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Presidents of the Philippines

1. EMILIO AGUINALDO (Y FAMY) President of the First Republic Jan.23 1899-Apr 1 1901 First President of the Philippines -leader of Katipunan in the province of Cavite and became the head of the Philippine Revolution -was elected the first President of the Philippines by the Malolos Congress of the First Republic on January 23,1899 -exiled in Hongkong in accordance with the Pact of Biac-na-Bato that had ended the first phase of the Revolution -from Hongkong, he returned to the Philippines to resume the fight against Spain with the help of USA, proclaiming independence on June 12,1898 -captured and surrendered in Palawan in the Province of Isabela on March 23, 1901 during the Philippine-American War -formally surrendered on April 1,1901 -made an oath of allegiance to the US -enjoined all his forces to lay down their arms 2. MANUEL L. QUEZON First President of the Commonwealth Nov. 15, 1935 Aug. 1, 1944 Second President of the Philippines -Paladin of the Philippine Freedom -was instrumental in the passage of the Tydings-McDuffie-Act of the US Congress which paved the way for the transition to an ultimately independent Philippine Republic -Resident Commissioner in Washington -Founding President of the Philippine Senate -elected President of the transitory Philippine Commonwealth in 1935, reelected in 1941 -was forced to go into exile in the US during the Imperial Japanese Occupation of the country -served as a member of the Pacific War Council until his death in 1944 3. JOSE P. LAUREL President of the Second Republic October 14, 1993 August 17, 1945 Third President of the Philippines -served the country in various elective and appointive posts before and during the Quezon Administration as Secretary of the Interior and Justice of the Supreme Court -was instructed by Quezon to remain in the Philippines during the wartime occupation -member of the executive commission which was created by the Japanese Military Administration -was elected President by the National Assembly when the Second Republic was proclaimed in 1943 which was an opportunity which he used to improve the plight of his people under occupation -together with the seat of government, he was transferred to Baguio on December 21 with the liberation of the country by the allied forces in Aug. 1944 -brought to Japan with the Japanese retreat -proclaimed the dissolution of the Second Republic on August 17 during the period of the Japanese surrender to the allies -was elected Senator of the Third Republic after the war 4. SERGIO S. OSMEA Second President of the Commonwealth August 1, 1944 May 28, 1946 Fourth President of the Philippines -lawyer and newspaper editor -Governor of Cebu in 1904, resigned in 1906 and was elected to the New Philippine Assembly, where he served as founding Speaker until his election to the Senate in 1922 -founded the Nationalista Party which dominated domestic politics -was elected VP of the Philippine Commonwealth

-upon Quezons death, he succeeded as the President of the Commonwealth in 1944 -returned with General Douglas McArthur and worked towards the rehabilitation of the war-torn country 5. MANUEL A. ROXAS Third President of Commonwealth May 28,1946-July 4,1946 First President of the Third Republic July 4,1946 April 15, 1948 Fifth President of the Philippines -started his political career in 1917 as a member of the Municipal Council of Capiz -served as a governor from 1919-1921 after which he won the election to the House of Representatives and to the post of the Speaker -worked closely with Quezon and Osmeoa in leading the campaign for National Independence -became a member of the Constitutional Convention in 1934 which produced the 1935 Constitution -was forced to serve under the Japanese-Sponsored government during the Pacific War -defeated Osmena in the 1946 elections and became the last President of Commonwealth -became the President of the Third Republic on July 4, 1946 6. ELPIDIO R. QUIRINO Second President of the Third Republic April 17, 1948 December 30, 1953 Sixth President of the Philippines -was a practicing lawyer until he was elected as a member of the House of the Representatives in 1919 and as a Senator in 1925 -collaborated with President Quezon in securing the passage of the TydingsMcDuffie Act in 1934 -became the Secretary of finance and of the Interior in the Commonwealth Government after serving the Constitutional Convention in 1934 -was elected VP and becoming President after Roxas sudden death in 1948 after the war -saw his mission as restoring the peoples faith in government, as well as solving problems of agrarian unrest 7. RAMON F. MAGSAYSAY Third President of the Third Republic December 30, 1953 March 17, 1957 Seventh President of the Philippines -an automobile mechanic -was appointed military governor of Zambales after his outstanding service as guerilla leader during the Pacific War -Served two terms as Liberal Party congressman for Zambales before being appointed as Secretary of National Defense by President Quirino -under the Nacionalista Party, he won the presidency during the elections of 1953, running against his former boss -was empowered to purchase large estates and distribute land to tenant farmers -died in a plane crash on March 17, 1957 at the age of 49 8. CARLOS P. GARCIA Fourth President of the Third Republic March 18, 1957 December 30, 1961 Eighth President of the Philippines -instrumental in pressing the Philippine Case in the US for damage claims arising from the Pacific War -former schoolteacher and wartime guerilla leader -served as a governor of Bohol, as well as Senator, before being elected VP in 1953 -concurrently appointed Sec. of Foreign Affairs -austerity program -popularized economic nationalism through the Filipino First Policy -poet and a keen chess player

9.DIOSDADO P. MACAPAGAL Fifth President of the Third Republic December 30, 1961 December 30, 1965 Ninth President of the Philippines -poor boy in Pampanga -first elected Congressman in 1949 -became the President under the Liberal Party in 1957 -worked to familiarize himself intimately with the concerns of ordinary people all over the country even though he was not given a cabinet portfolio by President Garcia -enacted comprehensive land reform -Champion of the Common Man because of his achievements in improving the plight of the masses and the poor 10. FERDINAND E. MARCOS Sixth President of the Third Republic Dec. 30, 1965 June 30, 1981 First President of the Fourth Republic June 30, 1981 Feb. 25, 1986 Tenth President of the Philippines -began his political career as a technical assistant to Pres. Manuel Roxas then served as a member of the House of the Representatives for three terms for 1949-1959 -served as Senator and later Senate President in 1965 -won the re-election in 1969 to an unprecedented second full term -focused on improving the countrys infrastructure, later invoking subversion and rebellion, placed the whole country under Martial Law on September 21, 1972 and suspended Congress -drafted a new constitution in January 1973 which led to the establishment of the Fourth Republic of the Philippines in 1981 and a further term of Marcos -the country experienced virtually absolute rule from 1972-1986 -1983 assassination of the opposition leader Benigno Aquino which ultimately led to EDSA Revolution -was overthrown and exiled in Hawaii where he died in 1989 11. CORAZON C. AQUINO Second President of the Fourth Republic February 25, 1986 March 25, 1986 President of the Provisional Government March 25, 1986 Feb. 2, 1987 First President of the Fifth Republic Feb. 2, 1987 June 30, 1992 Eleventh President of the Philippines -cast into politics in 1986 when Marcos called for snap elections -sworn into office after the dramatic events at EDSA and forced Marcos to leave the Philippines -credited for restoring democracy and human rights as well as National Interest in a New Constitution promulgated on Feb. 2, 1987 which established the Fifth Republic of the Philippines despite facing six coup attempts, domestic insurgency, disagreements with the US over Military bases, and huge foreign debts 12. FIDEL V. RAMOS Second President of the Fifth Republic June 30, 1992 June 30, 1998 Twelfth President of the Philippines -president during the centennial of the Philippine Independence -turned his back on repressive autocracy and embraced the democratic forces of EDSA in 1986 -became the Chief of Staff of AFP under President Aquino and later Secretary of National Defense -negotiated peace with the Communist and Muslim rebels -tackled the prevailing electric power crisis, and successfully effect many social and economic reforms that liberalized key sectors -boosted growth and lifted the countrys international profile

13. JOSEPH EJERCITO ESTRADA Third President of the Fifth Republic June 30, 1998 January 20, 2001 Thirteenth President of the Philippines -former film actor; started his political career as Mayor of San Juan -won a seat in the Senate before being elected as Vice President in 1992 after the EDSA Revolution -was tasked by Pres. Ramos to lead crime-fighting initiatives -pursued a hard line against Muslim rebels and sought to eradicate poverty, crime, and corruption in the country -impeached after being accused of corruption and was subjected to an unfinished trial in the Senate 14. GLORIA M. ARROYO Fourth President of the Fifth Republic January 20, 2001 June 30, 2010 Fourteenth President of the Philippines -born on April 5, 1947 -joined the government in 1987 during the administration of Pres. Cory who appointed her Undersecretary of Trade and Industry two years later after enjoying a teaching career -elected as Senator during her first try in politics in 1992, was re-elected in 1995 with nearly 16 million votes -authored 55 laws on economic and social reform and was named outstanding Senator several times -was elected VP in 1998 with almost 13 million votes -appointed by Estrada as concurrent Secretary of Social Welfare and Development, a post she held until her resignation from the Cabinet in October 2000 amidst the scandals in Estradas -sworn in as a President with accordance to the constitutional succession by Chief Justice Hilario Davide Jr. -won re-elections in 2004 with Noli De Castro as VP; inaugurated for a six-year term on June 30, 2004 15. BENIGNO S. AQUINO III Fifth President of the Fifth Republic June 30, 2010 Present Fifteenth President of the Philippines -decided to be the Liberal Partys standard bearer in the first automated national elections held on May 10, 2010 -generated more than 15 million votes in the polls -took his oath of office before Supreme Court Associate Justice Concita CarpioMorales -great grandfather: Servillano Aquino general in the army that fought against the Spaniards and the Americans -grandfather: Benigno Aquino Sr. Speaker of the National Assembly during the 2nd Republic in addition to serving in other positions during the American and Commonwealth eras -father: Benigno Aquino, Jr. served in Tarlac before being elected Senator in 1967; his imprisonment during ML from 1972-1980 and his assassination upon his return from exile in 1983 triggered widespread protests against Marcos in 1986 -served as the representative of the Second District of Tarlac to congress from 1998-2007 and was elected in the Senate in 2007