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No.

Words
1 arid (A) aridity (UC) 2 barren (a)

rd arid = boring rdti brn

Pronunciation

Meanings
having little or no rain, very dry
with nothing new or interesting in it not good enough for plants to grow on it not producing fruit or seeds not able to produce children or young animals not producing anything useful or successful

3 4 5 6

barreness (n) wasteland biological biologically (adv) vast = huge (a) vastness(n) widerness
in the wilderness

an area of land that cannot be used or that is no longer used for building or

baldkl

connected with the science of biology (v mt sinh hc) connected with the processes that take place within living things extremely large in area, size, amount, etc.

a large area of land that has never been developed or used for growing cro a place that people do not take care of or control no longer in an important position, especially in politics

8 precipitation (n)

prspten

rain, snow, etc. that falls; the amount of this that falls (lng ma, lng t a chemical process in which solid material is separated from a liquid

heavy precipitation = mt trn ma ln


(FORMAL)

a way of behaving in which someone does something too quic

9 condense (v) kndens condense (into something) condense something (into something) condense (something) = reduce 10 nocturnal (a) tri ngha: diurnal 11 brutal (a) nktnl

to change from a gas into a liquid; to make a gas change into a liquid

if a liquid condenses or you condense it, it becomes thicker and stronger active at night happening during the night violent and cruel

to put something such as a piece of writing into fewer words; to put a lot o

direct and clear about something unpleasant; not thinking of people's feelin

brutality (UC, C) brutlti brutally 12 descend (v) [I, T] descend something tri ngha ascend descend = fall descend on/upon somebody/something
be descended from somebody

to come or go down from a higher to a lower level to slope downwards

Example
an arid discussion

Synonyms

Opposite

Prasal Verb

Idiom

arid and semi-arid deserts; Nothing grows in these arid regions; The pioneers hoped to transform the arid outback into a worka

a barren desert; a barren landscape (= one that is empty, with few plants)

oducing fruit or seeds

e to produce children or young animals The team will come through this barren patch and start to win again.

industrial wasteland; the desert wastelands of Arizona; (figurative) The mid 1970s are seen as a cultural wasteland for rock music the biological sciences the biological effects of radiation; the biological control of pests (= using living organisms to destroy them, not chemicals);

a vast area of forest; a vast crowd; a vast amount of information; At dusk bats appear in vast numbers; His business empire

the vastness of space The Antarctic is the world's last great wilderness; (North American English) a wilderness area (= one where it is not permitted to bu After three years in the wilderness she was given a government post. calcium phosphate precipitation act with precipitation Steam condenses into water when it cools. The steam was condensed rapidly by injecting (tim) cold water into the cylinder. Condense the soup by boiling it for several minutes. The article was condensed into just two pages.The author has condensed a great deal of material into just 100 pages. a nocturnal visit a brutal attack/murder/rape/killing; a brutal and repressive regime With brutal honesty she told him she did not love him. police brutality; the brutalities of war He was brutally assaulted; Let me be brutally frank about this. The plane began to descend; The results, ranked in descending order (= from the highest to the lowest)areasfollows. She descended the stairs slowly. At this point the path descends steeply. Night descends quickly in the tropics. Calm descended on the crowd.

Their garden is a wilderness of grass and weeds; That part of the city is a wilderness of run-down houses and derelict factories.

There is heavy precipitation in some parts of the country; Acid precipitation may cause a reduction in forest productivity; an inc

nge from a gas into a liquid; to make a gas change into a liquid

Collocates

transform the arid outback into a workable landscape.

n as a cultural wasteland for rock music.

nisms to destroy them, not chemicals); a child's biological parents (= natural parents, not the people who adopted him/her)

n vast numbers; His business empire was vast; In the vast majority of cases, this should not be a problem; Your help made a vast difference;

ea (= one where it is not permitted to build houses or roads); (figurative) the barren wilderness of modern life

run-down houses and derelict factories.

a reduction in forest productivity; an increase in annual precipitation

f material into just 100 pages.

hest to the lowest)areasfollows.

who adopted him/her)

problem; Your help made a vast difference; We've hired a marquee at vast expense.

No.

Words
1 terrain (n) 2 interior (a, n)

Pronunciation
tren ntri(r)

Meanings

used to refer to an area of land when you are mentioning its natural features, fo the inside part of something the central part of a country or continent that is a long way from the coast country's own affairs rather than those that involve other countries

tri ngha exterior the interior


the Interior

3 4 5 6 7 8

prairie pampas Eurasian steppe savannah dominant (a)


dominance (n)

preri pmps juren step svn

lai u

more important, powerful or noticeable than other things ; ngha 2: gen tri to state clearly and firmly that something is true She continued to assert that she was innocent. She continued to assert her innocence The German Chancellor was anxious to assert his government's commitment to

9 assert (v) assert that assert something

+ speech it is asserted that assert yourself (qu quyt, quyt on) to make other people recognize your right or authority to do something, by beha assert itself to start to have an effect

vegetation (n) thc vedten vt warthogs. wth rihno (n) dormant (a)= inactive dormancy (n) 14 gazelle zel 15 deer 16 burrow = dig br
10 11 12 13

plants in general, especially the plants that are found in a particular area or environment

wild pig con t gic not active or growing now but able to become active or to grow in the future linh dng hu, nai to make a hole or a tunnel in the ground by digging
to press yourself close to somebody or under something to search for something under or among things

17 predators 18 coyote 19 slaughter

predt(r) kati slt(r

ng vt n tht ch si
the killing of animals for their meat the cruel killing of large numbers of people at one time, especially in a war

Example

Synonyms

Opposite

Prasal Verb

difficult/rough/mountainous, etc. terrain They walked for miles across steep and inhospitable terrain.

anexpeditionintotheinteriorofAustralia(1cucthmhimvobntrongcac) the Department/Minister of the Interior (B ni v )

The firm has achieved a dominant position in the world market; The dominant feature of the room was the large fireplace. to achieve/assert dominance over somebody; political/economic dominance

d firmly that something is true

assert that she was innocent.

assert her innocence Thatiswrong,heasserted. It is commonly asserted that older people prefer to receive care from family members to assert your independence/rights; I was determined to assert my authority from the beginning. Good sense asserted itself.

cellor was anxious to assert his government's commitment to further European unity.

The hills are covered in lush green vegetation; Desert areas have little vegetation.

a dormant volcano; During the winter the seeds lie dormant in the soil.

(+ adverb/preposition) Earthworms burrow deep into the soi; .moles burrowing away underground burrow something + adverb/preposition The rodent burrowed its way into the sand.

lose to somebody or under something

ething under or among things

large numbers of people at one time, especially in a war

Idiom

Collocates

minant feature of the room was the large fireplace.

my authority from the beginning.

owing away underground

No.

1 incubator (n) 1 initiative (n)


the initiative

Words

Pronunciation
kjubet(r) ntv

Meanings

Example

a piece of equipment in a hospital Their baby which was new so small babies she are spent placed three in when weeks the i a machine like a box where eggs are kept warm until the young birds are bo

a new plan for dealing with aa United particular Nations problem peace or initiative; for achieving a government a particul You won't get much help. You'll have to use you the ability to decide and act on your own without waiting for somebody to

to act seize/lose the initiative; It was up to the the power or opportunity to and gain an advantage before other peopl

underway (a) negligible

having started neldbl

Preparations are well under way for a week of sp

of very little importance or The size cost andwas not negligible; worth considering a negligible amount

Synonyms

Opposite

Prasal Verb

Idiom

Collocates

was so small she spent three weeks in an incubator before going home.

kept warm until the young birds are born

ations peace initiative; a government initiative to combat unemployment get much help. You'll have to use your initiative; Too much bureaucracy represses creativity and initiative; She did it on her own in

ose the initiative; It was up to the US to take the initiative in repairing relations.

ns are well under way for a week of special events in May.

as negligible; a negligible amount

She did it on her own initiative (= without anyone telling her to do it).

No.

1 tundra (n): lnh nguyn tndr 2 biome (n): qun x sinh bam vt 3 harsh (A)

Words

Pronunciation Meanings

the characteristic plants and animals that exist in a particular type of environ cruel, severe and unkind
of weather or living conditions)very difficult and unpleasant to live in

too strong and bright; ugly or unpleasant to look at unpleasant to listen to too strong and rough and likely to damage something

4 5 6 7 8 9

harshly (adv) harshness(UC) Arctic (Bc Cc) scant (a) sknt marmot (n) mmt alpine (a) lpan flora (n) qun thc vt depression (n)

hardly any; not very much and not as much as there should be a small European or American animal that lives in holes in the ground

existing in or connected with high mountains, especially the Alps in Central E

the plants of a particular area, type of environment or period of time a medical condition in which a person feels very sad and anxious and often h the state of feeling very sad and without hope a part of a surface that is lower than the parts around it

a period when there is little economic activity and many people are poor or w

a weather condition in which the pressure of the air becomes lower, often ca

10 Caribou (n) krbu 11 Musk - Oxes (n) 12 cling (v) cling to somebody/something cling on cling together

tun lc b x hng to hold on tightly to somebody/something

to stick to something

cling to something [intransitive] cling (to somebody) (usually disapproving to stay)close to somebody, especially because you need them emotionally
cling to something | cling on to something to be unwilling to get rid of something, or stop doing something

13 vulnerable vlnrbl vulnerable (to somebody/something) weak and easily hurt physically or emotionally vlnrblti vulnerability vulnerability (of somebody/something) (to something)
vulnerably

14

Example

Synonyms

Opposite

Prasal Verb

ristic plants and animals that exist in a particular type of environment, for example in a forest or desert The punishment was harsh and unfair; The minister received some harsh criticism; T he harsh treatment of slaves; He regret a harsh winter/wind/climate; the harsh conditions of poverty which existed for most people at that time harsh colours; She was caught in the harsh glare of the headlights; soft the harsh lines of concrete buildings a harsh voice harsh detergents; Ordinary soap can be too harsh for delicate skin She was treated very harshly; Alec laughed harshly; His findings have been harshly criticized by fellow scientists

I paid scant attention to what she was saying; The firefighters went back into the house with scant regard for their own s

pean or American animal that lives in holes in the ground alpine villages/scenery/plants; A wide variety of alpine flowers can be found at all altitudes. alpine flora; rare species of flora and fauna (= plants and animals) clinical depression; She suffered from severe depression after losing her job. There was a feeling of gloom and depression in the office when the news of the job cuts was announced. The country was in the grip of (an) economic depression; The great Depression of the 1930s Rainwater collects in shallow depressionsHOLLOW on the ground. an atmospheric depression moving east from the Atlantic

ghtly to somebody/something survivors clinging to a raft; Leaves still clung to the branches. Cling on tight! They clung together, shivering with cold. a dress that clings (= fits closely and shows the shape of your body) he wet shirt clung to his chest; The smell of smoke still clung to her clothes; Her hair clung to her hot damp skin.

After her mother's death, Sara clung to her aunt more than ever.

ng to get rid of something, or stop doing something

Throughout the trial she had clung to the belief that he was innocent.He had one last hope to cling on to.She managed to cling

to be vulnerable to attack; Old people are particularly vulnerable to the flu; She looked very vulnerable standing there on her o inancial vulnerability; the vulnerability of newborn babies to disease; He was intensely aware of his own vulnerability. His condition left him vulnerably exposed to the slightest cold or cough.

Idiom

Collocates

rsh criticism; T he harsh treatment of slaves; He regretted his harsh words; We had to face up to the harsh realities of life sooner or later.

h existed for most people at that time

been harshly criticized by fellow scientists

back into the house with scant regard for their own safety; There is scant evidence for this view.

n be found at all altitudes.

ws of the job cuts was announced.

pression of the 1930s

thes; Her hair clung to her hot damp skin.

e had one last hope to cling on to.She managed to cling on to life for another couple of years.

flu; She looked very vulnerable standing there on her own; In cases of food poisoning, young children are especially vulnerable; The sudden resign

e was intensely aware of his own vulnerability.

arsh realities of life sooner or later.

re especially vulnerable; The sudden resignation of the financial director put the company in a very vulnerable position; We should protect the m

ulnerable position; We should protect the most vulnerable members of our society; Animals are at their most vulnerable when searching for food

heir most vulnerable when searching for food for their young.

No.

Words

Pronunciation

Meanings

1 critical (a) critical of somebody/something

expressing disapproval of somebody/something and saying what you thin extremely important because a future situation will be affected by it serious, uncertain and possibly dangerous

involving making fair, careful judgements about the good and bad qualitie according to the judgement of critics of art, music, literature, etc

critically usage note: essential 2 yet (conj) yet (adv) for ages = for a long time

despite what has just been said

used in negative sentences and questions to talk about something that h (used in negative sentences) now; as soon as this from now until the period of time mentioned has passed

could, might, may, etc. do something yet yet another/more| yet again used to emphasize an increase in number or amount or the number of tim

yet worse, more importantly, etc.


as yet

used to emphasize an increase in the degree of something (= how bad, im until now or until a particular time in the past looking or sounding very serious unpleasant and depressing not attractive; depressing ill/sick (informal, not before N) of very low quality (informal)

3 grim (a)

grimly (adv) grimness (n, U) rmns idiom: hang/hold on for/like grim death
also hang/hold on for dear life to hold somebody/something very tightly because you are afraid (in a sport) a situation where one team easily beats another

4 drubbing (n, informal) 5 quantify (v) quantify something


quantifiable (a) - /faiable/ quantification

to describe or express something as an amount or a number

6 administer (v) [often passive] administer something to manage and organize the affairs of a company, an organization, a coun administer something to make sure that something is done fairly and in the correct way administer something (to somebody) (formal to ) give or to provide something, especially in a formal way
often passive] (formal)to give drugs, medicine, etc. to somebody

administer something administer something to somebody administer a kick, a punch, etc. (to somebody/something) to kick or to hit somebody/something 7 peer (n, usu plural 8 compel (v)
a person who is the same age or who has the same social status as you a member of the nobility to force somebody to do something; to make something necessary

compel somebody to do something compel something compel something (not used in the progressive tenses) to cause a particular reaction 9 startle (v) startle somebody/something

to surprise somebody suddenly in a way that slightly shocks or frightens t

it startles somebody to do something started (a) usage note: surprise 10 forego = forgo forgo something (formal)

11 manipulate (v) mnpjulet manipulate somebody/something manipulate somebody into something/into doing something manipulate something (formal) to control or use something in a skilful way manipulate something (technical) to move a person's bones or joints into the correct position
manipulation

to decide not to have or do something that you would like to have or do (disapproving)to control or influence somebody/something, often in a dishone

12 understate (v) tri ngha vi overstate 13 gadgetry dtri 14 turnaround (n)

a collection of modern tools and devices

the amount of time it takes to unload a ship or plane at the end of one jou a situation in which something changes from bad to good a complete change in somebody's opinion, behaviour, etc

the amount of time it takes to do a piece of work that you have been give

15 swift (a)
swiftly swiftness

happening or done quickly and immediately; doing something quickly moving very quickly; able to move very quickly

usage note

having a future which has been decided or planned at an earlier time, esp 16 destined (a) destnd destined for something destined to do something destined for on the way to or intended for a place 17 epic (a) very great and impressive taking place over a long period of time and involving a lot of difficulties 18 woolly (A) not thinking clearly; not clearly expressed

Example

Synonyms

Opposite

Prasal Verb

a critical comment/report; The supervisor is always very critical.

Tom's parents were highly critical of the school. a critical factor in the election campaign; Reducing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is of critical importance; Y crucial The first 24 hours after the operation are the most critical; a critical moment in our country's history; One of the victims of

Students are encouraged to develop critical thinking instead of accepting opinions without questioning them the film director's greatest critical success; In her day she never received the critical acclaim (= praise from the critics ) s She spoke critically of her father; He is critically ill in intensive care; I looked at myself critically in the mirror

It's a small car, yet it's surprisingly spacious; nevertheless He has a good job, and yet he never seems to have any money. I didn't receive a letter from himyet;Areyouready?No,notyet.;We have yet to decide what action to take (= We have/has yet to V = have not V3 Don't go yet; We don't need to start yet. He'll be busy for ages yet; They won't arrive for at least two hours yet. We may win yet; (formal) She could yet surprise us all. snow, snow and yet more snow yet another diet book Prices were cut yet again a recent and yet more improbable theory even, still an as yet unpublished report; As yet little was known of the causes of the disease

a grim face/look/smile; She looked grim; with a look of grim determination on his face; He set about the task with g The house looked grim and dreary in the rain; the grim walls of the prison I feel grim this morning. Their performance was fairly grim, I'm afraid! Itwon'tbeeasy,hesaidgrimly;grimlydetermined The novel depicts the grimness of life for the unemployed in Salford.

grim new; We face the grim prospect of still higher unemployment; Despite the grim forecast, the number of deaths was sl

/something very tightly because you are afraid We gave them a drubbing in the match on Saturday. (figurative) They'll get a drubbing in the local elections in May. The risks to health are impossible to quantify quantifiable data

to administer a charity/fund/school; the manage high cost of administering medical services; The pension funds are administered by to administer justice/the law; The questionnaire was administered by trained interviewers.

The teacher has the authority to administer punishment; A taxi driver administered first aid to the victims; The priest was c o give drugs, medicine, etc. to somebody Police believe his wife could not have administered the poison. The dose was administered to the child intravenously. He administered a severe blow to his opponent's head.

She enjoys the respect of her peers; A peer review system is being introduced to help teachers who are experiencing difficu to do something; to make something necessary

The law can compel fathers to make regular payments for their children. I feel compelled to write and tell you how much I enjoyed your book. Last year ill health compelled his retirement. He spoke with an authority that compelled the attention of the whole crowd. I didn't mean to startle you. The explosion startled the horse;

ody suddenly in a way that slightly shocks or frightens them

I was startled by her question.


It startled me to find her sitting in my office She looked at him with startled eyes; He looked startled; She jumped back like a startled rabbit.

No one was prepared to forgo their lunch hour to attend the meeting. She uses her charm to manipulate people; As a politician, he knows how to manipulate public opinion. They managed to manipulate us into agreeing to help. to manipulate the gears and levers of a machine; Computers are very efficient at manipulating information. Advertising like this is a cynical manipulation of the elderl; .data manipulation; manipulation of the bones of the back

s bones or joints into the correct position

His desk is covered with electronic gadgetry; Suburban schools gleam with modern gadgetry, while inner city schools lack b

e it takes to unload a ship or plane at the end of one journey and load it again for the next one a turnaround in the economy They remain suspicious about the government's turnaround on education policy. swift action; a swift decision; He rose to his feet in one swift movement. a swift current; a swift runner Surprisewasswiftlyfollowedbyoutrage(sxcphm,sgind);Shemovedswiftlytotherescue. He moved with surprising swiftness for a man of his age.

e it takes to do a piece of work that you have been given and return it

hich has been decided or planned at an earlier time, especially by fate He was destined for a military career, like his father before him. We seem destined never to meet. goods destined for Poland

bound for confused

a long period of time and involving a lot of difficulties

y; not clearly expressed

Idiom

Collocates

ry's history; One of the victims of the fire remains in a critical condition .

questioning them claim (= praise from the critics ) she deserved

critically in the mirror

decide what action to take (= We have not decided what action to take).

face; He set about the task with grim concentration; grim-faced policemen

cast, the number of deaths was slightly down on last yea; The outlook is pretty grim; This latest attack is a grim reminder of how vulne

id to the victims; The priest was called to administer the last rites.

chers who are experiencing difficulty; Children are worried about failing in front of their peers; Peer pressure is strong among young

blic opinion.

ating information.

on of the bones of the back

try, while inner city schools lack basic textbooks.

otherescue.

m reminder of how vulnerable our airports are to terrorist attack; Booth paints a grim picture of life in the next centur; a grim struggle

e is strong among young people (= they want to be like other people of the same age).

the next centur; a grim struggle for survival; Things are looking grim for workers in the building industry.

No.

Words
1 credit (v) credit A (with B) credit B (to A) credit somebody

PronunciationMeanings

Example
Your account has been credited with $50000.

to add an amount of money to somebody's bank account

$50000 has been credited to your account. [usually passive] to believe or say that somebody is responsible for doing something

All the contributors are credited on the title page; She has been wrongly credite

credit A with B The company is credited with inventing the industrial robot. credit B to A The invention of the industrial robot is credited to the company. credit A with B to believe that somebody/something I credited has you a with particular a little good more quality sense; or Credit feature me w credit somebody/something as something to believe that somebody/something The cheetah is ofis a generally particularcredited type or quality as the world's fast credit something| credit what, how, etc | credit that (British English ) (used mainly in questions and He'sbeenpromotedwouldyoucreditit? negative sentences) to believe something, especi 2 clarity (n) the quality of being expressed a lack clearly of clarity in the law; The brilliant clarity of his
the ability to think about or understand clarity of thought/purpose/vision something clearly if a picture, substance or sound clarity , youon can the has clarity of sound a see CD or hear it very clearly,

3 dedicated (a) dedicated to something 4 hasten (v)


[intransitive]

working hard at something because a dedicated it is teacher very important to you he is dedicated to her job.

designed to do only one particular Software type is of exported work; used through for one a dedicated particular satellite purpose li

Shesawhisfrownandhastenedtoexplain;Hehas hesn hasten to do something to say or do something without delay hasten something (formal ) to make something happen sooner The treatment or moreshe quickly received may, in fact, have haste 3 [intransitive] + adverb/preposition to (literary ) move somewhere quickly go or We hastened back to Rome. 5 rigorous (a) rrs done carefully and with a lota of rigorous attention analysis; to detail Few people have gone into the 2 [transitive] demanding that particular rules, The work processes, failed etc. to meet are strictly their rigorous followed standards. rigorously The country's press is rigorously controlled my mother rose situation, to the occasion to show that you are able to Luckily, deal with an unexpected problem, etc He was determined to rise to the challenge .

6 rise to something

to react when somebody is deliberately I refuse to rise trying to to that make sort you of comment. angry or get you inte As soon as I mentioned money he rose to the bait

7 diminish (V)

The world's resources rapidly diminishing; His in dmn to become or to make something become smaller, are weaker, etc. [intransitive, transitive] diminish (something) 2 [transitive] diminish somebody/something to make somebody/something I don't seem wish lessto important diminish than the importance they really of are their con 8 bleak (a) a reason bleak outlook/prospect; The future looks ble of a situation not encouraging or giving any to have hope cold and unpleasant

a bleak winter's day a bleak features landscape/hillside/moor; bleak concret exposed, empty, or with no pleasant

bleakly (adv) bleakness (n, Uc)

Thereseemsnohope,shesaidbleakly;bleaklylitc

9 refugee (n) 10 wary 11 marvel (v)

refjudi

a steady flow of refugees from the war zone political/economic refugees a refugee a person who has been forced to leavecamp their country or home, because there is a

to be very surprised or impressed by something Everyone marvelled at his courage.

marvelling, marvelled, US marveling, marveled [intransitive, transitive] marvel (at something)| marvel that|

mediocrity

average or not very good midikrti 1 [uncountable]the quality of being His acting career started brilliantly, then sank into m 2 [countable]a person who is not very good at something a brilliant leader, surrounded by mediocrities

lament (n) lment lament something| lament that|to + feel speech (formal) great sadness or express In the or poem disappointment he laments about the destruction somebody/something of the coun bemoan something = complain bewail something a perverse decision one that most people do is not perverse showing deliberate determination to behave in a (= way that most people think w perversely (adv) she seemed perversely proud of her criminal record perversity (n) He refused to attend out of sheer perversity. compassion feel/show compassion; She a was known as ath h [uncountable] compassion (for somebody) a strong feeling of sympathyto for people who are suffering and desire to help

Synonyms

Opposite

Prasal Verb Idiom

Collocates

en credited with $50000.

dited to your account. esponsible for doing something, especially something good

; She has been wrongly credited as the author

the company.

little more sense; Credit me with some intelligence.

ally credited as the world's fastest animal.

wouldyoucreditit?

e law; The brilliant clarity of his argument could not be faulted.

purpose/vision

committed
through a dedicated satellite link.

dhastenedtoexplain;Hehasbeendescribedasacharmlessborenotbyme, I hasten to add .

ceived may, in fact, have hastened her death; News of the scandal certainly hastened his departure from office.

hurry thorough strict

s rigorously controlled ose to the occasion

o rise to the challenge .

t sort of comment. ed money he rose to the bait .

decrease belittle (V) bltl

ospect; The future looks bleak for the fishing industry; The medical prognosis was bleak; They faced a financially bleak Christmas.

/hillside/moor; bleak concrete housing

e,shesaidbleakly;bleaklylitcorridors;Itwasableaklyimpressivecoastline.

cautious

at something)| marvel that| + speech

at his courage.

ted brilliantly, then sank into mediocrity.

rrounded by mediocrities

bemoan, bewail

nts the destruction of the countryside; She sat alone weeping, lamenting her fate.

= one that most people do not expect and think is wrong); She finds a perverse pleasure in upsetting her parents; Do you really mean

ly proud of her criminal record; He couldn't bear to be near her, yet, perversely, he still found himself looking out for her.

out of sheer perversity.

assion; She was known as a hard woman with no compassion, no emotion/ In an overworked doctor, feelings of compassion are soon

nancially bleak Christmas.

arents; Do you really mean that or are you just being deliberately perverse ?; For some perverse reason he is refusing to see a doct

ng out for her.

ngs of compassion are soon lost.

eason he is refusing to see a doctor; It would be perverse to quit now that we're almost finished.

No.

Words
1 entrepreneur (n)
entrepreneurial

Pronunciation

ntrprn(r) ntrprnril

Meanings

Example
entrepreneurial skills

a person who makes money by starting or running businesses, especial

entrepreneurship (UC)

2 proponent (n) proponent (of something) (formal) 3 colony (n) 4 pioneer (n) pan(r) pioneer (in/of something)

a person who supports an idea or course of action

a pioneer in thedevelop field of a microsurgery; a compute a person who is the first to study and particular area of know

one of the first people the to go pioneer to a particular spirit area in order to live and wor

5 allocate (v) allocate something (for something) allocate something (for something) allocate somebody/something sth

to give something officially to somebody/something for a particular pur

A large sum has been allocated for buying new b The project is being allocated more resources.

They intend to allocate more places to mature st

Synonyms

Opposite

Prasal Verb

Idiom

Collocates

r running businesses, especially when this involves taking financial risks

advocate

d of microsurgery; a computer pioneer; a pioneer aviatora pioneer design (= one that introduces new ideas, methods, etc.)

trailblazer /trelblez(r) /
trailblazing (a)

something for a particular purpose

en allocated for buying new books for the library.

cate more places to mature students this year; More resources are being allocated to the project.

g allocated more resources.

w ideas, methods, etc.)

No.

Words
1 miserable (a)

Pronunciation Meanings
mzrbl
very unhappy or uncomfortable making you feel very unhappy or uncomfortable always unhappy, bad-tempered and unfriendly too small in quantity

miserably (adv) 2 meritocracy (n)


the meritocracy [singular] meritocratic

mertkrs

a country or social system where people get power or money on the group of people with power in this kind of social system

3 illiterate (a)

mertkrtk ltrt not knowing how to read or write

(of a document or letter) badly written, as if by somebody without much (usually after a noun or adverb) not knowing very much about a illiteracy (UC, n)

4 channel (v) channel something (into something) to direct money, feelings, ideas, etc. towards a particular thing o channel something (through something) to send money, help, etc. using a particular route channel something to carry or send water, light, etc. through a passage to fasten something or be fastened with a buckle 5 buckle (V) buckle (something) ci cht, kha cht, buc chat buckle (something on/up)

to become crushed or bent under a weight or force; to crush or b

buckle something
buckle down (to something) buckle up (North American English) (British English belt up) (informal) to start to do something seriously

[intransitive] when your knees or legs buckle or when you buckle a

(informal) to fasten your seat belt (= a belt worn by a passenger in

6 speculation (n) speculation (that) speculation (about/over something) [uncountable, countable] speculation (in something) 7 propose [transitive] (formal) propose something propose that it is proposed that propose doing something it is proposed to do something
2 [transitive] (formal)

[uncountable, countable]the act of forming opinions about what has ha

the activity of buying and selling goods or shares in a company in

to suggest a plan, an idea, etc. for people to think about and dec

to intend to do something

propose to do something propose doing something


3 [intransitive, transitive] to ask somebody to marry you

propose to somebody propose something (to somebody) propose somebody (for/as something)

[transitive]to suggest something at a formal meeting and ask peopl

propose something to propose a motion (= to be the main spe

transitive]

propose something (formal)

to suggest an explanation of something for people to consider

propose a toast (to somebody) | propose somebody's health

to ask people to wish somebody health, happiness and success b

8 revolutionize (v) cch mng ha revolutionze something 9 come up

to completely change the way that something is done (of plants) to appear above the soil 2 (of the sun) to rise 3 to happen 4 to be mentioned or discussed 5 (of an event or a time) to be going to happen very soon 6 to be dealt with by a court

7 if your number, name, ticket, etc.comes up in a betting game

8 (informal) (usually used in the progressive tenses) to arrive; to b

10 albeit (conj) 11 tweak (n) tweak (v) 1 tweak something 2 tweak something 12 notional (a) notionally

lbit

although a sharp pull or twist

a slight change that you make to a machine, system, etc. to imp to pull or twist something suddenly to make slight changes to a machine, system, etc. to improve it based on a guess, estimate or theory; not existing in reality

Example

Synonyms

Opposite

Prasal Verb

We were cold, wet and thoroughly miserable; Don't look so miserable!; She knows how to make life miserable for her em He was a miserable old devil.

miserable housing conditions; I spent a depressing miserable weekend alone at home; What a miserable day! (= cold and wet); The p

grumpy How can anyone live on such a miserable paltry wage?


They wandered around miserably; a miserably cold day; He failed miserably as an actor.

stem where people get power or money on the basis of their ability a meritocratic system

ith power in this kind of social system

A large percentage of the rural population was illiterate. dly written, as if by somebody without much education computer illiterate; musically illiterate The illiteracy rate on the island is still unacceptably high. He channels his aggression into sport. Money for the project will be channelled through local government.

A sensor channels the light signal along an optical fibre. r be fastened with a buckle She buckled her belt. He buckled on his sword. These shoes buckle at the side. The steel frames began to buckle under the strain; (figurative) A weaker man would have buckled under the pressure.

The crash buckled the front of my car. knees or legs buckle or when you buckle at the knees, your knees become weak and you start to fall

I'd better buckle down to those reports. r seat belt (= a belt worn by a passenger in a vehicle) act of forming opinions about what has happened or what might happen without knowing all the facts: s suy xt, s nghin cu

There was widespread speculation that she was going to resign; His private life is the subject of much speculation. Today's announcement ends months of speculation about the company's future; The president's absence led to speculation speculation in oil The government proposed changes to the voting system; What would you propose? She proposed that the book be banned; (British English also) She proposed that the book should be banned. It was proposed that the president be elected for a period of two years. He proposed changing the name of the company. It was proposed to pay the money from public funds. What do you propose to do now? How do you propose getting home? He was afraid that if he proposed she might refuse. She proposed to me! to propose marriage I propose Tom Ellis for chairman.

idea, etc. for people to think about and decide on

mething at a formal meeting and ask people to vote on it

o propose a motion (= to be the main speaker in support of an idea at a formal debate)

She proposed a possible solution to the profound mystery. I'd like to propose a toast to the bride and groom.

Aerial photography has revolutionized the study of archaeology The daffodils are just beginning to come up. We watched the sun come up. I'm afraid something urgent has come up; We'll let you know if any vacancies come up. The subject came up in conversation; The question is bound to come up at the meeting. Her birthday is coming up soon.

Her divorce case comes up next month. me, ticket, etc.comes up in a betting game, it is chosen and you win something Islunchready?Comingup! Hefinallyagreed,albeitreluctantly(lngl),tohelpus. She gave his ear a tweak. With a few tweaks this venue will be perfect. She tweaked his ear playfully. I think you'll have to tweak these figures a little before you show them to the boss. My calculation is based on notional figures, since the actual figures are not yet available.

Idiom

Collocates

w to make life miserable for her employees.

ve buckled under the pressure.

facts: s suy xt, s nghin cu

subject of much speculation. president's absence led to speculation over his health; She dismissed the newspaper reports as pure speculation; Our speculations pr

should be banned.

culation; Our speculations proved right.

No.

Words
1 rocketry (n) 2

Pronunciation Meanings
rktri

Example

Synonyms

Opposite

Prasal Verb

Idiom

Collocates