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Editorial Board

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Dr. Kari Jabbour, Ph.D Curriculum Developer, American College of Technology, Missouri, USA.

Er.Chandramohan, M.S System Specialist - OGP ABB Australia Pvt. Ltd., Australia.

Dr. S.K. Singh Chief Scientist Advanced Materials Technology Department Institute of Minerals & Materials Technology Bhubaneswar, India

PROF.Dr. Sharath Babu,LLM Ph.D Dean. Faculty Of Law, Karnatak University Dharwad, Karnataka, India

Dr.SM Kadri, MBBS,MPH/ICHD, FFP Fellow, Public Health Foundation of India Epidemiologist Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, Kashmir, India

Dr.Bhumika Talwar, BDS Research Officer State Institute of Health & Family Welfare Jaipur, India

Dr. Tej Pratap Mall Ph.D Head, Postgraduate Department of Botany, Kisan P.G. College, Bahraich, India.

Dr. Arup Kanti Konar, Ph.D Associate Professor of Economics Achhruram, Memorial College, SKB University, Jhalda,Purulia, West Bengal. India

Dr. S.Raja Ph.D Research Associate, Madras Research Center of CMFR , Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Chennai, India

Dr. Vijay Pithadia, Ph.D, Director - Sri Aurobindo Institute of Management Rajkot, India.

Er. R. Bhuvanewari Devi M.Tech, MCIHT Highway Engineer, Infrastructure, Ramboll, Abu Dhabi, UAE

Sanda Maican, Ph.D. Senior Researcher, Department of Ecology, Taxonomy and Nature Conservation Institute of Biology of the Romanian Academy, Bucharest, ROMANIA

Dr.Damarla Bala Venkata Ramana Senior Scientist Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture (CRIDA) Hyderabad, A.P, India

PROF.Dr.S.V.Kshirsagar,M.B.B.S, M.S Head - Department of Anatomy, Bidar Institute of Medical Sciences, Karnataka, India.

DR ASIFA NAZIR, M.B.B.S, MD Assistant Professor Dept of Microbiology Government Medical College, Srinagar, India.

Dr.AmitaPuri, Ph.D Officiating Principal Army Inst. Of Education New Delhi, India

Dr. Shobana Nelasco Ph.D Associate Professor, Fellow of Indian Council of Social Science Research (On Deputation}, Department of Economics, Bharathidasan University, Trichirappalli. India

M. Suresh Kumar, PHD Assistant Manager, Godrej Security Solution, India.

Dr.T.Chandrasekarayya,Ph.D Assistant Professor, Dept Of Population Studies & Social Work, S.V.University, Tirupati, India.

JIARM
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ISSN : 2320 – 5083 (MAY 2013) VOLUME 1 ISSUE 4
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A STUDY ON PERFORMANCE BASED DESIGN OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT FOR STATE HIGHWAY – A CASE STUDY

HARDIK H PATEL* PROF. AMIT A VANKAR** DR.L.B.ZALA***

*M. Tech. Transportation System Engg., Dept. of Civil Engineering, B.V.M Engineering College, Gujarat, India **Asst. Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, B.V.M Engineering College, Gujarat, India ***Head, Dept. of Civil Engineering, B.V.M Engineering College, Gujarat, India

ABSTRACT

A Comprehensive study approach depicts the design of flexible pavement based on Indian Road Congress guidelines incorporates the different attributes which are essential to design of pavement. Soil characteristics and behaviors were explored by different tests comprise in Indian Standards. The traffic characteristics also a significant factor in order to get traffic growth rate, volumes, PCUs for design of pavement. A Case study is taken for design of flexible pavement stretch from Tarapur to Vasad in the state of Gujarat. Intimate analysis has carried out methodically for design of different layer of pavement since the different attributes i.e vehicle damage factor getting by way of axle load survey is interpolated in design, traffic forecasting for next 15 years has determined. Analysis has carried as per IRC: 37-2012; including primary cumulative standard axles, design of different layers i.e granular sub base, wet mix macadam, dense bituminous macadam, wearing course.

KEYWORDS: Empirical Design, Conventional Planning, Intimate Analysis, Vehicle Damage Factor, Passenger Car Unit

INTRODUCTION Indian Road Network of 42 lakh km is 2 nd largest in the world. Majority of the pavements are flexible type. With the rapid socio-economic development in India, there has been tremendous growth in industrialization of the country. This has resulted in a spurt of freight and passenger transport movement and increase in demand for better quality of road and transport system. In late seventies/eighties India also awakened to the importance of the multiplier effects in economy of Highway Development for the over-all benefit of the Country and took up comprehensive Projects with borrowed and internal investment of large amounts for the Development

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of Highways. Its Postulate essentiality to mend and widening to existing lane of highways as per demands

APPROACH TO GLOBALIZATION

Roads constitute a vital part of the infrastructure. In India most of the roads are

constructed using flexible pavement concept, due to their comparatively low construction and maintenance cost. In order to improve trade and economic activities and to materialize regional linkages with China, Pakistan, Shrilanka, Bangladesh and

other neighboring Central Asian countries, the country is gearing up towards a large infrastructure network.

DESIGN APPROACH

Flexible Pavements are widely used despite some doubts regarding their economics under different conditions. Two most important parameters that governs the pavement design are soil sub-grade and traffic loading. The Indian guidelines for the design of flexible pavements use soil sub-grade strength in terms of California Bearing Ratio and traffic loading in terms of million standard axles (msa).

PURPOSE OF STUDY

Aiming to facilitate to design for widening the pavement entail to rectify the problem

of traffic accumulation and provision of superior transportation service.

Fig.1- Location of SH-8 in the Map of Gujarat

JIARM ISSN : 2320 – 5083 (MAY 2013) VOLUME 1 ISSUE 4 of Highways. Its Postulate

[Source: www.mapsofindia.com/maps/gujarat/]

The study stretch Tarapur to Vasad SH-8 belongs to entire road from Bagodara to Vasad originating from Dist. Ahmedabad and terminating to Dist. Anand cover 48 Km of road length. Gujarat having 1600 km of long coastline, which accounts for

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80% cargo for India. This link connects to state’s major ports i.e. Kandla, Mundra, Pipavav also Jamnagar Industry from major busy corridor NH-8 to NH-27, NH-8A, NH-47. Study road dead end meets to NH-8; which is India’s busiest route of Delhi Mumbai Freight Corridor apart of Golden Quadrilateral.

EMPIRICAL DESIGN BASED ON IRC: 37-2012

The recommended methods consider design traffic of the cumulative number of standard axles used as axle load spectrum for heavy traffic. Initial traffic after construction in terms of number of commercial vehicles per day (CVPD) Traffic growth rate during the design life in percentage Design life in number of years Spectrum of axle loads vehicle damage factor

distribution of commercial traffic over the carriageway

Initial traffic after construction–CVPD Assessment of the present day average traffic should be based on seven-day-24-hour count made in accordance with IRC:9-1972 “traffic Census on Non-Urban Roads”. Table 1- Composition of Average Daily Traffic

Classes of Veh.

At Tarapur

At Borsad

 

MAV

1

1

2

Axle

717

1063

3

Axle

2545

2640

4-6 Axle

1228

1267

 

LCV

1558

1181

Mini Bus

53

51

Private Bus

  • 780 621

 

State Bus

  • 191 306

 

School Bus

1

28

Car

3705

3809

2

Wheeler

1863

2095

Rikshaw

840

1150

Tractor

328

84

Tractor Trolly

23

31

Animal Drawn

2

3

 

Total

13835

14330

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Traffic Forecasting is done for next 15 years, as required traffic growth rate based on past studies is essential, however if the data for the annual growth rate of commercial vehicles is not available or if it is less than 5 per cent, a growth rate of 5 per cent should be used (IRC:SP:84-2009) after assuming r= 5 % Traffic Prediction Pn = Po (1+r)n

Where

Pn = Traffic in the nth year Po = Traffic flow in the base year

n =

Number of years

r = Traffic growth rate

Table 2 presents the traffic forecasting for next 15 years, further which is used to obtain cumulative standard axles for design life upto 15 years in order to design of pavement.Base traffic flow for two different junction is taken as Po i.e 13835 and 14330 for Tarapur and Borsad respectively. At different location on study stretch classified volume count survey was carried out. Classified Average Daily Traffic and Passenger car Units were computed. Based on IRC:106-1990 “Capacity of Urban Road in Plain Areas” different factors of PCU for different vehicles is used in order to get equivalent PCU of vehicles. Table 2 – Traffic and PCU growth for 15 years

 

At Tarapur

 

At Borsad

 

Traffic

   

Traffic

   

Year

growth

PCU

growth

PCU

in

no.

of

in

no.

of

veh.

veh.

2013

  • 13834 24891

 
  • 14330 25919

 

2014

  • 14526 26136

 
  • 15047 27215

 

2015

  • 15252 27442

 
  • 15799 28576

 

2016

  • 16015 28814

 
  • 16589 30004

 

2017

  • 16815 30255

 
  • 17418 31505

 

2018

  • 17656 31768

 
  • 18289 33080

 

2019

  • 18539 33356

 
  • 19204 34734

 

2020

  • 19466 35024

 
  • 20164 36471

 

2021

  • 20439 36775

 
  • 21172 38294

 

2022

  • 21461 38614

 
  • 22231 40209

 

2023

  • 22534 40545

 
  • 23342 42219

 

2024

  • 23661 42572

 
  • 24509 44330

 

2025

  • 24844 44701

 
  • 25735 46547

 

2026

  • 26086 46936

 
  • 27021 48874

 

2027

  • 27390 49282

 
  • 28372 51318

 

2028

  • 28760 51747

 
  • 29791 53884

 

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Design life in number of years It is recommended that pavements for National Highways and State Highways should be designed for a minimum life of 15 years. Expressways and Urban Roads may be designed for a longer life of 20 years or higher using innovative design adopting high fatigue bituminous mixes. In the light of experience in India and abroad, very high volume roads with design traffic greater than 200 msa and perpetual pavements can also be designed. For other categories of roads, a design life of 10 to 15 years may be adopted. Spectrum of axle loads and vehicle damage factor VDF is arrived carefully by carrying out specific axle load surveys on the existing roads. Minimum sample size for survey is taken 10 percent for commercial vehicles per day more than 6000. Each direction can have different pavement thickness for a divided highway which is depend upon loading pattern. VDF is evaluated direction wise since on some sections, there may be significant difference in axle loading in two directions of traffic. For rolling or plain terrain VDF may adopt 4.5 since the commercial vehicles per day are more than 1500. Distribution of commercial traffic over the carriageway Distribution of commercial traffic in each direction and in each lane is required for determining the total equivalent standard axle load applications to be considered in the design. For dual carriage roads; the design of dual three-lane carriageway 60 per cent distribution of commercial traffic over the carriageway is adopted.

SOIL SAMPLING METHOD AND TESTINGS

Soil samples were collected from Tarapur-Vasad study corridor. The properties of soil like gradation, Liquid limit, plasticity index, maximum dry density, optimum moisture content, California bearing ratio were evaluated. Here mandatory all tests were carried out of collected soil samples. Soil with high values of LL, PI are

considered to be poor or not suitable for construction of embankment; maximum permissible limits of these values are 70% and 45% respectively. Soil with maximum values of dry density greater than 2.1 are excellent, 1.9 to 2.1 are good, 1.75 to 1.90 are fair, 160 to 1.75 are poor and those less than 1.60 are very poor for road construction. Grain size distribution gives the exact idea regarding the gradation of soils whether a soil is well graded, uniformly graded, gap graded.

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EXISTING PAVEMENT COMPOSITION

Fig. 2 - Sketch shows Layers of Existing Road- Table 3 Layers of Existing Pavement

JIARM ISSN : 2320 – 5083 (MAY 2013) VOLUME 1 ISSUE 4 EXISTING PAVEMENT COMPOSITION Fig.

Fig. 3- CBR testing of Collected Soil Sample

Pavement Layer

Thickness (mm)

BC

70

DBM

100

WMM

300

Bituminous layer

40

Boulder soling

300

Total

810

JIARM ISSN : 2320 – 5083 (MAY 2013) VOLUME 1 ISSUE 4 EXISTING PAVEMENT COMPOSITION Fig.

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Table 4 - Geotechnical Properties of collected soil samples

 

Grain

Size

Analysis

Classification

(IS:1498-1970)

Soil

Atterberg

Limit

%

Compaction

Test

CBR %(IS 2720 : Part

 

(IS:2720 - Part-IV)

(IS:2720-Part-5)

 

(IS:2720- Part-8)

Chainage (km)

&

4.75

than

     

MDD (gm/cc)

 

mm

to

ay

0.075 mm

Less

LL

PL

PI

OMC %

4.75

above

0.075

mm

31)

0+000

0

 
  • 49 SC

  • 51 33

   
  • 11 1.986

12

 

11.8

10.5

9+300

0

 
  • 46 SC

  • 54 30

   
  • 22 1.989

8

 

11.7

8.7

12+300

0

 
  • 27 SM

  • 73 25

   
  • 25 1.994

NP

 
  • 9.2 14.5

 

20+000

0

   
  • 52 28

    • 48 SMSC

   
  • 21 1.972

7

 
  • 9.9 15.1

 

21+500

0

   
  • 54 28

    • 46 SMSC

   
  • 21 1.974

7

 
  • 9.9 15.2

 

23+600

0

   
  • 39 37

    • 61 15

CI

   
  • 22 1.956

 

12.3

7.9

28+000

0

 
  • 49 SC

  • 51 34

   
  • 21 1.986

13

 

11.5

14.5

39+500

0

   
  • 32 38

    • 68 16

CI

     

1.95

  • 22 12.2

 

8.1

46+400

0

   
  • 54 28

    • 46 SMSC

   

7

  • 21 10.9

1.964

 

14.4

Having CVPD, VDF, growth rate, design life; in order to get the cumulative million standards axles is stated below:

JIARM ISSN : 2320 – 5083 (MAY 2013) VOLUME 1 ISSUE 4 Table 4 - Geotechnical

Based on above equation cumulative million standard axles for design traffic is estimated.

Table 5 - Cumulative Standard Axles for Design life 10 & 15 years

Location

Tarapur

Borsad

Design Life

       

(years)

10

15

10

15

Cumulative

       

standard

84

156

86

158

axles (msa)

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Plate no.6, 7, 8, pg.27, 28; IRC:37- 2012,in order to obtain pavement thickness Cumulative Standard axles repetition for both Tarapur and Borsad junction is taken as 156 and 158 msa respectively. Composition of subsequent layers of pavement is calculated from above data:

Table 6 - Composition of diff. Layers of Pavement for Design Life n=15 years

   

Thickness of Layers (mm)

Chainage (Km)

CBR %

BC

DBM

WMM

GSB

0+000

10.5

 
  • 125 250

  • 50 200

 

9+300

8.7

 
  • 135 250

  • 50 200

 

12+300

14.5

 
  • 100 250

  • 50 200

 

20+000

15.1

 
  • 100 250

  • 50 200

 

21+500

15.2

 
  • 100 250

  • 50 200

 

23+600

7.9

 
  • 135 250

  • 50 200

 

28+000

14.5

 
  • 100 250

  • 50 200

 

39+500

8.1

 
  • 135 250

  • 50 200

 

46+400

14.4

 
  • 100 250

  • 50 200

 

Fig. 4 - 2.5 m camber correction with 3.5 m Reconstruction

JIARM ISSN : 2320 – 5083 (MAY 2013) VOLUME 1 ISSUE 4 Plate no.6, 7, 8,

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CONCLUSION

Different soils have different characteristics, it essential to have recognizance and evaluation of particular soil on which pavement structure is being constructed. Transient traffic loading and its effects may high if higher number of vehicles may pass. Based on IRC:37-2012 pavement life for state highway is minimum 15 years but beside it conventional planning for design for widen the existing road may 27 years, so its necessary to design the pavement for initial 15 years and further overlaying for strengthening will carried out.

REFERENCES

  • 1. IRC:37-2012 “Guidelines for the Design of Flexible Pavements”

  • 2. IRC:108-1996 “Guidelines for Traffic Prediction on Rural Highways”

  • 3. IRC:SP:19-2001 “Manual for Survey, Investigation and Preparation of Road Projects”

  • 4. IRC:SP-84-2009 “Manual for specification & standards for Four Laning of Highways through Public Private Partnership”

  • 5. IRC:106-1990 “Guidelines for Capacity of Urban Roads in Plain Areas”

  • 6. Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (2001), “Specification for Road and Bridge Works”. Fourth Revision, Indian Road Congress, New Delhi, India

  • 7. Khanna S.K., Justo C.E.G , “Highway Engineering”, 9 th edition, Nem Chand & Bros Roorkee, U.K, India, 2011

  • 8. “Traffic Engineering and Transportation Planning” by Dr. Kadiyali. L. R., Khanna Publication.

  • 9. Bindra S.P.,“A Course in Highway Engg.”, 5 th edition, Dhanpat Rai Publication,
    2012

    • 10. “Manual for Construction and Supervision of Bituminous Works“, Publication of Indian Roads Congress, 2001

    • 11. Feasibility cum Preliminary Design Report for NH-11, NHDP Phase-III, Rajasthan

    • 12. http://www.nhai.org/roadnetwork.htm

    • 13. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/nationalhighways_develepment_project

    • 14. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/national_golden_quadrilateral

    • 15. www.gvk.com/ourbussiness/tranportarion/bagodara_vasad_expressway.aspx

    • 16. www.mapsofindia.com/maps/gujarat/

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