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What are Biological Molecules?

Biological molecules - are found in all living things The four main types are: Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic acids Carbon compounds Organic (living) compounds contain carbon Inorganic (lifeless) compounds are not based upon carbon Carbohydrates Crucial to cell structure and energy storage Includes the sugars and starches Contain C, H, and O in a ratio of 1:2:1 Means literally, carbon-water When the OH- is attached to the carbons in different places, the carbohydrates have slightly different properties 1. Monosaccharides Have a molecular formula of C6H12O6 Contain 3 to 6 carbon atoms Ex. Glucose and fructose 2. Disaccharides Two simple sugars bonded together Ex. 1 glucose + 1 fructose equals sucrose (table sugar) Polysaccharides Made of long chains of simple sugar subunits Cellulose give rigidity to plants Starch energy reserve in plants Glycogen storage molecule in animals Chitin give rigidity to insects Proteins Form structural parts of cells Control cell processes Act as messengers Can carry substances around the body Can protect you from disease Speed up reactions Act as receptors (receptors on HIV) Protein structure The shape of a protein determines its function Alpha-helix regions

Pleated sheets regions Disordered loops regions Amino acids Form chains called polypeptides There are 20 amino acids, each with slightly different functions The exact sequence of amino acids determines which protein is made Lipids Do not dissolve in water Can be energy storage molecules in plants and animals Fats solid storage molecules Waxes semisolid lipids Steroids vitamins, hormones, and cholesterol Nucleic acids and nucleotides DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid) Carry the chemical code of life RNA carries the information to make new viral particles Discovery of cells Robert Hooke observed the cells inside a piece of cork with a very primitive microscope Cell theory All living things are made up of one or more cells Cells are the basic living units within organisms, and the chemical reactions of life take place within cells All cells arise from pre-existing cells Eukaryotic cell DNA is enclosed in a nucleus and associated with proteins Contains membrane-bound organelles Ex. humans, animals, and plants Prokaryotic cells DNA is loose in the cell Generally have no internal membranous organelles Evolved earlier than Eukaryotic cells Ex. eubacteria and archaebacteria 3 Main Region of the Cell Nucleus Cytoplasm Plasma Membran Diffusion Facilitated Diffusion Other terms relating to the passage of substances across the plasma membrane:

Active Transport energy is required Phagocytosis a cell engulfs debris Endocytosis the cell membrane invaginates and takes in a substance Exocytosis vessicles merge with the plasma membrane to expel substances Nucleus Contains genetic material Controls most of the cells activities Information flows as follows: DNA RNA Protein Nuclear Membrane Nucleus Is bound by double membrane barrier NUCLEOPLASM Encloses a jelly like fluid/ fluid portion of the nucleus. NUCLEOLI Nucleus contains one or more small dark staining essentially round bodies Ribosomes Proteins are synthesized here Endoplasmic reticulum Rough Smooth Golgi apparatus Can modify the newly made protein Directs the finished protein to different parts of the cell to perform various activities Lysosomes A bag of digestive enzymes Cytoskeleton A three-dimensional structure of protein fibers forming a lattice in the cytoplasm, suspending the organelles and allowing the cell parts to move What are the Parts of the Cell? Centrioles Help to organize the cytoskeleton They also guide the separation and movement of chromosomes Mitochondria Powerhouse of the cell Provides fuels for all the cells function Contains ATP Adenosine Triphosphate Flagellum Tail-like apparatus Helps to push and pull cell through cytoplasm

Cilia Hair-like projections that help the cell to swim Cilia in your breathing passages push mucus and dust up to your mouth and nose Organelles in plants Plastids function in food production and storage Vacuoles are fluid-filled sacs that maintain cell shape Cell walls surround plant cells Plasmodesmata are junctions between plant cells