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Study of Solid Waste Management in Koramangala Ward-151 Bangalore

Submitted By Yashraj Deshmukh Mittapalli Krishna Gaurav Sareen Ishan Abrol Ankit Mohan

Under the guidance ofDr. Anil Abbi, TRDC, Bangalore. As a part of We Care Activity, NMIMS Bangalore.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We take this opportunity to express our profound gratitude and deep regard to our guide Dr. Anil Abbi of TRDC, Bangalore for his exemplary guidance, monitoring and constant encouragement throughout the course of this thesis. The help and guidance given by him throughout the duration of the project has helped us substantially in bringing this project to a satisfactory conclusion. We also take this opportunity to express a deep sense of gratitude to Mr. Ketan Vora and the NMIMS Udyam Committee for their cordial support, valuable information and guidance, which helped us in completing this task through various stages. We are sincerely obliged to Mrs. Geetha Srinavas Reddy, the Hon. Corporator of BBMP Domlur ward for the valuable information and vital guidance provided by her, as well as the people at Domlur DWCC. We are grateful for her cooperation during the period of our assignment. Lastly, we would like to thank Mr. Purshottam of Saahas for his invaluable feedback which was essential in the conclusion of our analysis.

Executive SummaryThis report discusses the types of solid waste, waste generators and stakeholder analysis for the Koramangala region in Bangalore. Most of data and information used stems from our primary study and interaction with stakeholders. The stakeholder analysis enlists major entities and their current actions in solid waste management across various stakeholder categories. We also outlined the basic flow chart for each type of waste, from source to disposal or recycling. Based on data collected in our primary & secondary studies, we have also conducted an elementary analysis for estimating the volume of solid waste and revenue generation for the said region, along with two case studies. The report found that volumes of wet and dry waste generated are comparable to each other. We also found that, from a business perspective, solid waste management is a sector with a high degree of operating leverage. This means that as the scale and scope of operations expands, it can be easily profitable. The field work found that the prices of recycled materials is high due to lower demand, which in turn is due to the high prices. The report suggests solutions from a policy-level and management perspective.

About SVKM's NMIMS University, Bangalore:


SVKM (Shri Vile Parle Kelvani Mandal) has played a pioneering role in the development of education in the country. It has started a number of schools and colleges in the 76 years of its existence. The recognition obtained in 2003 from the Government of India in the form of deemed university status was an important landmark in the development of SVKM's educational activities. By setting up the campus in Bangalore in 2008, the transition of NMIMS from being a Mumbai based university to a pan India University was complete. The Bangalore campus is put up in Koramangala, close to IT institutions like Wipro, Verisign, Toshiba and NDS. The campus comprises of a five-storied building, fully airconditioned and appropriately furnished, harmonising comforts and Aesthetic appeal while conforming to the academic requirements, and is appropriately equipped with state-of-the-at IT facilities. Currently, there are three courses offered at the Bangalore campus; namely PGDM (Post Graduate Diploma in Management) which is a full time two year program, EPGDBM (Executive Post Graduate Diploma in Business Management) which is a one and a half year long course for executives with minimum of five years of work experience and MPE (Management Program for Executives) which is the weekend program for working executives. Finance, Marketing, Operations and HR are the specializations offered in each of the above mentioned programs. Analytics is considered to be the USP of NMIMS's school of business management.

About TRDC (Tropical Research and Development Centre):


Founded in the year 1994 by Dr. Anil Abbi, TRDC is an NGO working in Uttara Kannada, Mysore and Haveri Districts of Karnataka, India. It aims at conservation of natural resources, eradicating poverty through education or in other words, sustainable development. Since its inception, TRDC has effectively carried out activities like promoting energy efficient chula for boiling water, promoting community based rainwater harvesting, conservation of wild fruits trees, rehabilitation of lakes etc. These are few of the numerous welfare projects that have been successfully carried out by TRDC in areas like Sirsi Taluk, Banavasi Hobli, Narur village, etc. Some of the current donors of the ongoing projects are the Axis Bank foundation, Mumbai; GIVE India, Mumbai; Wildlife conservation society, New York etc. To ''foster sustainable communities through education for children, community engagement and natural resources conservation'' is the mission statement of this organization and it seems to be working towards accomplishing this mission with a plethora of welfare activities being carried out effectively and efficiently. TRDC follows a very transparent way of functioning especially, as far as management of the donations received is concerned. The donors can track the amount donated by them all the way till the point the money reaches the beneficiary. This is a unique and a donor friendly methodology adopted by TRDC. This ensures the donors that their money is channelized properly and is actually spent for a social cause.
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Table of Contents
1. 2. 3. Objectives: ................................................................................................................................. 6 Koramangala ward-151: ............................................................................................................. 6 Introduction on waste management in Bangalore: ....................................................................... 6 3.1 Issue Of Solid Waste Management In Koramangala Ward 151:................................................. 8 5. Types of waste generators or producers:....................................................................................... 12 6. Types of Wastes: ......................................................................................................................... 13 7. Volume of waste generated in Kormangala: ................................................................................. 17 8. Employment Opportunities: ......................................................................................................... 18 9. Health hazards of e-waste ............................................................................................................ 19 10. Economics of solid-waste management: ..................................................................................... 21 10.1. Case Study for DWCC Domlur Ward: ................................................................................. 24 10.2. Case Study- Electronic Waste Management Systems: .......................................................... 27 11. Management Solutions for Solid Waste Management in Bangalore: ........................................... 33 12. Conclusions ............................................................................................................................... 39 13. Field Photos:.............................................................................................................................. 40 14. Annexure-1: Field Reports: ........................................................................................................ 49 15. References: ................................................................................................................................ 57

1. Objectives:
Objectives of our project are as follows1. Estimate the volume of solid waste category-wise in the Koramangala ward of BBMP. 2. Find out about category-wise supply chain of waste from its source to the point of disposal for the Koramangala ward. 3. Suggest managerial solutions for efficient waste disposal. 4. Conducing case-study analysis into issues pertinent to solid waste management in Koramangala ward. 2. Koramangala ward-151: The Koramangala ward is situated in the south-eastern part of the city and is a highly sought after residential area. It is divided into 8 blocks spread over approximately 1800 acres. Localities in the ward include K R Garden, Koramangala 1st, 1st A, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 5th A, 6th, 8th Blocks, KHB Block, Kathali Palya, KHB colony, John Nagar, Nirmala Block, Mestri Palya, Jakkasandra Block, SBI colony and Kormangala Village. Many educational institutions are present like St. John's Medical College, IIPM, Amity Global Business School, Jyoti Nivas College, Vemana Institute of Technology, Indian Institute of Astrophysics, NMIMS, and TAPMI. Several software companies like Infosys, Wipro, NDS, Siemens VDO, Microland, ThoughtWorks, Tally Solutions Pvt. Ltd., Paypal, Mindtree, Toshiba Embedded Software India and e-commerce giant Flipkart are located. Many restaurants and fast food outlets like KFC, Dominos, and Taco Bell are present.

3. Introduction on waste management in Bangalore:


With an area of 800 square kilometres and a population of approximately 7.8 million, the city of Bangalore comprises of 8 zones, 198 wards, 350,000 commercial properties and 2.5 million households. The total amount of waste generated in the city per day is about 2730 tonnes making it a per capita of 350 grams of waste generated per person per day. As can be seen from the pie chart, 54%
Others 9%

Sources of Waste generation

Companies and institutions 17% Households 54%

Markets, function halls 20%

Of the total waste generated comes from the households, 20% from markets and function halls, 17% comes from the companies and various institutions and the 9% from various other sources. Only 10% of this waste is segregated at the source of generation. As per the Municipal Solid Waste Management rules, BBMP or the Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike is responsible for taking the waste management as per stipulation. For administrative purposes, BBMP is divided into 8 zones of which, 3 zones are in the old area or the core area and 5 zones are in the new area (adjacent 7 CMC's and 1 TMC). About 70% of the MSW or the Municipal Solid Waste activities, from primary collection to disposal have been outsourced and the rest 30% is managed by the BBMP. There are about 4300 Pourakarmikas or sweepers of BBMP and 10000 sweepers from the contractors who perform door to door collection and sweeping activities. In some of the areas in the new zones, the responsibility of door to door collection is managed by the SHG's or the Self Help Groups which usually comprise of women groups who are below the poverty line. In some areas like the Raheja Residency in Koramangala ward 151, this activity is entrusted to the Residents' Welfare Associations. These associations not only collect, but also segregate compost and recycle the waste as well. The primary collection is performed using pushcarts and auto tippers which are around 11,000 and 650 in number, respectively. The waste is simply collected in the unsegregated form as the segregation is not practiced at the source of generation at about 90% of the places. Another source of waste is the street sweeping which is done both, manually and mechanically. In some areas of high commercial activities, street sweeping is done at the night hours whereas in the VIP areas, it is carried out mechanically. The street sweeping waste is carried along with the primary collection waste to the landfill. Now, the secondary stage in waste management consists of segregation and transportation of waste. There are about 600 MSW transportation vehicles including the Compactors, Tipper Lorries, Dumper Placers, and Mechanical Sweepers belonging to both, the contractors as well as the BBMP. Now, the waste reaches the processing plants. Some of the areas where the RWA's are performing door to door collection, the waste is segregated at the source itself and the organic waste is composted in the community in a small scale. BBMP has setup a 15 ton capacity decentralized plant to process the organic waste as well as recycle the plastic, metal etc. It has also established a one ton decentralized aerobic composting unit at the Malleshwaram market in the west zone using organic waste convertor. The dry waste collection centres have been set up to recycle the dry waste materials like plastic, paper, glass, metal etc.

S No. 1 2

Name of the Project M/s Ramky M/s S.G.R.R.L

Per day Capacity 600 MT 1000 MT

Technology Aerobic composting and scientific landfill Waste to energy; composting and land filling the combustible material Integrated in nature; composting and vermi composting Integrated system

M/s Terrafirma

1000 MT

M/s Organic Waste Ind.

1000 MT

Following are a few processing and disposal companies on the PPP model. The combination of technologies for processing the solid waste is an attempt to achieve sustainability and viability. Generally, about 30-40% of the inert rejects which includes recyclables are going to the scientific landfill. Attempts are being made to utilize all the recyclables. Management of e-waste is also a prominent issue in a city like Bangalore which is the Silicon Valley. Huge quantities of e-waste are generated in the city on a daily basis. Recyclers identified by the Karnataka State Pollution Control Board (KSPCB) are managing the e-waste at large IT firms. E-waste refers to the discarded electrical or electronic devices. All the electronic scrap components, such as CRT's may contain contaminants such as lead, cadmium, beryllium, lithium etc. Recycling of e-waste even in the developed countries may involve significant risk to the workers. Communities and great care needs to be taken to avoid unsafe exposure in recycling operations and leaching of material such as heavy metals from landfills and incinerator ashes. Recycling raw materials from end-of-life electronics is the most effective solution to the growing e-waste problem. Most of the electronic devices contain a variety of materials including metals that can be recovered for future uses. By dismantling and providing reuse possibilities, intact natural resources are conserved and air and water pollution caused by hazardous disposal is avoided. Today, e-waste is one of the most rapidly growing environmental problems due to extensive usage of computers and various other electronic equipments coupled with increasing discarding habits, rapid technological change. There has been a significant increase in the e-waste generation at the household level and the commercial level which needs to be addressed.

3.1 Issue Of Solid Waste Management In Koramangala Ward 151:


The city of Bangalore generates nearly 2800 tonnes of waste everyday from households and commercial establishment and the Koramangala ward 151 constitutes for 18-20 tonnes of this total quantity. Around 70% of this waste is organic in nature whereas the rest 30% is the inorganic and hazardous waste. The collection and disposal systems in the ward can be described as dismal with the Solid Waste Management and Handling Rules (2000) hardly being followed.
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The issues at hand are as written below: Poor implementation of the laid down rules. Increasing waste quantities. Waste is transported to the outskirts of the city unnecessarily only to cause pollution on the account of open burning. Local composting of the organic waste is restricted to a handful of private initiatives. Practically, no attempts are being made to introduce waste segregation at the source. Since there are no efforts of segregation at the source, retrieval of recyclable material is very difficult. Burning of waste takes place even around the residential areas of the ward. Although the existing recycling are well built and are functioning in an organised manner, but they are not getting the much required co-operation. ITC is an exception which is doing well in terms of waste segregation and recycling. A majority of the households and commercial establishments retreat from spending time and money in effective management of the waste they generate. Wastes that are not reported in the MSW totals of the whole city, state and country. Hence, improper estimation of the amounts generated.

From a broad categorization of solid waste point-of-view, we obtained the following proportions of different types of solid waste collected from a particular block in Koramangala. Since the demographics of the ward are pretty much uniform, we can assume it to be true for the whole of Koramangala ward. Following are the proportions we obtained: Type of solid waste Glass(bottles), coloured paper, tetrapak Plastic articles Polythenes Rejects (clothes, shoes etc.) Composition (%) 50 20 20 10

4.Stakeholder Analysis:
Based on our interaction and information collected from various concerned entities, we have come up with a stakeholder analysis.

Stakeholder type
Government

Major players
BBMP

Current action

course

of

NGOs

Saahas, Radio Active

Resident Welfare Apartment complexes like Association (RWAs) Raheja Residency.

Corporate in the processing business

waste ITC,Ramky Enviroengineers, Tetrapak, Caterpillar, CHF, SIMS Recycling

Informal sector

Recyclerslocal businessmen, scrap-dealers (e.g.- Prakash, Muniyappa)

Collect waste from households, RWAs Segregation Landfill Hand over to private parties for processing or disposal Collect from households, commercial enterprises Composting Install waste segregation facilities in some corporate campuses Collect waste from their community Hand over to BBMP, NGOs, corporate entities Sometimes generate income from waste disposal Waste Processing Paper waste- ITC Tetrapak packagesTetrapak Recycling- Ramky Bio-medical wasteRamky E-waste- SIMS Collect from ragpickers, BBMP, NGOs Process the waste, generate profits
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Hospitals

St. Johns Medical Centre

Restaurants, outlets,

fast

food Empire, KFC, Taco Bell,

Bars

Fill-n-Chill, Banana Beach Bar, Maharaja Bar etc.

Educational institutions

Jyothi Nivas College, NMIMS, Kripanidhi College, St. Francis School

Scrap-dealers act as middle-men and pass on the waste to recyclers Generate bio-medical waste and other types of waste Segregate waste during collection Pass on to private parties for incineration, recycling etc. Taco Bell segregates waste. Pass on wet waste to private parties for recycling disposal to landfills etc. Generate glass waste & tetrapak packages waste Glass waste is sold is scrap-dealers Tetrapak packages are planned to be sold to NGOs BBMP collects Few colleges has segregation centre in college itself.

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5. Types of waste generators or producers:

Waste type
Domestic Waste Commercial Waste Institutional Waste

Generators or producers
Household waste-Kitchen, house cleaning, old papers, bottles, packing, crockery, garden trimmings, furnishing materials, etc. Waste generated at business premises, shops, offices, markets, organic, inorganic, and chemically reactive and hazardous waste. Schools, colleges, hospitals, large hotels and restaurants, vegetable markets, fruits, fish etc., religious places, community halls, function sites etc. Unconcerned throwing, littering made by pedestrian traffic, vehicular traffic, stray animals, tree leaves, rubbish from drain cleaning, debris, etc. Waste generated through manufacturing and material processing

Street sweeping

Industrial/trade Waste Debris or Comprises earth, brickbats, stones, wooden logs and related waste, construction rejects etc. Bio-medical Waste Animal waste such as animal tissues, organs, body parts, carcasses, bleeding parts, fluids, blood, waste generated by veterinary hospitals, colleges, discharge from hospitals, animal houses. Microbiology/biotech labs waste sharps like needles, syringes, scalpels, blades, glass, etc. that may cause puncture and cuts. This includes both used and unused sharps. Hazardous Waste Waste with properties that make it dangerous or potentially harmful to human health or the environment. Wastes like batteries, cleaning fluids, pesticides, etc. Sewage Waste Liquid waste containing some solids produced by humans like washing water, faeces, urine, laundry waste and other material

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6. Types of Wastes:
Following are the types of waste as defined by an eminent paper on solid waste management. Based on the source, origin and type of waste a comprehensive classification is described below: 1. Domestic/Residential Waste: This category of waste comprises of the solid wastes that originate from single and multi-family household units. These wastes are generated as a consequence of household activities such as cooking, cleaning, repairs, gardening, redecoration, empty containers, packaging, clothing, old books, newspaper, old furnishings etc., The Households also discard bulky wastes such as furniture and large appliances which cannot be repaired and re-used. 2. Municipal Waste: Municipal waste includes wastes resulting from municipal activities and services such as street waste, dead animals, market waste and abandoned vehicles. However, the term is commonly applied in a wider sense to incorporate domestic wastes, institutional wastes and commercial wastes. 3. Commercial Waste: Included in this category are solid wastes that originate in offices, wholesale and retail stores, restaurants, hotels, markets, warehouses and other commercial establishments. Some of these wastes are further classified as garbage and others as rubbish. Waste generated at business premises, shops, offices, markets, departmental stores (paper, packing material, spoiled, discarded goods) can be classified as organic, inorganic, chemically reactive and hazardous waste. 4. Institutional Waste: The Institutional wastes are those arising from institutions such as schools, universities, hospitals, research institutes etc. It includes wastes, which are classified as garbage and rubbish, as well as wastes that are considered to be hazardous to public health and to the environment. 5. Garbage: The Garbage is the term applied to animal and vegetable wastes resulting from the handling, storage, sale, preparation, cooking and serving of food. Such wastes contain organic matter, which produces strong odours and therefore attracts rats, flies and other vermin. It requires immediate attention in its storage, handling and disposal. 6. Rubbish: Rubbish is a general term applied to solid wastes originating in households, commercial establishments and institutions, excluding garbage and ashes. 7.Ash: Ashes are the residues from the burning of wood, coal, charcoal, coke and other combustible materials, for cooking and heating in houses, institutions and small industrial establishments. When produced in large quantities at power generating plants and factories these wastes are classified as industrial wastes. Ashes consist of a ne powdery residue, cinders and clinker often mixed with small pieces of metal and glass. 8. Bulky Waste: This category includes all bulky household wastes, which cannot be accommodated in the normal storage containers of households. For this reason they require special collection. In developed countries bulky wastes include large household appliances such as cookers, refrigerators and washing machines as well as furniture, crates, vehicle parts,
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tyres, wood, trees and branches. Metallic bulky wastes are sold as scrap metal but some portion is disposed of at sanitary landfills. 9. Street Waste: This term applies to wastes that are collected from streets, walkways, parks and vacant lots. 10. Dead Animal: This category includes dead animals that die naturally or accidentally killed. It does not include carcass and animal parts from slaughter houses which are regarded as industrial waste. Dead animals are divided into two groups, large and small. Among the large animals are horses, cows, goats, sheep, etc. Small animals include dogs, cats, rabbits, rats etc. The reason for this differentiation is that large animals require special equipment for lifting and handling during removal. If not collected and removed promptly with due care, dead animals are a threat to public health as they attract flies and other vermin as they putrefy. Their presence in public places is particularly offensive and emits foul smell from the aesthetic point of view. 11. Construction and Demolition Waste: The Construction and demolition wastes are generated due to the construction, repair and demolition of houses, commercial buildings and other structures. This waste primarily consists of earth, stones, concrete, bricks, lumber, plumbing materials, heating systems and electrical wires etc. 12. Industrial Waste: This category consists of the discarded solid material out of manufacturing processes and industrial operations. This covers a vast range of substances, which are unique to each industry. Normally industries produce hazardous and non hazardous wastes which they must dispose off by following standards laid down framed by the Government of India 13. Bio medical waste: Hospitals treating more than 1000 patients are required to register themselves with State Pollution Control Board. Hospitals/research laboratories shall be responsible for proper collection, reception, treatment, storage and disposal of bio medical waste. 14. Hazardous Waste: Hazardous wastes may be defined as wastes of industrial, institutional or consumer origin which, because of their physical, chemical or biological characteristics cause potential danger to humanity and the environment. In some cases although the active agents may be liquid or gaseous, they are classified as solid wastes because they are confined in solid containers. Typical examples are: solvents, paints, pesticides etc., whose used containers frequently get mixed with municipal wastes and become part of the urban waste stream. Certain hazardous wastes cause explosions in incinerators 15. Sewage Waste: The solid by-products of sewage treatment are classified as sewage wastes. They are mostly organic and derived from the treatment of organic sludge from both the raw and treated sewage. The inorganic fraction of raw sewage such as grit is separated at the preliminary stage of treatment. As it contains organic matter which may contain pathogens, they must be buried /disposed off without delay.

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Most of the above types of waste have a lot of overlap and are thus not suitable for any real analysis. Our study found that following are the significant types of waste from a perspective of study and analysis, especially for the Koramangala ward, or even Bangalore in general Paper waste Plastic waste Organic waste Tetrapak waste E-waste

Paper waste flow chart:


Segregation
Households Scrap Dealer Recyclers

Educational institutions

Segregation

Offices

Segregation

ITC

Plastic waste flow chart:


Land fill Super Market
Recycle

Scrap Dealers Households


(

Recycling plant Raw material for industries Aluminium

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Organic waste flow chart:


Dumping
Households BBMP Landfill

Restaurants

Private contractors

Composting

Fertilizer

Supermarkets

NGOs

Biogas

Fuel

Tetrapak waste flow chart:


Bars Scrap Dealers Paper

Tetrapak Ltd

Recycling

Supermarkets

NGOs

Roofing

E-waste flowchart:
Plastic IT office
Recycle

Thirdparty Electronic Shops

SIMS(Company)
(

Copper, Aluminium Aluminium Rare Earth

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7. Volume of waste generated in Kormangala:


Dry Waste Avg. Daily No. of waste waste(kg/day generating units ) 47 Negligible 121 2 220 Negligible 14 137 135 4.5 16 15 32 7 77 5 25 12 14 12 400 15 5 42 23000 0.5 46716 595 Wet Waste Total Daily Waste 0 242 0 1918 0 240 224 0 300 168 0 75 0 23000 26674 Total Avg. Daily Daily waste(kg/day) Waste Negligible 0 Negligible 0 30 6600 67 938 Negligible 0 55 880 5 160 Negligible 0 10 250 13 182 411 0 Negligible 0 0 0.5 23000 591.5 32010

Sr. no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Type of Waste generators Chemists General Practioners Restaurants Hospitals IT Companies Supermarkets Fast food outlets Apparel Stores Schools Educational Institutions Residential Societies Electronic Stores Stationeries Independent Households Total Waste volume

VOLUME OF WASTES:
CATEGORIES &PROJECTIONS-: Total amount of waste generated daily in Koramangala ward is 57552 kg/day.

Waste generated by Koramangala Ward

45%
55%

Total Daily Dry Waste Total Daily Wet Waste

0%

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That is equivalent to 57.56 tonnes/day.BBMP records show that they currently collect about 46.67tonnes/day. That means the efficiency of BBMP is about 80%. Following was the basis for the data taken in the above table We visited justdial.com and requested all the vendors for a particular category of product/service in the Koramangala region. We then checked if each of the stores was located in the Koramangala ward as decided by BBMP. We counted the number of vendors that were in the list we got. We then took waste quantity data for a representative sample from each category, either from our data collected earlier, or by visiting the one particular vendor in particular. We collected wherever available, seperately for dry and wet waste was. The data collected through this exercise can be seen in the table above. The above table also shows the total dry and wet waste generated by each category of establishments. Also calculated is the total dry waste & total wet waste generated by the Koramangala ward. The total number of households in the Koramangala ward was not possible to be calculated by the method we employed. However, we used the quantity collected by BBMP, as they currently only collect from households. This was a necessary approximation due to lack of data. Limitation- The data from hoseholds is that of waste collected, not waste generated. It is possible that that there are households that BBMP does not currently collect waste from, but obviously they generate waste.

8. Employment Opportunities:
Pourakarmikas are the ones who collect Garbage from individual houses and also other shops. About 21,000 pourakarmikas are working for the BBMP and out of these 4,000 are working directly under the BBMP, whereas the rest are under private contractors. They are paid around Rs.5400 per month. Hasirudala is a city-wide waste-pickers association. BBMP has given authorization for the members to collect waste from any region within BBMP jurisdiction. However, this association does not itself pay anything to the waste-pickers. THe employing organisations pay them. There are also segregation centers run by several NGOs like Saahas, Kartavya etc. From the primary data, In Kormangala area we have a segregation unit run by Saahas NGO. There are around 6 permanent employees working there who are receiving 6000 per month and also additional benefits like insurance etc. There also supervisors who are receiving Rs.9000 per month and managers are also paid well. Solid waste management cell in govt offices employs engineers in all levels.
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There are also other employment opportunities provided for waste pickers, Truck Drivers, waste dealers, recycling industries like SIMS, ITC which consume recyclable waste to produce recycled products, factory process workers.

9. Health hazards of e-waste


Just after talking about the employment aspect of this sector, it is important to consider the public health aspect of waste management. Apart from minor health hazards related to handling wet waste etc. The major health hazard is during handling of e-waste. 1. Public Health Risk and occupational hazards- A study showed that ratio of metal exposure on health of human body in Indian slums is high. 50% of the people are unaware of the environmental and health impacts of electronic items. Ratio of pollutant metals such as lead, cadmium, beryllium and other metallic toxics is over 60% which have an adverse impact on human and environment. 2. Presence Harmful Material- Presence of harmful metals in e-waste like lead, beryllium affects the health of people resulting in respiratory and skin problems. 3. Informal Sector- About 95% of the e-waste recycles through inappropriate methods and slums in the country such as burning, acid leaching and dismantling of electronic item through untrained workers without any protective measures. Rising number of informal recyclers and informal methods of recycling is leading to major occupational hazards such as toxicity to worker, respiratory irritation or damage to eyes, skin through acid contact. 4. Environment Burden of E-waste- The increasing amount of e-waste on landfills has led to the ground water pollution, air pollution and acidification of soil. Almost 40% of the lead in landfills is made by consumer electronics. Almost 40% of the lead in landfills is made by consumer electronics. Lead, the major metal used in electronics enters biological system through dumping at landfills which further affects humans and environment. This has recurring affect on plants, animals and bio-organisms. 5. Inappropriate Burning of E-waste- Inappropriate burning of e-waste results in the emission of toxic fumes, dioxins and furans resulting in depletion of ozone layer. Air emission of tin, lead and mercury is higher in slums. Trend Analysis- The trend points out that there is lack of awareness among the local people and recyclers living in the slums about the harmful effects of e-waste on the society and community. This also indicates that lack of initiative has been taken by the government or the companies to inform the unorganized sector. This may provide us as an advantage for our company to get broken electronics from the recyclers and provide them with sufficient livelihood. Inappropriate burning of e-waste results in the emission of toxic fumes, dioxins and furans resulting in depletion of ozone layer. However, shortage of adequate resources to recycle the e-waste needs to be fulfilled with more ecological and sustainable way. There is need to communicate, educate and inform the recyclers and general public about the benefits of e-waste recycling in an ethical manner which may motivate them to donate or buy our recycled products.
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Environmental Damage by the e-waste exemplifies that burning and dumping of ewaste can harm the environment. So, it brings out the opportunity of recycling or refurbishing the electronic waste in an appropriate manner.

Social Trends: Burden of e-waste Public health risk Environmental damage Import of e-waste Rapid modernization

Industrial Trends Unorganised Recyclers Rise of electronic market Second hand goods market Increase in the rate of obsolescence Low-level of awareness India becoming ground of e-waste Modernization of lifestyle

Go-Recycle limited- a company which recycle, and refurbish the electronic waste generated by the households and businesses

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10. Economics of solid-waste management:


Here is a brief look at how the prices of plastic and paper waste change as it travels down the supply chain. 1) Plastic WasteFrom households to consumers: Rs. 14/kr From scrap dealer to plant: Rs 16/kg Revenue generated: Rs 30/kg 2) Paper WasteFrom households to Ragpickers: Rs 5.5/kg From Ragpicker to scrap dealer: Rs 7/kg From scrap dealer to recycling plant: Rs 8-9/kg As large amount of paper waste is generated out of which only 15% is recycled and rest is sent to landfills. There is large scope for the business opportunities in this area as there are no established players in the industry. In general, following are the prices paid to the general public by the scrap dealers.

Type of waste News paper, books Plastic (soft and Hard) Tetrapak E-waste

Price/kg 5.5 9 8 18

price of different waste


20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 18

8 Price/kg

5.5

News paper,books

Plastic(soft and hard)

Tetrapak

E-waste

Type of Waste

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Market-based approaches for solid waste management: The economic approach to environmental policy has now been generally accepted (at least in principle) in most industrialized countries. It stresses the advantages of economic instruments, known as market-based instruments (MBIs) which seek to modify human behaviour through the price mechanism. The basic idea is that MBIs would be deployed in the economy in order to correct for market failure. MBIs have the further advantage that they fit neatly into the cost-benefit approach and principle of management. A range of different MBIs could be implemented, including so-called product charges (waste disposal taxes) and deposit-refund systems (in essence a combined tax and subsidy system). Administrative charges (covering among other things disposal site licensing), recycling credits (paid to agencies responsible for recovering elements of MSW) and material levies, all represent steps in the direction of the MBI approach. MBIs could be applied in the waste management system in order to raise finance and/or stimulate prescribed behavior via incentives. Financing charges (user charges) have been used to facilitate the collection, processing and storage of waste, or the restoration of old hazardous waste sites. Incentive charges can be used to achieve multiple objectives such as, waste minimization, source reduction and increase reuse/recycling. Principles of solid waste management: This is another economics-based approach to management of solid waste. A basic principle of rational solid waste management ought to be benefit-cost analysis (BCA). According to this economic principle no particular waste management configuration is chosen unless benefits exceed costs and the optimal scale of activity for any choice is the point where the difference between benefits and costs is maximized. Finally, for any given level of waste minimize the costs of managing that waste. Waste can be reduced at source in two ways. The waste from the product can be reduced by concentrating the product (as with recent developments in washing powers) thus reducing the volume and probably the weight of product waste. Concentration also reduces the waste from the associated packaging or container. The figure below shows a simplified waste flow for product and packaging waste.

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The next figure shows stylized costs and benefits from preventing post-consumer waste (PCW) from reaching final environments (land, water and air).

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The outcome of this is as follows: i) The economic efficiency (benefit-cost) approach to waste disposal requires that the marginal benefits of reduced final disposal (= avoided damages) be equated with the marginal costs of preventing waste from reaching final disposal; ii) The costs of final disposal prevention comprise source reduction costs and recycling costs, such that the prevention cost function is the least cost combination of the available technologies. Some of the specific values for different rates and revenue will be covered in the case study for DWCC, Domlur Ward. The economics of the SWM sector is evident from the result of the case-study.

10.1. Case Study for DWCC Domlur Ward:


DWCC is a shining example for SWM efforts in Bangalore. This case-study is based on our interactions with the people at DWCC, Domlur. This is a project by BBMP.However, what makes this a shining example is the fact that the Corporator for Domlur Ward, Mrs. Geetha Srinivas Reddy has taken the initiative and efforts to make it what can be. The collaborators for this DWCC are as follows24

Concept- Solid Waste Management Round Table (SWMRT), Bangalore. Technical support- FEM Sustainable Social Solutions Funding- CHF International, Caterpillar Foundation Management- Waste Wise Trust Man-power- Hasirudala Resident Welfare Association(RWA), Domlur Ward

The waste is collected by Door-to-Door collection method, and also from people depositing waste right at the DWCC itself. Following are the places currently seviced by this DWCC MIG Flats BDA layout Domlur Layout Domlur 2nd stage

The DWCC also currently collects waste from 3 out the 6 RWAs in Domlur. It plans to cover them in the coming period. The current collection is around 10,000 kg/month.Considering this low value; it is obvious that the potential is huge. The following graph is indicative of the traction in their operations-

Waste Collected(in Kg)


12000 10000 8000 Kg 6000 4000 2000 Waste Collected(in Kg)

Month

As we can see from the above graph, the DWCC has expanded its waste-collection catchment in phases. This is indicated by sudden jump in waste collection values, follwed by a period of near-constant quantity. Also, the Others category includes broken glass, Kurkure/Lays type packages.

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Dry waste categories in Domlur Ward DWCC


15%

40% 15%

Brown paper waste Newspapers, cardboard Plastic items others

30%

This is secondary data that we have taken from DWCC Office, Domlur, and is their intellectual property. We do not claim any rights to that information.

Following is the means of disposal of these waste categoriesWaste category Brown paper Newspapers, cardboards Plastic items & polythenes Broken glass Mode of disposal Recyclers like ITC etc. Paper waste dealers Plastic waste dealers Scrap dealers

It is interesting to note that almost none of waste is sold straight to recyclers, but it is sold to middle-men. This is because the waste volumes they collect currently are not large enough that recyclers accept directly. However, it is certain that as the project gains traction and scale, the DWCC will be able to reach out to recyclers directly. This will eliminate the middle-men and increase the price they get on sale of waste. We also obtained the the unit prices that the DWCC currently gets from the sale of waste. We also have the prices the DWCC pays if households segregate the waste, and have further an income-expense analysis based upon certain assumptions and gathered data.

Waste category
Brown paper

Weight (Kg)
4000

Price Revenue obtained(Rs) (Rs.)


6 24000

Price Expenditure paid(Rs) (Rs)


3 12000
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Newspapers, cardboards 3000 Plastic items &polythene 1500 Broken glass 1500 12 1 18000 1500 7 0.5 Operation al Expenses Salary Expenses 10500 750 6 18000 5 15000

Total Revenue

61500

38250 70000

So we can see that, the Total Revenue=61500; Total expenses=1,08,250. Thus we can see that the unit is loss-making. This is where the funding partners are critical. However, as realisation rates improve with increasing volumes, the Total Revenue will go up significantly. Also, most part of the expenses is a fixed cost. Thus, with significant operating leverage, the possibility of profits is high with increasing scale of operations. On a social front, it is interesting to note that even public from other surrounding areas also sell some of the waste to the DWCC.

10.2. Case Study- Electronic Waste Management Systems:


Abstract Electronic waste or e-waste consists of broken or unwanted electrical or electronic parts or equipment as a whole. The rapid obsolescence of electronics goods, compounded by dumping of electronic goods by the developed countries, has brought the e-waste problem in India into an acute crisis. Bangalore, the home of over 135 overseas and domestic technology firms, figures prominently in the danger list of wards that face e-waste hazard. E-waste including computers, refrigerators and televisions contain more than 1,000 different toxic materials and are non-biodegradable. Most of the e-waste in Koramangala is collected by NGOs working in collaboration with BBMP. Concerted efforts by various players in electronic product value chain, academic community and the government are required to evolve and implement a broad electronic waste management system in Koramangala. This study discusses the current e-waste management system in Koramangala and proposes a new system.
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Introduction The increasing number of information technology firms is choking Bangalore, the Silicon Plateau of India, under heaps of e-waste. Improper disposal or contact with these materials can lead to contamination of the surrounding ecosystem and can be a major health hazard. A Greenpeace International Report (2005) study conducted found that toxic heavy metals and organic compounds can be released from e-waste, particularly as computers are broken down during the recycling and disposal processes. Report (2004) says that over 1,000 toxic gases are released while burning the e-waste and the quantity of dioxins, copper and lead found in the soil is 20 times higher than the required level. As many as 1,000 tons of plastic, 300 tons of lead, 0.23 tons of mercury, 43 tons of nickel and 350 tons of copper are annually generated in Bangalore alone. An extensive study conducted by the authors involving survey of house hold users and the other major users of electronic goods; reveals that the annual e-waste generated in Bangalore is approximately 8000 tons and is showing an increasing trend.

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Contemporary Electronic Waste Management System at Koramangala A comprehensive study of the existing e-waste management system in Koramangala was conducted. The study provides insights into the existing e-waste practices of the various stakeholders in the system. The figure illustrates the existing e-waste management system in Koramangala and the following paragraphs discuss the same. Electronic Goods Supply Chain: In a study conducted, 50 organizations in Bangalore were considered. The objective of the study was to understand the prevailing reverse logistics practices in the electronics goods manufacturing and selling organizations. The general response includes: 58% of the companies do not want to recycle or retreat the products since they feel that this activity involves additional cost, 32% of companies follow the strategy of purchase recyclable products and design products which are environment friendly and 6.9 % of the companies opt for pre-design, through which they focus on designing the product that can be completely recycled. The systems of reverse logistics prevailing in various organizations; 47% of the manufacturing companies responded that those organizations do Remanufacturing/Refurbishing. Majority of the retailers and wholesalers sell the returned products to brokers who are part of informal channel resulting in disposing the returned product in an unscientific manner. Some companies (0.58 %) throw to land-fill which indicates the apathy towards environment. The barriers to initiate the scientific reverse logistics practices were listed; more than 30% of the companies feel that lack of financial resources, 52% attribute to the absence of a comprehensive system, 10% indicate management inattention and 30% of the companies have mentioned more than one barrier.
29

The primary goal of reverse logistics activities; 42 % of the companies responded that they are proactive i.e. their main focus is on satisfying the customer needs by involving them in the design stage. 33% are reactive and focus on complying with the existing laws and competing with others. 18% are value seeking and develop products that are completely recyclable and include the environmental aspects in to business strategies. The responses for why they initiate reverse logistics practices; 72% say protect margin, refurbishing the returned products or selling the components of the products. 47% opt for competitive reasons, 27.7% recapture of value in the returned products, 11.1% feared Legal disposal issues and 8.3% wanted to build clean channel image.

Prevailing reverse logistics practices


80 60 40 20 0 No Purchase Opt for Others recycling recyclable pre-design products 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Barriers to initiate reverse logistics practices

Comparison of the modus operandi of authorized Indian recyclers: Waste collection areas Trishyiraya Major metros such as Chennai, Bangalore, Pune, Delhi & Mumbai Limited to Bangalore Anywhere in India Methodology Exports

Shreds the e-waste

To smelters of developed nations

E Parisaraa Ash Recyclers

Gravity separation

Not Applicable

Sorting, dismantling, Not Applicable Segregation & Processing as per WEEE norms

Statistics of E-Waste in Koramangala: For the purpose of the study, the NGO Saahas was contacted and their e-Waste management activities were analyzed. Saahas has set up dedicated e-waste collection centers at IT
30

organizations like Microsoft and ANZ which have collaborated with them and provide them with their accumulated e-waste. In addition, they have also set up various common e-waste collection points across strategic locations in Koramangala. No. of IT Companies in Koramangala No. of E-waste collection centres No. of E-waste management and storage centres Planned intake capacity of Saahas Actual intake by Saahas Authorizing Agency Concerned NGO Scrap dealer rates for e-waste Average generated e-waste by IT organizations in Koramangala which collaborate with Saahas The discrepancy in the intake of e-waste generated by these IT companies, and collected by Saahas is due to the fact that Saahas currently does not collect e-waste from all the organisations, but from a very limited set of organisation. The rest dispose their waste through BBMP. Types of e-waste collected: 1. Bulbs 2. Cassettes 3. CDs Expensive and classified items such as hard drives, monitors, processors etc are handled internally. Potential revenue to be generated through sale of e-waste for recycling purposes for Sahaas: Existing: Rs. 2000 per month (using existing intake) Potential: Rs. 10000 per month (assuming maximum intake capacity is being utilized) Segregation and dismantling: a closer look Activity Positive Negative 135 36 2 ~2 Tonnes per month ~400 Kgs per month Karnataka State Pollution Control Board Saahas Rs 4-5/ kg ~50 Kg Per month

Segregation

Materials can be used again facilitates recycling Retrieving process is easier.

Child Labor. Improper maintenance. Child Labour. Improper maintenance. Crude method Environmental pollution. Lack of protective equipment. Child Labour.

Dismantling

Recycling

Material can be reused.

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Improper maintenance. Disposal Only non-recyclable material None is Disposed

Materials recovered
Part Monitor Recovered CRT ,Circuit board and plastic casing Motherboard, Processor, RAM, Graphic card, Audio card Floppy drive, CD drive, BUZZ and other small parts Recovery process Manual work screwdriver using

CPU

Manual work using hammer, pliers and screw driver. Burning to retrieve copper. Gold is recovered using acid.

Recommendations:

Problem

Recommendation

The quantities of e-waste generated are huge. Extensive tracking done of quantities Difficult to get credible estimates of volumes generated through a well established generated inventory system. All generators will have to maintain a register of e-waste generated and the disposal route. This inventory system will help the recycling industry to cope with the capacities generated. Generators are unwilling to responsibility for waste generated take Through widespread awareness -Concept of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) can be strengthened. This will motivate e-waste generators to participate along with the other Stakeholders to strengthen e-waste recycling and disposal systems.

Recycling processes (e.g. gold extraction) are Identify the polluting processes and introduce polluting and a threat to human health alternatives Informal sector works under a shroud of Give incentives to the informal sector to secrecy upgrade their facilities and support them to come forward to seek authorization for their facilities Authorization of facilities is a tedious process All stakeholders could come together to form a
32

Regulatory body which will conduct regular audits and recommend authorization. This will make the process transparent and authorization will be simplified Co-existence of formal and informal sector Bring the two sectors together into a dialogue so that optimal recycling processes can be discussed and demarcations drawn with respect to areas of operation

11. Management Solutions for Solid Waste Management in Bangalore:


Before we move on to the solutions, theoretical as well as practical, it is prudent to have a look at the failures from an economic point-of-view. Waste Management Failures: The failures can act as direct pointers at a set of Do-Not category of solutionsRational decision making about solid waste management is l imited by a series of failures. Their severity and extent, however, might vary. Four basic categories of failure can be distinguished: Information failure: databases on waste generation and disposal are deficient. There is a lack of sources of data on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and industrial hazardous waste generation and management. This is, in our opinion, the most important, and critical, in our experience of trying to collect data, along with information about SWM in Koramangala region. Lack of systems thinking: few Municipal Organizations have taken an overall systems perspective. Solutions to problems have been piecemeal and reactionary. Market failure: In general, individual functions in the waste disposal service are not correctly priced. Typically the waste collection and disposal service (for MSW) is paid for via general taxation. Thus waste items do not carry a price tag for the individual waste generator, corresponding to the marginal social costs of collection and disposal. The result is that the financial costs of waste disposal (as borne by waste generators) continue to be relatively low, representing an under-pricing of the waste assimilation capacity service of the environment. Economic analysis indicates that too much waste will be produced in a market system in which environmental damage (external costs) from the waste is not reflected in the prices of the products initially produced and consumed in the market. The market fails to allocate
33

resources efficiently because prices fail to reflect full social cost. The proper costs of landfill, incineration and composting are not reflected in end-product prices in the market place. This results in a further bias against most reuse and recycling activities. Having briefly reviewed the failures that have inhibited efficient waste management policy and practice in the past, we now examine a market-based approach long advocated by economists. In order to simplify the discussion each of the selected MBIs (levies, charges and deposit refunds) will be related to the problem of packaging waste (although the significance and magnitude of the problem is open to dispute). Solutions from an economics perspectiveA materials levy is an example of an input tax and would be imposed on the raw materials used to manufacture packaging, with due account being taken of existing rates of recycling and reuse. To meet the criterion of economic efficiency and to conform to the Polluter Pays Principle (PPP), the size of the levy needs to be related directly to the environmental damage done by the production and consumption of the packaging. A product charge is by contrast an output tax, a charge on the packaging and end-product itself. The tax would be related to the potential waste disposal and pollution impact. Products made from wholly recycled materials could be exempted and products made partly from recycled materials could carry a reduced charge. Both the material levy and product charge can in principle induce a change in the amount of packaging per product, i.e. a source reduction impact; and a change in the level of recycling that takes place at the point of consumption. The levy stimulates recycling because it raises the price of virgin materials relative to recycled (secondary) materials. A deposit-refund system is essentially a combination of a tax and a subsidy. The consumer of packaging/container materials is given the right to a refund (R) is he/she returns the waste product to the seller, i.e. to an authorized recycling/reuse point. For this right the consumer may have had to pay a formal deposit at the time of the purchase of the product, or would have paid a higher product price. A marketable permit system would create a credit system for industry related to a government imposed recycling activity target rate or recycled content standard for selected products. One of the most fundamental obstacles to previous attempts to boost recycling activity has been the size and volatility of the markets for recovered materials. The permit system would potentially ensure end markets for recovered materials. Government would set some industrywide recycling rate (or recycled content standard) for say paper products (e.g. newsprint) but individual firms could comply with the policy in one of two ways: they could recycle the required percent of materials themselves or they could buy permits (credits) from another firm which exceeds the recycling requirements. By allowing firms flexibility, firms with the
34

lowest cost of increasing recycling activities are given an incentive to do so, whereas firms with high costs are able to purchase virgin material rights. Levies or charges could be implemented by government or industry. Industrial self-regulation would undoubtedly mean lower scheme-administration costs although monitoring would still be required.

Management SuggestionsIn this section, we have tried to apply certain general and management concepts to solving the SWM problem. 1) Jidoka: This is a Japanese tem meaning correction at source itself. Same thing can be applied to solid waste management also i.e segregation at source. As large industries, Residential apartments, IT companies are source of large waste it is better if we install a segregation unit there so that the dry waste useful can be sent directly to recycling industries. In houses a lot of wet waste is generated every day. Some companies like daily dump have come up with a product which can convert organic waste into manure. This can be installed in individual houses at very less cost and the manure can be used to grow vegetables and fruits in the gardens. It can also be replicated in the Residential Apartments where Mechanical Composter can be used. 2) Biogas Plant: In houses every one can install a biogas generator at a lower price. The input for this is food waste and wet waste generated in homes and also microbes which act as catalyst and the output biogas can be used for cooking in rural and urban areas.By this there are lot of benefits as expenses will come down and also every one can have the satisfaction of contributing to the environment. 3) Data management: To improve data management there should be commitment to improving reliability of the waste data from the staff and authorities. Greater confidence in data will help in monitoring the efficiency of the collection, transportation, and process and disposal option. It will also help in monitoring the unauthorized activities, by monitoring the number of trucks and trips made by trucks to the specified disposal site. 4) Public-private partnerships: Developing public-private partnerships leading to the privatization of some aspects of garbage collection, recovery and disposal. Atleast one segregation and composting center should present in every area in Bangalore so that transportation cost can be reduced and efficiency can be increased. 5) Taxation: Garbage tax should be levied against large and small generators for the disposal of wastes. Some incentives should be given to the industries or Apartments who are following Zero waste management. 6) Training and Education: Encouraging the involvement of local NGOs in working on various environmental awareness programmes and areas related to waste management including educating the public about the importance and necessity of better waste management.
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7) Involvement of Students: Engineering and Post graduate students should be asked to work on the technical aspects like recycling of waste and also some new products which are economical and efficient. The BBMP should fund colleges if possible for the research in this field. These should be added as a course in school so that awareness is generated in primary level. 8) Equipment: Well-designed community bins have to be placed in commercial areas depending on the quantity of waste generated. These should be provided with partition for separate collection of waste and proper coloring and labeling on the bins so that it is easy for disposal. 9) Monitoring: The monitoring of the activities during collection, transfer, process and disposal needs to become an integral part of the waste management system until all the activities follow the required standard. The municipal authority not only has to monitor their own staff activities but also the activities carried out by the private organizations carrying out their services. Recommendations for Implementation of recycling MSW Other than the policy-level and management solutions to the problem of solid waste management, the following recommendations can be implemented utilizing the concept of 3Rs. Promoting storage and segregation of waste at source 1. Involving the informal sector & extending financial help to NGOs and co-operatives. 2. Organizing them for into door step "waste collectors" by motivating them to stop picking up soiled and contaminated solid waste and instead collect recyclable clean material directly from the households. 3. The upgraded rag-pickers on becoming door step waste-collectors may be given an identity card by the NGOs organizing them so that they may have acceptability in society. Processing of Municipal Solid Wastes 1. Promote segregation at source till 100% source segregation is achieved the mixed waste containing recyclable material may be subjected to segregation at the secondary level. 2. If waste is of high calorific value consider Waste to Energy (WTE) conversion options. 3. Special care must be taken prior to considering 4. WTE technologies for treatment of MSW waste. Promote Composting of Waste Composting reduces (separated) biodegradable waste to 25-30 % of its initial weight. By adopting composting technology for treatment of MSW, municipal authorities will save up to 55% of waste going to landfill. Role of Industrial Sector & EPR
36

1. The central and state governments may consider introducing the concept of Extended Producers Responsibility (EPR). 2. Industry needs to realize the problems their packaging material creates once they are discarded by the purchaser of their products. 3. Ideally, industries should show self commitment (e.g. in form of a sector agreement) to reduce waste from packaging and reuse or recycle production waste as much as possible. Governments Role 1. Encourage technology advancements for waste recycling 2. Help create logistic chains and market for recyclable products. 3. Examine the issue of recycling within the framework of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR). 4. Promote the use of re-usable or eco-friendly packaging material. 5. Direct the industries to reduce the packaging material and its composition. 6. Levy eco-surcharge on hard-to-recycle or ecologically unfriendly packaging to encourage compliance. 7. Help in marketing of compost through extension methods to the agricultural sector. Reduce, Reuse and Recycling 3Rs fosters cooperation among waste generators, waste collectors processors and manufacturers. Recycling allows for production and consumption with reduced depletion of natural resources and energy, and can reduce the negative impact on the environmental system (air, water and soil). Waste Management Hierarchy

Steps in the Recycling Chain


37

Municipal Waste Storage Depot

Treatment Plant

ORGANIC

Households/ Shops/ Establishment RECYCLABLE

Disposal site

Waste Purchaser Depot

Recycling Industry

Semi wholesaler / Whole sellers depot

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12. Conclusions
The problem of solid waste is especially pertinent to the city of Bangalore. Thus, the quantity of different types of waste generated by different waste generators was calculated on the basis of whatever primary and secondary data that we could obtain. Where all this waste ended up, and the supply chain for each type of waste, along with t he various parties involved seemed important from a managerial point of view. Thus, we prepared flow charts to visually display the same. The solution to the said problem was approached from a policy level perspective, as well as from an economics & management perspective. Thus, we have listed out the same in our report. We have also included two case studies to show the SWM scenario, economics and the current practices on specific cases. A broad level picture of the various facets of this critical issue was attempted in this report.

39

13. Field Photos:


Domlur DWCC:

40

Koramangala BBMP Office (Ward no 151):


41

BBMP Head Office:

42

Koramangala Waste Management Centre (Run by Saahas NGO)

43

44

45

St.Johns Hospital:

46

Residential Apartments and Restaurants:

47

EjipuraPlant(Near NGV):

48

14. Annexure-1: Field Reports:


Visit to BBMP Head OfficeMr. C.H Ananthswamy, Chief Engineer, SWD was not available, hence Average total solid waste collected in Bangalore: 4000-6000 tonnes. The cell is newly formed and hence the segregation of quantity of solid waste as per type of waste is not available. Data for Koramangala ward available with BBMP Head Office is as follows54 tonnes/day 2-3 trucks employed 40 people employed for collection of solid waste 6 auto-tippers are also used in solid waste collection. Solid waste for Koramangala ward is taken to a private segregation and treatment plant near National Games Village (NGV), Koramangala. Contact for the plant facility- Mr. Chandrasekhar We took photographs with the people at SWM cell.

Visit to Koramangala Ward OfficeWe met Mr. Sivalingappa, Asst. Engineer, Koramangala Ward (151). The information we obtained from Koramangala Ward Office varied slightly from the information available with BBMP Head Office. Total solid waste from Koramangala Ward is around 46.67 tonnes/day. Dry waste collected every Saturday; wet waste is collected everyday. Recently, the competent authority has issued a rule that every household is to segregate the waste from the household or the apartment system into dry waste and wet waste. Segregation at source is not 100% achieved till now and the BBMP is working on educating the community and creating awareness. The major sources of solid waste in Koramangala Ward are Koramangala Club, Jyotiniwas College Road, St. Johns and the Koramangala Water Tank.

The infrastructure employed for solid waste collection by the ward is as follows
49

7 lorries 3 compactors

10-12 auto-tippers The solid waste collected from the Kormangala ward is taken to a location near the HT line near Empire Hotel for composting. The plastic, e-waste is often taken away from there by NGOs or other private parties. Some of the solid waste is taken to Mandoor and S. Bingipura landfill sites. BBMP does not collect waste currently from hotels, restaurants or corporate offices. They were said to be giving the waste generated by them to third-parties for disposal. Guidelines were said to be forthcoming that the BBMP collect the waste from the said establishments in the near future. The authorities are very co-operative and helpful in giving out information.

Visit to Koramangala BBMP dry waste collection centre (DWCC)The area consisted of two major areas1. Composting centre run by Saahas NGO 2. Dry waste clearing area The dry waste clearing area mostly consists of nothing where a set of trucks get the waste collected by BBMP and some other private parties. Another set of trucks simply collect that waste and take it to mostly to the landfills. There is almost no other infrastructure. We also visited the composting centre run by NGO Saahas. We got a lot of information from the people running the composting centre. Mr. Purushottam is the person-in-charge for the composting centre. It is one of the composting centres run by Saahas. Waste collectionDry waste is collected once a week. Wet waste is collected daily by Saahas, wherever it does collect wet waste. Currently, collection is only done from households, but is planned to be started for commercial enterprises too. Segregation of the wasteSegregation of waste is done at the composting centre itself. The organic dry waste is segregated from the other types of waste. Composition of the wasteBreak-up of the waste types collected from Koramangala 3rd block was available with the NGO. We can take that as a representative sample for the whole of Koramangala 3 rd block. It is as followsGlass, coloured paper- 50% Plastics articles- 20%
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Polythene- 20% Others (clothes, shoes, white paper)- 10% It is important to note that this is %-age as per weight, not as per volume. This might explain why glass waste is the largest component. Disposal of wastePlastic waste is disposed once a month with Karnataka State Plastic Board (KSPB) and to a contractor (Muniyappa) in Kanakapura. Paper waste is collected by ITC as a part of its own CSR activity. It is also sold to Prakash Market in Bomanahalli. Rejected waste ends up in a landfill Management aspectsThe composting centre is a model in many ways, showcasing different management aspects for solid waste. Here are some of themThe compost that is made into organic fertilizer is sold in the market for around Rs.8/- per kg. White paper in the garbage fetches Rs.10/- per kg in the recycling market. Coloured paper fetches less than that as it is difficult to be processed. Laminates are rejected as the processing is highly uneconomical. E-waste is sold to parties like Ecoboard and e-Parisara who then process it. Saahas NGO also has set up waste segregation and processing facilities for corporate within their respective companies own premises. Examples are Microsoft India, ANZ etc. In case of recycled paper, it is interesting to note that the product is in a vicious circle. Lower demand for recycled paper, even though of almost equally good quality, is less because of its higher cost. However, that low demand itself is the cause for the high manufacturing cost of the recycled paper. This is a deadlock that intelligent action and planning can resolve. Eco-friendly constructionThe architecture is designed so that the air circulation removes any bad smells emanating from the garbage. The compost is processed and converted into saleable organic fertilizer. Terracotta blocks are used in the construction of the facility, which are themselves made from some waste materials. The roof is made up of sheets manufactured from used tetrapak packages, manufactured by Tetrapak India themselves.

Composting processIn this process, not only is the organic waste composted, it is also later converted into organic fertilizers. In the first stage, organic waste is put into the composting machine and processed. The product is digested into composting tanks for 10-14 days. The compost is then taken out, and
51

left to dry for some time. The dry compost is shredded into small particles using a shredder. This is organic fertilizer, as mentioned earlier, is sold in the market. Visit to other stakeholdersWe encountered different types of reactions from the people concerned with the waste management for their respective colonies, offices and institutions. Mr T.B Nanaiah the head of Raheja Residency's maintenance agency was benevolent enough in providing us all the necessary details while answering our questionnaire. This is what he told us about the waste management practices they have adopted; (a) There are 822 flats in all (b) The people themselves segregate the waste as wet and dry making the work of the maintenance department easier (c) ITC Company takes care of the papers, cardboards and thermocole in the dry waste (d) Wet waste is transported out on a daily basis by the BBMP Trucks (e) there are red and green coloured bins all around the colony. They are kept in front of every block from where the maintenance department collects it, stores it and manages it (f) About 0.5 kg of wet waste is generated per day per flat (g) They recycle the batteries, tube-lights and other such wastes. (h) The ITC van comes on every Saturday whereas the BBMP trucks come on all days in the morning between 8 o'clock to 9 o'clock (i) They have common dumping yard in the basement of the EBONY tower where the final segregation is done.

At St. John's Medical College, the first thing that we were told was that all of the waste generated there was managed by the hospital's maintenance department. Mr. A. Joseph and Mr Franklin from this department helped us out with all the details we required for our research. They told us: (a) There is a separate block for waste segregation and management about 200-300 metres away from the campuses of the hospital, the medical college, administrative block and hostel. (b) There is a separate staff of 10-12 people who works here (c) There are different divisional rooms for different types of waste like paper shedding, toxic waste and BBMP waste (d) They broadly generate 400kg of pathological waste, 2000 kg of bandages, 1500 kg of tubing, and 200 kg of sharp every month (e) The amount of wet waste is about 2000 kg per month.

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Visit to Taco Bell and KFC outlets in Koramangala: At Taco Bell, the staff and the manager in charge were initially reluctant to divulge information about their waste management systems, however once we assured them that the questions were of a generic nature, that they would not have to divulge privileged information and that the use of the data would be for academic purposes only, we found them much more accessible. We were told that the outlet employs a process of self segregation of the dry and wet waste and has implemented the recent BBMP directive regarding the same. Their average daily waste generation is around 5 kgs on an average in terms of both dry and wet waste generated. Earlier they used to send the dry waste to an NGO near Christ University for recycling purposes, however that practice has been discontinued. The waste disposal pattern is of daily nature and BBMP contractors do the collection process. We were not allowed to take any photos of their dumping facilities, or the waste collection within the premises itself.

At KFC, the management was much more cooperative and allowed us access to their waste collection places. Their process of waste disposal is pretty much standard and similar in every aspect to Taco Bell. Their waste generation is 5 Kg food waste and 7 kg dry waste daily. The waste collection is done, as in the case of Taco Bell by BBMP hired contractors.

Freedom Park: WakeUpCleanUp was a weeklong expo on Solid waste management held at Freedom Park. Since the event took place during our internship tenure, we felt that we should visit. There, a host of NGOs, service providers and recyclers had set up stalls. We got a good idea of the scenario, on a corporate and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) level for Bangalore. Following were the major entities within recyclersITC: They collect mainly paper waste from different sources like colleges; NGOs and these are recycled into cardboards, pulp and also fibres.

53

SIMS Recycling Ltd: This is mainly involved in e-waste collection and they collect from many IT companies and the segregation is done outside India. The output materials like copper, aluminium, rare earth are sold. They get Rs.18/kg for the plastic waste the sell to local recyclers. Saahas: They mainly collect tetrapak from supermarkets, Bars and these are recycled to books. They also have composting centres were the output manure is sold to farmers. There are many small companies who are manufacturing biogas generator which can be installed in individual homes. Their input is wet waste and microbes which act as catalyst. Also showcased was some major equipment which can be installed in big residential apartments where the waste generated can be used to produce fuel which can be used to run generators.

Questionnaire survey on 80 ft. Road, KoramangalaWe visited several hotels, restaurants and company offices to gain information on the manner in which they manage the solid waste they generate. Srl No. Do they segregate it themselves? What is amount of waste generated every day? What are the different types of waste? Do they recycle any part of it? How do they dispose it (BBMP Lories or private dealers and agencies)? Name Source of Waste information types Segregation Recycle? Disposal at source ? Amount of waste (in kg/day) 2-3

Silsila restaurant Beams Hospital

Mr. Lavith Kumar (Manager) Mr. Waylon D'cruz

Dry, wet Dry, wet, biomedical

Yes

No

BBMP vans

Envision financials

Cure-care clinic

Wonder

Yes, dry BBMP, waste is Maridi recycled agency (biomedical) Mr Shankar Dry, Yes No BBMP, (Supervisor) wet, ePrivate waste dealer Mr. Nayeem (e-waste) Mr. Bhabani Wet, Just Bio- No BBMP, Shankar dry, medical Maridi biowaste is agency medical separated (biomedical) Mr. Parvaze Termite No need No BBMP,

Yes

BBMP= 40 & Biomedical = 60-70 5-10

BBMP= 5 & Biomedical = 8-10 70-75


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Woods Furniture 6 Domino's Store Manager Mr. Bijay

Woods, log powder Dry, wet Dry, wet Coffee beans, Wet only Dry, wet Dry only Dry, wet

Burnt

Yes

French Loaf Costa Coffee

Yes

Mr. Santosh

Yes

Yes, dry BBMP waste is recycled No BBMP, local vendors No BBMP

4-5

6-7

2-3

9 10

Barista Global Green Group Mindtrek India Ltd.

Mr. Prasanna Ms. Priyanka Mr. Bailochan Patra Mr, Ashok

No Yes

No Yes

BBMP BBMP

5-6 2-3

11

Yes

Yes, Dead leaves No

12

13

Flipkart, Verisign, Symantec Wipro Limited Cherish Infertility Clinic

Dry, wet

Yes

BBMP, local scrap dealers BBMP

15-20

75-80

Mr Mohan

14

Mrs Sreekumar

15

Solitaire Ms. Hospitality Chethana Services

Dry, Yes wet, ewaste Dry, Yes wet, biomedical Dry, Yes wet

No

No

BBMP, Local dealers BBMP, Maridi agency BBMP

90-95

40-50

No

35-40

The above table briefly represents the hotels, restaurants, clinics and offices from where we got a favourable response. To start with Silsila Restaurant, Mr. Lavith Kumar (The restaurant Manager) told us about the efficiency with which the restaurant works. He told us that they buy the vegetables and other perishable ingredients once or even twice in a day in small quantities in order to provide the customers with utmost fresh food. The restaurant has a buffet pattern and Mr. Kumar went on to tell us that the leftover food is given to the staff. The wastage is reduced to a maximum of 2-3 kg per day. The waste is disposed to BBMP Lories who come either at 5:00 am or at 11:30am. The Maridi agency mentioned in the table refers to a private agency namely, Maridi Eco-friendly private limited that collects the biomedical waste from all the clinics and hospitals of the Koramangala ward. Beams Hospital is

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a laparoscopic surgery centre which has also initiated recycling of the dry dead leaves that fall in and around their premises. The cure-care clinic is a subsidiary of MHEPL, the Manipal hospitals group where Mr. Bhabani Shankar told us that it is just the bio-medical waste that is segregated and kept aside. The rest of the dry and the wet waste are not segregated at the source. Wonder Woods Furniture is a furniture showroom that belongs to Mr. ParvazeAshai who told us that it is at their factory near Hebbal in Bangalore that the furniture is manufactured, rotten logs and wood dust is waste they generate and dispose it on a daily basis. Mr. Bijay, the store manager at French Loaf in Koramangala told us in detail about the components of the waste generated by them as well as other similar outlets. He said that the veg and non-veg stuffs have a shelf life of one day whereas that of the cakes, pastries, muffins, etc is 3-4 days. If these items are not sold within this prescribed period, they are a waste and constitute a large portion of the total amount of the waste they generate. They pay a sum of 300 monthly to the local vendors for waste collection. Mr. Santosh from Costa Coffee said that 90% of the waste generated by them comprises of the coffee beans and powder. The rest is the usual wet waste. Barista Lavazza's supervisor MrPrasanna told us that most of the waste they produce is the coffee powder, sandwiches, paper bills, plastic cups and glasses, perishable and unsold food items, mainly confectionaries. The Global Green Company is the firm that recycles and preserves fruits and vegetables. It was a unique company which we came across. This is a joint venture of the Thapar group and a European partner set-up in 1992. They grow, manufacture, distribute and sell cucumbers (pickles, gherkins, cornichons and relish); sweet-corn, and other fruits and vegetables. They generate a very minimal amount of waste. The office of Flipkart.com, Verisign and Symantec is a multistoried complex whose maintenance head, Mr Ashok gave us the details of waste generation for the whole building. He showed us the waste that is put into black polypacks, each weighing 3 kg and 26 such bags got filled up every day with waste of all types.

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15. References: Links:


(1) http://bangalore.nmims.edu/about-bengaluru-campus/ (2) bbmp.gov.in (3) karnataka.gov.in (4) trdc.india.org (5) saahas.org (6) http://218.248.45.169/download/engineering/iswmp.pdf (7) http://www.ces.iisc.ernet.in/energy/paper/integrated_management_msw/index.htm (8) www.ijest.info/docs/IJEST12-04-04-196.pdf
(9)

Reduce, Reuse and Recycling, SWM Learning siteresources.worldbank.org/ENRLP/Resources/460956.../RRR.pdf

Program

in

India;

Papers:
Pandey, N., & Sahay, A. (2006). E-waste: A New Environmental Challenge. Monica, & Kishore, J. (2010). E-Waste Management: As A Challenge To Public Health In India. Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 3(35). David Pearce and R. Kerry Turner; Market-Based Approaches To Solid Waste Management, Centre for Social and Economic Research; On the Global Environment (CSERGE) Working Paper WM 1992-02 H N Chanakya, T V Ramachandra and Shwetmala,; Towards a sustainable waste management system for Bangalore; Centre for Sustainable Technologies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore Electronic Waste Management System in Bangalore A Review; C K Nagendra Guptha1 and G L Shekar, JK Journal of Management & Technology 2009 Saahas, Bangalore, Understanding E-Waste Generation, Collection & Recycling in Bangalore. Saahas study in association with HAWA and GTZ Bangalore, 2005
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Itinerary
Date 4-2-2013 5-2-2013 6-2-2013 Work Done Visited BBMP Head Office and Koramangala Ward Office DWCC near NGV, Koramangala and Saahas NGO at DWCC Koramangala. Questionairre-based survey at Raheja Residency and other surrounding societies. Visited NMIMS too for collecting information. St. Johns and fast -food outlets KFC, Taco Bell. Visited WakeUpCleanUp expo at Freedom Park Some local restaurants & compiled a report on weeks work. Domlur ward office. Visited Jyotiniwas college. Domlur Ward Office, Corporators residence Oasis Mall, Croma, Mast kalandar Raheja Arcade, and Forum Mall Visited NGO mentor Worked on coming weeks schedule, work to be done, itinerary. Visited supermarkets, bars, chemists Worked on report Visited clinics, hospital, restaurants, cafes Revisited Saahas NGO, Domlur ward office for collecting data on mentors advice. Made final report draft NGO mentor

7-2-2013 8-2-2013 9-2-2013 10-2-2013 (Sunday) 11-2-2013 12-2-2013 13-2-2013 14-2-2013 15-2-2013 16-2-2013 17-2-2013 (Sunday) 18-2-2013 19-2-2013 20-2-2013 21-2-2013 22-2-2013 23-2-2013

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