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# ME2113-2 TORSION OF CIRCULAR SHAFTS (EA-02-21)

## NIAN WEE WU A0097016E SUB-GROUP 2H1

SEMESTER 3 2013/2014

DATE : 21/08/2013

Objectives
To study how a hollow shaft would behave compared with a solid shaft, in terms of strength and rigidty.

Sample Calculations: Table 2: Strength & stiffness of hollow and solid shafts having same outer diameter Using hollow shaft of dimensions 12/8mm (Dh, dh), Ds = 12mm, Vs = 6 6 100, Ks = 310.39, Kh = 273.77 Experimental value: % change in torsional stiffness, K = (Kh Ks)/Ks 100% (273.77-310.39)/310.39 100% = - 11.8% Theoretical Value: % change in torsional stiffness, K = - (dh/Ds) 4 x 100% -(8/12) 4 x 100% = -19.8% % change in volume, , V = (Vh Vs)/Vs 100% {-( x 4 x 4 x 100) ( x 6 x 6 x 100)} x 100% = -44.4% Theoretical % change in maximum shear stress, = (h s)/s 100% = *4 4

1
3

3 } x ( 100%)

= {12/(124 84) 1/123} 123 100% = 24.6% Table 3: Strength & stiffness of hollow and solid shafts having same volume Using hollow shaft of dimensions 12/6mm (Dh, dh), Using solid shaft of dimensions 10.39mm (Ds), Ks = 202.88, Kh = 332.42 Experimental value: % change in torsional stiffness, K = (Kh Ks)/Ks 100% (332.42-202.88)/202.88 100% = 63.9%

Theoretical Value:
1( )2

( )2

x 100%

## Theoretical % change in maximum shear stress, = (h s)/s 100% = *4 4

1
3

3 } x ( 100%) 1

= *124 64 = -30.8%

12

10.393

} x (10.393 100%)

Discussion Qns: Qn2. Shafts with same outer diameters With reference to the experimental readings and theoretical values in table 2, it seems that the % change in torsional stiffness of the hollow shafts is mostly negative when compared to a solid shaft of the same outer diameter, with the % change in torsional stiffness becoming more negative as the inner diameter of the hollow shafts increases in diameter. This suggests that despite having the same outer diameter, solid shafts are generally tougher and stronger than its hollow counterparts. However, a delicate balance could be achieved by using a hollow shaft in place of a solid shaft so that less material is needed & to reduce the weight, at the cost of a small percentage drop in torsional stiffness of the shaft. Shafts with same volume With reference to the experimental readings and theoretical values in table 3, it appears that the % change in torsional stiffness of the hollow shafts is always positive when compared to a solid shaft of the same volume, but different outer diameter, with the % change in torsional stiffness becoming more positive when the outer diameter of the hollow shaft is greater in proportion to its diameter of the solid shaft. This suggests that despite having the same volume, the volume of shaft material has minimal impact on the % change in torsional stiffness, and that the bigger the diameter of the shaft, the higher the torque it is able to withstand before failure occurs, for both solid & hollow shafts. Qn3. A hollow shaft would be less rigid and not as strong, when compared to a solid shaft of the same diameter, (Ds = Dh) based on the calculated & experimental values of torsional stiffness. Torsional stiffness of the shaft decreases when a central hole is

bored from the solid shaft. Qn4. From table 3, we can tell that the greater the diameter of a shaft, the more torque it is able to withstand before failure, for both solid and hollow shafts. The volume of the shaft has minimal effect on torsional stiffness, when compared to the diameter of the shaft. However, a solid shaft of the same diameter as a hollow shaft is generally stronger in terms of torsional stiffness. If given a limited amount of material, a general idea is to create a shaft that has the widest possible diameter, while ensuring that the inner diameter is kept at approximately ~50% of the outer diameter to obtain an effective balance of a slight decrease in torsional stiffness but reduced material usage in comparison to a completely solid shaft, which would be stronger but bulky & requires more material for manufacturing. In reality, the costs of production is a main hindering factor to the production and usage of hollow shafts, since the process of drilling a hole through a solid shaft may not be worth the extra time and additional costs.