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ProductsandQuotients

_

`

11.4

Introduction

We have seen, in the rst three Sections, how standard functions like x

n

, e

ax

, sin ax, cos ax, ln ax

may be dierentiated.

In this Section we see how more complicated functions may be dierentiated. We concentrate, for

the moment, on products and quotients of standard functions like x

n

e

ax

,

e

ax

ln x

sin x

.

We will see that two simple rules may be consistently employed to obtain the derivatives of such

functions.

_

`

Prerequisites

Before starting this Section you should . . .

be able to dierentiate the standard

functions: logarithms, polynomials,

exponentials, and trigonometric functions

be able to manipulate algebraic expressions

_

`

Learning Outcomes

On completion you should be able to . . .

dierentiate products and quotients of the

standard functions

dierentiate a quotient using the product rule

HELM (2008):

Section 11.4: Dierentiating Products and Quotients

29

1. Differentiating a product

In previous Sections we have examined the process of dierentiating functions. We found how to

obtain the derivative of many commonly occurring functions. These are recorded in the following

table (remember, arguments of trigonometric functions are assumed to be in radians).

Table 2

y

dy

dx

x

n

nx

n1

sin ax a cos ax

cos ax a sin ax

tan ax a sec

2

ax

sec ax a sec x tan x

ln ax

1

x

e

ax

ae

ax

cosh ax a sinh ax

sinh ax a cosh ax

In this Section we consider how to dierentiate non-standard functions - in particular those which can

be written as the product of standard functions. Being able to dierentiate such functions depends

upon the following Key Point.

Key Point 9

Product Rule

If y = f(x)g(x) then

dy

dx

=

df

dx

g(x) + f(x)

dg

dx

(or y

= f

g + fg

)

If y = u.v then

dy

dx

= u

dv

dx

+ v

du

dx

(or y

= uv

+ vu

)

These versions are equivalent, and called the product rule.

We shall not prove this result, instead we shall concentrate on its use.

30 HELM (2008):

Workbook 11: Dierentiation

Example 8

Dierentiate (a) y = x

2

sin x (b) y = x ln x

Solution

(a) Here f(x) = x

2

, g(x) = sin x

df

dx

= 2x ,

dg

dx

= cos x

and so

dy

dx

= 2x(sin x) + x

2

(cos x) = x(2 sin x + x cos x)

(b) Here f(x) = x, g(x) = ln x

df

dx

= 1 ,

dg

dx

=

1

x

and so

dy

dx

= 1.(ln x) + x.

1

x

= ln x + 1

Task

Determine the derivatives of the following functions (a) y = e

x

ln x, (b) y =

e

2x

x

2

(a) Use the product rule:

Your solution

f(x) =

df

dx

= g(x) =

dg

dx

=

dy

dx

=

Answer

dy

dx

= e

x

ln x +

e

x

x

(b) Write y = (x

2

)e

2x

and then dierentiate:

Your solution

f(x) =

df

dx

= g(x) =

dg

dx

=

dy

dx

=

Answer

dy

dx

= (2x

3

)e

2x

+ x

2

(2e

2x

) =

2e

2x

x

3

(1 + x)

HELM (2008):

Section 11.4: Dierentiating Products and Quotients

31

The rule for dierentiating a product can be extended to any number of products. If, for example,

y = f(x)g(x)h(x) then

dy

dx

=

df

dx

[g(x)h(x)] + f(x)

d

dx

[g(x)h(x)]

=

df

dx

g(x)h(x) + f(x)

dg

dx

h(x) + g(x)

dh

dx

=

df

dx

g(x)h(x) + f(x)

dg

dx

h(x) + f(x)g(x)

dh

dx

That is, each function in the product is dierentiated in turn and the three results added together.

Example 9

If y = xe

2x

sin x then nd

dy

dx

.

Solution

Here f(x) = x, g(x) = e

2x

, h(x) = sin x

df

dx

= 1,

dg

dx

= 2e

2x

,

dh

dx

= cos x

dy

dx

= 1(e

2x

sin x) + x(2e

2x

) sin x + xe

2x

(cos x)

= e

2x

(sin x + 2x sin x + x cos x)

Task

Obtain the rst derivative of y = x

2

(ln x) sinh x.

Firstly identify the three functions:

Your solution

f(x) = g(x) = h(x) =

Answer

f(x) = x

2

, g(x) = ln x, h(x) = sinh x

Now nd the derivative of each of these functions:

32 HELM (2008):

Workbook 11: Dierentiation

Your solution

df

dx

=

dg

dx

=

dh

dx

=

Answer

df

dx

= 2x,

dg

dx

=

1

x

,

dh

dx

= cosh x

Finally obtain

dy

dx

:

Your solution

Answer

dy

dx

= 2x(ln x) sinh x + x

2

1

x

sinh x + x

2

ln x(cosh x)

= 2x ln x sinh x + x sinh x + x

2

ln x cosh x

Task

Find the second derivative of y = x

2

(ln x) sinh x by dierentiating each of the

three terms making up

dy

dx

found in the previous Task (2x ln x sinh x, x sinh x,

x

2

ln x cosh x), and nally, simplify your answer by collecting like terms together:

Your solution

d

dx

(2x ln x sinh x) =

d

dx

(x sinh x) =

d

dx

(x

2

ln x cosh x) =

d

2

y

dx

2

=

Answer

d

2

y

dx

2

= (2 + x

2

) ln x sinh x + 3 sinh x + 2x cosh x + 4x ln x cosh x

HELM (2008):

Section 11.4: Dierentiating Products and Quotients

33

Exercises

1. In each case nd the derivative of the function

(a) y = x tan x

(b) y = x

4

ln(2x)

(c) y = sin

2

x

(d) y = e

2x

cos 3x

2. Find the derivatives of:

(a) y =

x

cos x

(b) y = e

x

sin x

(c) Obtain the derivative of y = xe

x

tan x using the results of parts (a) and (b).

Answers

1. (a)

dy

dx

= tan x + x sec

2

x

(b)

dy

dx

= 4x

3

ln(2x) +

x

4

x

= x

3

(4 ln(2x) + 1)

(c) y = sin x. sin x

dy

dx

= cos x sin x + sin x cos x = 2 sin x cos x = sin 2x

(d)

dy

dx

= (2e

2x

) cos 3x + e

2x

(3 sin 3x) = e

2x

(2 cos 3x 3 sin 3x)

2. (a) y = x sec x

dy

dx

= sec x + x sec x tan x

(b)

dy

dx

= e

x

sin x + e

x

cos x = e

x

(sin x + cos x)

(c) The derivative of y = xe

x

tan x = (x sec x)(e

x

sin x) is found by applying the product

rule to the results of (a) and (b):

dy

dx

=

d

dx

(x sec x).e

x

sin x + (x sec x)

d

dx

(e

x

sin x)

= (sec x + x sec x tan x)e

x

sin x + x sec x(e

x

)(sin x + cos x)

= e

x

(x + tan x + x tan x + x tan

2

x)

34 HELM (2008):

Workbook 11: Dierentiation

2. Differentiating a quotient

In this Section we consider functions of the form y =

f(x)

g(x)

. To nd the derivative of such a function

we make use of the following Key Point:

Key Point 10

Quotient Rule

If y =

f(x)

g(x)

then

dy

dx

=

g(x)

df

dx

dg

dx

f(x)

[g(x)]

2

(or y

=

gf

f

g

2

)

If y =

u

v

then

dy

dx

=

v

du

dx

dv

dx

u

v

2

(or y

=

vu

u

v

2

)

These are two equivalent versions of the quotient rule.

Example 10

Find the derivative of y =

ln x

x

Solution

Here f(x) = ln x and g(x) = x

df

dx

=

1

x

and

dg

dx

= 1

Hence

dy

dx

=

x

1

x

1(ln x)

[x]

2

=

1 ln x

x

2

HELM (2008):

Section 11.4: Dierentiating Products and Quotients

35

Task

Obtain the derivative of y =

sin x

x

2

(a) using the formula for dierentiating a

product and (b) using the formula for dierentiating a quotient.

(a) Write y = x

2

sin x then use the product rule to nd

dy

dx

:

Your solution

Answer

y = x

2

sin x

dy

dx

= (2x

3

) sin x + x

2

cos x

dy

dx

=

2 sin x + x cos x

x

3

(b) Now use the quotient rule instead to nd

dy

dx

:

Your solution

Answer

y =

sin x

x

2

dy

dx

=

x

2

(cos x) (2x) sin x

(x

2

])

2

=

x cos x 2 sin x

x

3

36 HELM (2008):

Workbook 11: Dierentiation

Exercise

Find the derivatives of the following:

(a) (2x

3

4x

2

)(3x

5

+ x

2

)

(b)

2x

3

+ 4

x

2

4x + 1

(c)

x

2

+ 2x + 1

x

2

2x + 1

(d) (x

2

+ 3)(2x 5)(3x + 2)

(e)

(2x + 1)(3x 1)

x + 5

(f) (ln x) sin x

(g) (ln x)/ sin x

(h) e

x

/x

2

(i)

e

x

sin x

cos 2x

Answer

(a) 48x

7

84x

6

+ 10x

4

16x

3

(b)

2x

4

16x

3

+ 6x

2

8x + 16

(x

2

4x + 1)

2

(c)

4(x + 1)

(x 1)

3

(d) 24x

3

33x

2

+ 16x 33

(e)

6(x

2

+ 10x + 1)

(x + 5)

2

(f)

1

x

sin x + (ln x) cos x

(g)

sin x

1

x

(ln x) cos x

sin

2

x

= cosecx(

1

x

cot x ln x)

(h)

x

2

e

x

2xe

x

x

4

= (x

2

2x

3

)e

x

(i)

cos 2x(e

x

sin x + e

x

cos x) + 2 sin 2xe

x

sin x

cos

2

2x

= e

x

[(sin x + cos x) sec 2x + 2 sin x sin 2x sec

2

2x]

HELM (2008):

Section 11.4: Dierentiating Products and Quotients

37

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