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Aerospace Propulsion (MEC 4280/4740)

Dr. Raed Kafafy


Aircraft Design
MEC 4200
Semester II
2008/2009
Lecture (1 2)
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
2
Course Outline
Instructor
Dr. Raed Kafafy
Office hours: Mon - Wed (10:00 AM 11:00 AM)
Office: E1-2-16.5
Required Textbook
Daniel Raymer, AIRCRAFT DESIGN: A Conceptual Approach, 4
th
edition
Recommended Textbooks
Michael Kroes and Thomas Wild, Aircraft Powerplants, McGraw-Hill International
Edition 1995
Douglas Archer and Maido Saarlas, An Introduction to Aerospace Propulsion, Prentice
Hall, 1996
Aerospace Propulsion (MEC 4280/4740)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
Aircraft Propulsion Options
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Outline
Aircraft Propulsion
Thrust Equation
Propulsive Efficiency
Generation of Thrust
Uninstalled Engine Thrust
Aircraft Propulsion Options
Piston-Prop
Turbojet Engines
Ramjet and Scramjet
Propulsion Selection
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Outline
Jet Engine Performance
Thrust
Installed Thrust
Thrust-Drag Book Keeping
Installed Engine Thrust Corrections
Installed Net Propulsive Force Corrections
Part Power Operation
Piston Engine Performance
Engine Cycle
Propeller Performance
Piston-Prop Thrust Corrections
Turboprop Performance
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
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What is
Propulsion?
In Latin, pro means forward and pellere means to drive.
So, in English, propulsion means to push or drive forward.
Aerospace Propulsion System?
A device which is used to produce thrust to drive an aerospace vehicle (aircraft,
missile, launch vehicle, or a spacecraft) in a preferred direction.
Thrust?
The propulsive force which is generated as a reaction to the change in the
momentum of a working fluid (propellant).
Thrust
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
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The Principle of Propulsion
A practical application of the third law of motion (Sir Isaac Newton)
For every force acting on a body there is an opposite and equal reaction.
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
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Aircraft Propulsion
Thrust Equation
All forms of aircraft propulsion produce thrust by pushing air (or hot gases)
backward, so thrust force will be generated in reaction according to Newtons
third law.
( )
) / (
) (
) (
1
0 0
0
0
=
=
+ =

V V V m
V V m
p p A V V m
e e e

T
Engine
V
0
V
V
e
T
drag Ram thrust Gross Net thrust =
=
0
V m V m T
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
9
Aircraft Propulsion
Uninstalled Engine Thrust
Engine thrust when operated independently with no interference with aircraft
Uninstalled engine data are provided by manufacturer
Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC)
Thrust Specific Fuel Consumption (TSFC)
) kN/kW.s (
shaft
P
W
SFC
f

=
) kN/kN.s (
T
f
W
TSFC

=
Piston-prop, turboprop & turboshaft
turbojet & turbofan
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
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Aircraft Propulsion
Generation of Thrust
Propeller Aircraft
Most of propulsive force is exerted directly on A/C by the pull (or push) of the
propeller through engine mounts.
Jet Aircraft
Force exerted through engine mounts may be only 1/3 of total propulsive force.
Detailed calculation of thrust distribution is quite complicated.
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Aircraft Propulsion Options
Operation of Aircraft Propulsion System
Compression of ambient air
Mixing air with fuel, then burning air-fuel mixture
Extracting energy from high-pressure, high-temperature combustion products
Exhausting combustion products into the atmosphere
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Aircraft Propulsion Options
Classification of Aircraft Propulsion
Piston Engines
Piston-prop
Gas Turbine Engines
Turbojet
Turbofan
Turboprop
Turboshaft
Ramjet
Scramjet
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
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Aircraft Propulsion Options
Piston-Prop Engines Turbo-Engines
Intermittent
Cheap
Lowest fuel consumption
Heavy
Greater noise and vibration
Limited to light airplanes and some
agricultural aircraft
Continuous
Expensive
Higher fuel consumption
Lighter
Quieter
Wide range of applications:
Military (fighters, bombers, cargo, )
Civil (transport, cargo, )
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Aircraft Propulsion Options
Main Components of a Turbo-Engine
Inlet: adjusts condition of intake air to be suitable for engine operation
(reduces air speed to about 0.4 0.5 of sonic speed)
Compressor: compresses air from intake up to many times of atmospheric
pressure
Burner: mixes fuel with compressed air, then burns the fuel-air mixture
Turbine: extracts mechanical power required to drive the compressor
Nozzle: converts thermal energy (enthalpy) of hot gases into kinetic energy
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Axial Compressors Centrifugal Compressors
Long with small frontal area
High throughput (air mass flow rate)
Low pressure rise per stage
Sensitive to distortions in inlet
conditions
Short with large frontal area
Low throughput (air mass flow rate)
High pressure rise per stage
Insensitive to distortions in inlet
conditions
Aircraft Propulsion Options
Turbomachinery Options
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Aircraft Propulsion Options
Turboprop and Turbofan Engines
An additional turbine is used to drive a propeller (in a turboprop) or a ducted
fan (in a turbofan) to accelerate a larger mass of air, which increases propulsive
efficiency at lower speeds.
core
bypass
m
m
BPR

=
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Aircraft Propulsion Options
Ramjets and Scramjets
At high flight speeds (M> 3), ram compression is enough to combustion.
The compressor and driving turbine can then be removed giving a ramjet.
At even higher speeds (M> 5 or 6), combustion should be done supersonically
giving a scramjet.
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Aircraft Propulsion Options
Thrust Augmentation (Afterburning) Option
Ideally, air should be just enough to burn all fuel (stoichiometric fuel/air ratio
~ 1/15), which results in highest hot gases temperature, hence highest thrust
and propulsive efficiency.
Due to temperature limits imposed by turbine blade material (1200 1600C),
excess air should be used (fuel/air ratio ~ 1/60).
Turbojets and turbofans may have afterburners to augment thrust during a
short period of time.
Fuel is injected after the last turbine to burn in uncombusted hot air (~ 75%).
Thrust can be doubled, but very inefficiently, since TSFC is typically doubled.
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Aircraft Propulsion Options
Selection of Propulsion System
Selection of an aircraft propulsion system is usually obviously determined by
mission requirements.
Aircraft maximum speed limits the choices.
In most cases, the propulsion system with the lowest SFC is chosen at a give
flight speed.
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Aircraft Propulsion Options
Propulsive Efficiency
) / ( 1
) / ( 2
) (
) (
0
0
2
0
2
2
1
0 0 0
V V
V V
V V m
V V V m
KE
V
P
P
Exp
T
P
+
=

= =

T
T
V
0
/V

PE
V
0
/V
power expended
power thrust useful
=
P
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Comparative Performance
At flight speeds below ~ 450 mph (~ 720 km/s), the turbojet is less efficient than
propeller-type engine
However, the propeller efficiency decreases rapidly above 350 mph due to the
airflow disturbance caused by the high blade-tip speeds of the propeller.
The turbofan and prop-fan engines avoid the turboprop disadvantage.
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Jet Engine Performance
Variation of Thrust
Net thrust is roughly proportional to engine throughput.
Modern afterburning turbojets produce 1 1.3 kN/(kg/s), while modern
turbofans produce 0.1 0.3 kN/(kg/s)
Net thrust is roughly proportional to air density.
Generally, net thrust increases with flight speed with exceptions of subsonic
jet approaching sonic speed or supersonic jet at high Mach numbers.
Thrust and propulsive efficiency increase with overall pressure ratio (OPR)
and turbine inlet temperature (TIT).

sls T h
T T
,
inlet
exit
p
p
OPR =
a
m T
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Jet Engine Performance
Variation of Propulsive Efficiency
Propulsive efficiency increases and thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC)
decreases with bypass ratio (BPR).
Such effect diminishes at higher flight speeds.
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Effect of Forward Speed
From thrust equation, if jet velocity is constant, then as flight speed
increases, thrust would decrease in direct proportion.
However, due to ram effect, airflow and the jet velocity will increase with
aircraft speed
This will offset the extra ram drag
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Effect of Forward Speed
Turbojet
As forward speed increases, the increased mass
airflow must be matched by the fuel flow and the
result is an increase in fuel consumption
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Effect of Forward Speed
Turboprop
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Effect of Altitude
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
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Thrust-Drag Bookkeeping
The interactions between thrust and drag are so complex.
Only a bookkeeping-like approach can ensure that all forces have been
counted once and only once.
It is not at all uncommon to discover, during aircraft design project, that
some minor drag item has been either included in both drag and thrust
calculations or has been ignored by both departments under the
assumption that it is being included by the other.
Each aircraft company develops its own system for thrust-drag
bookkeeping.
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Thrust-Drag Bookkeeping
For example, when the nozzles are open wide when the throttle is
advanced to the afterburning position, the aerodynamic drag on the
outside of the nozzles will change, so the nozzle aerodynamic drag is
counted as a reduction in the engine thrust in many thrust-drag
bookkeeping systems.
In other systems, the drag of a certain nozzle position is considered in
aerodynamic drag calculations, then the variation of drag as the nozzle
opening is changed is included in the propulsion-installation calculations.
Lack of a mutually understood bookkeeping system by both the
Aerodynamic and Propulsion departments will cause chaos.
Aerospace Propulsion (MEC 4280/4740)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
Propulsion System Integration
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
31
Outline
Jet Engine Integration
Engine Sizing (Dimensions)
Inlet Geometry
Inlet Location
Capture Area Calculation
Boundary-Layer Diverter
Nozzle Integration
Engine Cooling
Propeller Engine Integration
Propeller Sizing
Propeller Location
Engine Sizing
Piston-Engine Installation
Fuel System
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Jet-Engine Integration
Integration of jet engine into aircraft conceptual design is very
complicated.
Many calculations must be made prior to design layout, especially to
determine required thrust (to pick or scale the engine) and inlet duct size.
Design layout must depict the engine properly with reasonable allowances
for clearance for engine cooling, accessibility and removal.
Engine controls, fuel lines and engine-driven accessories must be
considered.
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Jet-Engine Integration
Strong aircraft structure must be at the locations of the engine mounts to
support engine and accessories weight, and transmit thrust.
Commercial: two top mounts; forward and backward.
Military: one top forward mount and two side middle mounts.
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Jet-Engine Integration
Engine Sizing (Dimensions)
Dimensions of existing off-the-shelf engines are obtained from manufacturers.
Estimated data for hypothetical rubber engines are provided by engine
manufacturer as nominal engine size and precise scaling laws.
Better yet, engine companies sometimes provide a parametric deck (a computer
program that provides performance and dimensional data for an arbitrary
advanced-technology engine based upon inputs such as BPR, OPR, and TIT).
Another method is to assume that a new engine is scaled from existing one,
with some improvements due to advancing technology (20% SFC, 30%
weight, 30% length).
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Engine Scale Factor (SF)
Ratio between required thrust and actual thrust of the nominal engine.
The location and size of engine-accessories package beneath the engine
(including fuel pumps, oil pumps, power-takeoff gearboxes, and engine
control boxes) vary widely for different types of engines.
In the absence of a drawing, the accessory package can be assumed to extend
below the engine to a radius of about 2040% greater than the engine radius.
On some engines these accessories are located in the compressor spinner or
other places.
1 1
5 0
4 0
.
actual
.
actual
.
actual
) (
) (
) (
SF W W
SF D D
SF L L
=
=
=
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Engine Parametric Statistical Approach
If a parametric deck is unavailable, and no existing engines come close enough
to the desired characteristics to be rubberized and updated as described above,
then a parametric statistical approach can be used to define the nominal
engine.
Here, we present two first-order statistical jet-engine models: one for
commercial transports with BPR from 1 to 6 (left model), and the other
supersonic fighters and bombers (M < 2.5) with BPR from 0 - 1 (right model).
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Jet-Engine Integration
Inlet Geometry
Slowing down the incoming air to about Mach 0.40.5 is the primary purpose
of an inlet system to keep the tip speed of compressor blades below sonic.
The installed performance of a jet engine greatly depends upon the air-inlet
system.
The type and geometry of the inlet and inlet duct determine the pressure loss
and distortion of the air supplied to the engine, which will affect installed
thrust and fuel consumption.
Roughly, 1% reduction in inlet pressure recovery
inlet
will reduce thrust by ~
1.3%.
Also, the inlets external geometry including the cowl and boundary- layer
diverter will greatly influence the aircraft drag.
There are basically four types of inlets.
0
1
inlet
t
t
p
p
=
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Jet-Engine Integration
Basic Types of Inlets
NACA flush inlet
Pitot (or normal shock) inlet
Conical (or spike or round) inlet
2-D ramp inlet
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
39
Jet-Engine Integration
NACA Flush Inlet
Used by several early jet aircraft but is rarely seen today because of its poor
pressure recovery (large losses).
However, the NACA inlet tends to reduce aircraft wetted area and weight if the
engine is in the fuselage.
The NACA inlet is regularly used for applications in which pressure recovery
is less important, such as the intakes for cooling air or for auxiliary power
units.
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
40
Jet-Engine Integration
Pitot inlet
It is simply a forward-facing hole (also called normal shock inlet in supersonic
flight).
It works very well subsonically and fairly well at low supersonic speeds.
The cowl lip radius has a major influence upon engine performance and
aircraft drag.
A large lip radius tends to minimize distortion and accommodate additional air
required for takeoff , especially at high angles of attack and sideslip.
However, it will produce shock-separated flow outside the inlet as speed of
sound is approached which greatly increases drag. Hence, supersonic jet cowl
lip are nearly sharp.
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
41
Jet-Engine Integration
For subsonic jets, the lip radius ranges from 610% of the inlet radius.
To minimize distortion the inner lip radius on a subsonic inlet is frequently
greater than the outer.
Some aircraft have a lower lip radius 50% greater than that the upper lip to
reduce the effects of angle of attack during takeoff and landing.
Normally the inlet is about perpendicular to local flow direction during cruise.
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Supersonic Intakes
Spike and 2-D Ramp Inlets
Better performance than the normal shock inlet at higher supersonic speeds .
Supersonic flow over cone (spike) or wedge (2D-ramp) .
Spike inlets are typically lighter and have slightly better pressure recovery but
with higher cowl drag and more complicated variable geometry mechanisms.
Ramp inlets are used up to Mach 2, while spike inlets are used beyond that.
Pressure recovery through a shock depends on the strength of the shock.
N-S: (M
0
= 2 M
1
= 0.57, p
1
/p
0
= 72%) (M
0
= 1.1 M
1
= 0.91, p
1
/p
0
= 99.9%)
An oblique shock does not reduce the air speed all the way to subsonic.
Final transition from super to subsonic speed occurs through a normal shock.
Speed reduction and pressure recovery depends on the wedge or cone angle.
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
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Spike intake
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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2D-ramp intake
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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M
0 M
1


M
0
M
1
M
2
Supersonic Intakes
Example:
1. O-S: ( = 10, M
0
= 2 = 39, M
1
= 1.66, p
1
/p
0
= 98.6%).
2. N-S: (M
1
= 1.66 M
2
= 0.65, p
2
/p
1
= 87.2%). Then, p
2
/p
0
= 87.2 98.6% = 86%
The greater the number of oblique shocks, the better the pressure recovery.
Theoretical optimal is the isentropic ramp inlet (infinite O-S) with 100%
pressure recovery, which works properly only at its design Mach number, so
rarely used
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Supersonic Intakes
Oblique Shock

M
1
M
2
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Supersonic Intakes
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Supersonic Intakes
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Supersonic Intakes
As speed approaches Mach 2, the total flow turning is about 40 deg.
Turning flow back to freestream direction by outside cowl lip may not be
possible.
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Supersonic Intakes
Internal compression inlet: needs starting and unstable.
Mixed compression inlet: high efficiency over large Mach number range.
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Selection of Inlet System
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Jet-Engine Integration
Inlet Diffuser
the interior portion of an inlet where subsonic flow is further slowed down to
engine required speed.
The required length of a diffuser depends upon the application.
Subsonic aircraft has as short diffuser as possible with an internal angle < 10
deg.
Typically, this produces a pitot inlet with a length about equal to its front face
diameter.
Supersonic aircraft has a diffuser length for max. efficiency about eight times
diameter.
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Jet-Engine Integration
Longer diffuser will have more frictional losses.
Shorter diffusers may produce some internal flow separation, but the weight
savings can exceed the engine performance penalty.
Diffusers as short as two times the diameter are used with axisymmetric spike
inlets.
Long diffuser it is important to verify that the cross-sectional area of the flow
path is smoothly increasing from the inlet front face back to the engine using
volume-distribution plot.
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Inlet Integration
Inlet Location
Embedded engines
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Inlet Integration
F-111
F-16 Su-27
F-107
MiG-21
Comet 4C
Hawker-Siddeley Trident
L-1011
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Inlet Integration
Podded engines
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Inlet Integration
L-1011
Illyushin II-76
Tu 22
B-727
Hawker 125-400A
Myasishochev M-52
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Inlet Integration
B-777 A-380
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Inlet Integration
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Inlet Integration
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Inlet Integration
Capture Area
In a jet propulsion system, the engine is the boss.
Excess air provided by the inlet must be spilled out the front.
If less air is provided, the engine will try to suck the extra required air.
Inlet capture area must be sized to provide sufficient air at all aircraft speeds.
A typical subsonic jet inlet is sized for cruise at about Mach 0.80.9
Diffusion takes place about half within and half outside the inlet duct.
The area at the inlet front face is both the capture area and the throat area.
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Inlet Integration
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Nozzle Integration
Nozzle Integration Problem
Mismatch in desired exit areas at different speeds, altitudes, and thrust settings
is the fundamental problem in jet engine nozzle design
The engine can be viewed as a producer of high-pressure subsonic gases
The nozzle accelerates the gases to the desired exit speed controlled by exit
area.
The nozzle must converge to accelerate the exhaust gases to a high subsonic
exit speed
If the desired exit speed is supersonic, a converging- diverging nozzle is
required
Exit area depends upon the engine mass flow.
This is a problem with afterburning where desired exit area for supersonic
afterburning condition can be three times desired area for subsonic, part-thrust
condition.
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Nozzle Integration
Nozzle Performance
Variable-area nozzle
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Nozzle Integration
Nozzle Configuration
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Propeller-Engine Integration
Propeller Engine Sizing Model
The following tables provide statistical models for sizing of four types of
propeller-driving engines
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Propeller-Engine Integration
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Propeller-Engine Integration
Propeller Sizing
The actual details of the propeller design, such as the blade shape and twist,
are not required to lay out a propeller-engine aircraft.
But the diameter of the propeller, the dimensions of the engine, and the
required inlets and exhausts must be determined.
Generally speaking, the larger the propeller diameter, the more efficient the
propeller will be (Keep it as long as possible, as long as possible)
The limitation is the propeller tip speed, which should be kept below sonic
speed.
The tip of a propeller follows a helical path through the air.
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
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Propeller-Engine Integration
At sea level the helical tip speed of a metal propeller should not exceed 290
m/s.
A wooden propeller, which must be thicker, should be kept below 260 m/s.
If noise is of concern, the upper limit should be about 213 m/s during takeoff.
Compressibility associated with near-sonic tip velocity and severe strength
requirements due to dominance of high centrifugal loading require thick
sections near hub but allow thin sections toward the tip.
Highly-swept multi-blade propellers are proposed for high subsonic cruise.
Noise is a design restricting factor imposing tip Mach number limit as low as
0.6 and low blade loading. Both imply lower rotational speed and more rotor
blades.
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
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Propeller-Engine Integration
Propeller Performance
Swept-backward blade
Typical radial distribution
of a propeller blade
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
71
Propeller-Engine Integration
Dimensionless Parameters
Thrust Coefficient:
Torque Coefficient:
Speed Coefficient (advance ratio)
Reynolds number (significant for very small propellers at low speed)
Mach number (significant for large propellers at high subsonic speed)
2 2 4 2
V n D n
C
C

=
T
T
T
T
,
3 2 5 2
V n D n
C
C

=
Q
Q
Q
Q
,
nD
V
J =
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
72
Propeller-Engine Integration
Dimensionless Parameters
Power Coefficient:
Efficiency:
Speed-Power Coefficient
Other Parameters
Power Loading
Activity Factor
Q P
Q P
C
D n D n
C =

= 2
5 3 5 3
J
C
C
J
C
C V V
P
T
Q
T
Q
T
P
T
=

= =
2
1
5 1
5 1
2
5
/
/
) (
P
P C
J
n
V
C
s
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
3
3 2
5 3
2
V
J
C
D
D n C
D
PL =

= =
P P
P
|
.
|

\
|
(

|
.
|

\
|
=

D
r
d
D
r
D
c
AF
tip
root
3
5
10
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
73
Propeller-Engine Integration
Propeller Design Using Propeller Charts
(c) vs. J.
Clark-Y three-bladed NACA 5868-9 propeller test ( at 75% radius).
(a) C
T
vs. J.
(b) CP vs. J.
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
74
Propeller-Engine Integration
Propeller Design Using Propeller Charts
and C
s
vs. J and (at 75% radius).
Clark-Y three-bladed NACA 5868-9 propeller test.
2
2
) (
) (
) / 1 ( 1
p p p
p p
p s p
p
p
J
C J
J J
+ =
+ =
=
=

g f e
d b
b a
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
75
Propeller-Engine Integration
Propeller Location
Aircraft Design (MEC 4200)
Dr. Raed Kafafy
76
Propeller-Engine Integration
Home-built aircraft
J etstream31
B-36
Cessna Turbo StationAir T206H
Beach Starship