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PRESERVATION OF RIVERS THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION

Ricardo Castro Nunes de Oliveira, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro - Rosiany Possati Campos, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro - Carlos Lima Castro, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.

ABSTRACT - Brazil is a country of beautiful landscapes and vast natural resources. However, with the advance of the agricultural frontier and the urban expansion these resources are highly threatened. Water resources in the Southeast region of Brazil are being subjected to increasing impacts that threaten the resilience of the ecosystem and may collapse the supply of cities such as Rio de Janeiro. This paper contributes on the need for more participation in the management with a strong educational component through models developed by NGOs that act in the region of Paraba do Sul River.

INTRODUCTION Brazil is a tropical country with natural beauties flora, fauna and natural resources, figure 1. Brazil has the largest reserve of fresh water in the world, and the Amazon Forest is considered the lungs of the world. Although, these resources have not been properly used. Lately, the development of the country has happened in a disorganized way. Therefore, many conflicts of interest have happened, for instance, the occupation of river banks, deforestation for agricultural activities and construction of dams for electricity production.

Figure 1 Aspects of Fauna, Flora and Hydric Resources.

In the figure 2, the map shows the vegetal extraction of Pau Brasil tree, after its discovery by the Portuguese. Pau Brasil was an important tree in the sixteen and seventeen centuries, and was almost extinct. His was the first natural resource extracted in Brazil.

Figure 2 - Map shows the vegetal extraction of Pau Brasil tree.

Disorganized growth of the cities, growth of the areas agricultural and the increase of the energy demand promove many conflicts of interest. In the figure 3 and 4 is possible to see the building too close to the river bank. The figure 5 shows the destination of sewage illegally dumped in the river. The figure 6 shows the construction of hydroelectric power plants and the figure 7 shows illegal deforestation for agricultural activities, with many consequences, for instance: floods, damages of natural areas, soil erosion and stream bank erosion, landslides, deforestation, diseases, shortage of fresh water and degradation of ecosystems, (OLIVEIRA,2011), (OLIVEIRA, 2012) .

Figures 3 , 4 - Building too close to the river bank.

Figures 5,6 ,7 - Shows the destination of sewage illegally dumped in the river, the construction of hydroelectric power plants and the illegal deforestation for agricultural activities.

In 1987, the Brundtland Report defined Sustainable Development: it is the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising capacities of the future generations to meet their own needs. Since then environmental policies and new development strategies in order to reduce green house gases emissions and preserve natural resources were implemented.

THE PROJECT DEVELOPED

The Environmental Education Project recovery of Riparian Areas is a project was developed in Paraiba do Sul River, the most important river in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The stakeholders of this project were: Resende City Council; Needy families of the area; Private Companies; Educa Mata Atlntica Non Governmental Organization; The civil society of the region. This project had the participation of the local society; awareness of the importance of the environmental preservation; different age groups involved in the Project with varying degrees of education; creation of a seedlings green house with capacity for 800.000 seedlings per year; formation of agents to promote techniques of planting, soil conservation and creating seedlings; remuneration of poor families to take care of the seedlings planted in the riparian areas of the river. In the figure 8, we can see the phases of the project.

Figure 8 - Phases of the project.

The figures 9 and 10, show some pictures about the project.

Figure 9 Activities developed.

Figure 10 Activities developed.

Finally, the figure 11 shows the area of the project after four years of the implementation, demonstrating the recovery of the area.

Figure 11 - Area of the project after four years of the implementation.

CONCLUSION Dissemination of environmental knowledge, the importance of conserving natural resources and the responsible use of water. Participation of all stakeholders in the projects of environmental education and conservation of natural resources. The management of conflicts in the use of natural resources. Promoting of specific lectures and debates for researchers and

environmentalists. The lesson learned was the participation of the communities was fundamental for the success of the project.

Bibliographic REFERENCES

EDUCA, M.A. (2009) CD Institutional. OLIVEIRA,R.C.N.(2011)Caracterizao das reas de Domnio da Unio e das Faixas Marginais de Proteo apoiado por Modelao Matemtica Estudo de Caso: Mdio Rio Paraba do Sul. Dissertao de Mestrado-POLI/UFRJ.RJ. OLIVEIRA,R.C.N. et. al. (2012) Reduo da Produo de Sedimentos e Recuperao de reas Degradadas Atravs da Implantao de Novos Modelos de Gesto das Faixas Marginais. Estudo de Caso Rio Sesmarias. CAMPOS,R.P. (2011) O Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo: Uma Anlise da Experincia Brasileira. Dissertao de Mestrado-POLI/UFRJ.RJ. http://www.icmbio.gov.br/portal/ http://www.jbrj.gov.br/

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