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COURSE PROJECT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS TECHNOLOGY REPORT

Digital Electronic Clock

Aeronautical Engineering Department Class no. 1911611 / 1911612

Project By : 1. (Cornellius K) 191161112 2. (Metin Uengprasert) 191161201

July 2, 2013

Preface
Digital electronic clock is a timing device with a digital display. It has benefits with a high precision (no analog outputs / circuitry), and with a digital visual output. In a common digital clock, there are second, minute, hour, and week counters. The purpose of this project is to make students understand how to connect decoders, displays, counters, and timers to the bread board. Students should understand the characteristics of the bread board (horizontal and vertical electrical conductivity), how to organize the circuitry to make it efficient, and characters of every chips used in the system so every student can wire it properly. We also understand that wiring is an art which has a systematic and colorful way of connection that makes the overall circuit look presentable and easy to follow where the connection starts, leads to and ends. Our digital clock contains displays LC5011-11, decoders, counters and timer. Some of the chips used in the system are the common 7400 series chips such as 74LS247, 74LS74, 74LS20 and 74LS90.

Contents
Requirements Framework of The System Reference Circuit and its Principle Reference Circuit Bread Board 7-Segment Display 7-Segment Decoder (74LS247) Dual D flip-flop (74LS74) NAND Gate (74LS20) Counter (74LS90) Timer (555) Resistor Modulo-60 Counter and Modulo-24 Counter Modulo-7 Counter Problems Problem Solving Advice and Expectation List of Apparatus and Equipments Reference 3 4 6-12 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 11 12 13 14 14 15 15

Requirements
The digital electronic clock requires 5 displays on the bread board and it must display second and minute (modulo60) counter displaying number from 00 to 59, hour (modulo-24) counter displaying number from 00-23, and week (modulo-7) counter displaying number from 1-6 for Monday until Saturday and 8 for Sunday. All we have to do is assemble the displays, decoders and counters to the bread board, providing power and grounding, and inputting the frequency to the system to make it run.

Framework of The System


Display Display Display Display

Decoder

Decoder

Decoder

Decoder

Week(7) Counter

Hour(24) Counter

Minute(60) Counter

Second (60) Counter

Week Correction

Hour Correction

Minute Correction

Second Correction

Signal or continuous pulse

Timer

Reference Circuit and its Principle


Reference Circuit

Bread Board

A breadboard is a construction base for prototyping of electronics. The term is commonly used to refer to solderless breadboard. Because of the solderless breadboard does not require soldering, it is reusable. This makes it easy to use for creating temporary prototypes and experimenting with circuit design. A variety of electronic systems may be prototyped by using breadboards, from small analog and digital circuits to complete central processing units (CPUs).

7-Segment Display
Power pin

g f a b

e d c Dp

A seven-segment display (SSD), or sevensegment indicator, is a form of electronic display device for displaying decimal numerals that is an alternative to the more complex dot-matrix displays. Seven-segment displays are widely used in digital clocks, electronic meters, and other electronic devices for displaying numerical information.

Power pin

7-Segment Decoder (74LS247)


Vcc
16

f
15

g
14

a
13

b
12

c
11

d
10

e
9

74LS247
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

LT

IB /YBR I BR

GND

The 74LS247 IC has four input leads to which the 4-bit BCD numbers are applied. Each input is labeled with a capital letter, which represents one of the binary-weighted positional values. The seven output leads of the 74LS247 IC, labeled a-g, connect to the seven input leads of the display that have the same letter. These outputs are active-low, which is indicated by the

overbar at each letter and by the circle at each lead.

Dual D flip-flop (74LS74)


Vcc
14

2R D
13

2D
12

2CP
11

2S D
10

2Q
9

2Q
8

74LS74
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1R D

1D

1CP

1SD

1Q

1Q

GND

The 74LS74 is one of a set of integrated circuits in the 7400 family. It is a microchip that acts like a switch. It has 1 byte of memory to remember the status when it was last triggered. The Dual Flip Flop means there are two of these identical switches contained in the chip package. More modern variations of this unit are seen in many electronics devices, especially robotics.

NAND Gate (74LS20)


Vcc
14

2D
13

2C
12

NC
11

2B
10

2A
9

2Y
8

74LS20
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1A

1B

NC

1C

1D

1Y

GND

This device contains two independent gates, each of which performs the logic NAND function. The Negated AND, NOT AND or NAND gate is the opposite of the digital AND gate, and behaves in a manner that corresponds to the opposite of AND gate. A LOW (0) output results only if both the inputs to the gate are HIGH (1); if one or both inputs are LOW (0), a HIGH (1) output results.

Counter (74LS90)
CPA
14

NC
13

Qa
12

Qd
11

GND
10

Qb
9

Qc
8

74LS90
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

CPB R0(1) R0(2) NC

Vcc

R9(1) R9(2)

The 74LS90 is a decade counter, meaning it is able to count from 0 to 9 cyclically, and that is its natural mode. That is Qa, Qb, Qc and Qd are 4 bits in a binary number, and these pins cycle through 0 to 9. You can also set the chip up to count up to other maximum numbers and then return to zero. You set it up by changing the wiring of the R0(1), R0(2), R9(1) and R9(2) lines. If both R0(1) and R0(2) are 1 (5 volts) and either R9(1) or R9(2) are 0 (ground), then the chip will reset Qa, Qb, Qc and Qd to 0. If both R9(1) and R9(2) are 1 (5 volts), then the count on Qa, Qb, Qc and Qd goes to 1001.

Timer (555)
Vcc
8

DIS
7

TH
6

CO
5

555
1 2 3 4

GND

TR OUT

RD

The 555 timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) used in a variety of timer, pulse generation and oscillator applications. The 555 can be used to provide time delays, as an oscillator, and as a flip-flop element. Derivatives provide up to four timing circuits in one package. Introduced in 1971 by Signetics, the 555 is still in widespread use due to its ease of use, low price and good stability.

Internally, the 555 Timer IC provides 2 comparators, one for the input signal and the other for the capacitor voltage, and a flip-flop and output driver. Since the comparator reference voltage is chosen as a fixed ratio of the Vcc voltage, the timing is independent of the supply voltage. The 555 Timer ICs key components are the 2 resistors and the 1 capacitor. The 2 components assist in providing the periodic waveform based on the charging/discharging of the voltage applied to the circuit network at pins 2(Trigger) and 7(Discharge).

Resistor (4 color rings)


First digit Second digit Error Multiplier

We use the resistor to increase the resistance in the 7-segment display to avoid the damage in the display caused by great number of electric current. In this system, we used the orange black brown gold resistor which resistance is 300.

Modulo-60 Counter and Modulo-24 Counter


Both second and minute counter is modulo-60 counter displaying number from 0 to 59; hour counter is modulo-24 counter displaying
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number from 0 to 23. The reference circuits designed with 74LS90 are shown in 4 Figures below.

10 CPB 74LS90 CPA R0(1) R0(2) R9(1) R9(2) 5

Qd Qc Qb Qa

10 CPB 74LS90 CPA R0(1) R0(2) R9(1) R9(2) 5

Qd Qc Qb Qa

+5v

+5v
(modulo-6 counter)

(Decimal counter)

Qd Qc Qb Qa 74LS90

10 CPB CPA 5

R (1)0R (2)0R (1)9R (2)9

10 CPB CPA R0(1) R0(2) R9(1) R9(2) 5

Qd Qc Qb Qa 74LS90

+5v

+5v

(modulo-60 counter)

10 CPB 74LS90 CPA R0(1) R0(2) R9(1) R9(2) 5

Qd Qc Qb Qa

10 CPB 74LS90 CPA R0(1) R0(2) R9(1) R9(2) 5

Qd Qc Qb Qa

+5v

+5v

(modulo-24 counter)

Modulo-7 Counter
Week counter is modulo-7 counter displaying number from 1 to 6 and then 8 in accordance with peoples habits (using from

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[Sunday]). Its truth table is shown in Table below. The reference circuit designed with 74LS74 is shown in Figure below.
Qd Qc Qb Qa 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 display Monday (1) Tuesday (2) Wednesday (3) Thursday (4) Friday (5) Saturday (6) Sunday(8)

Qd

Qc 74LS20 & 1
Q

Qb

Qa

1
Q Q

1
Q Q

CP

Q Q

CP

CP

CP

74LS74

R D

R D

R D

R D

Problems

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1) Lots of wiring leads into untidy wire arrangement. Do the shortest connections first. 2) Need to remember what each pins represent. 3) Easy to connect, but the work is a little bit tedious. 4) The IC chips label is not clearly visible. 5) Some of the IC chips pins were bent. 6) When cutting the plastic coating, we had to make sure that the exposed wire is long enough to reach the conductor, around one centimeter. 7) It was not easy to peel the plastic coating of the wire. 8) We was confident that our circuit will work, but it was not working well in the end. We need to debug it for around 2 hours trying to find whats wrong.

Problem Solving
1) Be extra careful when wiring.
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2) Make a wiring plan to avoid crossing wires. 3) Color-code the connections, its easier to debug that way. 4) Check the labels on the IC chips under well-lit light. 5) Carefully straighten the bent pins. 6) Ask the instructor to check for the broken chips. 7) Ask the instructor to assist when using frequency generator.

Advice and Expectation


1) Listen carefully in the introduction class when the instructor explains all about the experiment. 2) Be patient with the bread board as it is a bit tedious dealing with the wires. 3) Plan your circuitry ahead to avoid crossing wires. 4) Understand how each chip works, represents, and how the bread board works. 5) Be patient with the debugging. It could just be a problem in the components especially chips and displays. If you follow all of these advices, you surely can assemble this digital electronic clock project easily.

List of Apparatus and Equipments


No. Name Spec.
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Quantity

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

DC Source 7-Segment Display 7-Segment Decoder Dual D flip-flop 2 x four inputs NAND gate Counter Resistor Bread board Tweezers, scissors

LC5011-11(common anode) 74LS247 74LS74 74LS20 74LS90 300 (orange black brown gold)

1 5 5 2 1 4 5 1 1

Reference
PPT www.howstuffworks.com en.wikipedia.org

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