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7.

MATERIAL AND METODHOLOGY OF THE RESEARCH


7.1. Methodologic approach In the process of evaluation comprised is exceptionally large number of records on spatial and temporal ecosystem's organisation, in the widest sense of word, including all relevant information on both abiotic and biotic component of endemiv center Prenj, vrsnica, abulja. Main parameter for this evaluation is biodiversity (diversity), as understood in the sense of the most recent International community's beliefs OUN AGENDA 21, Rio de Janeiro 1992. godine (Sitarz, 1994), and new achievements of modern science, especially of conservation biology and ecology. Besides, assessed are all other elements related to determination of forms and levels of biodiversity, such as: orography, geological and pedological figure, ecoclimate and anthropogenous impacts reflected in diverse activities. In order to obtain objective and usefull categorisation of zones, and entire areas, as basic criteria and starting points considered are, as follows : 1) level of biotop's uniqueness 2) level of structure's maintenance and its dynamics for given ecosystem or biom, 3) level of endemism and relictness of living world, 4) threat's level of living world, 5) distribution and ecological consistency of distinct ecosystems, 6) ecosystem's ecological and biological homogenity, 7) assessment of the successive ecosystem's stage (climax vegetation, climax of orography), 8) ecosystem's carrying capacity, 9) possibilities to integrate the existing infrastructure into structural and functional units, 10) communication options, respectively possibilities for flow of gens between isolated ecosystem parts,
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11) possibilities to set up ecological corridors between remote, naturally valuable biotopes, 12) possibilities to set the area for the welfare of local and regional community, 13) possibilities to include into the european ecological network, sustainable management options for forest ecosystems and establishment of steady plots for continous investigation, 14) International community's intention in the field of natural heritage management (IUCB), 15) International documenst (conventios, protocols, agreements dealing with sustainable management of natural resources and sustainable physical planning), 16) establishment of an ideal system of measures for balanced protection of biological and ecological diversity, 17) directed and massive education, 18) scientific and expert research of ecosystems, 19) participation in international projects reffering to the management of biological and ecological diversity. By the categorisation and defining of the measures for sustainable management on ecological principles, applied is IUCNs methodology International Union for Conservation of Nature, respecting all local specificities biological, ecological, social, economic, cultural and educational ones (IUCN, 1999). 7.2. Research methodology in the field The field research of spatial and temporal organisation of the biodiversity, then geomorphological and hydrological features of endemi center Prenj, vrsnica, abulja was conducted in 2007 through several seasons (early spring, summer, early autumn). Apart from data collected during this research, there have been used also data obtained by previously conducted field research and expert excursion, which were undertaken by some team members. Because of that, it was feasable in such short time to meet project tasks given by Investors and to answer some complex and difficult questions. In each field
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were made numerous observations on the longitudinal and transversal profile, of ECP (Figure 5 i 6).

Figure 5. Area of Prenj mountain covered with main positions of field investigations of biological and geo-morphological diversity.
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Figure 6. Area of vrsnica i abulja mountains covered with main positions of field investigations of biological and geo-morphological diversity.

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Each standing point was exactly marked by GPS positioning, which is shown on the attached map.
Note: On maps (Figures 5 and 6) are shown only main standing points where more detailed investigation has been carried out, although each square kilometer of the investigated area was observed.

7.2.1. Biodiversity inventory 7.2.1.1. Biodiversity of plants 7.2.1.1.1. Alges and cyanophytes The biodiversity assessment for plants on each level, species and biocoenosis, was carried out under both field and laboratory conditions. The biodiversity assessment for microphytes (alges and cyanophytes) was conducted by taking a representative sample on longitudinal and transversal profile of karst fields, including all main watercourses, standing water and underground water. Commonly, certain quantity of living material should be taken and preserved by fixateur addition, while determination is carried out by special microscope and keys, respectively, referent literature. It was aimed to take samples in all zones of climax and at present dominant vegetation types. It was only assessed species diversity for these groups of organisms, respectively number of species and intra-species categories in phytobenthos and phytoplankton of standing water, including Buko jezero have been assessed. The assessment of quantitative composition and indicator values is done in accordance with refferent literature (see list of refferent literature). 7.2.1.1.2. Flora and vegetation of higher plants The assessment of floristic diversity among macrophytes (vascular plants) was carried out on previously chosen transects, longitudinal and more transversal profiles, of both karst fields, and on a large number of chosen points along field margins, respectively. It was established a representative surface, on which all plants were recorded. Besides, herbal material was gathered, which was then properly preserved and determined using relevant keys, of both local and international floristic literature (Literatura), in field and laboratory conditions.
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The nomenclature and basic systematic units concept (species) was adjusted to the principles of Botany Nomenclature Codex, year 2005. The assessment of biocoenosis and vegetation diversity was carried out on exceptionally large number of points (Figure 6), in all ecosystems of ECP. Surface of analised plots was 100 square meters (if no forest community), respectively, 200 and 500 square meters, if forest ecosystem was concerned. Each plot was analised in terms of abundance and coverage assessment, sociabilty and vitality for each detected species. It was applied BraunBlanquet methodology (1964), which is Zurich-Montpelier's School, generally accepted in all kinds of vegetation biodiversity studies. When the list of plants occuring in the plot is made, one should evaluate the abundance of each species, respectively its population, after following scale : + - species covers less than 1% of surface 1 species covers less than 15% of surface 2 species covers less than 25% of surface 3 species covers less than 50% of surface 4 species covers less than 75% of surface 5 species covers more than 75% of surface In order to evaluate sociability, respectively unity of species applied is, after the same methodology, following scale: 1 species occurs individually 2 species occurs in couples up to three individuals 3 species occurs in small groups, swards 4 species occurs in larger groups 5 species occurs in massive groups which cover larger plot's proportion. A definition and concept of basic vegetational units syntaxa is carried out in accordance with the Botany Nomenclature Codex (Webber et al., 2000). After that Codex, vegetation is organised in the form of associations (basic units), alliances (more kindred associations), orders (more kindred alliance) and classes (comprising more floristically and ecologically kindred orders). Each organisation unit has got its own suffix. The nomenclature of vegetation units

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is given after Prodromus biljnih zajednica BiH (Lakui et al., 1978) and The Diversity of European Vegetation (Rodwell et al., 2002). 7.2.1.2. Biodiversity of animals Same as diversity of plants, diversity of animals is assessed in both field and laboratory conditions. In the field, chosen were longitudinal and transversal transects, where it was established the list of detected animals. The abudance of animals and their behavior was also recorded. Then, samples were taken, preserved by fixateur addition and determined in the laboratory. 7.2.1.2.1. Investigation of butterflies, amphibians, reptiles The herpetological and investigation of lepidoptera in endemic center P, was conducted in August 2007. Animals were observed by binoculars BPC 7x50. As a material, specimens were caught only sporadically or if seemed interesting, or to make photo-documentation. Butterflies were caught by lap enthomological net - diameter 60 cm, stored in sample bags or enthomological boxes. Reptiles and amphibians were caught by hand, respectively, by specially designed herpetological net. The abundance of follows : 1 sporadically occuring, 2 small number of individuals, 3 frequently occuring, 4 numerous population, 5 very numerous population; whereby presumed IUCN categorisation was done after standard categories. Collected material was determined after following literature: Lelo, 2007a i 2007b; Tolman and Levington, 1997; Arnold et al., 1999. 7.2.1.2.2. Investigation of birds The assessment of ornithofauna's state in the investigated area was based on following: 1. analysis of literature records reffering to the investigated area; 2. analysis of records gathered by the author during his field research conducted from April to September 2007. The field research was conducted by the method of straightlined transect, whereby bird specimens are being observed and identified by sound means. It was also
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individuals was assessed after scale from 1 to 5, as

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made census (by day and by night) of some species, which are being concerned as threatened or rare in B&H, in order to establish an adequate monitoring of species; 3. analysis of records collected by the author during his field research on the investigated area in last two years; 4. analysis of records reffering to karst fields gathered in last three years by members of Mree posmatraa ptica of the Ornithological Society Nae ptice, and received from slovenian and austrian ornthologist, which colaborate with Mrea. All data are shown in tables and include the systematic overview of identified species by areas and threat categories. Species order in tables is given after Vaurie (1959, 1965). 7.2.2. Assessment of state and ecosystem's carrying capacity 7.2.2.1. Assessment of recent state of ecosystems State of ecosystems, the state of their structure and dynamics and in the first place the state of their structure and dynamics the following scale (Redzic 1998). Table 4. General ecological state of ecosystems Level of impact on ecosystems 0 General ecological state of ecosystems (geobiocoenoses)

Ecosystems under very small level of human impact. They are almost unchanged in comparison to their natural state. Ecosystems under insignificant or small level of human impact. They are well preserved in comparison to their natural state, but there are indicators showing some changes, particularly in their structure. Ecosystems under relative moderate level of human impacts, etc.). There are some changes in the structure and dynamics as well as changes in certain parameters in abiotic component, particularly in soil, and microclimate conditions. 68

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3 Ecosystems under significant level of human impact. The structure and qualitative and quantitative characteristics of abiotic component of ecosystem are significantly deteriorated and changed (insolation, humidity, temperature, hydrothermic regime of soil); presence of plant and animal species ecosystems desctructors. 4 Ecosystems under very significant level of human impact. The structure and dynamics, and elements of abiotic component are changed for more than 60 % in comparison to their natural state. Ecosystems under very significant level of human impact. The structure and dynamics and elements of abiotic component are more-less in irreversible state in comparison to their natural state. There is high level of probability that these ecosystems could not be restored using all available technical measures. These ecosystems have tendency (succession) to become totally new ecosystem regarding its qualitative and quantitative features.

Regarding intensity and spectrum of anthropogenous impacts, all ecosystems can be divided in three large groups (Lakui, et al., 1975) : (1) Primary (P) (2) Secondary (S) (3) Tertiary (T) Primary ecosystems are stable with relatively minor change in the structure and dynamics. The level of these ecosystems degradation varies between 1 33,33% in relation to anthropogenous impacts. Secondary ecosystems have significantly changed structure in relation to the primary state. The level of degradation is increased for next 33,33% comparing to natural, primary ecosystems. Into this category belong all meadows, planted forests and other ecosystems occurring on former primary ecosystems locations. Tertiary ecosystems are under tremendous anthropogenous impact. Their structure is completely changed in relation to the primary ones, while in relation to the secondary ones is changed for next 33,33% (if degradation

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level expressed from 0 -100 %). Into this category belong arable land, abandoned nitrified or trampled places, mainly in rural areas. 7.2.2.2. Assessment of the carrying capacity of ecosystems Various methodological solutions could be used for assessment of carrying capacity. Taking into account the structure and dynamics of ecosystems, the following scale presented in Table 4 was used for the assessment of the carrying capacity (Redi, 1998). Table 5 Carrying capacity of ecosystems Degree of capacity 0 Ecosystem without possibilities for additional acceptance. A very sensitive to any changes in the structure and impacts of environmental factors. 1 Ecosystem without significant or with a very small carrying capacity. A very sensitive to human impacts and rapid changes in structure and dynamics. There is a danger to be completely destroyed or to become other type of ecosystem. 2 Ecosystem with a small carrying capacity. There is no danger to have any significant changes in its structure and dynamics. 3 Ecosystem without significant carrying capacity. It has wider ecological amplitude and possibilities to absorb human impacts. It has stable structure of edificators. Ecosystem with a very high carrying capacity. A very stable structure of edificators, and a high resilience. 5 Ecosystem with maximal level of acceptance of waste materials (entropy) and with stable mechanism of energy flow and material cycling, extraordinary vitality of edificators.

Carrying capacity of ecosystems

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7.2.3. Parameters for establishment of conservation priorities One of the key parameters for determination of conservation priorities represents knowledge of biodiversity. Biological criteria defined by Johnson (1995), and modified by Redzic et al. (2001) are often used for these purposes. These criteria are: richness, rarity, uniqueness, endemism, and function. For more complete understanding of real values of the given area, very often is used a combination of these criteria. 7.2.3.1. Richness (Table 6 ) Species richness includes total number of species in the given area; the higher the number of species, the higher diversity of species. Use of only this criterion implicates that all species have same significance. In other words, areas with higher number of species have higher conservation value in comparison to the areas with smaller species richness. This criterion plays a very important in development of models for identification of conservation priorities. Although this criterion is frequently being used on the level of species, it could also be considered on the ecosystem's level Table 6 Plant community richness Level of diversity 1 2 3 4 5 Characteristics and forms of floristic richness of community Community with a very high number of species (> than 100 taxa) Community with high number of species (between 71 and 100 taxa) Community with moderate number of species (between 26 and 50 taxa) Community with small number of species (between 10 and 25 taxa) Community with a very small number of species (< than 10 taxa)

7.2.3.2. Rarity. (Table 7) This criterion relies on quantitative data, that is on number of species or ecosystem types. Species or ecosystems that have wide distribution have less importance for conservation than species or ecosystems with a very limited range of distribution.

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Table 7 Level of rarity of communities Level of rarity 1 2 3 4 5 Characteristics and forms of community rarity A very rare community, with a very narrow range of distribution (stenotopic) A rare community, distributed only in rare habitats Moderate rare community, distributed at small number of habitats in region (mesotopic) Community with wider distribution in climate region Community distributed in wide region (euritopic)

7.2.3.3. Uniqueness (Table 8) Opposite of rarity, this criterion is used for assessment of the level of separation of species, populations, or ecosystem from its closest comparable analogue. For example, certain species could be abundant, but it is unique since it has only a few or even no one relative. Next dichotomy shows how this criterion affects the prioritys assessment. For instance, conservation of plant communities containing a large number of endemic species makes higher contribution to biodiversity conservation than conservation of community with a large number of widely distributed species and just a few endemic ones. Table 8 Level of uniqueness of community Level of uniqueness 1 2 3 4 5 Characteristics and forms of uniqueness of community Community the region Community region Community region Community the region Community the region contributes to a very high uniqueness of contributes to high uniqueness of the contributes to moderate uniqueness of the contributes to relatively low uniqueness of contributes to insignificant uniqueness of

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7.2.3.4. Representativity (Table 9) This criterion asures that all species and ecosystems get comprised by the conservation in the investigated area. It is frequently applied in a protected areas systems design, including diverse ecosystem types, which characterize the area. Table 9 Representativity of communities Level of represent ativity 1 2 3 4 5

Characteristics and forms of representativity of communities Community higly representative for conservation design Community sufficient representative for conservation design Community moderate representative for conservation design Community poorly representative for conservation design Community unsufficient representative for conservation design

7.2.3.5. Endemism (Table 10) This criterion includes elements of biodiversity characterized by specific narrow area of distribution. Endemism of living communities is based on endemism of its taxa. In establishment of conservation priorities of endemism, one of the basic criterions is assessment of endemism. Use of this criterion in biological and ecological evaluation of given area is unavoidable way to present specific features of the area with its environmental characteristics. The advantages of use of this parameter are its widespread use in broader public. Table 10 Endemism of plant communities Level of endemism 1 2 3 4 5 Characteristics and forms of endemism Community with exceptional number of endemic taxa Community with a relatively high number of endemic taxa Community with a relatively high number of endemic taxa Community with a small number of endemic taxa Community without presence of endemic taxa

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7.2.3.6. Function (Table 11). This criterion stresses the role that given species or community, ecosystem plays in determination of capabilities of other species, communities or ecosystems to survive. Concept of key species is almost a synonym for function in this context. In biological communities, key species is the species (or sometimes group of closely related species) that gives a very significant contribution to the structure of community, its processes or composition. This concept is applied also for habitats and physical resources that are defined as key resources. Table 11 Function of communities as key resources in survival of ecosystems in investigated area Level of functionality 1 2 3 4 5 Characteristics and forms of functionality Community has a very important role in survival of the system of ecosystems (landscape) Community has an important role in survival of the system of ecosystems (landscape) Community has a moderate role in survival of the system of ecosystems (landscape) Community has a relatively small role in survival of the system of ecosystems (landscape) Community does not have a visible role in survival of the system of ecosystems (landscape)

7.2.3.7. Level of threat (Table 12 ). Assessment of level of threat of certain living communities and their habitats was carried out using the scale presented in the following table (Redi, 1998). Table 12 - Characteristics and forms of threat Level of threat 1 2 Characteristics and forms of the threat Endangered community with threat to disappear from the given area. Endangered community with deteriorated structure and dynamics significantly

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Community disturbed due to the impact of human activities and possibilities for future reduction of its structure. Sensitive community a very sensitive to any kind of impacts. Relative stable community structure and dynamics with homogenous

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7.2.4. Biodiversity overview on maps The largest share of vegetational units was interpreted on maps in scale 1: 25000. Distribution of rare and threatened species both plant and animal, as well as of geomorphological units, are given as a distinct layer on the same maps. This is given in printed and electronic version. 7.3. Methodology for the assessment of threats level of flora, fauna and vegetation The assessment of threats level of flora and fauna was conducted accordance with criteria and methodology advised by IUCN (1994-2000). The assessment of threats level of vascular plants based on preliminary assessment that has been done for the Red book proposal B&H (ili, 199294), was conducted by above stated methodology and respecting the advised criteria. According to the most recent IUCN criteria, there are following threats categories: EXTINCT (EX) A taxon is Extinct when there is no reasonable doubt that the last individual has died. A taxon is presumed Extinct when exhaustive surveys in known and/or expected habitat, at appropriate times (diurnal, seasonal, annual), throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual. Surveys should be over a time frame appropriate to the taxon's life cycle and life form. EXTINCT IN THE WILD (EW) A taxon is Extinct in the Wild when it is known only to survive in cultivation, in captivity or as a naturalized population (or populations) well outside the past range. A taxon is presumed Extinct in the Wild when exhaustive surveys in known and/or expected habitat, at appropriate times (diurnal, seasonal, annual), throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual. Surveys should be over a time frame appropriate to the taxon's life cycle and life form. in

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CRITICALLY ENDANGERED (CR) A taxon is Critically Endangered when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E for Critically Endangered (see Section V), and it is therefore considered to be facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild. ENDANGERED (EN) A taxon is Endangered when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E for Endangered (see Section V), and it is therefore considered to be facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild. VULNERABLE (VU) A taxon is Vulnerable when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E for Vulnerable (see Section V), and it is therefore considered to be facing a high risk of extinction in the wild. NEAR THREATENED (NT) A taxon is Near Threatened when it has been evaluated against the criteria but does not qualify for Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable now, but is close to qualifying for or is likely to qualify for a threatened category in the near future. LEAST CONCERN (LC) A taxon is Least Concern when it has been evaluated against the criteria and does not qualify for Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable or Near Threatened. Widespread and abundant taxa are included in this category. DATA DEFICIENT (DD) A taxon is Data Deficient when there is inadequate information to make a direct, or indirect, assessment of its risk of extinction based on its distribution and/or population status. A taxon in this category may be well studied, and its biology well known, but appropriate data on abundance and/or distribution are lacking. Data Deficient is therefore not a category of threat. Listing of taxa in this category indicates that more information is required and acknowledges the possibility that future research will show that threatened classification is appropriate. It is important to make positive use of whatever data are available. In many cases great care should be exercised in choosing between DD and a threatened status. If the range of a taxon is suspected to be relatively circumscribed, and a considerable period of time has elapsed since the last record of the taxon, threatened status may well be justified. NOT EVALUATED (NE) A taxon is Not Evaluated when it is has not yet been evaluated against the criteria.

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Figure 7. Relationships between threat categories, after IUCN The assessment of habitats threat level is carried out on the base of evaluation of conservation status. In this complex process, abstracted were following threat categories: threatened communities (E), vulnerable communites (V), rare communities (pre- threatened) (R). Similar standards were applied for animals. But, there are substantial limits regarding parameters being used for the assessment, such as the abundance of species of interest in a concrete habitat. Threat categories and status of bird's protection is given after Obratil & Matvejev (1989) and Bird Life International (2004). This overview comprises following conventions and criteria: BHCL (proposal of "Red list" for threatened birds in SR Bosnia and Herzegovina - Obratil, Matvejev, 1989), a system based on the assessment of population's state for nesting birds in Bosnia and Herzegovina, includes categories as follows: Ex (extinct) - extinct; Ex ? (extinct ?) - probably extinct; E (endangered) severly endangered;
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V (vulnerable) threatened or vulnerable; R (rare) - possibly threatened; O (out of danger) - recovered; I (indeterminante) - indeterminante status; K (insufficiently known) - insufficiently known. SPECs (Species of European Conservation Concern), a system of criteria aimed at the identification of species requiring well co-ordinated protection measures on the European scale, includes four categories : 1 European species of global importance for being globally threatened, which are dependent on maintenance measures, or data for them are deficient; 2 Species whose focus of world populations is placed in Europe, with inadequate protection status in Europe; 3 - Species whose focus of world populations isn't placed in Europe, but with adequate protection status in Europe; -E - Species whose focus of world populations is placed in Europe, with adequate protection status in Europe; - - Species whose focus of world populations isn't placed in Europe, but with adequate protection status in Europe; NE assessment missing W concerns wintering populations ETS (European Threat Status), threat status of species considered to have unfavourable protection status in Europe, encompasses following categories: Cr (critically endangred) critically endangred; EN (endangered) - endangered; VU (vulnerable) - vulnerable; D (declining) - declining population; R (rare) - rare; H (depleted) species not comprised with IUCN criterion (for not being detected in recent investigation), but previously designated to be D, EN or V; L (localised) species with local distribution;
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S (secure) secured species. WBD (EU Wild Bird Directive), includes directives and resolutions that protect european populations of wild birds and their habitats, comprising following annexes: I includes species being under special protection, as well as habitats which important for their survival and reproduction within a distribution range, II/1 includes species that can be caught in marine and terrestrial area, where the Directive is being respected; II/2 - includes species that can be caught only in EU countries, where their hunting is indicated; III/1 - includes species whose sales in EU countries is forbiden, as well as transportation for sale purposes, storage for sale purposes, offering for sale purposes of alive or dead birds or any part of their bodies and products; III/2 - includes species whose hunt is legal in EU countries, as well as the other legal activities. Bern (Bern Convention), Convention on protection of the european living world and natural habitats, includes three (I, II, III) additions which regulate issues of protection of wild flora, fauna and habitats. Addition II (animal species that should be strictly protected) and III (species that are being hunted, harvested or exploited in any other way, therefore require protection) of the Convention comprise birds, too. Bonn (Bonn Convention), Convention on maintainance of migratory wild animals, including following categories : I threatened migratory birds; II species whose protection status is unsatisfactory.

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7.4. Analysis and digitalisation of records 7.4.1. GIS methodology For spatial analysis and cartographic interpretation of records obtained in the field, it was used ArcView programme package version 3.2.a. Maps in scale 1:25.000 were a cartographic background. Analysis was carried out thanks to the vast material collected during either present or former field research (including co-ordinates and records from the field maps). During the field work into the GIS database, which encompasses information on distribution of abiotic and biotic components in the investigated area, were included well documented and described records. GIS database contains series of spatial data on abiotic and biotic component of the investigated area. Information on quantity, distribution and status of plant communities are integrated into the database, which is linked with GIS layers. Spatial analysis of species and habitat's distribution enabled us determine zones that posses high biodiversity level in the investigated area. Analysis of data, which are compiled into GIS database, will asure the development of suitable models for the management in the investigated area. In the project's framework conducted is spatial analysis of collected and digitized data, then the assessment of biodiversity's state and evaluation of conservation importance of the investigated area.

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Table 13 - GIS records sets GIS data set Position description Position of the investigated area given on the map in scale 1:25.000 Geological foundation layers taken from the geological map in scale 1:100.000 Location for each investigated vegetation class given on the base of literature records Analysis of zones with high biodiversitys level carried out on the base of records contained in the database type of feature topographic maps scale 10 metara

Geology

polygon

1:100 000

Vegetation

polygon

1:25 000

Biodiversity

polygon

1:25 000

Spatial analysis of records included in investigated area.

GIS database enabled the

identification of areas with high ecological and biological values in the

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