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3-4 December 2010, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UMP Pekan, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia; pp. 135-144

ISBN: 978-967-0120-04-1; Editors: M.M. Rahman, M.Y. Taib, A.R. Ismail, A.R. Yusoff, and M.A.M. Romlay

©Universiti Malaysia Pahang

TURBINE POWER PLANT

Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26600 Pekan, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia

Phone: +6094242246; Fax: +6094242202

Email: mustafizur@ump.edu.my

ABSTRACT

This paper presents the effect of operation conditions (compression ratio, turbine inlet

temperature, air to fuel ratio and efficiency of compressor and turbine) on the

performance of gas turbine power plant. The computational model was developed

utilizing the MATLAB codes. Turbine work found to be decreases as ambient

temperature increases as well as the thermal efficiency decreases. It can be seen that the

thermal efficiency increases linearly with increases of compression ratio while

decreases of ambient temperature. The specific fuel consumption increases with

increases of ambient temperature and lower turbine inlet temperature. The effect of

variation of SFC is more significance at higher ambient temperature than lower

temperature. It is observed that the thermal efficiency linearly increases at lower

compressor ratio as well as higher turbine inlet temperature until certain value of

compression ratio. The variation of thermal efficiency is more significance at higher

compression ratio and lower turbine inlet temperature. Even though at lower turbine

inlet temperature is decrement the thermal efficiency dramatically and the SFC

decreases linearly with increases of compression ratio and turbine inlet temperature at

lower range until certain value then increases dramatically for lower turbine inlet

temperature.

condition

INTRODUCTION

Gas turbines installed until the mid seventies suffered from low efficiency and poor

reliability. This limited the use of gas turbines to peak power demand and as a stand-by

power unit (Taniquchi and Miyamae, 2000). However, the recent developments in

aerodynamics which led to a significant increase in isentropic compressor and isentropic

turbine efficiencies (up to 90%), as well as the adventure in material science which

came-up with special alloys that can withstand high temperatures, enabled the gas

turbine to enter a new competition as a main power plant for generating electricity.

Modern gas turbine technology has extensively used compressor intercooling and high

turbine temperatures in order to achieve high net power and thermal efficiency

requirements. Both of these solutions lead to additional investment cost, but higher

turbine inlet temperatures are still limited by turbine blade cooling requirement and

metallurgical improvements (Horlock et al., 2003). A more recent gas turbine

manufactured by General Electric used a turbine inlet temperature of 1425 ºC and

135

produced up to 282 MW while achieving a thermal efficiency of 39.5% in the simple

cycle mode (Cengel and Boles, 2008). Accordingly, gas turbines are rapidly becoming

the choice for current and future power generation systems because they offer efficient

fuel conversion, reduced cost of electricity, low installation and maintenance cost, can

be put in service with minimum of delay time, occupy less room than other plants for

the same capacity, and the ability to consume wide range of hydrocarbon fuels (Nag,

2008). Their exhaust gases are relatively less pollutant to the environment, and can be

used for preheating air before entering the combustion chamber, or for district heating

as in combined heat and power plants (Wang and Chiou, 2002).

Gas turbine performance can be qualified with respect to its efficiency, power

output, specific fuel consumption and work ratio. There are several parameters that

affect its performance, such as the compressor pressure ratio, the combustion inlet

temperature and the turbine inlet temperature (TIT). Obviously, these parameters have

been actually improved by various gas turbine manufactures, as it has been mentioned

above. Meanwhile, operating parameters such as ambient temperature, altitude,

humidity, inlet and exhaust losses also affect the performance of gas turbine units.

Basically, gas turbines draw air directly from the atmosphere. Its performance is

undoubtedly changed by anything that would affect the air density or mass flow rate of

the air intake into the compressor. Ambient air conditions are the number one

uncontrolled varying parameters from the reference design conditions of 15 C̊ and

1.013 bar. These reference conditions used by the gas turbine industry are established

by the International Standards Organization (ISO), and frequently referred to as ISO

conditions. Figure 1 shows the effect of ambient temperature on the performance of the

gas turbine. Each gas turbine model has its own temperature effect curve because it

depends on the cycle parameters and component efficiencies as well as air mass flow

rate (Saravanamuttoo et al., 2009). Most gas turbines typically produce 30% higher

electric power output when the ambient air temperature is 15 C̊ compared to 45C̊.

Thus the cost of installing a gas turbine or combined cycle plant rated at temperature of

45 C̊ is 20-30% higher than that rated at 15 ˚ C (Mahmood and Mahdi, 2009). This

inherent disadvantage of reduced gas turbine electric power output at high ambient

temperatures can be mitigated by the reduction of gas turbine compressor inlet air

temperature.

120%

110%

Design output

100%

90%

80%

Power Output MW

Air f low t/h

70% Exhaust temperature (C)

Heat rate KJ/Kw.h

60%

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

Figure 1: Effect of ambient temperature on the gas turbine performance

(Saravanamuttoo et al., 2009).

136

MODELING OF GAS TURBINE

chamber, turbine and generator. A schematic diagram for a simple gas turbine is shown

in Figure 2. Air is drawn in by the compressor and delivered to the combustion

chamber. Liquid or gaseous fuel is commonly used to increase the temperature of

compressed air through a combustion process. Hot gases leaving the combustion

chamber expands in the turbine which produces work and finally discharges to the

atmosphere [1, 2, 3].

Fuel

2 3

C.C Wshaft

Compressor Turbine G

Air Exhaust 4

1

Efficient compression of large volume of air is essential for a successful gas turbine

power plant. This has been achieved in two types of compressors, the axial flow

compressor and the centrifugal or radial flow compressors. Most power plant

compressor design is to obtain the most air through a given diameter compressor with a

minimum number of stages while retaining relatively high efficiency and aerodynamic

stability over the operating range. It is assumed that the compressor efficiency in , and

the turbine efficiency is . The ideal processes and actual processes are represented in

full line and dashed line, respectively, on the T-S diagram Figure 3. These parameters in

terms of temperature are defined as (Al-Sayed, 2008):

(a) (b)

Figure 3: (a) P-V diagram and (b) T-S diagram for gas turbine

The compression ratio for the compressor ( rp ) can be defined as Eq. (1):

P

rp 2 (1)

P1

The isentropic efficiency for compressor and turbine in the range of (85-90%) as Eq. (2)

137

T T T T

c 2 s 1 and t 3 4 (2)

T2 T1 T3 T4 s

a 1

a

T 2 s T1 r p 1

T 2 T1 T1 1 (3)

c c

So, the work of the compressor (Wc ) when blade cooling is not taken into account can

be calculated in Eq. (4)

a 1

c paT1

rp a 1

Wc (4)

m

where c pa : The specific heat of air which can be fitted by the following equation for the

range of 200K<T<800K (R) and m is the mechanical efficiency of the compressor.

The specific heat of air can be expressed as Eq. (5).

7 10

c pa 1.0189 10 0.1378 Ta 1.9843 10 Ta 4.2399 10 Ta 3. 7632 10

3 4 2 3 4

Ta (5)

where, Ta in Kelvin.

The specific heat of flue gas is given by Eq. (6) (Naradasu et al., 2007)

3 6 9

c pg 1. 8083 2.3127 10 T 4.045 10 T 1. 7363 10

2 3

T (6)

.

From energy balance in the combustion chamber

a c paT2 m

m f LHV mf c pf Tf m

a m

f c pg TIT (7)

After manipulating from Eq. (7), the ratio of mass flow rate ( f ) is expressed as Eq. (8)

f (8)

a

m LHV c pg TIT

1

Wt c pg TIT . t

1 1 (9)

g

r g

p

138

The net work of the gas turbine (Wnet) is calculated by Eq. (10)

a 1

a

1 r p

Wnet c pg TIT t

1 1

pa 1

c T (10)

g

c

r g

p

Also, the output power from the turbine (P) can be expressed as Eq. (11):

Power, P

m a Wnet (11)

3600 f

SFC (12)

Wnet

a 1

a

r 1

Q add c pg TIT T1

1

p

(13)

m

c

W

th net (14)

Qadd

The heat rate (HR) which is the consumed heat to generate unit energy of electricity can

be expressed as Eq. (15).

3600

HR (15)

th

The simulation results of effect of ambient temperature and operation condition on gas

turbine power plant are presented in this study. The variation of thermal efficiency with

ambient temperature and compression ratio is shown in Figure 9. It can be seen that the

thermal efficiency increases linearly with increases of compression ratio while

decreases of ambient temperature. The increase in compression ratio means that

increase in power output as a result of the thermal efficiency increase. However, the

effect of ambient temperature has low effect on thermal efficiency for gas turbine power

plant.

139

0.44

0.42

0.4

0.38

Thermal E fficiency

0.36

0.34

rp=6

rp=11

0.32

rp=16

rp=21

0.3

rp=26

0.28

0.26

260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330

Ambient Temperature (K)

compression ratio.

0.38

0.36

0.34

Thermal Effic iency

0.32

0.3

TIT=1000K

0.28 TIT=1200K

TIT=1400K

0.26 TIT=1600K

TIT=1800K

TIT=2000K

0.24

260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330

Ambient Temperature (K)

Figure 10: Effect of ambient temperature and turbine inlet temperature on thermal

efficiency.

140

Figure 10 shows the relation between the ambient temperature and thermal

efficiency for different values of turbine inlet temperature. As the ambient temperature

increases, the specific work of the compressors increases (Nag, 2008), thus reduce cycle

efficiency for the gas turbine. Also when the turbine inlet temperature is increase leads

to an increase in the thermal efficiency, then the increased in the thermal efficiency

about (6-14%) with increased the turbine inlet temperature from 1000K to 2050K.

Variation of thermal efficiency at higher ambient temperature more significant that

lower ambient temperature. The inverse phenomenon can be seen for specific fuel

consumption as shown in Figure 11. The specific fuel consumption increases with

increases of ambient temperature and lower turbine inlet temperature. The effect of

variation of SFC is more significance at higher ambient temperature than lower

temperature. The turbine inlet temperature increased means that more fuel should be

burned which leads to decrease the specific fuel consumption.

0.36

TIT=1000K

0.34 TIT=1200K

TIT=1400K

Specific Fuel Consumption (kg/kW.h)

TIT=1600K

0.32 TIT=1800K

TIT=2000K

0.3

0.28

0.26

0.24

0.22

260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330

Ambient Temperature (K)

Figure 11: Effect of ambient temperature and turbine inlet temperature on specific fuel

consumption.

Figure 12 illustrates the relation between gas turbine cycle thermal efficiency

versus compression ratios for different turbine inlet temperature. It can be seen that the

thermal efficiency linearly increases at lower compressor ratio as well as higher turbine

inlet temperature until certain value of compression ratio. Then turn the thermal

efficiency decrease with increase compression ratio, this limit dependent on the turbine

inlet temperature, which reveals an ejective relationship as the efficiency increases as

turbine inlet temperature increases. The variation of thermal efficiency is more

significance at higher compression ratio and lower turbine inlet temperature. Even

though at lower turbine Inlet temperature is decrement the thermal efficiency

dramatically. Fig. 13 shows that the effect of compression ratio and turbine inlet

141

temperature on specific fuel consumption. It is also observed that the SFC decreases

linearly with increases of compression ratio and turbine inlet temperature at lower range

until certain value then increases dramatically for lower turbine inlet temperature.

0.5

TIT=1000K

0.45 TIT=1200K

TIT=1400K

TIT=1600K

0.4 TIT=1800K

TIT=2000K

T hermal Efficiency

0.35

0.3

0.25

0.2

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Compression Ratio

Figure 12: Effect of compression ratio and turbine inlet temperature on thermal

efficiency.

0.65

0.6

0.55 TIT=1000K

Specific Fuel Consumption (kg/kW.h)

TIT=1200K

0.5 TIT=1400K

TIT=1600K

0.45

TIT=1800K

TIT=2000K

0.4

0.35

0.3

0.25

0.2

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Compression Ratio

Figure 13: Effect of compression ratio and turbine inlet temperature on specific fuel

consumption.

142

Figure 14 represents the relation between the thermal efficiency and power

output for eight turbine inlet temperatures (1000-2050K) and compression ratios (3-21).

The compression ratio for maximum power are selecting a compression ratio 6.4 for a

turbine inlet temperature of 1000K result in a higher thermal efficiency, however, the

maximum power output was at compression ratio 21 for the turbine inlet temperature

2050K and that yield the highest thermal efficiency.

0.5

rp = 21

0.4

Thermal Efficiency

TIT= 2050 K

TIT= 1000 K

0.3

rp = 3

0.2

0 100000 200000 300000 400000

Power (kW)

Figure 14: Variation of power with thermal efficiency for several compression ratio and

turbine inlet temperatures.

CONCLUSION

i) Increasing the turbine inlet temperature increases the output power and thermal

efficiency as a result of increasing the turbine work.

ii) The peak efficiency, power and specific fuel consumption occur at when

compression ratio increased in the gas turbine power plant.

iii) Maximum power for the turbine inlet temperatures are selecting a compression

ratio 6.4 for a turbine inlet temperature of 1000K will result in a higher thermal

efficiency.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors would like to thank Universiti Malaysia Pahang for provides laboratory

facilities and financial support under Doctoral Scholarship scheme.

143

REFERENCES

Al-Sayed, A.F. 2008. Aircraft propulsion and gas turbine engines. USA: Taylor &

Francis.

Cengel, A.Y. and Boles, A.M. 2008. Thermodynamics an engineering approach. New

York: McGraw-Hill.

Horlock, J.H. 2003. Advance gas turbine cycles. UK: Pergamon.

Mahmood, F.G. and Mahdi, D.D. 2009. A new approach for enhancing performance of

a gas turbine (Case study: Khangiran Refinery). Applied Energy, 86: 2750–

2759.

Nag, P.K. 2008. Power plant engineering. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing

Company Limited.

Naradasu, R.K., Konijeti, R.K. and Alluru, V.R. 2007. Thermodynamic analysis of heat

recovery steam generator in combined cycle power plant. Thermal Science,

11(4): 143-156.

Rahman, M.M., Ibrahim, T.K., Taib, M.Y., Noor, M.M., Kadirgama, K. and Bakar,

R.A. 2010. Thermal analysis of open cycle regenerator gas turbine power plant.

Proc. of WASET (ICMAME 2010, Paris, France), 68: 94-99.

Saravanamuttoo, H., Rogers, G., Cohen, H. and Straznicky, P. 2009. Gas turbine theory.

New York: Prentice Hall.

Taniquchi, H. and Miyamae, S. 2000. Power generation analysis for high temperature

gas turbine in thermodynamic process. Journal of Propulsion and Power, 16:

557-561.

Wang, F.J. and Chiou, J.S. 2002. Performance improvement for a simple cycle gas

turbine GENSET-a retrofitting example. Applied Thermal Engineering, 22:

1105–1115.

144

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