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Mixtures and Solutions


Section 14.1 Types of Mixtures
pages 476 479

7. Summarize What causes Brownian motion?


Collisions of particles of the dispersion medium with the dispersed particles results in Brownian motion.

Section Assessment 14.1


page 479

1. Explain Use the properties of seawater to

8. Compare and Contrast Make a table that

describe the characteristics of mixtures.


Answers will vary but might include that seawater is a heterogeneous mixture with dirt and mud particles, and it is a homogeneous mixture with dissolved substances.

compares the properties of solutions, suspensions, and colloids.


Student tables will vary, but should include particle size, if the particles settle out, and if the particles display the Tyndall effect. A sample table follows.

2. Distinguish between suspensions and colloids.


Suspension particles are larger than colloidal particles. Suspension particles settle out of the mixture, whereas colloidal particles do not.

Suspensions, Colloids, and Solutions


Particle size Suspensions Colloids Solutions Large (wide variation) 1 nm1000 nm Atomic scale (atoms, ions, and molecules) Particles settle? Yes No No Tyndall effect? Yes Yes No

3. Identify the various types of solutions. Describe

the characteristics of each type of solution.


All solutions are homogeneous mixtures containing two or more substances. Solutions may be liquid, solid, or gas. Solution types are identified in Table 14.2.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. Explain Use the Tyndall effect to explain why

it is more difficult to drive through fog using high beams than using low beams.
High beams are aimed farther down the road than low beams. Because the fog scatters light, there is less light from the high beams to illuminate the road than from the low beams. Also, because the high beams are aimed more directly into the fog, more of their light is reflected back toward the driver, making it more difficult to see.

Section 14.2 Solution Concentration


pages 480488

Practice Problems
pages 481488

9. What is the percent by mass of NaHCO3 in a

solution containing 20.0 g NaHCO3 dissolved in 600.0 mL H2O?


600.0 mL H2O 1.0 g/mL 600.0 g H2O 20 g NaHCO ___ 100 3%
3

5. Describe different types of colloids.


See Table 14.1 for descriptions of colloid types.

600 g H2O 20 g NaHCO3

6. Explain Why do dispersed colloid particles

10. You have 1500.0 g of a bleach solution. The

stay dispersed?
The particles do not settle out because they have polar or charged layers surrounding them. These layers repel each other and prevent the particles from settling or separating.

percent by mass of the solute sodium hypochlorite, NaOCl, is 3.62%. How many grams of NaOCl are in the solution?
3.62% 100 mass NaOCI __ 1500.0 g

mass NaOCl 54.3 g Solutions Manual Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 14

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11. In question 10, how many grams of solvent are

18. What is the molarity of a bleach solution

in the solution?
1500.0 g 54.3 g 1445.7 g solvent

containing 9.5 g of NaOCl per liter of bleach?


mol NaOCl 9.5 g molarity 0.13M 1 mol _ 0.13 mol 74.44 g

12. Challenge The percent by mass of calcium

chloride in a solution is found to be 2.65%. If 50.0 grams of calcium chloride is used, what is the mass of the solution?
2.65% 100 50 g CaCl2

mol NaOCI 0.128 mol __ _ 1.00 L solution 1.00 L

__
mass of solution

19. Challenge How much calcium hydroxide

(Ca(OH)2), in grams, is needed to produce 1.5 L of a 0.25M solution?


0.25M x mol Ca(OH) __
2

mass of solution 1886.79 g

13. What is the percent by volume of ethanol

1.5 L solution

in a solution that contains 35 mL of ethanol dissolved in 155 mL of water?


35 mL __ 100 18% 155 mL 35 mL

x 0.38 mol Ca(OH)2 0.38 mol Ca(OH)2 74.08 g _ 28 g Ca(OH) mol


2

14. What is the percent by volume of isopropyl

20. How many grams of CaCl2 would be dissolved

alcohol in a solution that contains 24 mL of isopropyl alcohol in 1.1 L of water?


24 mL __ 100 2.1% 24 mL 1100 mL

in 1.0 L of a 0.10M solution of CaCl2?


mol CaCl2 ( 0.10M)(1.0 L) ( 0.10 mol/L)(1.0 L) 0.10 mol CaCl2 mass CaCl2 0.10 mol CaCl2 mass of CaCl2 11 g 110.98 g _ 1 mol
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

15. Challenge If 18 mL of methanol are used to

make an aqueous solution that is 15% methanol by volume, how many milliliters of solution are produced?
18 mL 15% __ 100 x mL solution x 120 mL

21. How many grams of CaCl2 should be dissolved

in 500.0 mL of water to make a 0.20M solution of CaCl2?


mol CaCl2 500.0 mL 0.10 mol mass CaCl2 0.10 mol CaCl2 mass of CaCl2 11 g 110.98 g _ 1 mol 1L _ 0.20M 1000 mL

16. What is the molarity of an aqueous solution

containing 40.0 g of glucose (C6H12O6) in 1.5 L of solution?


mol C6H12O6 40.0 g molarity
6 12 6

1 mol _ 0.222 mol 180.16 g

22. How many grams of NaOH are in 250 mL of a

mol C H O 0.222 mol __ _ 0.15M 1.5 L solution 1.5 L

3.0M NaOH solution?


mol NaOH 250 mL 250 mL 0.75 mol mass NaOH 0.75 mol NaOH mass of NaOH 3.0 101 g 40.00 g _ 1 mol 1L _ 3.0M 1000 mL 1L

17. Calculate the molarity of 1.60 L of a solution

containing 1.55 g of dissolved KBr.


1 mol mol KBr 1.55 g _ 0.0130 mol KBr 119.0 g mol KBr 0.0130 mol molarity __ __ 01.60 L

3.0 mol 1L _ _ 1000 mL

1.60 L solution 8.13 103M

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23. Challenge What volume of ethanol (C2H3OH)

29. What is the mole fraction of NaOH in an aqueous

is in 100.0 mL of 0.15M solution? The density of ethanol is 0.7893 g/mL.


100 mL 0.15 mol ethanol 1L _ __ 1000 mL 1 L solution 46 g ethanol 1 mL ethanol __ __ 0.87 mL 1 mol ethanol 0.7893 g ethanol

solution that contains 22.8% NaOH by mass?


Assume 100.0 g sample. Then, mass NaOH 22.8 g mass H2O 100.0 g (mass NaOH) 77.2 g mol NaOH 22.8 g 1 mol _ 0.570 mol NaOH 40.00 g

24. What volume of a 3.00M KI stock solution

would you use to make 0.300 L of a 1.25M KI solution?


(3.00M)V1 ( 1.25M)(0.300 L) V1 (1.25M)(0.300 L) __ 0.125 L 125 mL 3.00M

mol H2O 77.2 g

1 mol _ 4.28 mol H O 18.02 g


2

mol fraction NaOH

mol NaOH ___

mol NaOH mol H2O 4.85

25. How many milliliters of a 5.0M H2SO4 stock

0.570 mol NaOH 4.28 mol H2O 0.118

0.570 mol NaOH 0.570 ____ _

solution would you need to prepare 100.0 mL of 0.25M H2SO4?


(5.0M)V1 ( 0.25M)(100.0 mL) V1 (0.25M)(100.0 mL) __ 5.0 mL 5.0 M

The mole fraction of NaOH is 0.118.

30. Challenge If the mole fraction of sulfuric acid

(H2SO4) in an aqueous solution is 0.125, what is the percent by mass of H2SO4?


0.125 mole fraction of H2SO4 1 0.125 0.875 mole fraction of water Assume a sample of the solution totals 100.0 moles. By definition there would be 87.5 moles of water and 12.5 moles of sulfuric acid in the sample. 87.5 mol of H2O 12.5 mol H2SO4 18.02 g _ 1580 g H O 1 mol
2

26. Challenge If 0.5 L of 5M stock solution of

HCl is diluted to make 2 L of solution, how much HCl, in grams was in the solution?
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

mol HCl 5M 0.5 L 2.5 mol HCl mass of HCl 36.45 g HCl __ 1 mol 2.5 mol

mass of HCl 91.15 g

98.08 g _ 1230 g H SO 1 mol


2

27. What is the molality of a solution containing

10.0 g Na2SO4 dissolved in 1000.0 g of water?


mol Na2SO4 10.0 g Na2SO4 0.0704 mol Na2SO4 molality 0.0704 mol Na SO __ 0.0704 m
2 4

1 mol _ 142.04 g

percent by mass H2SO4 1230 g H2SO4 100 (1580 1230) g solution 43.8% H2SO4 by mass

___

1.0000 Kg H2O

Section Assessment 14.2


page 488

28. Challenge How much (Ba(OH)2), in grams, is

31. Compare and contrast five quantitative

needed to make a 1.00m aqueous solution?


mol Ba(OH)2 1 mol __ 1 kg solvent 171 g Ba(OH) __
2

ways to describe the composition of solutions.


molarity, molality, and mole fraction are based on moles of solute per some other quantity; percent by volume and molarity are defined on a per volume of solution basis; molality and mole fraction are based on a per quantity of solvent basis; percent by mass and percent by volume are the only ratios involving percentages Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 14

molar mass of Ba(OH)2 mass of Ba(OH)2 171 g

1 mol

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32. Explain the similarities and differences

S1

0.55 g _ 0.55 g/L 1.0 L P 110.0 kPa _ 0.55 g/L _ 3.0 g/L
2

between a 1M solution of NaOH and a 1m solution of NaOH.


Both solutions contain NaOH (solute) dissolved in water (solvent). The 1 m solution contains 1 mole of NaOH per kilogram of water; the 1M solution contains 1 mole of NaOH per liter of solution.

S2 S1

P1

20.0 kPa

37. A gas has a solubility of 0.66 g/L at 10.0 atm

of pressure. What is the pressure on a 1.0-L sample that contains 1.5 g of gas?
S2 1.5 g 1.5 g/L 1.0 L P2 P1 S 1.5 g/L _ 10.0 atm _ 23 atm
2

33. Calculate A can of chicken broth contains

450 mg of sodium chloride in 240.0 g of broth. What is the percent by mass of sodium chloride in the broth?
1g 450 mg NaCl _ 0.45 g NaCl 1000 mg percent by mass 0.45 g _ 100 0.19% 240.0 g

S1

0.66 g/L

38. Challenge The solubility of a gas at 7.0 atm

of pressure is 0.52 g/L. How many grams of the gas would be dissolved per 1 L if the pressure increased 40.0 percent?
P2 P1 (P1)(0.400) ( 7.0 atm) (7.0 atm)(0.400) 9.8 atm S2 S1 P _
2

34. Solve How much ammonium chloride

(NH4Cl), in grams, is needed to produce 2.5 L of a 0.5M aqueous solution?


mol of NH4Cl 1L 1.25 mol of NH4Cl
4

0.5M _ 2.5 L

P1

53.49 g NH Cl mass of NH Cl 1.25 mol NH Cl __


4 4

S2 ( 0.52 g/L) S2 0.73 g/L

9.8 atm _ 7.0 atm


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1 mol

mass of NH4Cl 66.86 g

35. Outline the laboratory procedure for preparing

Section Assessment 14.3


page 497

a specific volume of a dilute solution from a concentrated stock solution.


Calculate the volume of stock solution needed and add it to a volumetric flask. Add water up to the flasks calibration line.

39. Describe factors that affect the formation of

solutions.
Surface area, temperature, and pressure affect the formation of solutions.

40. Define solubility.

Section 14.3 Factors Affecting Solvation


pages 489497

Solubility refers to the maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a particular temperature and pressure.

Practice Problems
page 497

41. Describe how intermolecular forces affect

solvation?
The attractive forces between solute and solvent particles overcome the forces holding the solute particles together, thus, pulling the solute particles apart.

36. If 0.55 g of a gas dissolves in 1.0 L of water at

20.0 kPa of pressure, how much will dissolve at 110.0 kPa of pressure?

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42. Explain on a particle basis why the vapor pres-

Tb 0.512C/m 0.625m 0.320C Tb 100C 0.320C 100.320C Tf 1.86C/m 0.625m 1.16C Tf 0.0C 1.16C 1.16C

sure of a solution is lower than a pure solvent.


When a solvent contains a solute, fewer solvent particles occupy the surface. Fewer particles escape into the gaseous state.

43. Sumarize If a seed crystal was added to a

46. What are the boiling point and freezing point of

supersaturated solution, how would you characterize the resulting solution?


After the excess solute particles crystallize out of solution, the solution is saturated.

a 0.40m solution of sucrose in ethanol?


Tb 1.22C/m 0.40m 0.49C Tb 78.5C 0.49C 79.0C Tf 1.99C/m 0.40m 0.80C Tf 114.1C 0.80C 114.9C

44. Make and Use Graphs Use the informa-

tion in Table 14.4 to graph the solubilities of aluminum sulfate, lithium sulfate, and potassium chloride at 0C, 20C, 60C, and 100C. Which substances solubility is most affected by increasing temperature? Solubility v. Temperature
90 80

47. Challenge If a 0.045m solution (consisting of a

nonvolatile, nonelectrolyte solute) is experimentally found to have a freezing point depression of 0.080C. What is the freezing point depression constant (Kf)? Which is most likely to be the solventwater, ethanol, or chloroform?
Kf T _ m 0.080C _
f

Solubility (g/100 g H2O)

Al2(SO4 )3 70 60 KCl 50 40 30 20 10 0 20 60 100 Li2SO4

0.045m 1.8C/m

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

It is most likely water because the calculated value is closest to 1.86C/m

Section Assessment 14.4


page 504

48. Explain the nature of colligative properties.


Temperature (C) Colligative properties depend on the number of solute particles in a solution.

Aluminum sulfate shows the greatest change in solubility over the temperature range.

49. Describe four colligative properties of solutions.


vapor pressure lowering: the decrease in vapor pressure with increasing solute particles in solution; boiling point elevation: the increase in boiling point with increasing solute particles in solution; freezing point depression: the decrease in freezing point with increasing solute particles in solution; osmotic pressure: the change in osmotic pressure with increasing solute particles in solution

Section 14.4 Colligative Properties of Solutions


pages 498504

Practice Problems
page 503

45. What are the boiling point and freezing point of

a 0.625m aqueous solution of any nonvolatile, nonelectrolyte solute?

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50. Explain why a solution has a higher boiling

point than the pure solvent.


Solute particles in solution decrease the vapor pressure above the solution. Because a solution boils when its vapor pressure equals the external pressure, this decrease in vapor results in the need for a higher temperature in order for the solution to boil.

Chapter 14 Assessment
pages 508511

Section 14.1
Mastering Concepts 54. Explain what is meant by the statement not all mixtures are solutions.
Solutions are homogeneous mixtures that are uniform in composition with a single phase. Mixtures can also be heterogeneous, where the substances that make them up remain distinct.

51. Solve An aqueous solution of calcium chloride

(CaCl2) boils at 101.3C. How many kilograms of calcium chloride were dissolved in 1000 grams of the solvent?
Kb 2.53m 2.53 moles solute particles/1 kg solvent 2.53 mol particles 1000 g 1 mol CaCl 110.98 g __ _
2

T 1.3C _ _ 0.512C/m
b

55. What is the difference between solute and

solvent?
A solute is the substance being dissolved. The solvent is the substance in which the solute dissolves.

1 kg _ 0.0936 kg

3 mol particles

1 mol

56. What is a suspension and how does it differ

from a colloid?
A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture that settles out if left undisturbed. The particles dispersed in a colloid are much smaller than those in a suspension and do not settle out.

52. Calculate the boiling point elevation of a solu-

50.0 g glucose molality

1 mol _ 0.278 mol glucose 180.15 g

57. How can the Tyndall effect be used to distin-

guish between a colloid and a solution? Why?


A beam of light is visible in a colloid but not in a solution. Dispersed colloid particles are large enough to scatter light (Tyndall effect).

0.278 mol glucose __ 0.556m 0.5000 kg H2O

Tb ( 0.512C/m)(0.556m) 0.285C Tb 100.000C 0.285C 100.285C Tf ( 1.86C/m)(0.556m) 1.03C Tf 0.00C 1.03C 1.03C

58. Name a colloid formed from a gas dispersed in

a liquid.
Student answers may include whipped cream or beaten egg whites.

53. Investigate A lab technician determines the

59. Salad dressing What type of heterogeneous

boiling point elevation of an aqueous solution of a nonvolatile, nonelectrolyte to be 1.12C. What is the solutions molality?
1.12C 0.512C/m m m 2.19m

mixture is shown in Figure 14.24 on page 508? What characteristic is most useful in classifying the mixture?
The mixture is a suspension. Left undisturbed, the mixture components settle out.

60. What causes Brownian motion observed in

liquid colloids?
The random particle movements in liquid colloids result from collisions between particles in the mixture.

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Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

tion containing 50.0 g of glucose (C6H12O6) dissolved in 500.0 g of water. Calculate the freezing point depression for the same solution.

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61. Aerosol sprays are categorized as colloids.

Identify the phases of an aerosol spray.


The most abundant mixture component is in the gas phase. The dispersed particles are in the liquid phase.

Mastering Problems 67. According to lab procedure, you stir 25.0 g of MgCl2 into 550 mL of water. What is the percent by mass of MgCl2 in the solution?
percent by mass of MgCl2 25.0 g MgCl 100 4.3% 25.0 g MgCl 550 g H2O

Section 14.2
Mastering Concepts 62. What is the difference between percent by mass and percent by volume?
Percent by mass is a comparison between the mass of solute and the total mass of the solution. Percent by volume is a comparison between the volume of the solute and the total volume of the solution.

___

68. How many grams of LiCl are in 275 g of a 15%

aqueous solution of LiCl?


mass of LiCl 275 g 15 __ 41 g 100

69. You need to make a large quantity of a 5%

solution of HCl but have only 25 mL HCl. What volume of 5% solution can be made from this volume of HCl?
volume of solution 25 mL HCl _ 100 500 mL 5

63. What is the difference between molarity and

molality?
Molarity is solution concentration expressed as the moles of solute per volume of solution. Molality expresses concentration as moles of solute per kilogram of solvent. Molality does not depend upon the temperature of the solution.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

70. Calculate the percentage by volume of a solu-

tion created by adding 75 mL of acetic acid to 725 mL of water.


percent volume 75 mL CH COOH ____ 100
3

64. What factors must be considered when creating

a dilute solution from a stock solution?


The molarity and volume of both stock solution and dilute solution are required in the formula M1V1 M2V2.

75 mL CH3OOH 725 mL solution 9.4%

71. Calculate the molarity of a solution that

contains 15.7 g of CaCO3 dissolved in 275 mL of water.


mol of CaCO3 15.7 g CaCO3 1 mol CaCO3 0.157 mol CaCO3 100.01 g CaCO3

65. How do 0.5M and 2.0M aqueous solutions of

NaCl differ?
The 2M solution contains more moles of NaCl per volume of water than the 0.5M solution.

__

275 mL

1L _ 0.275 L 1000 mL 0.157 mol CaCO __ 0.571M


3

66. Under what conditions might a chemist describe

a solution in terms of molality? Why?


Under conditions of changing temperature. Because molality is based on mass, it does not change with temperature.

molarity

0.275 L solution

72. What is the volume of a 3.00M solution made

with 122 g of LiF?


mol of LiF 122 g LiF volume of solution 1 mol LiF _ 4.71 mol LiF 25.9 g LiF

4.71 mol _ 1.57 L 3.00M

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73. How many moles of BaS would be used to

make 1.5 103 mL of a 10.0M solution?


1.5 103 mL mol BaS 1L _ 1.5 L 1000 mL

V1

2.0 mol/L 1 L 0.17 L HCl 12 mol/L 1000 mL _ 170 mL HCl 1L

__

0.17 L HCl V1

10.0 mol _ 1.5 L 1L

5.0 mol/L 1 L 0.42 L HCl 12 mol/L 1000 mL _ 420 mL HCl 1L

__

mol BaS 15 mol

0.42 L HCl

74. How many grams of CaCl2 are needed to make

2.0 L of a 3.5M solution?


mol of CaCl2 3.5 mol _ 2.0 L 7.0 mol CaCl 1L 110.1 g CaCl2 1 mol CaCl2
2

76. How much 5.0M nitric acid (HNO3), in

milliliters, is needed to make 225 mL of 1.0M HNO3?


V1 1.0 M 225 mL 5.0 M

mass of CaCl2 7.0 mol CaCl2 mass of CaCl2 770 g

__

__

volume of HNO3 45 mL

77. Experiment In the lab, you dilute 55 mL of

75. Stock solutions of HCl with various molarities

are frequently prepared. Complete Table 14.7 by calculating the volume of concentrated, or 12M, hydrochloric acid that should be used to make 1.0 L of HCl solution with each molarity listed.
Molarity of HCl desired 0.50 1.0 1.5 2.0 5.0 V1 Volume of 12M HCl stock solution needed (mL) 42 mL 83 mL 130 mL 170 mL 420 mL

a 4.0M solution to make 250 mL of solution. Calculate the molarity of the new solution.
M2 4.0M 55 mL __ 0.88M 250 mL

78. How many milliliters of 3.0M phosphoric acid

(H3PO4) can be made from 95 mL of a 5.0M H3PO4 solution?


V2
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5.0 M 95 mL 160 mL 3.0 M

__

79. If you dilute 20.0 mL of a 3.5M solution

to make 100.0 mL of solution, what is the molarity of the dilute solution?


M2 3.5M 20 mL __ 0.70M 100 mL

0.50 mol/L 1 L __ 0.042 L HCl 12 mol/L 1000 mL __ 42 mL HCl 1L

80. What is the molality of a solution containing

0.042 L HCl V1

75.3 grams of KCl dissolved in 95.0 grams of water?


mol KCl 75.3 g KCl 1 mol KCl 1.01 mol KCl 95.0 g H2O m 1 kg _ 0.0950 kg H O 1000 g
2

1.0 mol/L 1 L 0.083 L HCl 12 mol/L 1000 mL _ 83 mL HCl 1L

__ __
1L

_
74.6 g KCl

0.083 L HCl

1.5 mol/L 1 L 0.13 L HCl V1 12 mol/L 0.13 L HCl 1000 mL _ 130 mL HCl

1.01 mol KCl __ 10.6 mol/kg 0.0950 kg H2O

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81. How many grams of Na2CO3 must be dissolved

84. What is the mole fraction of H2SO4 in a

into 155 grams of water to create a solution with a molality of 8.20 mol/kg?
155 g H2O 1 kg _ 0.155 kg H O 1000 g
2

solution containing the percentage of sulfuric acid and water shown in Figure 14.25?

mol NaCO3 8.20 mol/kg 0.155 kg 1.27 mol mass of NaCO3 1.27 mol NaCO3 105 g 83.00 g NaCO __
3

H2SO4 27.3% H2O 72.7%

mol NaCO3

82. What is the molality of a solution containing

30.0 g of naphthalene (C10H8) dissolved in 500.0 g of toluene?


30.0 g C10H8 1 mol C H __ 0.234 mol C
10 8

27.3 g H 2SO 4 72.7 g H 2O X H 2S O 4 0.0650

1 mol H SO __ 0.281 mol H SO


2 4

97.1 g H 2SO 4
2

128 g C10H8 1000 g

10H8

1 mol H O __ 4.034 mol H O 18.02 g H 2O


2 2 4

500.0 g toluene m

1 kg _ 0.5000 kg
10 8

0.281 mol H SO ____ 0.281 mol H 2SO 4 4.034 mol H 2O

0.234 mol C H __ 0.468m 0.5000 kg toluene

85. Calculate the mole fraction of MgCl2 in a

83. What are the molality and mole fraction of

solute in a 35.5 percent by mass aqueous solution of formic acid (HCOOH)?


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

solution created by dissolving 132.1 g MgCl2 into 175 mL of water.


132.1 g MgCl 2 175 mL H 2O 1 mol MgCl __ 1.387 mol MgCl
2

35.5 g HCOOH 35.5% means 100.0 g solution

__

95.21 g
2

1 mol HCOOH 35.5 g HCOOH __ 46.03 g HCOOH 0.771 mol HCOOH

1 mL H 2O 9.72 mol H2O XMgCl2

1.0 g H O 1 mol H O _ __
2

18.0 g H 2O
2

mass of water 100.0 g 35.5 g 64.5 g 6.45 102 kg moles of water 64.5 g H2O 3.58 mol H2O molality 0.771 mol HCOOH __ 12.0m 6.45 102 kg H2O 1 mol H O __
2

1.387 mol MgCl ____ 0.125 1.387 mol MgCl2 9.72 mol H2O

Section 14.3
Mastering Concepts 86. Describe the process of solvation.
A solute introduced into a solvent is surrounded by solvent particles. Due to the attraction between solute and solvent particles, solute particles are pulled apart and surrounded by solvent particles. Once separated, solute particles disperse into solution.

18.02 g H2O

0.771 mol mole fraction ___ 0.177 0.771 mol 3.58 mol

87. What are three ways to increase the rate of

solvation?
increase the temperature of the solvent, increase the surface area of the solute, agitation

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88. Explain the difference between saturated and

92. The solubility of a gas at 37.0 kPa is 1.80 g/L.

unsaturated solutions.
A saturated solution contains the maximum amount of solute under a given set of conditions. An unsaturated solution contains less than the maximum amount.

At what pressure will the solubility reach 9.00 g/L?


P2 37.0 kPa 9.00 g/L 1.8 g/L

__

P 2 185 kPa

Mastering Problems 89. At a pressure of 1.5 atm, the solubility of a gas is 0.54 g/L. Calculate the solubility when the pressure is doubled.
0.54 g/L 3.0 atm S2 1.5 atm S 2 1.08 g/L

93. Use Henrys Law to complete the Table 14.8.


Solubility and Pressure
Solubility (g/L) 2.9 3.7 4.5 P2 32 kPa 2.9 g/L 3.7 g/L Pressure (kPa) 25 32 39

__

90. At 4.5 atm of pressure, the solubility of a gas is

__

9.5 g/L. How many grams of gas will dissolve in 1L if the pressure is reduced by 3.5 atm?
S2 9.5 g/L 1.0 atm 4.5 atm

P 2 25 kPa S2 3.7 g/L 39 kPa 32 kPa

__

__

S 2 2.1 g/L

S 2 4.5 g/L

91. Using Figure 14.26, compare the solubility of

94. Soft Drinks The partial pressure of CO2


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

potassium bromide (KBr) and potassium nitrate (KNO3) at 80Celsius.


Solubility v. Temperature
240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 20

Solubility (g/100 g of water)

inside a bottle of soft drink is 4.0 atm at 25C. The solubility of CO2 is 0.12 mol/L. When the bottle is opened, the partial pressure drops to 3.0 104 atm. What is the solubility of CO2 in the open drink? Express your answer in grams per liter.
(0.12 mol/L)(3.0 104 atm) 4.0 atm 9.0 106 mol/L CO2 S 9.0 106 mol CO 2 1L 4.0 104 g/L CO2

NaClO2 KNO3 KBr NaCl

___
2

44.01 g CO __ __ 1 mol CO2

40

60

80

100

120

Section 14.4
Mastering Concepts 95. Define the term colligative property.
A physical property of a solution that is affected by the number of solute particles but not their nature.

Temperature (C) The solubility of KBr is 95 g/100 g H 2O. The solubility of KNO 3 is nearly twice as high at the same temperature, at nearly 170 g/100 g H 2O.

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96. Use the terms dilute and concentrated to

100. In the lab, you dissolve 179 grams of MgCl 2

compare the solution on both sides of a membrane.


If there is a concentration gradient, the solution is more dilute on one side of the membrane and more concentrated on the other side of the membrane.

into 1.00 liter of water. Use Table 14.6 to find the freezing point of the solution.
mol MgCl 2 179 g MgCl __ 1.88 mol MgCl
2

95.3 g/mol

kg H 2O 1.00 L H 2O 1000 g
2

1gH O 1000 mL _ _
2

97. Identify each variable in the following formula.

T b K bm
T b represents the difference between the boiling points of a solution and the pure solvent; K b is the molal boiling point elevation constant; m represents the solution molality.

1 kg _ 1.00 kg H O
2

1L

1 mL H 2O

1.88 mol MgCl __ 1.88m 1 kg H 2O

particle m 1.88m 3 5.64m Tf 1.86C/m 5.64m 10.5C Tf 0.0C 10.5C 10.5C

98. Define the term osmotic pressure, and explain

why it is considered a colligative property.


Osmotic pressure is the pressure exerted by water molecules that move into solution through osmosis. Osmotic pressure is a colligative property because it depends on the number of solute particles dissolved in solution.

101. Cooking A cook prepares a solution for

boiling by adding 12.5 grams of NaCl to a pot holding 0.750 liters of water. At what temperature should the solution in the pot boil? Use Table 14.5 for the necessary constant.
mol NaCl 12.5 g NaCl __ 0.214 mol NaCl 58.44 g/mol 1gH O 1000 mL _ _
2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Mastering Problems 99. Calculate the freezing point of a solution of 12.1 grams of naphthalene (C 10H 8) dissolved into 0.175 kg of benzene (C 6H 6). Refer to Table 14.6 for the necessary constant.
mol C 10H 8 12.1 g C10H8 0.0945 mol C 10H 8 m 0.0945 mol C H __ 0.540m
10 8

kg H2O 0.750 L H2O 1000 g


2

1 kg _ 0.750 kg H O

1L

1 mL H 2O

1 mol C H __
10 8

128.08 g C 10H 8

solution molality

0.214 mol NaCl __ 0.285m 0.750 kg H 2O

particle molality 0.285m 2 0.570m Tb 0.512C/ m 0.570 m 0.292C Tb 100.00C 0.292C 100.29C

0.175 kg C 6H 6

T f 5.12C/m 0.540m 2.76C T f 5.5C 2.76C 2.74C

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102. The boiling point of ethanol (C 2H 5OH)

105. Household Paint Some types of paint

changes from 78.5C to 85.2C when an amount of naphthalene (C 10H 8) is added to 1.00 kg of ethanol. How much naphthalene, in grams, is required to cause this change? Refer to Table 14.5 for needed data.
T b 85.2C 78.5C 6.70C solution molality moles of solute 6.70C _ 5.49m 1.22C/m
10 8

are colloids composed of pigment particles dispersed in oil. Based on what you know about colloids, recommend an appropriate location for storing cans of leftover household paint. Justify your recommendation.
When a colloid is exposed to heat, suspended particles can settle out. Paint should be stored in a cool location where it cannot freeze, and away from direct sunlight and objects like water heaters or furnaces that generate heat.

1 kg C 2H 5OH 1.00 kg C 2H 5OH 5.49 mol C10H8

5.49 mol C H __

106. Which solute has the greatest effect on the

grams of solute 5.49 mol C 10H 8 703 g C10H8

__
128 g C 10H 8 1 mol C 10H 8

boiling point of 1.00 kg of water: 50.0 grams of strontium chloride (SrCl 2) or 150.0 grams of carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4)? Justify your answer.
50.0 grams SrCl 2 has the greatest effect. mol SrCl 2 50.0 g mol SrCl __ 0.315 mol SrCl
2

103. Ice Cream A rock salt (NaCl), ice, and water

mixture is used to cool milk and cream to make homemade ice cream. How many grams of rock salt must be added to water to lower the freezing point by 10.0C?
T f K fm 10.0C 5.38m ions of Na and Cl m 1.86C/ m Kf 2.69 mol NaCl moles of solute molality 1 kg solvent kilograms of solvent 1 kg H2O 1 mol NaCl 157 g NaCl per 1 kg H 2O 58.44 g NaCl 2.69 mol NaCl __ __

158.6 g mol SrCl2 1.00 kg

solution molality

0.315 mol _ 0.315m

T b SrCl 2 solution 100.0C 0.484C 100.484C mol CCl 4 150.0 g mol CCl __ 0.974 mol CCl
4

154 g mol

solution molality

0.974 mol _ 0.974m 1.00 kg

Mixed Review 104. Apply your knowledge of polarity and solubility to predict whether solvation is possible in each situation shown in Table 14.9. Explain your answers.
MgCl2(s) in H2O(l): Yes. NH3(l) in C6H6(l): No. H2(g) in H2O(l): No. I2(l) in Br2(l): Yes. Predictions are based on the general rule like dissolves like. A polar solvent like water will dissolve a polar solute like magnesium chloride, and a nonpolar solvent like liquid bromine will dissolve a nonpolar solute like liquid iodine. Ammonia is a polar molecule, while benzene is nonpolar. Water is a polar molecule while diatomic hydrogen is nonpolar.

particle molality 0.974m 1 0.974m T b 0.512C/m 0.974m 0.310C T b CCl 4 solution 100.0C 0.310C 100.31C

107. Study Table 14.4. Analyze solubility and

temperature data to determine the general trend followed by the gases (NH3, CO2, O2) in the chart. Compare this trend to the trend followed by most of the solids in the chart. Identify the solids listed that do not follow the general trend followed by most of the solids in the chart.
For the gases, solubility decreases as temperature increases. For most solids, solubility increases as temperature increases. Ca(OH)2 and Li2SO4 do not follow the general trend for solids. Solutions Manual

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_ _ __ __
T f

particle molality 0.315m 3 0.945m T b 0.512C/m 0.945m 0.484C

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108. An air sample yields the percent composition

111. What would be the molality of the solu-

shown in Figure 14.27. Calculate the mole fraction of each gas present in the sample.
Argon 1.00% Oxygen 21.0%

tion described in the previous problem? The density of the Ca(NO 3) 2 solution is 1.08 kg/L.
mass of solution 3.00 L 3.24 kg solution mass of solute 246 g 1 kg _ 0.246 kg 1000 g 1.08 kg solution 1 L solution

__

Nitrogen 78.0%

mass of solvent 3.24 kg solution 0.246 kg solute moles of Ca(NO3)2 3.00 L


2

78.0 g N 2

1 mol N _ 2.79 mol N


2

0.500 mol Ca(NO ) __


3 2

28.0 g N2 1 mol O 2

1L

21.0 g O 2 1.00 g Ar XN2

_ 0.656 mol O
32.0 g O 2 39.9 g Ar

1.50 mol Ca(NO3)2


2

molality, m 0.501m

1.50 mol Ca(NO ) ____


3 2

1 mol Ar _ 0.0251 mol Ar

3.24 kg solution 0.246 kg solute

_____
2.79 mol N2 XO2
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2.79 mol N 2 0.656 mol O 2 0.0251 mol Ar 0.804 0.656 mol O _____
2

Think Critically 112. Develop a plan for making 1000 mL of a 5% by volume solution of hydrochloric acid in water. Your plan should describe the amounts of solute and solvent necessary, as well as the steps involved in making the solution.
% by volume 5% volume solute __ 100 volume solution

2.79 mol N 2 0.656 mol O 2 0.0251 mol Ar 0.189 X Ar

2.79 mol N 2 0.656 mol O 2 0.0251 mol Ar 0.00723

_____
0.0251 mol N 2

volume solute __ 100 1000 mL

vol solute 50 mL 50 mL HCl needed. Subtract the volume of HCl from the total solution volume to determine a volume of 950 mL H2O needed. Dissolve 50 mL HCl in somewhat less than 950 mL H2O. Add water until the volume of the solution is 1000 mL.

109. If you prepared a saturated aqueous solution

of potassium chloride at 25C and then heated it to 50C, would you describe the solution as unsaturated, saturated, or supersaturated? Explain.
unsaturated; the solubility of KCl in water increases with temperature. A solution at 50C holds more solute than one at 25C.

110. How many grams of calcium nitrate

(Ca(NO3)2) would you need to prepare 3.00 L of a 0.500M solution?


3.00 L

__ __
0.500 mol Ca(NO 3) 2 1L 164.09 g Ca(NO3)2 1 mol Ca(NO 3) 2 Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 14

246 g Ca(NO3)2

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113. Compare and infer Study the phase

114. Extrapolate The solubility of argon in water

Solubility (mg gas/100 g water)

diagram in Figure 14.21. Compare the dotted lines surrounding Tf and Tb and describe the differences you observe. How might these lines be positioned differently for solutions of electrolytes and nonelectrolytes? Why?
Phase Diagram Pure solvent 1 atm Solution

at various pressures is shown in Figure 14.28. Extrapolate the data to 15 atm. Use Henrys law to verify the solubility determined by your extrapolation.
Solubility v. Gas Pressure
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0

NO Ar O2 CH4 H2 Gas pressure (atm) N2

SOLID Increasing Pressure

LIQUID P Normal boiling point of water GAS Tf Normal freezing point of water Boiling point of solution Tb

Freezing point of solution

S S _ _
1 2

P1

P2

S2

(55 mg Ar/100 g H 2O)(15 atm)

Increasing Temperature

(10.0 atm) 82 mg Ar/100 g H2O

___

As pressure increases with water depth during a dive, gas concentration in the blood increases. If blood (solvent) volume is low, the gas (solute) concentration will be higher than normal levels at specific depths. A well-hydrated diver has a greater amount of solvent in which gases can be dissolved.

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The freezing point of the solution is below the normal freezing point of water, while the boiling point of the solution is above the normal boiling point of water. Tf and Tb would be larger for electrolytes than nonelectrolytes. Electrolytes dissociate in water, resulting in a larger number of particles in solution.

115. Infer Dehydration occurs when more fluid

is lost from the body than is taken in. Scuba divers are advised to hydrate their bodies before diving. Use your knowledge of the relationship between pressure and gas solubility to explain the importance of hydration prior to a dive.

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116. Graph Table 14.10 shows solubility data was

118. Compare Which of the following solutions

collected in an experiment. Plot a graph of the molarity of KI versus temperature. What is the solubility of KI at 55C?
Solubility vs. Temperature 13 12
Solubility (M)

has the highest concentration? Rank the solutions from the greatest to the smallest boiling point depression. Explain your answer. a. 0.10 mol NaBr in 100.0 mL solution b. 2.1 mol KOH in 1.00 L solution c. 1.2 mol KMnO4 in 3.00 L solution
The molarities are 1.0M NaBr, 2.1M KOH, and 0.40M KMnO4. Because the KOH solution contributes the greatest concentration of particles to solution, it has the greatest boiling point elevation; KMnO4 has the lowest concentration of particles and the smallest boiling point depression. Boiling point elevation depends only upon concentration. 0.10 mol NaBr __ 1.0M NaBr 0.1000 L 1.00 L

11 10 9 8 0 0 20 40 60 80 Temperature (C) 100

2.1 mol KOH __ 2.1M KOH 1.2 mol KMnO __ 0.40M KMnO
4

Molarity equals 8.67M, 9.76M, 10.6M, 11.6M, and 12.4M at 20C, 40C, 60C, 80C, and 100C, respectively. The solubility of KI at 55C is about 10.4M.

3.00 L

117. Design an Experiment You are given a


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Challenge
Measurements of Solubility of a Gas
Measurement 1 2 3 4 5 Solubility 0.225 0.45 0.9 1.8 3.6

sample of a solid solute and three aqueous solutions containing that solute. How would you determine which solution is saturated, unsaturated, and supersaturated?
Add a pinch of solute to each container. If the solution is supersaturated, crystallization will occur; saturated, no solute will dissolve; unsaturated, solute will dissolve.

119. Interpret the solubility data in Table 14.11

using the concept of Henrys Law.


In Henrys law, solubility is directly proportional to pressure. In this example, each measurement indicates a doubling of the solubility value. This indicates that the pressure is also doubling between measurements. An additional observation might include that from Measurement 1 to Measurement 5, the solubility has increased by a factor of 16. Therefore, the pressure would do the same.

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120. You have a solution containing 135.2 grams

122. Identify which of the following molecules is

of dissolved KBr in 2.3 liters of water. What volume of this solution, in mL, would you use to make 1.5 liters of a 0.1M KBr? What is the boiling point of this new solution?
Step1: Calculate molarity of original solution 135.2 g KBr M 1 mol KBr _ 1.14 mol KBr 119 g KBr

polar. (Chapter 8) a. SiH4


nonpolar

b. NO2
polar

1.14 mol KBr __ 0.496 M 2.3 L H2O

c. H2S
polar

Step 2: Dilute the solution Calculate required volume 0.10M 1.5 L __ 0.496M 1000 mL 300 mL 0.30 L _ V1 1L Step 3: Calculate boiling point of new solution Tb Kbm m 0.10 mol KBr __ __ 1LH O 1000 mL H O 1000 g H O O 1 mL H _ __ 0.10m 1 L H2O
2 2 2 2

d. NCl3
polar

123. Name the following compounds. (Chapter 7) a. NaBr


sodium bromide

b. Pb(CH3COO)2
lead(II) acetate

1 g H2O

c. (NH4)2CO3
ammonium carbonate
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1 kg H2O

particle molality 0.10m 2 0.20m Tb 0.512C/m 0.20m 0.10C Tb 100.0C 0.10C 100.1C

124. A 12.0-g sample of an element contains

5.94 1022 atoms. What is the unknown element? (Chapter 10)


5.94 1022 atoms 0.0987 mol 12.0 g __ 122 g/mol 0.0987 mol The atomic mass is 122 amu. The element is antimony. 1 mol __ 6.02 1023 atoms

Cumulative Review 121. The radius of an argon atom is 94 pm. Assuming the atom is spherical, what is the volume of an argon atom in nm3? V 4/3r3. (Chapter 3)
1 nm 94 pm _ 0.094 nm 1000 pm V ( 4/3)(3.14)(0.094 nm)3 3.5 103 nm3

125. Pure bismuth can be produced by the reaction

of bismuth oxide with carbon at high temperatures. 2Bi2O3 3C 0 4Bi 3CO2 How many moles of Bi2O3 reacted to produce 12.6 mol of CO2? (Chapter 11)
12.6 mol CO2 2 mol Bi O __ 8.40 mol Bi O
2 3

3 mol CO2

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Additional Assessment
Writing in Chemistry
126. Homogenized Milk The first homogenized

128. At what latitude are average dissolved oxygen

values the lowest?


Values are lowest near the equator.

milk was sold in the United States around 1919. Today, almost all milk sold in this country is homogenized, in the form of a colloidal emulsion. Research the homogenization process. Write a brief article describing the process. The article may include a flowchart or diagram of the process, as well as a discussion of the reputed benefits and/or drawbacks associated with drinking homogenized milk.
Student answers will vary. Students should note that raw milk contains fat dispersed throughout. If left to stand, the fat separates out, leaving a cream layer and a skim milk layer. The process of homogenization breaks the fat globules into smaller sizes and reduces their tendency to form a cream layer.

129. Describe the general trend defined by the data.

Relate the trend to the relationship between gas solubility and temperature.
In general, dissolved oxygen in surface ocean waters increases as latitude increases towards both north and south. Surface water temperatures are greatest near the equator. Surface water temperature decreases toward the poles. As temperature decreases, gas solubility generally increases.

Standardized Test Practice


pages 512513 Bromine (Br2) Concentration of Four Aqueous Solutions

0.9000

Document-Based Questions

0.8000 0.7947 0.7000 Percent by mass Percent by volume

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

0.6000

Percent

0.5000 0.4000 0.3189 0.3000 0.2575 0.2000 0.1000 0.0000 0.4779 0.1030 0.0515 1 2 0.1596 3 4

Solution number

127. Are dissolved oxygen values most closely

1. What is the volume of bromine (Br2) in 7.000 L

related to latitude or longitude? Why do you think this is true?


Dissolved oxygen values are most closely related to latitude. Surface land and water temperatures are more closely correlated to latitude than longitude.

of Solution 1? a. 55.63 mL b. 8.808 mL c. 18.03 mL d. 27.18 mL


c Volume of Br2 ( 7.000 L) (0.002575) 0.01803 L 18.03 mL

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2. How many grams of Br2 are in 55.00 g of

Solution 4? a. 3.560 g b. 0.084 98 g c. 1.151 g d. 0.2628 g


d Mass of Br2 ( 55.00 g)

H 11.7% O 10.4% C 77.9%

(0.004779) 0.2628 g
6. What is the empirical formula for this

3. Which one is an intensive physical property? a. b. c. d.


c

volume length hardness mass

substance? a. CH2O b. C8HO c. C10H18O d. C7H12O


c Assume a 100.0 g sample. Determine the number of moles. 1 mol C 77.9 g C 6.486 mol C 12.01 g C

4. What is the product of this synthesis reaction? Cl2(g) 2NO(g) 0? a. b. c. d.


b

NCl2 2NOCl N2O2 2ClO

10.4 g O 11.7 g H

1 mol O _ 0.65 mol O 16.00 g O 1 mol H _ 11.607 mol H


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5. If 1 mole of each of the solutes listed below

1.008 g H

is dissolved in 1 L of water, which solute will have the greatest effect on the vapor pressure of its respective solution? a. KBr b. C6H12O6 c. MgCl2 d. CaSO4
c MgCl2 will produce the most number of particles in solution: 1 mol Mg2, 2 mol Cl

Calculate the simplest ratio of moles. 6.486 mol C 0.65 mol O __ 9.98; __ 1.00; 0.65 0.65 11.607 mol H __ 17.86 0.65 The empirical formula is C10H18O.

7. What is the correct chemical formula for the

ionic compound formed by the calcium ion (Ca2) and the acetate ion (C2H3O2)? a. CaC2H3O2 b. CaC4H6O3 c. (Ca)2C2H3O2 d. Ca(C2H3O2)2
d

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8. If 16 moles of H2 are used, how many moles of

Fe will be produced? a. 6 b. 3 c. 12 d. 9
c

11. How many moles of KClO3 can be dissolved in

100 g of water at 60C?


21 grams

12. Which can hold more solute at 20C: NaCl

or KCl? How does this compare to their solubilities at 80C?


At 20C, the NaCl solution can hold more solute. At 80C, the solubilities are reversed and KCl is more soluble than NaCl.

Fe3O4(s) 4 H2(g) 3 Fe(s) 4 H2O(l) 16 mol H2 3 mol Fe _ 12 mol Fe 4 mol H2

9. If 7 moles of Fe3O4 are mixed with 30 moles of

13. How many moles of KClO3 would be required

H2, what will be true? a. There will be no reactants left. b. 2 moles of hydrogen gas will be left over c. 30 moles of water will be produced d. 7 moles of Fe will be produced
b Fe3O4(s) 4 H2(g) 3 Fe(s) 4 H2O(l) 7 mol Fe3O4 4 mol H __ 28 mol H
2

to make 1 L of a saturated solution of KClO3 at 75C?


(30 g/L)(1 mol/122.55 g KClO3) 0.245 mol KClO3 in 1 liter.

Use the information below to answer Questions 14 and 15. The electron configuration for silicon is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2.
14. Explain how this configuration demonstrates

1 mol Fe3O4

used

30 mol H2 28 mol used 2 mol H2 remaining


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

the aufbau principle.


The aufbau principle dictates that electrons must fill the lowest available energy levels before filling any higher energy levels.

10. What is the molar mass of Fe3O4? a. b. c. d.


a 3 mol Fe 55.847 g/mol 167.541 g Fe 4 mol O 15.999 g/mol 63.996 g O molar mass = 167.541 g 63.996 g 231.537 g/mol Solubilities as a Function of Temperature
CaCl2

231.56 g/mol 71.85 g/mol 287.40 g/mol 215.56 g/mol

15. Draw the orbital diagram for silicon. Explain

how Hunds rule and the Pauli exclusion principle are used in constructing the orbital diagram.
Hunds rule mandates that the last two electrons will be placed in separate p-orbitals. The Pauli exclusion principal determines that shared electrons in any given orbital must have opposite spins, as shown by up and down arrows.

Solubility (g of solute/100 g H2O)

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0


1s 2s 2p 3s 3p

KCl

NaCl

KClO3 Ce2(SO4)3

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

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16. What volume of a 0.125M NiCl2 solution

18. What is the electronegativity difference in the

contains 3.25 g NiCl2? a. 406 mL b. 32.5 mL c. 38.5 mL d. 26.0 mL e. 201 mL


e 129.6 g 201 mL 3.25 g 1 mol 1000 mL 1L _ _ _ 0.125 mol 1L

compound Li2O? a. 1.48 b. 2.46 c. 3.4 d. 4.42 e. 5.19


b 3.44 0.98 2.46

19. Which bond has the greatest polarity? a. b. c. d. e.


c C-H: 2.55 2.20 0.35 Si-O: 3.44 1.90 1.54

17. Which is NOT a colligative property? a. b. c. d. e.


c

boiling point elevation freezing point depression vapor pressure increase osmotic pressure heat of solution

CH SiO MgCl AlN HCl

Use the data table below to answer Questions 18 and 19.


Electronegativities of Selected Elements H 2.20 Li 0.98 Na 0.93 Be 1.57 Mg 1.31 B 2.04 Al 1.61 C 2.55 Si 1.90 N 3.04 P 2.19 O 3.44 S 2.58 F 3.93 Cl 3.16

Mg-Cl: 3.16 1.31 1.85 Al-N: 3.04 1.61 1.43 H-Cl: 3.16 2.20 0.96 Mg-Cl has the greatest polarity.
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