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2
3

PN

gmgm


TTL CMOS

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PSpice
PSpice
PSpice

No

RC

RLC

Bode

IC

PN

PNi-v

MOSFETJFETi-v

i-vEbers-Moll

IC
MCU

1.
MKS
2.

3.

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4.
5.

ax2 + bx + c = 0abc

b 2 - 4ac > 0 x b 2 - 4ac< 0 x


i =

j =

iI
j i j2 = - 1 j3 = - j

j
exp(x) e x

d(ex)/ dx = 1 + x + x2/ 2! + = exex


ex
e x x jx

cos(x) =

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sin(x) =

ejx = cox(x) + jsin(x)Euler

()
(a, b) (r, ) Euler

a + jb = (a2 + b2)1/2exp(jtan b/a) = rej


-1

-1
r = (a2 + b2)1/2 = tan b/a ej = cos() + jsin()

rej ()r (Re) rejA


ejAAejA Aej
j

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15

37

49

69

93

111

133

153

169

191

205

225

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(1) (2) (3) (4)

1.
(Multi-meter)

(Galvanometer)
(Analog-to-digital conversion
ADC) ADC
(Liquid crystal) (LED)
(User Manual)
( Resistor)
1RV
I (+ ) ( ) V
IV = RI (Ohms law)R (Resistance) ( Ohm) = [ V] / [ I] [ ]
[V] = V[I] = A
I
V

1V I

()
2

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R1

Rx

23 VAVR
R1 Rx ( Probe) A
(Full scale) IF = 48AA
Rx A
I x

()
P/ + 3V

1. (2R1)
2. VR

3. Rx

2Rx Ix
IF
Ix = IFR1/(Rx + R1)

(1)

Rx x
F
x = FR1/(Rx + R1)

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(2)

(2) ( 6-1)
(DC) (AC)
3V
33(a)
V x ( I m V x / R i)
Vx (
6-2) Ri Rx Im < < Ix
3(b)Ix
I m I x
R i R x V x' V x

(2)
A
A

Vx
Ri

Ix

R x
B

(a) R i>>R x

Im

I x
R x

Vx

Im

Vx

Ri
B
(b) R i>>R x

3(a)
(b)

2%
( ADC)
(3-1/2) 0.5% 1%
ADC10 XX.X20
XX.XXXX
( Power supply)

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(DC) (AC) (0
30V) (03A) 5V-1A
4
MASTER SLAVE
(GroundGND)
B
VEEVCC

Slave

Master

(a)

(b)
4(a)

(b)

(4)4
( Short circuit)

.
2-1 ( Part placement)
510, 1k, 2.2k 6.8k
1k

(1)
(10 %5 %)

(0)
(2)

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510

(5)(1)(1)

1 k

6.8 k

2.2 k

20~ 30

2-2
1 4
(Node)
1-2Vs
4 1-4 R4
V4

R2

VS

R4

R2

VS

R4

V3

V1
R1

V4

V2

R3

R1

R3

Vs = 5 V

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V 1 V 2 V 3 V 4

V 1 V 2 (
V)
V1(V)

V2

V3

V4

2-3 2-2 ( V) V
I k I k Ohm
Ik = Vk/ Rk ( k = 14) (
) I s

V1(V), I1(mA)

V2(V), I2(mA)

V3(V), I3(mA)

V4(V), I4(mA)

Vs(V), Is(mA)

2-2

(1) ( Kirchhoff voltage lawKVL)


Vk Vk = 0
V2 + V3 - V4 = 0V4 - V3 - V1 - Vs = 0
(2) ( Kirchhoff current lawKCL)
I k I k = 0 3
I1 + I2 - I3 = 04I3 + I4 = 0
Tellegen
VkIk VkIk = 0Tellegen
( Power law) 2- 3 Tellegen
V1I1 + V2I2 + V3I3 + V4i4 + VsIs = 0


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2-4 ( Voltage divider) ( 2- 4) R 1 R 2


V s V 1 V 2 KVL
Vs = V1 + V2 Vs = 5V V2 = 2V
R1R2R1 = R2 =
( 2-4) V2 = (
) (RL
)
P V I
(WattW)RP = RI2 = V2/R
( Rating)
1/ 8W1/ 4W
1/8WVs2/R <1/8W
R1R2200 (825)
(RL) R2R2 < RL/100

V1

R1

V2

R2

Voltmeter

VS = 5 V

VR
RL

(2-4)

(2-5)

2-5 ( VRPotentiometer) 1 k 10 k
( 2- 5)
1 2 3

2-4Vs = 5V
01.5V

0.1W

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0.1W

3. Thevenin
2- 2 1- 4
(a) V I V = aI + b
(b) a b (b) (a)
Thevenin a 1- 4
(a) (b)

VS

R2

R1

R3

(a)

(b)

Thevenin a b

3-1 N 2 - 2 1 - 4 R 4
1- 4 I 0
Voc (b) b = Voc Voc =
()

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3-2 3- 1 R4 1- 4

V 0 Isc Isc = ( )
(b)a = Voc/ (- Isc) = ()

.

(Capacitor)
C

QQV
Q = CV C ( Capacitance)
(FaradF)F = [Q]/[V]C = A/dA
d (Dielectric
constant)

Q
Q

(Electrolytic) (Ceramic)

0.1F 1000F

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0.1F pF
xxx
pF20320nF (20103 pF)
1040.1F

4-1 1F 1K
P/ +
N / -COM

(
) N/-COM

4-2 1-0 1-2


22F 1
2- 0 1k R C

VDC = 5VPOWER ON
R V L
R R

10

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1
1 V
DC
Slave

Master
2

VL

4-3 C 1
4- 2 V DC 2V10V
( > 10V) VL VL
VL/RILIL
VDC(V)

10

IL(mA)

4-4 0.1F 4- 2 4- 3 (
)

.

I- V
V = RI
(1) (Kirchhoff voltage law, KVL) Vk = 0
(2) (Kirchhoff current law, KCL) Ik = 0

1
2- 2 V4
e2
R2 = 1 k

VS = 5 V
0

R1=510 e1

R4 = 2.2 k

V4
R3=6.8k

e3

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11

03 0 0
e 1 e 2 e 3 0 1 3
e2 = Vs e2 -e3 = V4 e1 e3 KCL
V = RI 1 3
e1/R1 + (e1 -e2)/R2 + (e1 -e3)/R3 = 0
(e3 -e1)/R3 + (e3 -e2)/R4 = 0

Vs
3.10e1 -0.15e3 = 5
-0.15e1 + 0.60e3 = 2.27

e 3 V 4 = 5 - e 3 V 4 = 0.77V 2-2
V4 =

2
1-1' Voc Isc
l

e2
VS

1
V

R2
0

R1

e1

R3

e3

1'

e 1e 2 e 3 I = 0 (e 1 = e 3) V = 0 (
e2 = e3)
Voc = VsR2/(R1 + R2) Isc = -VsR2/(R1R2 + R2R3 + R3R1)
Thevenin
V I V = aI + b
12

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Thevenin a b Voc Isc


b = Voca = Voc/(-Isc)a Voc/(-Isc)
()1-1
R3 + R1//R2

TheveninV4R4

Thevenin b = VsR2/(R1 + R2) a = R3 + R1R2/


(R1 + R2)V4 = bR4/(a + R4)
a

V4

R4 = 2.2 k

Vsb = 5/(1 + 0.51) = 3.31Va = 6.8 + 0.51/(0.51 + 1)


= 7.14 k
V4 = 3.312.2/(7.14 + 2.2) = 0.78V(

Thevenin V s = b R = a
V = aI + b I = - (b / a) + V / a Norton
Is = (b/a) R = a Norton

Thevenin Circuit

Norton Circuit

Thevenin
R = 0NortonR

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13

.
6-1 (1)
(2) R1 = 200 (
10 ) 1/105/10 8/10
(
)
6-2 (DC) 10V

P/ -COM

6-3 4-1

6-4 4-2 4-3 4-3

.
7-1 D. Halliday, et al.: Fundamentals of Physics (
)
14

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(1) (2) (3) BNC (4)


( ) (5) RC
(6) PSpice
BNC R C

1.
(Oscilloscope) (Analog) (Digital)
(CRT) (LCD)
(Digital storage oscilloscopeDSO)

1DSO1(a)(b)

(Trigger level) (Sample/hold circuit) t

(ADC) (Binary bits) (Acquisition memory)1(c) (Microprocessor)

( Trigger synchronization)

1 DSO (1)
(2) (3)
(4) (5)
GDS-2062 DSO
2 GDS-2062

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(a)

(b)

(c)

1(a)(b)(c)

GDS-2060 front panel

2GDS-2062 (Front Panel)

( Front panel) GDS- 2062 60 MHz

A LCDB F1F5D (ON/Standby)E


(Main Function keys)N (Input terminal/CH1CH2)K
(Vertical position)M (Volts/Div)L
(CH1CH2 menu)G (Trigger level)F (Trigger menu)J (Time/Div)I (Horizontal position)
H (Horizontal menu)R (Menu ON/OFF)Q USB
16

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(USB Connector)
( Function generator) ( Signal
source)
(10)

3 (a) (c)

(a) v(t) = V msin(2ft) f V m


T = 1/f (b) T V2
V1T1 = T1/T (Duty
cycle) = 50 % < 20 % ( Pulse) (c)
( Ramp) T V2
V1 V1 V2 T1 = T1/T
= 50 % > 50 % < 50 %

(a)
v(t) = Vm sin(2ft)
T = 1/f
Vm

(b)
T
(Duty cycle) T1/T

(c) (Ramp)
T
T1/T

3(a)(c)(Duty cycle)

SFG-2104
SFG-21044 MHz4SFG-2104
(Power Switch) (Waveform
selection Key) (Entry Keys: SHIFT, DUTY, MHz, kHz, Hz)
(Editing Knob) (Cursor Keys) (Ampli-

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17

tude/Attenuation) (DC Offset Control) (Waveform


Output/50 ) (TTL/CMOS Output)
SFG-2100 series

4SFG-2104

2.
2-1 (Cable)
(a) ( SFG) ( DSO)
( CH1) (b)
Thevenin 50 ( GND)

SFG-2104

(a)

BNC-

(b)

(Coaxial cable)
(Impedance)
( Zo) RG 58A/U Zo
18

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50

()
BNC
DC2 GHzSMA DC24 GHz BNC
BNC

8mm

2mm

()

BNC
BNC BNC

BNC

2-2 2-1 ( DSO) ( SFG)

(1) 2
CH1 CH1 (L CH1 menu) ( A LCD Display) ( G Trigger level)

10 kHz 2 V
(3)DSO
GDS-2062
SAVE/RECALL F4 F3

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19

USBUSB

(2) CH1 CH1 ( B F1


F5) F1 ( Coupling mode) AC/DC/GND
GND
DC
AC

(DC Offset) 2V
1.0 V
DCAC1.0 V

(3)
10 kHz
2 V SHIFT
DUTY 2 0 Hz % DUTY20 %
CH1 AC/DC/
GND DC AC
(a-1)10 kHz2 VDUTY20 %
(DC) 50 s
GND(a-2)
AC(a-1)

(a-1)

20

(a-2)

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..
, 2013.07
.
ISBN 978-957-11-7159-3 ()
1. 2. 3.
448.6034

102011124

5DG6








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