You are on page 1of 13

Classification and main characteristics of heavy fuel oils

Ronan Jzquel Cedre

Very Heavy Fuel Oil Workshop 29-30 November 2006 - Brest - France

HEAVY FUEL OILS: WHAT THEY ARE ?

HFO blend various residues


Gases + Naphta distillate Fluid Catalytic Cracking Gases FCC distillate Light Cycle Oil Heavy Cycle Oil

Gas oil

Heavy Vacuum gas oil

Atmospheric distillation Crude(s) oil(s)

Gases

Visbreaker distillate

FIOUL HFO LOURD


Visbreaking Visbreaker gas oil

Gases

Atmospheric residue

Visbreaker residue Vacuum distillation asphalt

Lubricants unit
Vacuum residue

Lubricants Waxes

Distillation process = Straight Run

Conversion process = Cracking

HFO blend various residues with various distillates


Gases + Naphta distillate Fluid Catalytic Cracking Gases FCC distillate Light Cycle Oil Heavy Cycle Oil

Gas oil

Heavy Vacuum gas oil

Atmospheric distillation Crude(s) oil(s)

Gases

Visbreaker distillate

FIOUL HFO LOURD


Visbreaking Visbreaker gas oil

Gases

Atmospheric residue

Visbreaker residue Vacuum distillation asphalt

Lubricants unit
Vacuum residue

Lubricants Waxes

Distillation process = Straight Run

Conversion process = Cracking

Residues
from distillation processes from conversion processes

Distillates (cutter stock)


from distillation processes from conversion processes

Heavy Fuel Oil


Small Amount of cutter stock add to residues in order to achieve the commercial requirements:

viscosity mainly

Chemical composition of HFO depend on:


chemical composition of crude(s) oil(s) nature and number of refinery process commercial requirements

Properties of Heavy Fuel Oil


Rather than typical values, HFO properties have to achieve maxima values principally for : viscosity (cSt) @ 50 C or 100 C density

other properties (needed for the purchaser) flash point sulfur content pour point ash, asphaltene, vanadium, aluminium content calorific value

HEAVY FUEL OILS: Different classifications for different uses

Residual Burner Fuel Oils (RFO)


Gases + Naphta distillate Gases Fluid Catalytic Cracking FCC distillate Light Cycle Oil Heavy Cycle Oil Gas oil Heavy Vacuum gas oil Atmospheric distillation Gases Visbreaker distillate

Gases

Visbreaking Visbreaker gas oil

HFO
asphalt

Thermal and Power Plant

Atmospheric residue

Visbreaker residue Vacuum distillation

Lubricants unit
Vacuum residue

Lubricants Waxes

Marine Bunker Fuel Oils

Ships

Residual Burner Fuel Oils classifications


Main parameter of classification British classification (BS 2869): Light Fuel Oil (E) Medium Fuel Oil (F) Heavy Fuel Oil (G) Russian classification (GOST- 10585-99): M-40 M-100 US classification (ASTM D396-80): N 5 Fuel Oil N 6 Fuel Oil French classification (AFNOR): Fioul Lourd TBTS Fioul Lourd BTS Fioul Lourd HTS

viscosity

viscosity

viscosity

Sulfur content

Marine Bunker Fuel Oils classifications


IFO (Intermediate Fuel Oil) grades Based on Viscosity (cSt) at 50C 14 grades from IFO-30 to IFO-460 available (IFO-500; IFO 700) Most popular are IFO-180 and IFO-380

International (ISO) bunker fuel oil grades (ISO 8217:2005) Based on Viscosity (cSt) at 50C (instead of 100C) 10 grades from RM-30 to RM-700 available (instead of 15 grades) Additional letter is added to differentiate HFO with same viscosity according to various parameter (density, vanadium content, carbon residue, ...)

Prospects
800000 700000 600000 500000 400000 300000 200000 100000 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
400000 350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

250000

400000 350000

200000

300000
150000

250000 200000

100000

150000
50000

100000 50000

0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

4 different Simulated distillation chromatograms of 4 different HFOs nevertheless classified in the same category.

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION !!

Classification and main characteristics of heavy fuel oils


Ronan Jzquel Cedre

Very Heavy Fuel Oil Workshop


29-30 November 2006 - Brest France