allan Hobson, M.D. (born June 3, 1933) is an American psychiatrist and dream
researcher. He is known for his research on the Rapid eye movement sleep.

28
“Understanding the Grand Design: Spiritual Reality’s ,Inner Logic”, I this book the
author explain how the man evolve in , he starts in the famous Plato’s Cave to end with the
existence of other dimension

- 12 - 12
space and time are blended together. Professor Stephen W Hawking29 states “We must
accept that time is not completely separate from and independent of space, but is
combined with it to form an object called space-time”; also:” In reality, there is no real
difference any two space coordinates”. Another contribution of Fritjob Capra30, -he tried
to join the Easter mysticism with the knowledge of the quantum physic- describes the
difficulty faced by people to form an intuitive picture of the four-dimensionalspace-
times. A piece of evidence that is important to know is the existence of the Indigo
Children who are thought to be the nexus between the known dimensions (three) and
the announced fourth. These children started being known by the New Age 31, the social
movement that promoted a change in the daily view. This new standpoint came with the
announcement of the Age32of Aquarius. The mission of these children is to elevate the
energy of the planet, for that purpose they have to work on the change of consciousness
of the human beings who are still living under old decayed precepts. This movement
must involve changes in many systems as family, education, government, values and
roles and all the rotting things that bother the new evolvement of the human race.
Returning to literature there are some lines in the chapter corresponding Proteus
from Ulysses33, by James Joyce34, that seems as if Joyce wanted to say something about
this relation space-time ;”A very short space of time through very short times of space”.
29
Stephen William Hawking, (born 8 January 8, 1942) is a British theoretical physicist.
Hawking is the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, and a
Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. He is known for his contributions to the
fields of cosmology and quantum gravity, especially in the context of black holes, and his
popular works in which he discusses his own theories and cosmology in general.

30
Fritjof Capra (born February 1, 1939) Born in Vienna, Austria, Capra earned a Ph.D. in
theoretical physics from the University o Vienna in 1966. He has done research on particle
physics and system theory, and has written popular books on the implications of science,
notably The Tao of Physics, subtitled An Exploration of the Parallels between Modern Physics
and Eastern Mysticism. The Tao of Physics makes an assertion that physics and metaphysics
are both inexorably leading to the same knowledge.

31

New Age (sometimes called the New Age Movement), refers to both a decentralized social
phenomenon and a western socio-religious movement that developed in the 1970–80s. It
combines aspects of spirituality, esoterism, complementary and alternative medicine and
includes religious practices from many sources across the world, as well as
environmentalism. It is characterized by an eclectic and individual approach to spirituality,
and a general rejection of mainstream dogma . Other terms used to describe the movement
include Self-spirituality, New spirituality, and Mind-body-spirit.

32
An astrological age is a time period in astrology which is believed by some to parallel
major changes in the Earth’s inhabitants' development, particularly relating to culture,
society and politics

33
Ulysses is a novel by James Joyce. It is considered one of the most important works of
Moddernist literature. Ulysses chronicles the passage through Dublin by its main character,
Leopold Bloom, during an ordinary day, June 16, 1904. The title alludes to the hero of
Homer’s Odyssey, and there are many parallels, both implicit and explicit, between the two
works (e.g., the correspondences between Leopld Bloom and Odysseus,Molly Bloom and
Penelope, and Stephen Dedalus and Telemachus). June 16 is now celebrated by Joyce's fans
worldwide as Bloomsday

34
James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (February 2, 1882- January 13, 1941) was an Irish
expatriate writer, widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the 20th
century. He is best known for his landmark novel Ulysses (1922) and its highly controversial
successor Finnegans Wake (1939), as well as the short story collection Dubliners (1914) and
the semi-autobiographical novel A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916).

- 13 - 13
For common sense such a superspace seems impossible to visualize. There will be
useful bring here Gary Zukav35, he is questioning the Western model of the soul,
alleging that Humankind is in the mist of a great transformation, evolving from species
that chase the power of the senses (external power) to one that pursues power based on
the perceptions of the soul (authentic power). Gary Zukav strongly believes that humans
are immortal souls first, physical beings, second, and when human beings become
conscious of this transformation, once the personality is aligned with the soul there
starts the process of the person to become daily a better human being. This is the
synthesis of the modern psychology and New Age principles described as the “physics
of the soul”. These words belong to a man who suffered a process from anger without
regard for life to a new state of joy, now he is in harmony with the Universe because he
understood a holistic thought joining East and West; science and mysticism. At the same
period there was a writer James Redfield36 who started with the introduction of the new
ideas through novels that were bestsellers. It is no worth decide if the level of those
book was good or not or if they were great pieces of writing that by time can become
classical, the fact is that ordinary people came across to a new point of view, and
captured by the plot of the novel they looked into something that was not very common.
The book is a first –person narration and the narrator is going through a spiritual
awaking as he goes to a transitional period of his life. People find themselves applying
to new concepts and trying to live with others values. Moreover when humanity was at
the doorstep of a new century, and the many things that people used to imagine, one of
those things was the end of the world. In the book the Third Insight it is possible to
understand in very simple words what had been trying out Alain Aspect in his
influential experiment. In the book, Redfield uses these words more o less, ” existent
things are a field of sacred energy that is able to sense and intuit, what is more, human
beings can project their own energy in any direction desired by them, so energy flows
influencing other energy systems and increasing the pace of conscience. Energy
envelopes any living thing (also this is readable as aura).
What was demonstrated by Einstein was the fact that two objects can never
affect each other instantly in space and time because everything must travel with
maximum speed limit, and that limit was the light speed. So any influence must travel,
if it travels through space, taking a finite time- this is called “locality”. On the other
hand, Alain Aspect37 experiment (early 1980´s),following tests in the line of what has
35
Gary Zukav is a Harvard Graduate and a Special Forces (Green Beret) Vietnam Veteran a
recovered person and spiritual wayfarer. He is author of valuables books connected with
quantum physic and the Eastern interpretation of spiritual life, the books he wrote was “The
Dancing Wu Li Masters” and “The Seat of the Soul”. For years has conveyed the most
complex insights in language all can understand. Over and over, he challenges us to see the
depth of our potential in the world…and act on that awareness. He is the author of four
consecutive New York Times Bestsellers. In 1979, The Dancing Wu Li Masters: An Overview of
the New Physics, plumbed the depths of quantum physics and relativity, winning The
American Book Award for Science. In 1989, The Seat of the Soul led the way to seeing the
alignment of the personality and the soul as the fulfilment of life and captured the
imagination of millions. Soul Stories (2000), as well as The Heart of the Soul: Emotional
Awareness (2002) and The Mind of the Soul: Responsible Choice (2003), both co-authored
with Linda Francis, also became New York Times bestsellers.

36
James Redfield, born March 1950, is an American author, lecturer, screenwriter and film
producer. He is notable for his novel The Celestine Prophesy which was a novel of the New
Age movement. In 1996, the sequel, The Tenth Insight: Holding the Vision (Warner Books)
also became a bestseller.
37
Alain Aspect (born June 15, 1947 in Agen) is a French physicist and alumnus of the École
Normale de Cachan in France. In the early 1980s, with collaborators in France, he performed
the crucial "Bell test experiments" that showed that Albert Einstein, Boris Podovsky and
Nathan Rosen´s reductio ad absurdum of quantum mechanics, namely that it implied 'ghostly

- 14 - 14
been researched previously by others scientist, found that photons emitted by the atoms
influence one another at a distance without exchanging signals because they were doing
instantaneously- they were doing faster than the speed of the light. Therefore it followed
that the influence could not have travelled by space. So that influence must belong to a
domain of reality that we must recognize as the transcendental domain of reality.
To understand widely the Universe where we are living, there has been written
so many scientific and religious books, holding any paradigm or dogma that Humankind
has undergone. There is one that suits perfectly to this point, and gathers both position;
The Urantia Book. It holds the knowledge of two thousands years. Inside of it there are
more than 2000 individual contributions in the fields of philosophy, religion, sociology,
history and theology. The text provides a comprehensive prospective of human origins
history and destiny of human race. This book is supposed to be written between 1928
and 1935. Each paper has the name of the person-personality who wrote it. It is not
clearly known how these papers got together, nonetheless the book is available. This
important fact, that now the book is in market, could be a sign for human beings, to
consider the possibility to tear down the many barriers that has been built between
science and religion, politics and economy and so on , the large list of “wars” hold by
people against people. This fact perhaps is a warning that the Universe needs gather
millions of consciousness for living in a better world, to understand that humanity was
walking the wrong path. It will be worth to scan through the pages of the book. It has
four parts. Part one: is devoted to Universe; a purposeful Universe evolving in time and
space towards a transcendent destiny. The Nature of God. His relationship to the
emerging creation. Part two: the local Universe; a plan to go forward the social
structure, the free will in our personal relationship with God. Part three: the history of
the planet –Urantia- a geophysical and cultural history of the planet; growth, traditions,
civilizations, social organization. The meaning of the values and how they will affect
the future of our world. Humankind and its destiny. The worlds we will inhabit after
death. Part four: The life an teachings of Jesus. This book joins the greatness of Jesus
the Son of God who lived among people. Trough the papers that compose the book it is
reasonable to open the mind, looking farther than any human being can imagine. At the
threshold of the end of the first decade of the 21 century; a book with this content comes
out. It is amazing to see when the world needs a change, a paradigm shift and a
reconsideration of the values followed by Humankind that a book with such knowledge
comes to fill the gap. No religious entity claims as it author.
The wisdom poured throughout the pages calls to any reader to stop a moment
and think consciously about the future of the Universe; there is not any likeness to think
that humans are the unique inhabitants of the Universe so that the main work to do
every day is to build a peaceful planet, no wars, no more pollution, no more destruction.

action at a distance', did in fact appear to be realized when two particles were separated by
an arbitrarily large distance. A correlation between their wave function remained, as they
were once part of the same wave-function that was not disturbed before one of the child
particles was measured.

- 15 - 15
Why not a world, as John Lennon38 proposes in his Imagine39? The Urantia Book is
drawing the attention of those persons who are living with consciousness, it reassures
faith because it does not matter the religion of the reader to receive the same warm
feeling, the need to improve the world now, based in all religions, all philosophies. A
healthy way to understand the important task that everyone has come to perform. The
important message of the book is that science and religion must work together, man is a
unit. There are no reasons to consider man divided in many pieces, a holistic vision
must be applied as mankind concerns. Hence, it has to be thought that is crucial the shift
of paradigm, from the reductionism, objectivist and positivist base of the 19 th and 20th
century science to the holistic transcendental metaphysical foundation. The core of the
challenge for the scientific worldview is to accept consciousness; including conscious
awareness or subjectivity intentionality, selective attention, intuition, creativeness, the
relationship body –mind and the spiritual sensibility. From this viewpoint people should
think that thoughts are more than a reflection; but are also a movement toward reality.
The result of this thought goes again to consciousness that creates the manifest world.
Western science entails to the following metaphysical assumptions:
• Realism40: ontological41-leads to epistemological conclusion
• Positivism42: physical measurable
• Objectivism43: epistemological44 and ontological (the branch of
metaphysics that studies the nature of existence or being as such.)
• Reductionism45: epistemological (The branch of philosophy that
studies the nature of knowledge, its presuppositions and foundations,
and its extent and validity.)
A step propitious to solve the gap between science and religion could be that of
the American philosopher Ken Wilber46 (1996) ,based on an earlier work of Arthur

38
John Ono Lennon, (born John Winston Lennon; October 9, 1940-December 8, 1980) was
an English rock musician, singer, songwriter, artist, and peace activist who gained worldwide
fame as one of the founding members of The Beatles
39 Imagine there's no heaven/It's easy if you try/No hell below us/Above us only sky/Imagine
all the people/Living for today... You may say I'm a dreamer/But I'm not the only one/I hope
someday you'll join us/And the world will be as one

39
40
Philosophy.
a.The doctrine that universals have a real objective existence. Compare
conceptualism, nominalism. b.The doctrine that objects of sense perception have an
existence independent of the act of perception. Compare idealism
41
ontology
1.the branch of metaphysics that studies the nature of existence or being as such.
2.(loosely) metaphysics.
42
a philosophical system founded by Auguste Comte, concerned with positive facts and
phenomena, and excluding speculation upon ultimate causes or origins.

43
Philosophy: One of several doctrines holding that all reality is objective and external to the
mind and that knowledge is reliably based on observed objects and events.

44
a branch of philosophy that investigates the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human
knowledge.

45
A procedure or theory that reduces complex data or phenomena to simple terms

- 16 - 16
Koestler47, that considers reality as composed by “holons48” each of which is a whole
and simultaneously a part of some other whole- “holons” within holons “. These
“holons” are capable at the same time, to display agency, the capacity of maintain their
own wholeness, other property of the “holons” is to come together with other “holons”
and create a “novel holon”.
Considering also psychology to get another approach to the “whole man” it is
important the Gestalt psychology as another source of wholeness. This is the theory
where it is proponed the operational principle of the brain is holistic at the same time
with self-organizing tendencies or that the whole is different than the sum of parts. The
founder of this school of psychology was Max Wertheimer49.The idea of Gestalt rooted
in theories preached by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Immanuel Kant and Ernst March.
The unique contribution done by Wertheimer was to insist that the Gestalt is connected
with the primary concept of perception, defining the parts of which it was composed
rather than being an “additional” element over and above the components. Early in the

46
Kenneth Earl "Ken" Wilber Jr. (January 31, 1949, Oklahoma City, U.S.), is an American
author who writes on psychology, philosophy, mysticism, ecology, and spiritual evolution. He
has been described as New Age although his writings are critical of much of the New Age
movement. His work formulates what he calls an "integral theory of consciousness." He is a
leading proponent of the integral movement and founded the Integral Institute in 1998.

47
Arthur Koestler (September 5, 1905; Budapest –March 3, 1983; London) was a Jewish –
Hungarian polymath author who became a naturalized British subject. In 1931, he joined the
Communist Party, but left the party seven years later, after emigrating to the United
Kingdom. By the late 1940s, he was one of the most recognized and outspoken British anti-
communists. He wrote numerous books, of which the most famous is the novel Darkness at
Noon about the Great Purge in the Soviet Union, an indictment of Satanism. At 14 he had a
"mystical experience", which perhaps gave rise to his later interest in the paranormal.
Koestler studied science and psychology at the University of Vienna. He wrote a trilogy
culminating with The Ghost in the Machine and later Janus: A Summing Up, bridges concepts
of reductionism and holism with his systemic theory of Open Hierarchical Systems. Holons in
a Holarchy have the dual tendency of integration and development and out of balance they
tend to pathology.

48
A holon is something that is simultaneously a whole and a part. The word was coined by
Arthur Koestler in his book The Ghost Machine (1967, p. 48). A holon is a system (or
phenomenon) that is a whole in itself as well as a part of a larger system. It can be conceived
as systems nested within each other. Every system can be considered a holon, from a
subatomic particle to the universe as a whole. On a non-physical level, words, ideas,
sounds, emotions—everything that can be identified—is simultaneously part of something,
and can be viewed as having parts of its own, similar to sign in regard of semiotics (is the
study of sign processes (semiosis), or signification and communication.

49
Max Wertheimer was born in Prague, Bohemia. In 1901, he formally switched his
curricular plan from law to philosophy (of which psychology was a branch). Continuing his
studies at the University of Berlin, then at the University of Wurzburg, he was granted a Ph.D
from Wurzburg in 1904, for a dissertation that pertained to certain psychological aspects of
law. While at the University of Prague, Wertheimer became interested in the lectures of
Christian von Ehrenfels, an Austrian philosopher who, in 1890, published what is often said to
be the first paper on holistic form qualities or (as Ehrenfels called them) Gestalt qualities. By
more than twenty years, this paper anticipated some of the findings of Wertheimer, Koffka
and Kohler, in what is now commonly known as Gestalt psychology (or Gestalt theory, to
imply that it also pertains to disciplines outside of psychology).

- 17 - 17
20th century theorists, such as Kurt Koffka50, Wolfgang Kohler 51and Max Weltheimer
(students of Karl Stumpf52, creator of the theory of the state affairs53) saw objects as
perceived within an environment according to all of their elements taken together as
global construct. The Gestalt or “whole form” was an approach to define the principles
of perception, this approach works as the innate procedure of the mental laws which
determines the way the objects will be perceived. It has to be mention the fact that the
Gestalt psychology is no the same as the Gestalt therapy developed by Fritz Perls54
which is peripherally linked to Gestalt psychology
Now that many facts have been established the last point to bear in mind is the
divorce that exists between religion and church. To have a brief account of how could
that happen it could be write down more or less in this simplistic way: it had start when
the shamans or the druids left the leading of the tribe; the reason was that they gathered-
at that time- the sacred knowledge and the scientific one, it was possible as a
consequence of the lack of information. It was very easy at that moment to blame the
gods for everything that they were not able to explain or any misfortune, so that, they
built power around the ignorance of the people; they do not need to elucidate mystery, it
was enough the fact that they were in touch with any god that the tribe worship. This
situation was bearable up to the moment that somebody got some new enlightenment
and was in charge to illuminate other people to follow some different way of thinking.
This sparkle of light put Humankind on a new road, “the scientific thought”. Every new
achievement should be demonstrated nothing happened just because, and in that point, a
big crevice runs between science and God. Furthermore, there is a question that
scientists are unable to reply because the only answer leads directly to God. Wherever
man knocks, the answer, probably, will be God so why science has to mistrust God?
Since the very beginnings of times Humankind trusts all its fears to God and all its
50
Kurt Koffka (Berlin; March 18 ,1886-Nothampton ,November 22, 1941) was born and
educated in Berlin and earned his PhD there in 1909 as a student of Carl Stumpf. In addition
to his studies in Berlin, Koffka also spent one year at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland
where he developed his strong fluency in English, a skill that later served him well in his
efforts to spread Gestalt psychology beyond German borders. Koffka was already working at
the University of Frankfurt when Max Werterheimer arrived in 1910 and invited Koffka to
participate as a subject in his research on the philosopher phenomenon.

51
Wolfgang Köhler (January 21, 1887-June 11, 1967) was a German psychologist who, with
Max Wertheimer and Kurt Koffka, founded Gestalt theory.

52
Carl Stumpf (April 21, 1848- December 25, 1936) was a German philosopher and
psychologist. Stumpf is also credited with the introduction in current philosophy of the
concept of state of affairs (Sachverhalt), which was later popularized through Husserl's works.

53
The state of affairs is that combination of circumstances applying within a society or
group at a particular time. The current state of affairs may be considered acceptable by many
observers, but not necessarily by all. The state of affairs may present a challenge, or be
complicated, or contain a conflict of interest. The status quo represents the existing state of
affairs. Unresolved difficulties or disagreements concerning the state of affairs can provoke a
crisis. Dispute resolution is naturally desired, and naturally provided, by forms of inclusive
social interaction, such as consensus decision-making, which adapt, but not conveniently,
from a family or tribal model to encompass a global scope. Current knowledge and discussion
about the state of affairs is communicated through the media.

54
Friedrich (Frederick) Salomon Perls (July 8, 1893; Berlin –March 14, 1970 Chicago),
better known as Fritz Perls. He coined the term 'Gestalt therapy' for the approach to therapy
he developed with his wife Laura Perls from the 1940s, and he became associated with the
Esalen Institute in California in 1964. At Gestalt Therapy's core is the promotion of
awareness, the awareness of the unity of all present feelings and behaviours, and the contact
between the self and its environment.

- 18 - 18
hopes to Him too. There has to be a balance where mankind can reckon its future. There
is not good in being opposite forces. It has come the moment of applying to tolerance,
as well in politics, religions and races. Humankind has walked a long way, however,
today, when science has made a big leap man feels miserable because is not conscious
of the great value that God brings to any human being. In fact, God is not necessarily to
be religion, it could be thought as a big respect to Universe as to alive beings, to that
vast energy that keeps the balance among planets, the flow of rivers, the ocean tides, the
seasons…..Today, when it is possible to conceive a Universe with overlapping
Universes is the moment to open all human minds and grasp the new paradigm, the one
which is so dynamic that constantly changes to give men the possibility to grapple and
cherish the immense fortune to be alive. What is more, science is giving facts that show
the existence of a Superior force able to influence things without any contact and faster
than the light speed (Aspect experiment). To sum up; Humankind is at the door of the
new paradigm, it has been hatched by scientist and philosophers55 born by the end of the
last century and brought up by a large quantity of people who believe in a new world,
West near East, both together in the vast Universe and a mankind able to evolve far
from loath, pollution, hunger and misery.

55
some of them mention throughout this paper

- 19 - 19