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SIEMENS, INNOVATION THINK TANK

Design of an Exoskeleton for training people with Parkinsons Disease


Carlos A. Mac as, Ismael Cendejas and Victor H. Moreno
AbstractThroughout the centuries, medicine has improved the quality of life of people through dierent drug treatments and technology. However, there are diseases such as Parkinsons disease (PD) that despite all this progress has not been possible to rehabilitate the patient completely. This paper proposes a design of an exoskeleton to reduce tremor in people with Parkinsons disease (PD). The problem arises when detecting involuntary movements, which allow you to apply a control for compensating patient training with a force that counters the involuntary movement. The study will focus on patients receiving treatment in hospitals. The exoskeleton is an adjunct to treatment the patient receives according to the stage where you are. One characteristic of this disease are involuntary movements. Drug treatments do not improve the entire limb tremor and surgical with good results but can have side eects, such as cerebral hemorrhage, seizures, marked cognitive problems and death as well as not all patients are candidates for treatment. That is why we seek a new alternative to suppress the tremor. Prochazka et al. (1992) proposed a closed loop functional electrical stimulation (FES) to activate the muscles that cause tremors out of phase, thus counteracting the tremor. The glove has electrical connections have been adapted to make electrical contact with electrodes on the wearers skin. A displacement signal, controlled by a sensor, lter to tune the frequency of tremors at the wrist. Repperger and Morris (1989) propose a control device that incorporates feedback force a torsion spring, torque, an accelerometer and a microprocessor. Tremors or unwanted movements are detected by an accelerometer. A control signal drives the motor output and oppose the torsion springs tremor. Rosen (1987) invented a device tremor suppressant viscous damping is applied to a wheelchair and is able to suppress vibration during operation, includes a chamber lled with a viscous liquid, a position sensor and actuator assembly damping placed inside the camera. Hashemi et al. (2004) focuses on passive control of the human arm tremor caused by Parkinsons disease. Present the dynamic model of the arm, numerical simulation in time, frequency and 61 domains. Use numerical simulation to design a vibration tuner. It features a simple design for ease of handling. An experimental study is performed to nd the optimal location of absorption in the experimental arm. Widjaja et al. (2008) propose a method of active compensation of tremor that involves three stages: detection, ltering and acting. Tremor and the predicted movement seen through neuromuscular motion sensors and a ltering algorithm applied to dierent movements. Then, when the muscles quiver is operated against with respect to the tremor signal using functional electrical stimulation. The objective of long-term project is to provide a tremor suppression orthosis for the upper limb. Rocon et al. (2007) proposed an orthosis and associated algorithm for the simultaneous evaluation and treatment of tremor, one of the most common movement disorders in humans. A motor is xed to a brace in the upper extremities. The motor is controlled by a personal computer with software for real time processing of the position and speed of rotation of the joint detected by a gyroscope. Index TermsParkinson, Exoskeleton, Tremor.

I. Identification of the necessity

T has been observed in Parkinsons disease, one of the most common ailments is tremor in the upper and lower members, although not fatal, may be responsible for functional disability and social disruption, which prevents patients to perform their daily tasks. It seeks to create a new methodology using an exoskeleton for tremor suppression in the human arm joint to evaluate and test dierent technical approaches to solving the problem candidates. The upper member of the humans main purpose is to allow the hand perform its functions and can reach any point of space, especially any point of the surface of the individual, so that it is possible to approximate, manipulate and move objects from the body and to the same. II. Customer Requirements ART of the purpose of designing a system according to the real needs of the patient, the design is based on the requirements and customer expectations. To determine the requirements to be met by the system spoke with patients at the National Institute of Rehabilitation (INR) as well as medical specialists at the institute to determine expectations physiotherapy. Similarly, it is considered important to apply the draft standard ISO TC 184/SC 2/WG 7 / DIS 13482 Robots and robotic devices - Safety Requirements for non-industrial robots - Non-medical personal care robot - Physical assistant robots.

C. A. Mac as is with the robotics lab, National Polytechnic Institute (IPN), M exico City, Mxico. Phone: +52 58693686, e-mail: cmaciasv@gmail.com I. Cendejas is with the robotics lab, National Polytechnic Institute (IPN), M exico City, Mxico. Phone: +52 5539618735, e-mail: imorenoc0700@ipn.mx V. H. Moreno s is with the robotics lab, National Polytechnic Institute (IPN), M exico City, Mxico. Phone: +52 5529490495 e-mail: vmoreno26@gmail.com

Next in the table 1 requirements are listed according to their functional classication, physics, installation, maintenance, and economic adaptation.
Tabla 1. Identifying Quality Requirements, Mandatory and Desirable

Relative importance of quality requirements


You must perform a balancing of desirable requirements to establish an order of importance with these, which is identied in which should rst focus is, of course, after having met all the mandatory requirements.

Table 2 desirable requirements are obtained from Table 1 on the classication of the same.

Tabla 2. Desirable requirements

Once dened the mandatory requirements and desirable levels of lead weights. The total number of comparisons will be given by the equation 1 where N is the number of desirable requirements. N (N 1) 2

C=

(1) (+) is the total of signs + for the

The relative value is given by the equation where request. (+) 100 C

Ir =

(2)

For the calculation using two comparison values.

(+). Requirement means that the comparison is more important than others. (-). Requirement means that the comparison is more important than others

Thus in table 3 determines the order of importance of desirable requirements, ie requirements that are more important than others desirable.
Tabla 3. Relative Importance Matrix Desirable Requirements

In particular, the requirement RD3 has a higher level of importance on others, being RD5 and RD13 those with lower value of importance, so that the former can be counted more easily than the last three.

Translation into measurable terms


Based on the requirements, it must lead to a measurable level of translation, ie those made by the customer requirements must be dened in measurable terms of engineering, so as to associate directly with a unit of measurement.

Those who can not be directly associated with a unit of measurement, made ??with an explicit meaning, which refer to the activity which it implies, as shown in Table 4.
Tabla 4. Translation into measurable terms

Design Goals
In table 5 shows the design goals reference to where you want to go with the design of the device that will cover the need expressed above.
Tabla 5. Design Goals

House of Quality
In table 6 the house of quality obtained and the relationship between requerimientosobligatorios and desirable, measurable terms and design goals.
Tabla 6. House of Quality

Functional Analysis
In this part of the design, the team must nd solutions to the problems posed specications, and propose a global product model to perform the functions necessary to service the user. At all stages of conceptual design is a process of generating solutions alternatives to be evaluated subject, or constitute the basis for deciding which meets customer expectations as shown in Table 7.
Tabla 7. Functional Analysis