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9.

Wastewater Treatment and Disposal

Because no wastewater treatment facilities are available near the airport site, the airport will include a small wastewater treatment plant on the southwest portion of the airport. This facility is anticipated to consist of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system consisting of two 20,000 gallons per day (gpd) treatment trains (total plant capacity: 40,000 gpd) with capability to expand to 60,000 gpd. The facility will be developed to ensure a functional system compatible with airport activities by minimizing or eliminating potential wildlife attractants. The treatment system will include the following components: Metering and sampling Pre-treatment screening and grit removal SBR treatment Filtration and disinfection Effluent and sludge pumping

The plant facility will be equipped with telemetry and monitoring systems and is anticipated to include the following components: Flow equalization tank SBR treatment trains (40,000 gallons) Plant lift station Laboratory and maintenance buildings Electrical and control building Piping systems

Disposal of treated effluent is anticipated through an underground adsorption bed, west of the proposed rental car service area. The adsorption bed will require appropriate vegetation cover for nutrient uptake, while avoiding wildlife attractant qualities, and a well system for monitoring underground water quality. Sludge from the treatment process will be disposed of at an approved facility. 9.1 Design Criteria: Wastewater Treatment System

The wastewater treatment facilities shall be sized to meet the initial demand and growth over a 20-year period as indicated in the Airport Feasibility Study. The wastewater treatment facility shall be developed to provide cost-effective wastewater treatment in a manner that reflects the best interests of the environment and the local community. This shall be accomplished by meeting minimum permitting requirements and where feasible, exceeding these requirements. A Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) system shall be used to attain Advanced Wastewater Treatment (AWT) quality. The facility shall be designed to accommodate the projected wastewater treatment demand for the relocated airport through the 20-year planning period. The required treatment capacity of the initial facility is 40,000 gpd to provide capacity of at least twice the estimated initial flow (13,100 gpd). The system shall provide for additional capacity of 20,000 gpd to 30,000 gpd to accommodate future demand. The design and location of the proposed wastewater treatment facility must not create a wildlife attractant that is hazardous to aircraft operations. The primary guidance from the FAA regarding wildlife attractants is AC 150/5200-33 Hazardous Wildlife Attractants on or near Airports. This document identifies wastewater treatment plants as potentially attracting hazardous wildlife. Although the FAA policy on wildlife attractants recommends that wastewater treatment plants not be constructed within 10,000 feet of an airport. The technical, geographic, and economic issues associated with the proposed airport site require that a wastewater treatment plant be considered for construction on airport property. A wastewater treatment plant on airport property shall be designed to ensure aviation safety and to minimize or eliminate wildlife attractants associated with the treatment facility as required by FAA standards.

It should be noted that the connection of the airports wastewater collections system to a new regional wastewater treatment plant at least 10,000 feet beyond the airport property is anticipated well within the 20-year planning period. Therefore, it is projected that the proposed airport wastewater treatment facility, though compatible with the airports long-range improvement strategies, shall be removed from the airport property prior to the development of the future parallel runway and associated aviation facilities. 9.2 Wastewater Design Flows

Initial sources of wastewater at the airport are anticipated to include the terminal building, rental car facilities, aircraft hangars, aviation related buildings, and other general use facilities. Other wastewater sources could include cargo activities and lavatory waste disposal from aircraft. Domestic sources include the terminal facility, FBO facilities, and any other building that has restrooms, sinks or kitchen drains. Non-domestic wastewater often includes higher concentrations of surfactants (soaps) and lower concentrations of organics. The proposed rental car wash facility represents the proposed airports primary non-domestic wastewater source. Table 9-1 summarizes the projected flows for the relocated airport. Table 9-1. Projected Wastewater Demand. Flow Type Rental Car Wash Facility
Existing Flow (2001) Opening Day Flow (2007) Long Range Estimate (2021) 9,500 12,000 20,800

Domestic Wastewater
10,400 13,200 22,700

Notes: 2001 flows are based on 12 months of metered potable water usage. Future flows are estimated based on an annual 4% growth rate.

Due to the relatively high magnitude of the non-domestic wastewater to the standard domestic wastewater projected for the airport, it is anticipated that the treatment processes for the two sources shall be kept separate at the new airport site. The proposed car wash rinse facility shall be equipped with a closed-loop recycle system. Rental car wash facilities shall use recycled water for wash operations with fresh potable water introduced for rinsing. Because the wash water is filtered and becomes diluted, pipes shall connect the pop-off from the system to the sanitary sewer system. A diverter structure shall be needed on the rental car wash facility drains to separate stormwater runoff. On average, the collected wastewater at the new airport site is anticipated to be of medium strength domestic quality with the following key parameters: Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) = 500 mg/l 5-day Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5) = 220 mg/l Total Suspended Solids (TSS) = 220 mg/l Total Nitrogen (TKN) = 40 mg/l Total Phosphorus (TP) = 8 mg/l

Source: Wastewater Engineering Treatment, Disposal, Reuse, 3rd Ed., Metcalf & Eddy 9.3 Treatment Process

The treatment process shall include solids reduction/removal, removal of biodegradable organics and suspended solids, nutrient reduction/removal, effluent disinfection and disposal and sludge removal/processing. The system shall also remove nitrogen and phosphorus in the effluent to levels necessary to achieve AWT quality. A SBR system shall be installed to achieve AWT. To accommodate the initial flows, two 20,000 gpd trains shall be constructed to allow redundant reliability and to allow alternating operations. The system shall also consider expansion capability for the future addition of another 20,000 gpd to 30,000 gpd train to accommodate projected growth. Expansion of the initial system shall be required once flows average 50% of the plant capacity. F.A.C. 62-600.405 requires that a Capacity Analysis Report (CAR) be performed, once the three-month average

daily flow for the most recent three-month period exceeds 50% of the permitted capacity. The design and operation of the wastewater treatment facility shall be in accordance with the minimum standards contained in Chapter 62-600, F.A.C. Based on projected flows, the airport facility shall be a Type III Facility (flows between 2,000 and 100,000 gpd). F.A.C. 62-600.400 requires that this category include proven treatment processes and equipment that is efficient and reliable, yet requires minimal, easy operation and maintenance. The plant site must be operational and accessible during a 25-year flood event and critical components must be protected from a 100-year flood. Class III Reliability requirements include the following elements: Trash Removal or Comminution Grit Removal Provisions for Removal of Settled Solids upstream of Grit Removal/Primary Sedimentation Unit Operation Bypass or Diversion Storage Back-up Bar Screen Back-up Pump Capacity Minimum of Two Primary and Final Sedimentation Basins (minimum 50% redundancy) Single Aeration Basin is allowed Minimum of two blowers or aerators (one may be uninstalled) Sectionalized Air Diffuser System Minimum of two Disinfectant Contact Basins No redundancy required for Chemical Flash Mixers, Chemical Sedimentation Basins, Filters or Flocculation Basins (if provided in the treatment process as applicable)

The SBR system is a single tank process that undergoes four steps: fill, react, settle and decant. The decant step may be followed by a rest period depending on the incoming flow. The fill step is normally a complete mix stage where wastewater is introduced into the tank. Fill may occur with or without aeration. The react step is normally a complete mix aerated stage, however aeration may be controlled to produce anoxic or anaerobic conditions. The settle step is a no-mix, no-air process where the solids settle to the bottom of the tank and effluent is decanted. After decanting, excess solids (sludge) may be removed. In this system, two tanks shall be used in alternating sequences. Because of the complexity and timing involved, the SBR system shall be microprocessor (PC-based) controlled. The basic components of the SBR process include the following: Influent Flow Metering and Sampling Manual Bar Rack Solids Removal Comminuter/Shredder Solids Reduction Mechanical Screening Solids Removal Grit Settling and Removal Aerated Flow Equalization Tank (may not be required) SBR Reactor Tanks Filter Unit Disinfection Tank(s) Sludge Digester/Holding Tank (may not be required) Effluent Flow Metering and Sampling

The treatment process shall include flow metering and sampling systems, pretreatment operations, post treatment filtration, effluent disinfection, and effluent disposal system. Operations associated with effluent disposal include filtration for trouble-free operation and maintenance, disinfection using chlorine gas and a two-channel contact chamber, closed wet weather storage tank, and an effluent pump and distribution system. The effluent must be treated for BOD, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Suspended Solids to be in compliance with FDEP standards. The effluent shall have less than 10 mg/l of TSS, 10

mg/l of BOD5, and 12 mg/l of nitrogen, with ground water levels not exceeding 10 mg/l. F.A.C. 62-600.420 requires that for land application/groundwater discharge, the effluent limitations for CBOD5 and TSS are each at 20 mg/l, or 90% minimum removal, whichever is more stringent. F.A.C. 62-600.440 requires that the facility must provide basic disinfection defined as effluent with no more than 200 fecal coliforms per 100 ml. Disinfection using chlorine requires a chlorine residual of at least 0.5 mg/l after a minimum contact time of 15 minutes at the peak hourly flow. After disinfection, the effluent pH shall fall within the range of 6.0 to 8.5. F.A.C. Chapter 62-601 provides minimum requirements for monitoring domestic wastewater facilities, and ensures operators of domestic wastewater facilities conduct required monitoring, maintain accurate records, and submit required reports in a consistent manner. To ensure adequate treatment and uniformity of service, no individual private treatment systems (i.e. septic tanks) shall be allowed within the proposed airport property. 9.4 Wastewater Treatment Plant Facilities

The site recommended for the treatment plant is adjacent to the west side of the planned RPZ associated with the south end of the future parallel runway. The airport site slopes towards the south and a treatment facility located along the south edge of the airport shall facilitate gravity flow of wastewater to the plant. The wastewater facility shall be located adjacent to other light industrial facilities such as the rental car maintenance and shall remain out of sight of traffic entering the airport along the main entrance road. It is anticipated that a new wastewater treatment plant shall be located on a modified soil site. A concrete plant shall be constructed to withstand exposure to salt and hurricane force winds. To minimize any wildlife attractants, no open water bodies shall be developed in the vicinity of the wastewater treatment facility. All treatment facilities must either be enclosed within a vessel or building or be covered with durable wire mesh. In addition to the treatment process utilized, the wastewater facility shall have ancillary elements required for plant operation and maintenance. These include, but may not be limited to, the following: Plant Lift Station Effluent Pump Station Sludge Pumping and Metering System Disinfection System Yard Piping Laboratory and Administration Building Maintenance and Electrical Building (including provisions for Emergency Power) Telemetry and Monitoring System Groundwater Monitoring System

The laboratory and administration building shall be a well-lighted, air-conditioned concrete masonry structure. The facility shall include electrical control panels for system operation and monitoring. The maintenance and electrical building shall be a pre-engineered metal building housing equipment used for regular maintenance and back-up power requirements (unless provided from a separate source). The building shall include roll-up doors for vehicular access and storage. After plant start-up, certain data including flow, influent, and effluent parameters shall be reported to the FDEP in monthly operating reports. The operator shall be on-call during unattended periods and the permitted or a representative shall perform daily checks of the facility. 9.5 Effluent Disposal and Residual Solids

Percolation ponds shall be precluded from the airport and surrounding areas due to the potential to attract wildlife hazardous to airport operations. Direct surface water discharge or wetland discharge is not proposed, due to the sensitivity of the receiving waters in the area. In addition, it is preferable to provide separation from surface water to maximize filtration. An underground adsorption bed, in which the effluent is injected below the ground surface, shall be designed for discharge, as it minimizes wildlife attractant concerns. All discharge of treated effluent shall be through an underground infiltration system. The underground discharge system shall be designed so that no resulting moisture is evident at ground surface in the discharge area. Vegetative ground cover shall be required for nutrient uptake without attracting wildlife. Hydraulic loading of adsorption beds may not exceed 3 inches per day, or 1.9 gpd per square foot. Based on these rates, approximately five acres shall be reserved for initial and future on-site effluent disposal. Section 62-610.500, F.A.C. Rapid-Rate Land Application Systems: Rapid Infiltration Basins and Absorption Fields requires that two or more basins be provided for alternate loading and resting periods. Fencing of the effluent disposal site is not required, however appropriate public signage shall be posted and provisions for discouraging people and animals from entering shall be provided. A groundwater monitoring system shall be required to ensure adequate filtration. A hydrogeologic analysis must be performed including a groundwater mounding evaluation. Mass balance calculations shall be performed for nutrient up-take by the on-site ground cover. According to Section 62-600.530, F.A.C., the applied effluent may not cause the quality of the groundwater to exceed the criteria of Class G-II ground water (as defined in Chapter 17-3, F.A.C.) or if the ambient quality already fails these criteria, shall not worsen the groundwater quality. Total nitrogen in the discharged effluent may not exceed 12 mg/l and total nitrogen as measured in the groundwater down gradient from the discharge application, may not exceed 10 mg/l. Section 62-600.700, F.A.C., requires that an application for a minimum effluent disposal volume of 75% of the permitted plant capacity must be submitted at the time of application of the treatment facility. Section 62-610.310, F.A.C., requires an engineering report in support of the permit application for land application of effluent. An abbreviated report shall be allowed for this project for a Type III facility. The abbreviated report must address land uses and setbacks within 1 mile of the site. Soils information and a hydrogeologic survey are required. The land management must be addressed and shall include a nutrient balance for the ground cover. A comprehensive project evaluation must be submitted, including public notification activities. It is not necessary that complete processing of the sludge occurs at the airport site. In fact, it is highly undesirable that sludge dewatering or drying occurs on-site as it could become a wildlife attractant, hazardous to aircraft operations. Therefore, sludge digesters or holding tanks shall be provided at the wastewater treatment facility, with sludge collected and wet-hauled for offsite treatment or disposal by contract with one of the regional facilities or with a licensed waste company with an approved Agricultural-Use Plan. Solids shall be removed from the system to prevent over-accumulation that could carry over in the effluent. The Solids Retention Time (SRT) for the SBR process is estimated at 10 days with a digester SRT of 15 days.