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BAGUAN ISLAND ECO-TOURISM DEVELOPMENT PLAN

A Project Proposal for the Establishment of Sustainable Eco-Tourism Sulu-Sulawesi Marine Eco-Region & Turtle Islands
Province of Tawi Tawi Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao - ARMM Republic of the Philippines

Don E. Baker Jr.


Marine Resources & Aquaculture Consultant Email: donbjr95@hotmail.com, reefpeace@yahoo.com
BOHOL, PHILIPPINES

OCTOBER 2007

BAGUAN ISLAND ECO-TOURISM DEVELOP PLAN CONTENTS


PREFACE 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 .. .. 4 7 16 23 25 25 27 28 28 29 29 30 30 30 31 31 36 36 37 38 39 40 40 40 41 41 42 44 45 57

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

REGIONAL BACKGROUND TIHPA & SIMCA

BAGUAN ISLAND Protection by Ecotourism Presence

BEDP PROJECT SCOPE Major Features & Budgeting. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Module Funding - Budget Scenario .. Time for Implementation & Startup Business Feature Infrastructure Feature .

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PROJECT SCOPE STRATEGY EMPLOYED 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6

BEDP Tourism Development Advantages & Disadvantages Island Logistics.. Marketing . The Funding . The Risk . Support Staff & Facilities .

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PROJECT SCOPE MAJOR SUPPORT ACTIVITIES 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4

Activity One: Marine Invertebrate Hatchery System Activity Two: Hard Coral Nursery & Reef Restoration Activity Three: Reef Monitoring & Survey Programs Activity Four: Eco-Dive & Eco-Friendly Tourism

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MANAGEMENT PLAN PROPOSED 7.1 7.2

Management Plan Policies for BEDP . ACMR: Assess Cleanup Monitor Restore

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MONITORING THE MANAGEMENT PLAN 8.1 8.2

Administration Monitoring . Biological Resource Monitoring.

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STRATEGIES EMPLOYED FOR ECO-MANAGEMENT ECO-MANAGEMENT ISSUES FOR REGULATION REFERENCES for Further Information

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APPENDIX SECTIONS
Appendix A Don E. Baker, Jr CV & Supporting Documents

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Appendix B Appendix C

Turtle Islands Information

Pertinent Philippine Gov. Acts ..

APPENDIX SECTIONS IN SEPARATE DOCUMENT: .

Appendix D Appendix E Appendix F Appendix G Appendix H Appendix I

Mariculture Potentials for Baguan Island Example Mariculture Giant Clams

Hydroponics Waste Water Treatment Design .. Eco-Tourism Pages . .

Example Resort Designs SIMCA

Relevant Coral Reef / Tourism Pages

PREFACE
REITERATING the importance of tourism as a significant industry in the promotion of economic benefits and social unity, which among others, provides employment opportunities thereby alleviating poverty, improving the quality of lives among nationals of the ASEAN Member Countries and promoting friendship, networking and widening of the perspectives among nations;

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BAGUAN ECO-TOURISM DP (BEDP) SUMMARY OCT 2007

ASSIST new members towards the integrated ASEAN tourism through provision of technical assistance, among others, in the areas of capacity building, human resources development, promotion of investment and protection of environment and cultural heritage. ADVANCE integration of tourism in accordance with the ASEAN Concord II by 2010 through development of ASEAN Tourism Vision and a roadmap to achieve the target of integration;
VIENTIANE DECLARATION ON ENHANCING ASEAN TOURISM COOPERATION BY THE ASEAN TOURISM MINISTERS/ February 3, 2004

Between 30 to 40 % of the Philippine population - or perhaps some 35 million people live on the coastlines of this archipelago island region. The people of the Turtle Islands live 100 % on their island coasts and depend primarily on marine resource extraction and harvesting. The recent WWF Publication Turtle Islands: Resources and Livelihoods under Threat A Case Study on the Philippines; 2005, (Appendix B) bluntly pointed out that marine resources in the Philippine Turtle Island region are dwindling. Extraction from foreign fishermen is also affecting those same resources. Add global warming induced primarily by the First World nations, the future well being of the Turtle Island local communities is bleak, whereas, a future evacuation of the same islands is a real and present scenario once there is not enough food to support the communities, intercommunity conflict escalates and piracy soars as acts of desperation. We all have to eat! A solution is urgently needed for maintaining the future well being of the entire Turtle Island region with sound economic and social principles adapted intricately and specifically with the local ethnic communities in view, whereas, the communities themselves must also be a key feature in regional decisions and implementations. With regards to the above BIMP-EAGA / ASEAN Vientiane Declaration, tourism poses as a viable means to bring in funding and monies to communities to assist in reducing poverty and provide alternative ways to enhance annual community and family monetary incomes. Grants, NGO studies, etc. are temporary and usually end when the funding runs out. A long term, viable, economic and socially compatible solution is needed urgently. This BEDP Proposal specifically addresses sound eco-tourism development within internationally recognized principles of ecosystem conservation, protection and restoration in direct view. The readers will also note as they review this Proposal that there is a strong mariculture feature also employed within the development plan. This is important to not only provide sustenance to tourist patrons but also provide alternative livelihood enterprises to the local communities in various grow-out & buyback schemes for those seedlings produced in a hatchery environment. In this Proposal, various Appendices have been provided:
Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Don E. Baker, Jr CV & Supporting Documents Turtle Islands Information Pertinent Philippine Gov. Acts

APPENDIX SECTIONS IN SEPARATE DOCUMENT:

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Appendix D Appendix E Appendix F Appendix G Appendix H Appendix I

Mariculture Potentials for Baguan Island Example Mariculture Giant Clams Hydroponics Waste Water Treatment Design Eco-Tourism Pages Example Resort Designs SIMCA Relevant Coral Reef / Tourism Pages

These Appendices have been provided as further background and supporting information; with some only with their cover pages of larger publications that the readers can easily obtain via the internet. This includes the various Philippine Government documents, whereas, these are rather long and repetitive in format. It is not the intent of this Proposal to contain all pertinent references, documents that are associated in the development of BEDP, whereas, the readers can refer to the Reference section as well as the presented Appendices. Examples of AutoCAD drawings of existing hydroponic waste water treatment facilities in Sabah, Malaysia should be of interest with regards to an eco-tourism feature often overlooked or blatantly ignored. Drawings are also provided of tourist resort layouts in SIMCA Sugud Islands Marine Conservation Area, Sabah, Malaysia. It is important to note herein that this Proposal has stated the problems and suggests viable solutions to them without continuing on with questions yet to be answered. This Proposal answers the questions. For example, the mariculture of giant clams has been undertaken since the early 1980s approaching 30 years. Scores of manuals for hatchery and grow-out procedures have been produced. There is absolutely no need for further R&D in giant clam culturing; just do it! This Proposal is also a pro-active and implementing document to inspire quick and timely action for instituting viable economic means for benefiting the Turtle Islands with regards to sustainable mariculture, eco-tourism, regional BIMP-EAGA security, resource conservation & restoration, community social alternative livelihood opportunities, and Good Governance. Truly indeed, it always seems to come to the common denominator - of a lack of money - to support the various startup aspects of these features. Eco-Tourism development and investment is a means to provide that money!

The Proposals lead presenters CV and supporting Letters have also been submitted to point out his years of experience in mariculture, MPA management, involvement in the ARMM region, and eco-tourism in Malaysia. Lastly, a version of this Proposal was originally presented by this same Presenter in 2003 under other partys involvement with Coral Guard and the Baguan Island Marine Protected Area Center (BIMPAC). This effort is no longer being undertaken by the Presenter as no action came of this first effort.

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BAGUAN ECO-TOURISM DP (BEDP) SUMMARY OCT 2007

Don E. Baker, Jr. October 2007

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Considered as the most diverse ecological region in the entire World with regards to coral reef species, South East Asia is what Dr. Eugene Clark calls an Evolutionary epicenter of coral life on our planet. As compared to Caribbean with only 60 species of corals, coral diversity in South East Asia amounts to some 450 species. The Sulu Sea exists right in the middle of this diverse region that includes an area from Thailand to the Philippines - Indonesia to the southern part of Taiwan. Unfortunately, with over 50% of the Worlds coral reefs in serious peril, South East Asia poses as a region that is under the most environmental stress brought on primarily through a radical increase in human development features. Less than 10% of the coral reefs in Indonesia are in relatively pristine, unaffected condition. Pristine coral reefs no longer exist in the Philippines as a result of massive human exploitation, extractive-harvesting, coastal over population requiring daily sustenance, and destructive fishing methods.

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What can be done to stop this destruction? How can this aberrant state of affairs of coral reef affection in South East Asia, and more specifically the Sulu Sea, be turned around and result in a pro-active program for coral reef protection and restoration? Where will the funding come from to even establish such efforts? In an effort to put a stop to aberrant fishing practices and other environmentally destructive actions currently taking place in the Turtle Islands ARMM region, a viable and economically feasible plan of action is required that will ensure protection and allow ecosystem restoration either through natural means or applied mariculture and other innovative methods. To be able to put such a plan into action, an island site must be identified to allow various ecosystem monitoring and restoration programs relatively free, unaffected, and secure implementation, whereas, an island site should have: Little or no residential population Minimum infrastructure Adequate beach & coral reef area free from any ongoing commercial exploitation Furthest from nearby Sabah so as to minimize any pollution affection Large enough to support eco-friendly island guest infrastructure away from important beach areas utilized by turtle egg deposition Adequate ground source freshwater

The ideally suited site in consideration of the above criteria poses to be Baguan Island.

Consequently, this proposal represents a collaborative pro-active effort to not only save and conserve the coral reef ecosystems of this unique region of the Sulu Sea but also be able to combine appropriate tourism in an eco-friendly and eco-sustainable manner to provide the economic investment funding.

This effort, in turn, will generate the required and ongoing funding needed to implement and maintain the various coral reef monitoring and restoration programs. In addition, the international tourism community will have a unique marine nature experience opportunity in seeing a Tawi Tawi ARMM based ecosystem management and rehabilitation program in action. With the ongoing coral reef destruction in the Sulu Sea, this development plan requires immediate consideration for subsequent implementation through appropriate Philippine coastal and sustainable ecotourism development guidelines and government review regulations. The overall concept of this proposal brief is to provide a viable and working solution to an ecological crisis that is readily prevalent throughout not just the Sulu Sea, but also most of the nations that have vast coastal zones, whereas, the same often have

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inadequate or ineffective monitoring and protective management plans for its marine natural resources. Though a single island, the Island of Baguan offers an ideal opportunity to undertake:
Administer effective control for sanctuary and guidelines enforcement Island and reef habitat cleanup and floral & fauna restoration Detailed marine ecosystem survey flora & fauna species diversity profile as well as database for long-term monitoring programs Coral reef destructive species control and monitoring i.e. Crown of Thorns Sea star, sea urchin, Drupella snail [coral predators] Giant clam species survey and sanctuary inception Giant clam hatchery for reef restocking and species recovery i.e. Tridacna gigas [true giant clam] Continued maintenance of a turtle hatchery beach sites to assist in species recovery from aberrant regional fishing practices The presence of field offices for DENR, AFP, PNP, and WWF as well as quarters for visiting national and international scientists The Protection through Presence axiom can also generate funding via appropriate, low impact / eco-friendly tourist-guest facilities, whereas, such is currently maintained on the Malaysian TIHPA island of Selingaan and at Lankayan Island, and soon Billean Island, in SIMCA

With the vast amount of island regions of the ARMM Province of Tawi Tawi, the Philippine Governments desire to monitor and enforce guidelines for proper law & fishing practices is extremely costly and subsequently only marginally effective in limited areas of targeted concern.

Therefore, it is both logical as well as feasible for ARMM and the Tawi Tawi Provincial Government to appreciate the willingness and ability of the private sector to lend a hand with this historical dilemma of coastal resource protection and also eventually become self-funding through eco-tourism. The herein presented BAGUAN ISLAND ECO-TOURISM DEVELOPMENT PLAN (BEDP) project plan provides a working means for the establishment of a real and present marine sanctuary and controlled area marine protected area [MPA] specifically for the Turtle Island of Baguan. BEDP for Baguan Island will also provide for:
The 24 hour presence of staff & personnel Initial startup funding for setup & installations Funding annual depreciation coverage as well as for ongoing programs and operations Biological & environmental monitoring programs Educational and interpretive programs Government involvement, assistance, and support Enforcement, control, and management regulations / guidelines Local, indigenous community collaboration & support

The alternative to not having a plan of this caliber and scope in action and effect would be the continued destruction of the islands ecosystems brought on by the

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selfish gain of a very few local and illegally present foreign fishermen and have no viable alternative means for generating community income other than continuing to support such illegal activities. BEDP also poses as a milestone and proactive beginning in an ongoing plan to eventually conserve and utilize the coral reef ecosystems throughout the entire Sulu Archipelago in an ecofriendly and sustainable manner and initiate eco-tourism to help support these efforts. The success of the BEDP would be appreciated and assessed with the achievement of:
Eradication of all forms of illegal and/or aberrant fishing from the sanctuary MPA region of control and assure effective alternative means of income for the Turtle Islands communities Provide viable options for establishing long term alternative livelihood enterprises for the local island communities Assurance of regional ARMM Provincial, National Security, and International security Island habitat flora and fauna restoration Progressive coral reef habitat species diversity increase and restoration Restoration of sea grass bed habitats through natural means Increase of turtle nesting on the regional islands Increase of marine mammals visiting the sanctuary region Firm and working establishment of field stations for DENR, WWF and other national & international institutions Increase of appropriate theme tourist visitor-guest patronization & appreciation to support BEDP goals and milestone achievements

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From: Whittingham, E., Campbell, J. and Townsley, P. (2003). Poverty and Reefs, DFIDIMMIOC/UNESCO, 260pp.

Tourism is frequently promoted as a highly profitable industry. Coastal areas and coral reefs are magnets for tourism development and in many cases the industry is promoted as a means to provide alternatives to fishery-based livelihoods and ensure the sustainability of local coral reef resources. Coral reef areas around the world have experienced a huge increase in tourism development, with many millions of tourists visiting reef areas annually. In the Caribbean alone, 20 million people visit coastal areas, where coral reefs attract 60% of the worlds scuba-diving tours (ICRI, 2002a). The development of coral reef tourism has the potential to bring valuable benefits to local communities. In many coral reef areas, tourism is one of the main industries bringing employment and income-generating opportunities to coastal areas. The development of infrastructure (roads, communications, etc.) associated with the expansion of tourism may also bring benefits to local communities. However, the ability of the poorer members of the community to access the benefits of tourism is far from guaranteed and requires a sensitivity of development guided by social, cultural and environmental principles. Such an approach is encompassed in small-

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scale eco-tourism activities, which have attracted growing recognition for their role in sustainable development. While there are clearly potential benefits of tourism development to local communities, in many cases the absence of proper planning and recognition of local needs and priorities, has marginalized local communities and led to conflict between tourism and local small-scale fishers. EXAMPLES OF SUCCESSFUL CORAL REEF ECO-TOURISM In the Solomon Islands, the Solomon Island Village Stayswere developed in order to let the traveler experience the true feeling of the Solomon Islands. There is a network of over 20 village home stays located throughout the Solomon Islands. A family of the village operates each home stay. This gives the local villagers an opportunity to earn cash without selling their land to developers or loggers. The Belize Eco-tourism Association, was created on Earth Day in 1993.As part of its Code of Ethics, it recognizes the need to support economic and social sustainability by encouraging small-scale tourist developments, providing employment of local people, purchasing products made locally from sustainable resources and providing guidance to all guests to be environmentally and culturally responsible. In the last few years, the Western Samoa Visitor's Bureau has established a National Eco-tourism Programme. The programme promotes a variety of types of sustainable tourism, which are designed to directly benefit rural villagers, contributing a proportion of tour fees directly to the villagers.
(From:The United Nations Department of Social and Economic Affairs, Division for Sustainable Development, Small Island Developing States Unit Eco-tourism Success Stories SIDS website http://www.sidsnet.org/eco-tourism/index.html )

Increasing numbers of reef dependents and degrading reef resources are commonly resulting in a reduction in reef benefits per capita. With little or no access to alternative resources, poor reef users must expend greater and greater efforts to maintain the flow of benefits from the reef, so pressure on reef resources increases and the availability of benefits decline further. As the resources decline, not only do the quality and quantity of products decline, so does the diversity of products available. As coral reef resources decline their capacity to support the coastal poor, providing livelihood stability and reducing vulnerability, will erode. This has clearly already been the case in many parts of the world, where poor reef stakeholders have suffered a loss of livelihood security and increasing risks and conflicts, which have commonly resulted in unsustainable and often illegal livelihoods. In many cases this situation has been worsened by external market forces and conservation efforts, which have resulted in the exclusion of poor reef stakeholders.

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Whilst the reef provides a wide range of benefits to many people - especially to the poor - those benefit flows are changing as a result of factors that are impacting upon the reef. Some of these impacts are caused by the very people who depend upon the reef. Many more are caused by changes outside the control of reef-dependent communities. Some of these changes are occurring at the moment, others are predicted to occur in the future as a result of climate change and other trends.

The impact of these changes varies between different stakeholder groups, but in general the poor are finding that their livelihoods are being stressed more than most and they are the least able to respond. The changes are likely to result in the decline

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of a wide array of benefit flows, to greater exclusion of the poor, increasing conflict, criminalisation of the poor, declining food security and more unstable livelihoods. As mentioned in previous sections, many groups of people who are currently above the poverty line are likely to fall below it as a result of these changes.

White and Deguit (2000) suggest that after many years of working with ICZM approaches in the Philippines, new directions for coastal management are required. This involves, amongst other things, much greater levels of participation than has been used in the past. In reviewing progress on the management of coral reefs in Eastern Africa, Wells (2000) notes that the priority ingredients for success are:
Involving local comm unities in decision-making and management; Ensuring appropriate livelihoods for those immediately dependent on reefs for their income; Developing integrated coastal management frameworks for coral reef management; Involving the tourism and dive industries; Identifying mechanisms for sustainable financing; Promoting training and capacity building; Establishing long-term monitoring programmes.

It is also pointed out that coral reef management is becoming seen much more as a way of life rather than a series of short-term projects. One focused instrument often used in ICZM is the Marine Protected Area (MPA). There are over 1600 MPAs scattered throughout the worlds oceans4, covering 1% of the marine environment, of which 660 incorporate coral reefs (Spalding et al., 2001). MPAs, known variously as marine parks, reserves, or sanctuaries are increasingly being used as tools in ICZM and collaborative or cooperative management initiatives, for protecting and restoring marine biodiversity, ensuring sustainable fisheries management and in association with tourism developments. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature, the purpose of MPAs is to:

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Help protect vulnerable habitats and threatened species; Increase fishery productivity by protecting critical breeding, nursery, and feeding habitats such as estuaries, mangroves, seagrass beds, and coral reefs; Protect breeding populations which can help restock and restore overexploited areas; Reduce the impact of tourism and other direct human activities; Provide local communities with alternative livelihoods, such as well-managed tourism.

Depending on local circumstances, MPAs vary greatly in the extent to which they meet these multiple objectives. In some cases MPAs may be established principally as a tool for biodiversity protection, fisheries management or tourism and in other cases multiple use strategies, including a number of the above may be employed. There is evidence that MPAs can be used effectively to meet these objectives, in particular in enhancing fish stocks. However, only a decade ago it was noted that only a small percentage of the worlds MPAs were effectively managed (White, 1994). Kenchington (2000) notes that . . . the concept of a protected area that can be managed in effective isolation from activities in surrounding areas is not ecologically tenable. Likewise, the success of MPAs in terms of sustaining reef benefits to poor stakeholders depends largely on the extent to which locals have participated in negotiating the objectives of the area and in subsequent management and monitoring EXAMPLES OF ECONOMIC VALUATIONS OF CORAL REEFS In a World Bank study on the economic value of coral reefs in Indonesia, Cesar (1996) analysed the net benefit to individuals and costs to society as a result of five different threats to coral reefs (poison fishing, blast fishing, coral mining, sedimentation and pollution, and over-fishing). This clearly showed, that for none of the threats do the short term benefits even approach the long-term costs (under the assumptions of a 10% discount rate and 25 year horizon). For example, coral mining is estimated to yield net benefits to individuals of US$121000 per km2 of reef, while causing net losses to society of US$93 600 in fisheries value, US$12 000260 000 in coastal protection value, US$2900 481 900 in tourism value, US$67 000 in forest damage, and unknown costs due to lost food security and biodiversity. (From: Cesar, 1996) In a review of the values of Philippines coastal resources, White and Cruz-Trinidad (1998) have estimated that the combined value of coral reefs, mangroves, fisheries and aquaculture contribute at least US$3.5 billion every year to the Philippine national economy. Of this, the total area of coral reef was estimated to contribute an annual economic benefit of at least US$1.35 billion to the national economy, from the combined values of fisheries, tourism and coastal protection.(From:White and CruzTrinidad, 1998) From: Whittingham, E., Campbell, J. and Townsley, P. (2003). Poverty and Reefs, DFIDIMMIOC/UNESCO, 260pp.

Eco-tourism in the Philippines is still a new theme endeavor yet to be fully realized in any appreciable development schemes nationwide.

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In an effort to control the adverse effects of large-scale coastal tourism developments and to provide accessible alternative livelihood opportunities to local communities, sustainable tourism and eco-tourism are frequently promoted. These are often undertaken as part of collaborative management or ICZM initiatives, promoting smallscale, low impact activities which provide direct benefits to the locals involved. However, the extent to which the poorer members of a community may benefit from eco-tourism is unclear. Often such initiatives require those involved to have a certain level of language skills, or to be the owners of particular physical resources (boats or extra rooms). This may require extra support or skills training for poorer households, it may also not be a socially or culturally acceptable alternative for some households, e.g. female-headed households. The Philippine Archipelago is an upper ranking Medium Human Development country (UNDP, 2002), where poverty is largely associated with rural areas and natural resource based livelihoods. Most of the population lives in coastal areas, which are bordered by the third largest expanse of coral reef associated with a single nation (Spalding et al., 2001). Reef fisheries constitute 10% of the total fish production in the Philippines and as much as 70% of the total harvest on some small islands (Cesar, 1996; White and Cruz-Trinidad, 1998, respectively). It has been estimated that more than one million small-scale fishers depend directly on reef fisheries for their livelihood and coral reefs contribute significantly to protein supplies, in a country where more than 50% of animal protein is derived from marine The countrys natural resource base continues to be under threat, and the economic value of natural resources is on the downward trend due to high deforestation rates, depletion of fishery resources, inefficiencies brought by the partial devolution of ENR management to LGUs, continuing degradation of upland soils, degradation of biodiversity, and unstable government policies, among others. The Government is revising some of its environment protection plans and programs to improve predictability and enforcement. Originally slated in 2004 by DENR, with an anticipated startup budget of $US 600,000.00, was a program entitled Poverty Reduction Through Biodiversity Conservation and Environmental Rehabilitation (ADTA). Unfortunately, this program was cancelled.
(COUNTRY STRATEGY AND PROGRAM UPDATE 2004-2006 / PHILIPPINES, ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK November 2003, 97pp.)

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REGIONAL BACKGROUND TIHPA & SIMCA

TIHPA: Turtle Islands Heritage Protected Area The Philippine-Sabah Turtle Islands harbor one of the worlds few remaining major nesting grounds for green turtles (Chelonia mydas). In a historic bilateral agreement, the Governments of the Philippines and Malaysia established the first and only transfrontier protected area for marine turtles in the world. Both countries, making possible the conservation of habitats and sea turtles over a large area independent of their territorial boundaries, share management of the TIHPA. Because of this unprecedented initiative, both implementing agencies of the TIHPA - the Pawikan Conservation Project under the Protected Areas and Wildlife

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Bureau of the Philippines' and Sabah Parks of Malaysia - were named the 20th J. Paul Getty Wildlife Conservation Prize awardees in April 1997. The Philippine-Sabah Turtle Islands group is located in the Sulu Sea, at the southwestern tip of the Philippines, about 1,000 km southwest of Manila and some 40 km north of Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia. These nine islands (six in the Philippines and three in Malaysia) lie adjacent to the international treaty limits that separate the two countries. The Turtle Islands Park of Sabah in Malaysia is composed of Pulau Selingaan, Pulau Bakkungan Kechil and Pulau Gulisaan; gazetted as a national park on October 1, 1977. The Philippine Turtle Islands include Boan, Langaan, Lihiman, Great Bakkungan, Taganak and Baguan. Of the six islands, only Baguan is fully protected, having been declared a marine sanctuary through legislation in 1982.

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As early as 1990, the ASEAN Working Group for Nature Conservation (AWGNC) saw the need for collaborative efforts to conserve marine turtles in the ASEAN Region. In 1991, the Philippines, through the Pawikan Conservation Project of the DENR, proposed the organization of a regional workshop that would formulate a plan for the conservation and management of sea turtles in the Region. In 1993, this activity was successfully undertaken through the 1st ASEAN Symposium Workshop on Marine Turtle Conservation, which was held in Manila, Philippines. The ASEAN Senior Officials for the Environment (ASOEN) approved the regional plan in 1994. One of the major areas of concern identified during the workshop was the conservation of the remaining major nesting areas in the ASEAN Region. The most prominent among these areas is the Philippine-Sabah Turtle Islands, as well as the Berau Islands of Indonesia, which were declared as an ASEAN Heritage Protected Area for Sea Turtles. However, given that the ASEAN is a political institution with eight member nations (there were only six in 1993) and must deal with a diversity of issues from different points of view, the finalization of a regional agreement involving all the Parties is expected to take a long time. In 1995, through the Joint Commission for Bilateral Cooperation (JCBC), the Governments of the Philippines and Malaysia negotiated for the establishment of the TIHPA, with technical assistance from WWFPhilippines. The bilateral agreement establishing the TIHPA was formalized on May 31, 1996 during the 3rd Meeting of the JCBC in Manila. TIHPA AS AN URGENT RESPONSE TO CONSERVATION Globally, turtle populations are experiencing dramatic population declines due especially to growing pressures caused by direct exploitation as well as degradation of the marine habitats used by turtles. The Philippines-Sabah Turtle Islands are not spared from this predicament. Realizing that the long-term survival of species that migrate through the oceans cannot be achieved at just the national level, the two Governments collaborated to ensure the conservation of these shared resources through TIHPA. The TIHPA is the first trans-frontier protected area for marine turtles in the world. The agreement identified priority activities for collaboration to achieve the goal of the TIHPA.

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The priority activities identified for joint implementation are the following: Management-oriented research Establishment of a centralized database and information network Appropriate information awareness programs Marine turtle resource management and protection program Appropriate ecotourism program

Activities of the JMC To implement the plans and programs of the TIHPA, a Joint Management Committee was created to serve as a body that would oversee the overall direction of the collaboration. The regular meetings of the JMC serve as the primary venue for planning and resolving joint issues related to sea turtle conservation. Currently, the JMC is focusing on the formulation of a joint management plan to respond to the priority activities identified as well as other related activities, which will facilitate the implementation of programs for the TIHPA. The JMC has also formulated and adopted its Rules of Procedures, a set of rules that will guide its members in conducting and observing protocols during meetings, resolving issues, and decision-making. Another accomplishment of the JMC is the installation of a radio communications network linking all the islands under the TIHPA. As part of the ongoing management planning process, a joint aerial mapping survey will be undertaken in 1999 to update relevant information pertinent to the planning process. Turtle Islands Wildlife Sanctuary [TIWS] includes seven small islands with unique and extensive marine ecosystem located at the southwestern tip of the Philippines. Designated as Turtle Island Heritage Protected Area [TIHPA] in May 31, 1996 between the Philippines and Malaysia, it is a major nesting site of the endangered green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas). The different islands exhibit varied vegetative cover; its vast water area supports diverse species of fish and other marine invertebrates of very high commercial value. The value of the Turtle Islands cannot be exaggerated. The future recovery of the declining Green Turtle population would spell the future of this species considering that Turtle Islands is among the only 10 breeding aggregations in the world. Because Sea Turtles demonstrate site fixity, i.e., they turn to their natal beach; the loss of the turtle population in Turtle islands will be permanent since any other population could not replenish it. Biodiversity Characteristics Fifty (50) seaweeds species were identified for the marine flora, 17 species of which could be used for food, medicine, fertilizers, minerals and animal feeds. Regarded as the only major nesting ground of the endangered Green Turtle in the whole ASEAN region, (80%) of the Philippines remaining marine turtle resource is found in the area. While it supports a diverse population of marine fauna, the Turtle Islands nurtures several species of birds as well with 2 species not found anywhere outside the country, namely: the Philippine Glossy Starling (Aplonis p. panayensis) and the Pink-Necked Green Pigeon (Treron v. vernans).

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With more than 361 fish species record, the fish and coral assemblage in the Turtle Island group has the highest diversity compared to all other protected marine areas surveyed in the Philippines. Baguan Island Baguan is a 29.1-hectare, bell-shaped island with a coastline of 1.7 km. It is characterized by an expansive beach flat at the southern part and a rolling to gently sloping hill in the north. It is volcanic in origin, later enlarged by the deposition of the coastal plain at the southern part. The volcanic part of the island is elevated, with a maximum elevation of about 40 m ASL. The hill is moderately steep. The sandy flatland in the southern portion of Baguan makes up the largest part of the island. The flatland is 644 m wide at its broadest part with an average elevation of 3 m ASL. Fringing this flatland is a belt of coralline sand beach. The coastline at the foot of the hills is rocky, with large volcanic boulders. In the south, wide sandy beaches surround the coastal plain. Erosion and accretion are active, changing the island's outline over time. Fresh water is present in the form of shallow groundwater. Corals have colonized the substrate in the shallow waters surrounding the island. The reef extends approximately 300 m offshore in the south and is widest in the north where it extends approximately 1.2 kilometers offshore. The accumulation of non-mineral organic materials that act as ephemeral constituents of the beach may have a marked effect on beach processes and morphology. The incorporation of large tree trunks (transported by ocean currents from nearby Sabah) into the beaches has resulted in some temporary beach stability. This debris serves as traps, which inhibit the transport of sand and cause the temporary storage of sand and stability of the beach environment. Beach erosion occurs in areas adjacent to the beach. [From WWF- Philippines]

SIMCA: Sugud Islands Marine Conservation Area The Cabinet approved marine conservation area in the Beluran District of Sabah, comprises of approximately 460 square kilometers, including the islands of Lankayan, Billean, and Tegaipil as well as the surrounding and adjacent coral reefs and sea grass beds. Initially entitled as a conservation area under the Sabah Wildlife Conservation Enactment 1997 Section 21 (1), the Lankayan-Billean-Tegaipil [LBT] region, for the purpose of falling in line with various International conventions, will hereafter be called a Marine Protected Area [MPA]. General Management Guidelines & Rules for SIMCA: No Fishing No Taking No Anchoring on Reefs

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BAGUAN ECO-TOURISM DP (BEDP) SUMMARY OCT

No Waste Discarding No Destruction In addition to this enactment, the region is entitled - Sugud Islands Marine Conservation Area [SIMCA]. The recently approved SIMCA-MPA Management Plan - July 2002 submission resulted from a November 2001 submission of the LBT-MPA management plan which closely followed a general format adapted from the World Commission on Protected Areas [WCPA] and The World Conservation Union [IUCN]; Annex 2 of the Guidelines for Marine Protected Areas / Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series No.3, 1999. As a result of the November 2001 Management Plan, the LBT region was officially declared a conservation area under Section 21(1) of the Wildlife Conservation Enactment 1997 - effective December 13rd, 2001; Survey Lot No. 08200041 / Plan No. L.S.C 1204-8-2-40. Geographic and Habitat Classification The SIMCA region is located in the northeastern coastal region of Sabah, Malaysia or approximately 8 to 20 kilometers off the main island of Borneo. With the same area as part of the Sulu Sea, the SIMCA exists on a shallow underwater shelf that is an extension of the island landmass of Borneo itself. Four [4] geographic types co-exist in the SIMCA-MPA region: Coral reefs / fringing & patch Sand islands Shallow sea grass beds Deeper soft, mud / silt bottom

Island Status Lankayan Island is the only island of SIMCA currently under TOL status with the Sabah State Government. Billean and Tegaipil Island are currently under no lease or TOL status with any private sector person and/or group. Coral Reef Status Prior to the December 3rd, 2001 gazettement of the SIMCA region as a conservation area, there were little or no restrictions on marine life harvesting. Consequently, SIMCA coral reef ecosystems have been severely affected by unregulated and uncontrolled exploitation by local and international commercial fishing operations. Methods of harvesting have, for the most part, been highly destructive to the ecosystems themselves using trawls, barrier nets, muro-ami, explosives, and poisons. This devastation concerns both the physical / structural aspects of coral reefs in SIMCA and their overall biodiversity status. There is also a steady increase of eutrophication as a result of rapid agricultural development that brings significant concentrations of silt and nutrients from inland

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BAGUAN ECO-TOURISM DP (BEDP) SUMMARY OCT

Sabah and transported via rivers systems to the SIMCA region. This, by far, can be the most significant cause for wide spread coral reef ecosystem destruction.

Developed Areas Islands within the SIMCA are zoned according to the following sectioning: Natural / Conservation Facilities Support & Operations [Generator, Water, Septic Treatment] Staff Facilities Guest / Visitor Facilities Restoration Facilities

Lankayan Island Since 1995, Lankayan Island Dive Resort [LIDR] has been occupying this small 7hectare island in various stages of development and associated infrastructure installations. Only in the past 2 years has the island been promoted in the international dive tourism markets primarily in Europe. Marketing and sales efforts are now reaching to Australia and the United States. Major infrastructures in place: Jetty / Dive Centre Operations Electrical generator building Staff quarters line & upper scale Restaurant / Club house & lounge building Kitchen & food storage building 24 - Dive guest rooms

There has been minimum clearing of the islands natural flora, whereas, the buildings have been fit in and around trees and large shrub patches. Approximately 70 % of the island remains as untouched Pandanus thickets with a few larger trees mixed in. Billean Island LIDR staff and management have been providing ongoing security and presence on the island for the past year. The island itself is approximately one half the size of Lankayan or approximately 3 hectares. About two thirds of the island is covered in thick shrubs and Pandanus groves. The other third is clear with only thick grasses and ground vines. As with Lankayan, Billean Island is also surrounded by coral sand beaches. A second resort is now being installed at Billean Island; water village design. Tegaipil Island Presently inhabited by a Royal Malaysian Army detachment, Tegaipil Island has been used in a similar capacity to that of Billean Island by past fish bombing operations.

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BAGUAN ECO-TOURISM DP (BEDP) SUMMARY OCT

Though the largest island in the SIMCA MPA, it is the most affected by human presence. Harvesting of the coral as well as the islands trees has greatly affected the natural conditions to the point of requiring a wide spread program of restoration. [From Reef Guardian Sdn. Bhd. Management Entity for SIMCA]

3 .0

BAGUAN ISLAND Protection by Eco-Tourism Presence

For the past several years, the SIMCA island of Lankayan has existed as a unique dive tourism facility that has resulted in substantial and significant level of coral reef rebirth and re-growth in and around the nearby reef habitats simply by its presence in the region. Blast and cyanide fishing operations have been significantly curtailed through the pro-active involvement of island staff and personnel making, oftentimes, dangerous incursions and confrontations against the perpetrators. The diligence and passion of the island staff and management has resulted in the successful conservation of the many reefs in and around Lankayan Island itself. The shallow reefs that surround Lankayan Island hosts hundreds of giant clams [Tridacna sp. 2 T. gigas], scores of juvenile Humphead Wrasse fishes [Cheilinus undulatus], and live hard coral coverage-density averaging approximately 80 % on the outer reef fringes. The island is a clear case of a working example of protection by presence. If only to benefit biodiversity itself, the establishment of marine protected areas [MPA] are certainly justified for the sake of future generations to wonder and marvel at. But in reality, all actions taken by human institutions warrants a system of cost & benefit exchange be it in a form of barter trade or direct monetary appreciation to maintain any endeavor. The establishment of and support for a marine protected area or sanctuary in the Turtle Islands poses no exception to this basic fact. There is a cost and depreciation factor to maintain a MPA. Without doubt, the future well-being and success for the Baguan Island marine protected area implementation, administration, and enforcement will be directly geared and dependent upon a mutually agreed strategy for implementing a viable system of cost & benefit exchange that will also benefit the local communities residing in the nearby islands. The word Benefit often appears to be a key and controversial term whenever parks, sanctuaries, and protected areas are concerned. Adversaries will challenge establishment based on unequaled benefits and losses to communities, businesses, and even Government jurisdiction. Proponents for establishment too often disregard an equitable system of cost & benefit exchange and base their arguments on arbitrary / subjective save the world statements that often result in paper parks without adequate funding.

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BAGUAN ECO-TOURISM DP (BEDP) SUMMARY OCT

Certainly there is a cost to maintain BEDP. This Proposal shows that ecotourism patronage can do the job. What value is present in the Baguan Island sanctuary that tourists are willing to appreciate and pay for? Tourism valuation profile for Baguan Island: Coral reef ecosystems for exploration & discovery Marine life for general & specialized photography Coral reef study & restoration programs to learn from and participate Marine Park support and appreciation Comfortable eco-friendly guest accommodations for rest & relaxation Assured patronage security through the presence of both military and police personnel

Through tourism, the value of the natural product features can be sold time and time again without loss or extraction of the same. But only if properly managed will the total economic value potential of the BEDP be appreciated through carefully planned and appropriately applied ecotourism patronage. It is through extractive endeavors, that these same natural features [i.e. fish, turtles, sharks, and giant clams] are sold once to the benefit of very few - and gone forever. What benefits then would the ARMM government appreciate with the establishment of this Plan? What benefits would the Philippines, as a nation, also receive? Without the tourism factor involved, there may be little or no secure and ongoing funding to realistically implement and effectively manage the protected areas. Benefits appreciated by instituting BEDP: An increase of local and international eco-tourism patronage to the Turtle Islands An increase for utilizing associated tourism support areas [e.g. air, land and sea transportation, food & beverage wholesale, seafood supply, communications] An increase in local citizen training & employment opportunities An increase in nearby fishery stocks available for harvesting An increase of available scientific data generated from various cooperative institutional studies and programs An increase to national security in this ARMM region to the benefit of both the Philippines and Malaysia An increase to national prestige by having a SMART supported BEDP through private sector management and government cooperation

Though the eco-tourist entities themselves will be undertaking a major investment and risk by supporting the overall establishment and management of the BEDP there

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BAGUAN ECO-TOURISM DP (BEDP) SUMMARY OCT

must always be clear and transparent dialogue between the ARMM, Provincial government, , the Malaysian BIMP-EAGA counterparts, and the tourism proponents. From the standpoint of Lankayans success example nearby in Sabah, Malaysia, BEDP presents an applied pro-active commitment to conserve and restore the marine and island ecosystems of Baguan Island. Consequently, BEDP Turtle Islands - Province of Tawi Tawi ARMM is considered a long-term project that may well carry on in perpetuity.

4 .0
4.1

BEDP PROJECT SCOPE Major Features & Budgeting


Module Start-Up Funding - Budget Summary (2007) Administration & Marine Programs Infrastructure & Facilities Support Defense & Related Features Transport & Dive Boats & Motors Guest & Staff Facilities Project Implementations [Write-ups, Designs, EIA] DENR Budget Assistance PNP/Security Facilities VIP Exec Qrts Labor / Installations / Transport [@25% of
materials]

Module A Module B Module C Module D Module E Module F Module G Module H Module I Module J Module K Module L

$P 3,835,000.00 $P21,190,000.00 $P 2,015,000.00 $P 8,320,000.00 $P 28,900,000.00 $P 3,315,000.00

$P1,170,000.00 $P1,170,000.00 $P1,560,000.00

TBD TBD
$P4,550,000.00

Site Engineering Preparations Market & Sales Promo

TOTAL Estimate(Less J&K): US$ Equivalent Estimate:

$P 75,985,000.00 $USD 1,670,000.00

TOTAL Estimated Budget for BEDP: $ 76,000,000.00 Peso


Module funding is presented with regards to various ways and means for allocating startup capital from a variety of sources, whereas, one source could be a grant from an international NGO that would pay for Hatchery & Monitoring Materials / Supplies. All Estimates are subject to more defined and detailed assessments with suppliers, contractors, and administration & implementation arrangements and subject to reevaluation and changes in order to present a more accurate project scope to potential investor clientele.

Investment Budget Estimated for BEDP Start-Up (2007):


FACILITY TYPE

Description

Budget [P$]

Budget [US$]

Budget [RM$]

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BAGUAN ECO-TOURISM DP (BEDP) SUMMARY OCT

A. Admin. & Marine Programs: Marine Hatchery & Lab. Admin Office/Welcome B. Infrastructure & Facilities Support: Water Source & Distribution Waste Water Treatment (include Septic/Clarifier) Wind Gen/Solar Hybrid Electrical System C. Defense & Related: Radar Surveillance System (Tower & bld included) Communication System 1 System [32 NM] & PC VHF Units & SSB System $1,885,000.00 $ 130,000.00 1 System, 4 Well pts 2 System [hydroponics] 1 System 1 System & Building $2,860,000.00 $5,005,000.00 $8,450,000.00 $4,875,000.00 Phase One 1 Building (beach side) $3,380,000.00 $ 455,000.00

(@ 45.5P/US)

(@ 3.5 RM/US)

$ 74,286.00 $ 10,000.00

$ 260,000.00 $ 35,000.00

$ 63,000.00 $110,000.00 $185,715.00 $107,143.00

$ 220,000.00 $ 385,000.00 $ 650,000.00 $ 375,000.00

$41,430.00 $ 2,860.00

$ 145,000.00 $ 10,000.00

D. Transport & Dive Boats & Motors Baguan Transfer Boat Baguan Utility/Security Boat Dive Tour Boat E. Guest & Staff Facilities: Guest/Tourist Visitor Cabins Restaurant & Interpretive Ctr Dive Facilities & Equipmt Staff Qtrs Senior Staff Staff Qtrs Female Staff Qtrs Male Workshop Gym/Spa Admin/Reception Storage Housekeeping/Laundry F. Project Implementations
Pacific Aqua-tech Systems S/B Design & Project Admin.

2 Units 2 Units 2 Units

$4,160,000.00 $1,950,000.00 $2,210,000.00

$ 91,428.00 $ 42,860.00 $ 48,572.00

$ 320,000.00 $ 150,000.00 $ 170,000.00

24 Units 1 Facility 1 Facility 2 Buildings 2 Buildings 2 Buildings 1 Building 1 Building 1 Building 1 Building 3 Buildings

$16,000,000.00 $2,145,000.00 $3,214,286.00 $1,690,000.00 $ 845,000.00 $ 845,000.00 $ 455,000.00 $1,170,000.00 $1,170,000.00 $ 520,000.00 $ 845,000.00

$350,000.00 $ 47,143.00 $ 71,430.00 $ 37,143.00 $ 18,572.00 $ 18,572.00 $ 10,000.00 $ 25,714.00 $ 25,714.00 $ 11,430.00 $ 18,572.00

$ 1,225,000.00 $ 165,000.00 $ 250,000.00 $ 130,000.00 $ 65,000.00 $ 65,000.00 $ 35,000.00 $ 90,000.00 $ 90,000.00 $ 40,000.00 $ 65,000.00

Government & EIA Budget General Contingency FACILITY TYPE G. DENR Budget Assistance

Administrative & Cont. Various

Description
Turtle Hatchery & Admin/Qrts Qrts & Canteen Helio-Pad 3 Buildings @ 35% of Materials

$1,560,000.00 $1,105,000.00 $ 650,000.00 Budget [P$] $1,170,000.00

$ 34,286.00 $ 24,285.00 $ 14,286.00 Budget [US$] $ 25,714.00

$ 120,000.00 $ 85,000.00 $ 50,000.00 Budget [RM$] $ 90,000.00

H. PNP/Security Facilities

$1,040,000.00 $ 130,000.00 $1,560,000.00

$ 22,857.00 $ 2,860.00 $ 34,286.00

$ 80,000.00 $ 10,000.00 $ 120,000.00 TBD

I. VIP Exec Qrts J. Labor & Materials

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BAGUAN ECO-TOURISM DP (BEDP) SUMMARY OCT

Transport K. Site Engineering Preparations L. Market & Sales Promo (budget for Sandakan) TOTAL ESTIMATED: (Less J & K) Contingency per land conditions Office & Comm Business Establishment $4,550,000.00 $100,000.00 TBD

$350,000.00

$75,985,000.00

$1,670,000.00

$ 5,845,000.00

TBD: to be determined

Budget reflects startup summary /overview and not a detailed operational Budget, whereas, a ten (10) year Profit &Loss statement will be required for determining investment feasibility and attractiveness.

4.2 4.2.1

Time for Implementation & Startup Project Progression / Infrastructures - All:


Mobilization Period Island Survey & Infrastructure Location Assessment Infrastructure Design Finalization & BQ Materials Procurement & Transfer / Site Prep. Installation & Operational Commencement 60 days 30 days 60 days 60 days 180 days

4.2.2

Project Progression / Conservation & Sanctuary:


Operational mobilization & commencement Coral reef ecosystem survey & monitoring program Turtle hatchery assessment Giant clam hatchery installation & ops start Giant clam sanctuary setup Coral nursery setup 90 days 1 Year 30 days 90 days 120 days 60 days

4.3

Business Feature

An in-house, propriety business plan will be jointly evolved by involved parties based upon:
Tourist / Visitor patronage and associated features Collaborative marketing & sales primarily with Sabah based agents Cultural & Regional promotions and Marine sea farming and island based agricultural programs that, in turn, helps support patronage food requirements ARMM/Philippine Government & Malaysian Customs & Immigration collaboration

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BAGUAN ECO-TOURISM DP (BEDP) SUMMARY OCT

Ecosystem restoration programs as a legitimate long term, win-win investment in ecotourism Multi varied user fee applications Innovative funding & sponsorship programs NGO grant assistance to help offset annual MPA administration costs

4.4

Infrastructure Features

KEY Points for the BEDP: 4.4.1


-

Power Systems & Fuels


All power generation will be located at a single, centralized area building housing a modern, state-of-the-art solar power system with a new, efficient diesel engine as a backup for battery charging All fuel handling will be carried out with proper transfer containers and associated means for safe, efficient movement from boat-beach-storage Power distribution will be with underground or HDPE pipe runs insulated, armored cabling All associated cleaning materials, used engine oil & lubricants will be safely handled and properly stored for subsequent removal from the island

4.4.2
-

Freshwater Supply
Freshwater will be a combination of rainwater collection-storage and limited pumping of available groundwater Freshwater for drinking and shower use will be from a single filtration, storage & distribution system

4.4.3
-

Food & Beverage


Food & beverage operations will be operated from a single outlet for tourists and at canteen units for staff, DENR and security personnel Supplies to be in bulk so as to minimize packaging waste and subsequent removal from the island

4.4.4
-

Support Operations
All Laundry will be washed with certified biodegradable soaps All bath soaps and other cleaners used on-island will be certified biodegradable

4.4.5
-

Dive Operations
All diving operations will be from a single, strategically located area New dive boats 2 units that can handle 12 diver guests comfortably per boat Limited Time Use [LTU] guidelines will be implemented for managing all dive sites especially if other resorts become involved

4.4.6
-

Access to Island
Only beach landings allowed no jetty is planned Guests will be off-loaded at a main island theme entrance separate from island support & supply off-loading area

4.4.7

Waste Materials

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BAGUAN ECO-TOURISM DP (BEDP) SUMMARY OCT

All solid & liquid waste materials will be properly managed either with specialized treatment systems [hydroponics & compost] or removed from the island

4.4.8
-

Guest & Staff Quarters


All guest rooms will be built no closer than 60 feet from the MHWL freeing the beach in full for turtle egg laying Staff quarters will be strategically located nearby various support operations Room themes will be of a local cultural nature that emphasizes a local flavor All access to guest rooms will be from the rear facing in towards island interior All lights will be at the rear of each guest house so that such will not deter turtles from beach landing but only the northern part of the island will designated for eco-tourism infrastructure as this area has very limited beach landing potential.

5 .0
5.1

BEDP PROJECT SCOPE Strategy Employed


BIMPAC Tourism Development Advantages & Disadvantages

Why develop, install, and operate dive tour operations in a remote region at all? The disadvantages are, in reality, only inconveniences. In todays level of technical and engineering capabilities, one can operate a resort practically anywhere on the planet. There, of course, are costs and investments to consider before one decides to install, say, a ski-resort on the high slopes of the Himalayan Mountains or an undersea hotel on the Great Barrier Reef. To outweigh the disadvantages of not having fulltime direct human resource management in a remote setting, there must be clear and well-defined standard operating procedures to provide daily-weekly-monthly guidance for staff. Baguan Island also has the distinct advantage of being the only ecotourism operations located in the TIHPA region itself, which, in turn provides business exclusivity. This exclusivity factor is an advantage to marketing but may be a disadvantage for operational logistics. 5.2 Island Logistics

Unlike a hotel or dive tour operation located close by supportive vendors and suppliers, remote island resorts are presented with unique and critical logistics that warrants a strategy for routine sustenance and replenishment. Island resorts are 100 % independent mini-communities, whereas, the basic needs for human habitation must be provided for by the management structure and administration setup. These basic needs include, drinking water, food, shelter, solid & liquid waste dispensing, electrical power, communications and transportation. The management and staff must be confident and experienced in order to ensure continued operations through ongoing supply and replenishment logistics.

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Consequently, much of the start up investment and simple sales projection summary data presented in this paper indicates sustainable operations based upon a remote island setting that is different from a city hotel. Major expenses accrued second to that of manpower is fuel and facility maintenance. In an island setting, the harsh marine and off shore environment also adds to the depreciation of buildings, engines, equipment and furnishings. Poor or inadequate maintenance and management also of the same adds to asset losses and jeopardizes tourism profitability in the long term view. This has certainly closed many resorts down all across the globe. 5.3 Marketing

It is precisely the remote island setting that directly assists in marketing for tourist patronage. The further away a resort is from other facilities and places, the better the chances for experiencing a more pristine natural setting. This is especially important with the way tourism is now gearing towards nature or eco-tourism. With the inception of the BEDP, such poses as an excellent marketing tool and edge that perhaps very few island ecotourism facilities have. A marine protected area jointly supported under the care and management of a private sector entity is a unique paradigm that will eventually gain world recognition. International recognition as a MPA will directly assist in any marketing strategy or program employed by and from the BEDP. 5.4 The Funding

Without doubt, the main avenue for funding the BEDP and its administration can only come from well planned and well managed eco-tourism development. The key feature for being able to undertake tourism within the TIHPA region is a viable business & science relationship based upon a workable management plan. Valuation of what products & services that the TIHPA region can provide to inspire and maintain tourism patronage is clearly understood by Reef Guardian Sdn. Bhd in its management of SIMCA. Effective and enduring Baguan Island management is essential to ensure the value and quality of the product persists over time. The private sector parties involved with SIMCA already have a substantiate investment in infrastructure, manpower, and business setup undertaken with Lankayan Island Dive Resort (LIDR). The same parties further believe that commissioning an additional resort operation on Billean Island will greatly add to the overall tourism benefit of SIMCA for years to come and guarantee its economic sustainability. LIDR projections alone clearly show that even at an average annual 26 % resort occupancy, approximately 50 % of the annual funding required for a fully staffed SIMCA management Reef Guardian team is met. This same strategy can be readily applied for Baguan Island through the BEDP. 5.5 The Risk

With LIDR in full operation for the past nearly ten (10) years, their investment parties have a clear and present understanding about operating a resort and dive center in a

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remote setting as noted for SIMCA. This same business sense and experience could be expanded upon to encompass the entire TIHPA region. Certainly it has been well noted during the evolving course of this proposal write up that the risk of investment is outweighed by the anticipated benefits. Benefits reflect a full spectrum of recipients: 5.6 5.6.1 The tourist patronage national & international The island & marine ecosystems of TIHPA The local communities with associated mariculture programs The Local communities with direct and indirect employment benefits The National & Provincial Government The Security within terms of BIMP-EAGA cooperation between the Philippines and Malaysia The investment parties themselves The staff and management involved with tourism The staff and management involved with scientific study

Support Staff & Facilities Manpower & Island Staff

Manpower required for assisting in the ecotourism aspects will be skilled / experienced as well as non-skilled. Eco-Guest and dive operations will be staffed primarily from local Turtle Island / ARMM residents. Many of the staff will have had prior experience and training during their work pass tenures in Sabah, Malaysia especially from Lankayan Island Dive Resort itself. Specialists in marine & coral reef ecosystem assessment, restoration, and ongoing monitoring programs will be required and recruited from local institutes, NGOs and private sector avenues. Representatives from DENR as well as the Fisheries sections of the Department of Agriculture will be present. Detachments of either or both AFP and PNP will be required for security and assisting in sanctuary guideline enforcement. 5.6.2 Island Support Capacity

As Baguan Island is a declared sanctuary specifically implemented for turtle conservation and egg deposition / hatchery enhancement, human presence must be limited, but at the same time allow for ecotourism capacity to enhance funding support for the same. In addition, the overall infrastructure and facility support design must be closely geared to adequately care for and maintain a certain level of human amenities without affecting the islands marine and terrestrial ecosystems in any negative, permanent, and un-restorable manner.

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BAGUAN ECO-TOURISM DP (BEDP) SUMMARY OCT

It is therefore recommended that the maximum number of guest quarters be no more than 24 units. Each unit can be twin sharing bringing the maximum number of ecotourism guests to be 48. Ecotourism support staff will be allocated on a 1:1 basis or one staff per guest. Government, scientist, and other security staff will also be limited.

Island Human Presence Allocations DENR / Dept. of Agriculture-Fisheries Scientist / NGO Representatives Mariculture Technicians AFP & PNP JV Visiting Malaysia PGA/TLDM Eco-Tourist Guests Eco-Tourist Support Staff TOTAL Recommended Allocation:

Number of Personnel 8 8 6 16 8 48 48 142

5.6.3

Island Access

No infrastructures will be located over water or upon beach areas. Access to Baguan Island will primarily be from the southern reef, whereas, boats will temporarily land directly on the beach for loading and off-loading. The installation of a permanent 300 meter long access jetty would not only be prohibitively expensive but unnecessary. Furthermore, a jetty of this length would also interfere with turtles gaining access to the islands southern beaches for egg deposition. 5.6.4 Water Supply

Baguan Islands large sandy area of the southern portion holds a sizable source of lens ground water. This source should be carefully assessed for optimum, safe water-well placement so that seawater will not intrude as a result of over pumping / use. In addition to the ground water source, rainwater can also be collected from the various infrastructure buildings and properly stored and filtered for human use. 5.6.5 Waste Water

Waste water from food preparation and human shower / toilets can be treated with a specialized hydroponics application that discharges nutrient free, low E. coli bacteria freshwater. Pretreatment is via HDPE septic tank system. The outfall septic water is then collected into a separate HDPE chamber and treated with ozone. The last stage of treatment is through a special design series of HDPE tanks with plants and gravel to remove nutrients. This system is basically a modular approach of an engineered subsurface flow wetland treatment system. As apposed to utilizing a reed bed system, this hydroponic waster water treatment system (HTS) is able to be

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closely monitored for optimum nutrient removal and be able to adjust water flows and hydraulic retention time (HRT) with simple valve operations. Lankayan Island in Sabah currently has an operational HTS system. Gayana Resort in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah has had a system operating successfully for its main on-thesea platform restaurant and 30% of its over water chalets since 1998. It is currently being modernized under new ownership. Sipadan Island BKN and Sabah Parks are now assessing the HTS for a new facility proposal.

Lankayan Island HTS in operation

5.6.6

Electrical Power

With the current state of the art available, the electrical power needs can be easily managed by a simple solar power system. Specialized batteries available are longterm use, deep cycle type that can last more than ten years if properly maintained. Either a 12 or 24 volt solar power system will be utilized with a marine type inverter / charger unit that can provide 4.0 KW. This is adequate for a limited number of nightlights, communications, ceiling fans, and hatchery water pumping. No air conditioners will be used. Refrigeration systems will operate on a special eutectic system that commercial fishing boats use. Utilizing a special fluid that holds temperature, the same is chilled via 12V refrigerators only during solar operating hours. After sunset, the chilling system is shut down and the frozen fluid will provide temperature levels required for food storage during the night. Cooking systems will be fully operated with propane. The solar applications are initially expensive but will save in operation costs in the long run. As a battery charge back up, a small diesel generator can also be incorporated i.e. 10 KVA.

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A combination eco-dive tourist, giant clam hatchery, and coral reef rehabilitation facility in the Republic of the Marshall Islands has been fully operational on such a power arrangement since 1994 Mili Wau Island. The same deep cycle batteries are still in use under a 12-volt system - combo solar panel and wind generator unit. A small petrol generator is used only as a backup to assist battery amp-hour recharge on cloudy, storm days.

A hybrid wind generator & solar Panel system will be recommended for use on Baguan Island.

5.6.7

Funding Startup & Ongoing

As in any business venture, commencement of investment action requires viable and foreseeable potential returns - in monetary dividends and/or other benefits. With the establishment of the BEDP, there is a guaranteed monetary return as well as providing a strategy to support a long-term protected area effort. In an effort to operate and administer the BEDP with the long-term goal and aim of achieving a high level of self-financing, various means and methods must be instituted to generate funding. Tourism is that funding mechanism.

ECO-TOURISM SUPPORT OPERATIONS ANNUAL FUNDING EXAMPLE SUMMARY: Given: 24 Guest Rooms / 48 Pax Maximum Load per Day / Max Pax-Nights At only 25 % Occupancy Rate - Average / Year [Seasonal Guided]: Total Pax-Night / Year available: Total Package Price Average:
Package includes: All transportation to/from Baguan Island to/from Sandakan All meals and drinks [less alcohol & canned beverages] Three dives per day & unlimited snorkeling / kayak use Cultural & Marine / Island Conservation Interpretive experiences

4,380 $P 5,915.00

[365 days X 25% X 48 persons] [Per Pax/Night / $US 130.00 (45.5)]

Conservation User Fees charged @ $P 400.00 per Person per Night [$US 8.80 ]

33 |Page BAGUAN ECO-TOURISM DP (BEDP) SUMMARY ANNUAL GROSS REVENUES for Conservation Programs: $P 1,752,000.00
2007

OCT

Total Gross Revenues / Year: Annual Operational & Depreciation @ 20%: User Fees:

$P 25,908,000.00 $P 5,181,600.00 $P 1,752,000.00

[Based on 25 % Occupancy] [Marine / Island setting] [for conservation programs]

As noted above, the resort Per Pax Night fee of $P 400.00 per person, will help to support the BIMPAC administration as well as the various conservation programs. Other Sources for Funding BIMPAC: Paying Volunteer Program/s MPP Marine Participation Program/s Adoption Resource Unit Program/s International & National Institutional Grants Private Sector Corporate Grants Low Impact Mariculture Applied Business & Science Strategy

5.6.8

An in-house, propriety business plan will be based upon ecosystem restoration for the purposes of participatory eco-nature tourism ventures. In turn, it will be the nature tourism generated moneys that will assist in the ongoing management and support for the various missions of this Development Plan. This plan shall comprise of various P&L statements for various income and depreciation features of the eco-tourism and mariculture business operations.

6 .0
6.1

BEDP PROJECT SCOPE Major Support Activities


Activity One: Marine Invertebrate Hatchery System

In reference to Appendix D & E, Baguan Island poses as an ideal island site location for the establishment of a state of the art marine invertebrate hatchery. With pristine sea water conditions existing around the islands shallow and deep reefs, and with no resident population establishments, a number of different types of marine culture can be assessed. Herein below and in Appendix E, giant clams mariculture is addressed more specifically as an example fauna to consider for Baguan Island BEDP. Though a newly completed marine hatchery currently exists in the Province of Tawi Tawi, near Bongao, this is still not feasible to consider with regards to its distance from the Turtle Islands. A local hatchery facility is needed for supplying a dependable and timely long term seed stock supply for grow out capabilities either for BEDP or its constituent and collaborative community livelihood enhancement programs.

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Giant Clam [Tridacna] Restoration, Restocking, and Sanctuary Inception Presently, there are only eight [8] known specimens of live Tridacna gigas the true giant clam left in the coastal waters of Sabah, Malaysia. Two of these specimens are located at P. Lankayan. This species is almost extinct in the Sulu Sea as a result of uncontrolled harvesting of this bivalve by local and foreign fishing boats. The harvesting of Tridacna clams has been largely underway for the last 50 years; whereas, some island nations no longer

have sufficient numbers on their coral reefs to allow for natural repopulation and replenishment. This bivalve has been declared by CITES as an internationally protected marine species [Appendix II] that warrants permits for controlled transportation between signatory nations. Cultured Tridacna clams do not require CITES export permits if the country of origin certifies the mariculture facilities involved are legitimate. Unfortunately, harvesting of this bivalve is still underway in both the Turtle Islands and Sabahs coastal waters as well as throughout the entire region of South East Asia. Furthermore, no viable, production based hatcheries for these bivalves exist in Sabah or even in the Philippines for that matter. As part of the coral reef restoration program, a giant clam hatchery & nursery system is proposed. The marine invertebrate hatchery will assist in the restocking of giant clams throughout the various reef habitats in the proposed marine sanctuary. Key reefs will have secondary giant clam sanctuaries set up. With a large population of cultured giant clams located at secondary reef habitat sanctuary sites, the chances for natural repopulation of nearby reefs is maximized for significant restoration within ten to fifteen years. F2 generation brood stocks of Tridacna spp. would be mature at 8 to 10 years of age. Cohorts of 50 of these f2 brood stock shells would comprise secondary sanctuaries located at ecologically strategic coral reef habitats in the TIHPA region so as to naturally re-seed further generations of this giant bivalve in the years ahead. 6.2 Activity Two: Hard Coral Nursery & Reef Restoration

Many coral reef conservation groups, both private sector NGOs and academic institutions, have often determined that some portions of a coral reef habitat slated for restoration must be given a jump start with nurtured coral transplants. Adult coral transplants often exhibit high mortality after moving from one reef habitat to another. Younger corals seem to survive better as they are actively adding more

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biomass per given period of growth time than the adults. Rapid growth allows for better acclimation to a new habitat setting. A recent pilot coral farm project was completed by Inno Fisheries Sdn. Bhd., through the direct consultation of this BEDP proposer / author; 2006 to 2007.

6.3

Activity Three:

Reef Monitoring & Survey Programs

In order to assess the overall condition and health of the coral reef habitats located in and around Baguan Island, an organized and well-documented marine biological survey must be conducted and as an update to the WWF survey completed years ago. Once a full survey is completed, an ongoing monitoring program is thereafter required to determine any species diversity and ecological changes in the same surveyed areas. Surveys will be conducted and followed according to methods prescribed in the AIMS Survey Manual for Tropical Marine Resources 2nd Edition. Still camera, fixed mounted still camera, and video camera will be utilized to assist in the evolution of comprehensive database information. PC graphic programs, such as Scion Image will be used to analyze various survey images captured through either still camera or video. A computer based software program entitled ARMDES [AIMS Reef Monitoring Data Entry System] will be utilized to form a detailed biological characterization of the various reef habitats. Surveys will be undertaken for hard coral coverage

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characteristics, fish community, and water quality analysis for nutrients and other dissolved constituents in the marine waters of the proposed marine sanctuary. This same data will be compiled, analyzed, and stored on CD disks for future reference and correlations. Documentation of coral spawning events, bleaching events, and Crown of Thorn sea star infestations will also be part of the coral reef monitoring program. Daily weather and on-location environmental parameters will also be undertaken to form a long-term, historical database that can be eventually used to correlate future coral reef events such as spawning and bleaching.

6.4

Activity Four: Eco-Dive & Eco-Friendly Tourism

Without doubt, there is a need for manpower to undertake the above Activities within the scope of this development plan associated with Baguan Island. Eco-tourism has evolved to a state where there is a demand by tourists to not only see & photograph but to also participate and learn something about the region, ecosystem, and ethnic community there are visiting. They also desire to experience the atmosphere and thrill of sharing nature discoveries with friends and family when they return home. Coinciding with this development plan is a proposed low impact, eco friendly dive resort. Not only will this facility provide shelter and sustenance for international visitors but will also provide shared infrastructures and operation equipment required for the other Activities described herein this BEDP. Please refer to Appendix G. This activity also represents the means to financially support this over all development plan through tourist related income and benefits. Carefully planned facilities will be supported via eco friendly systems for fresh water source, wastewater treatment, and space available on the island itself with minimum land and vegetation alterations. The key word with eco-friendly marine nature tourism is sustainability, whereas, the maximum number of guest rooms is critical for sustaining the islands ecosystems. Sustainability also goes hand in hand with low impact affection of the surrounding ecosystems be it marine habitats or island terrestrial habitats. Certainly it would be ideal to have the region devoid of any human affection, no infrastructures, no fishing boat traffic, and no land origin water borne pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers. But this is not an ideal world and the premise of Protection through Presence, with ecological sound ecotourism practices, is ever more so important with regards to conserving, monitoring, and restoring the Baguan coral reef ecosystems gravely affected for many years.

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7 .0
7.1

MANAGEMENT PLAN PROPOSED


Management Plan Policies for BEDP:

Objectives

Baguan Island Region Management Plan Objectives:


To implement a strict No Take Zone & Limited Access - Occupation Policy for entire BEDP region of control To establish coral & giant clam restoration programs To undertake island habitat flora and fauna restoration To foster progressive coral reef habitat species diversity increase and restoration To eradicate all forms of illegal and/or aberrant fishing from the Turtle Islands region through the pro-active BEDP activity programs To increase turtle nesting space on the islands To establish firm and working relationships with national & international institutions and government agencies To foster viable and realistic funding to support a BEDP management budget from tourism patronization & appreciation

General Guideline & Rules for the supporting the Objectives: No Fishing No Taking No Anchoring on Reefs No Waste Discarding No Destruction

7.2

ACMR: Assess Cleanup Monitor Restore

ACMR will be an overall lead marine ecosystem action program applied to the entire Baguan Island region including all ecosystems and habitats - in its initial start-up and founding stages. The ACMR approach will be undertaken for all annotated coral reef ecosystem features [CREF] around Baguan Island in successive stages.

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7.2.1

ASSESS

Each CREF will be surveyed for a general assessment of on-site biodiversity characteristics for both flora & fauna. Species checklists will be developed and utilized for long-term monitoring basis with regards to assessing CREF improvement or degradation. In addition to biodiversity checklist development, the overall general conditions of the CREF will be assessed for physical damage, debris, and solid waste materials [i.e. nets, cages, sunken boats-ships, general refuse]. 7.2.2 CLEANUP

After a CREF has been fully assessed, a decision will be made by the BEDP administration to prioritize the same for subsequent remedial works and cleanup. Priority will be assessed by a CREF biodiversity contribution to the region as a whole and/or by the CREFs potential as a unique dive/snorkel tourism feature. 7.2.3 MONITOR

After a CREF is assessed and a remedial cleanup action implemented, the next step will be to set up various biodiversity monitoring studies that will give a more detailed assessment of island shrub or tree vegetation coverage or live hard coral coverage. The monitoring phase for a specific CREF will be long-term in order to determine and note any changes in the geology and/or bio-characteristics. 7.2.4 RESTORE

Restoration of biological as well as non-biological features of the Baguan Island region will be undertaken on a need and priority basis and if means and methods are readily available as well as funding for such. Certain restoration efforts may require innovative applications, whereas, methodologies are either nonexistent or with limited documented success. Restoration support facilities in Baguan Island would comprise of the following. Island Turtle / Egg Deposition Beach & Hatchery Sites Shallow Reef Bed Nurseries for Hard & Soft Corals & Giant Clams Island Tree & Flora Nurseries Giant Clam Hatchery

7.2.5

Results from ACMR

The final result of implementing the ACMR plan of action will be to better designate resource units according to categories of condition and uniqueness. This, in turn, will aid in determining future use of the resource unit [i.e. guided tourist snorkeling-diving, limited sport fishing, exclusive no-visit site, rehabilitation site, sea farming].

8 .0

MONITORING THE MANAGEMENT PLAN


BAGUAN ECO-TOURISM DP (BEDP) SUMMARY OCT

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8.1

Administration Monitoring

Assessing the success and progress of the BEDP and its administration can be achieved through an unbiased appraisal of how well management and inter-agency communication has been. Results are often indicated and appreciated through gaining the opinion of reflecting external sources communities, Government agencies, NGOs, and fishermen. Quarterly reports will be issued as a precursor tool for initiating quarterly Board of Directors meetings. The issue of a fully comprehensive annual report will be recommended for international peer review as such will give the BEDP a level of analysis that will be both constructive and pragmatic. This annual report will not only give full accountability for the various ecosystem ACMR actions but also describe funding evolutions that will viably continue to maintain and support the BEDP. 8.2 8.2.1 Biological Resource Monitoring Island Resources

Action undertaken in ACMR plan will directly indicate how well the CREF and island resource sites in the Baguan Island region are managed. Monitoring of human presence and subsequent affection is especially important. Human presence on Baguan Island will be monitored for a variety of associated effects; o o o o o o o o Population [human] characteristics Solid non-food waste management Solid & liquid food management Septic & water waste management Hydrocarbon & oils handling / storage / use Transportation boat & mooring use Detergents / soap use Sound and light use

Monitoring for non-human island characteristics will undertake; o o o o 8.2.2 Turtle landings & egg depositions Island bird population resident and intermittent Flora / Plant conditions and status of restoration efforts Any other fauna known present or recently introduced or removed

Open Water Resource Unit Sites

Open water resource units pose not only as vectors of water borne marine flora and fauna larvae but also for human source related liquid and solid waste materials. A Baguan Island region water quality-monitoring program will be introduced to assess the following parameters: Nitrate Nitrogen Carbon Dioxide

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8.2.3

Phosphate Temperature Salinity Turbidity pH

Coral Reef Ecosystem Feature Sites

It is understood within the scope and standpoint, based both on historical and recent events concerning Baguan Island that it is paramount to properly regulate human use and affection of the various identified resource CREF at all depths. These same CREF must be properly charted and biological characteristics ascertained on a long term monitoring basis so that changes can be documented and further management policies applied. Various coral reef biological resource assessment & monitoring methodologies currently exist throughout the world. For accuracy of data combined with limited initial funding, a best fit protocol will be chosen to address the priority resource units in the Baguan region. Below are listed some of the current methodologies and / or protocols being used to assess coral reef biodiversity characteristics. Reef Check GCRMN Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network Protocols AIMS Survey Manual for Tropical Marine Resources ARMDES [AIMS Reef Monitoring Data Entry System PC Program] Coral Reef Monitoring Manual for the Caribbean & Western Atlantic

Coral reef resource units should be assessed for their present biodiversity characteristics by documenting: o o o o Fish Populations Hard coral live coverage & diversity of species Soft coral live coverage & diversity of species Other invertebrate coverage

Surveys should also assess each resource unit for: o o o o o o Anchoring, blast-explosive, and trawling net damage Bleaching events past & present Eutrophication affection Crown-of-Thorn sea star infestation level Coral diseases Sea urchin populations

Baguan Island BEDP administrative staff and management will undertake initial surveys with assistance and guidance from research institutions or NGOs. As the

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BEDP evolves, a volunteer or participation program may conduct more wide spread resource unit surveys. Each year, the BEDP administration will draft an annual report covering aspects of: Resource Unit Biodiversity Survey & Monitoring Eco-Tourism Programs and Understudies Eco-Dive Tourism & MPA Funding Status Community Involvement & Awareness Programs Regional Ecosystem Status Educational Programs & Events in Planning

9 .0

STRATEGIES EMPLOYED FOR ECO-MANAGEMENT

Ecosystem management is primarily an endeavor to manage human actions associated with the region be it within the protected area itself or outside / nearby. A certain level of cooperation and support must be achieved with all present and potential stakeholders with full transparency in all matters of ecotourism management. Since Baguan Island and all of its CREF is to be a No Take area, it will be the responsibility of the BEDP Administration to adequately inform and educate indigenous and intermittent use stakeholders as to why the objectives have been declared. This awareness and education process should be ongoing and routinely delegated to a monthly stakeholders meeting to clarify any misunderstandings and misconceptions. Mechanisms for dissemination should be in the form of: Brochures / Pamphlets Ad space in local newspapers Permanent as well as mobile interpretive displays & presentations Internet Web Page Field trips to Sipadan for special groups Hands-On Training & Experience Seminars

Four major areas will be addressed in the effort to undertake proactive strategies for the evolution of a successful Baguan Island management plan that ensures public / stakeholder support. Under each area, suggested program themes are noted. 9.1 Local Fisheries Cooperative Programmes Alternative Livelihood Training - Mariculture at peripheral Baguan TED & Turtle Conservation Fisheries Enhancement from Protected Area Establishment Sustainable Harvest Fisheries Peripheral Turtle Island Regions

regions 9.2

Public Awareness Programmes Baguan Island / The Mission for Marine Resource Management & Protection
BAGUAN ECO-TOURISM DP (BEDP) SUMMARY OCT

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9.3

MPA Concepts and Mechanisms Eco-Friendly Practices in a Marine Park MPA Stories of Success & Failure

Cooperative Institution & NGO Programmes Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program Biodiversity Studies for Evolving Restoration Mechanisms Bio-Chemical Prospecting Coral Reef Species Restoration & Restocking

9.4

Cooperation with Provincial & National Security Enforcement Agencies MPA Communications & Surveillance Procedures BEDP & Military Cooperation & Support Logistics Eco-Friendly Practices for Police & Military Garrisons

9.5

Cooperation with International Institutions, Government Agencies, & Security Forces Presented in the spirit of BIMP-EAGA agreements and MOUs Shared border security SOP, communications, and operational routines Ease of eco-tourism travel to and from the Turtle Islands from Sabah, Malaysia Shared appreciation of increased national security for both Malaysia and the Philipppines

1 0 .0

ECO-MANAGEMENT ISSUES FOR REGULATION

The Baguan Island and its CREF marine protected areas success shall be attributed to how well management is real and present in the region itself, whereas, oftentimes an MPA is managed from afar and not in the field - as paper parks poorly managed, ineffective, and eventual failures. Management issues for regulation shall be delineated into four [4] major areas: Protection Research & Monitoring Restoration Eco-tourism

The Issues are herein further arranged according to priorities of concern for regulation with the most critical issues topping the list.

10.1

Protection

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"The problem is not to manage the reefs but to manage human population and their activities."
(Bernard Salvat, The International Coral Reef Initiative: Partnership Building and Framework Development, report of the ICRI Workshop, Dumaguete City, The Philippines, 29 May-2 June 1995.)

Unfortunately, with over 50% of the Worlds coral reefs in serious peril, South East Asia poses as a region that is under extreme environmental stress brought on primarily through a radical increase in human coastal development features. Less than 10% of the coral reefs in Indonesia are in relatively pristine, unaffected condition. Pristine coral reefs no longer exist in the Philippines as a result of massive exploitation and destruction. And, in truth, the coral reef regions of TIHPA have not been immune to similar exploitation and destruction. In South East Asia alone, the World Bank estimates that every year, some 1.5 million pounds of sodium cyanide is used to gather fishes for the live fish seafood trade that caters to high value markets located in the largest cities of the ASEAN region. This regional destructive fish capturing practice also affects TIHPAs coral reefs.
A very obvious change to many of the world's reefs is the lack of large, predatory fish. A long standing symbol of coral reefs, the large grouper is becoming a rarity. Much of the problem is related to the ease with which these often very sociable fish can be shot with spear guns. Rampant blast fishing has also contributed to their demise. The capture of sharks for shark fin soup and other products has made sharks rare on many reefs, especially in the Southeast Asian region. Of particular importance is the loss of large reef fish in connection with the live fish trade supplying Chinese restaurants. This trade has led to widespread reductions of populations of groupers, hump head wrasses, and others.
Reefs at Risk 1998 report

In an effort to maintain a stop to aberrant fishing practices and other environmentally destructive actions from re-occurring in the Baguan Island region, a management plan with direct issues for regulation is required that will ensure protection and allow ecosystem restoration either through natural means or applied mariculture methods.

[1]

Issue for Regulation: Background:

Pollution / Siltation & Eutrophication

The threat of pollution in the TIHPA region includes: Dissolved nitrogen - high nutrient waste waters emanating from agriculture development inland and river-borne from rainfall / runoff out to TIHPA Solid waste & trash emanating from human population centres such as Sandakan & nearby Indonesia, and coastal villages adjacent to TIHPA Possible shipping waste oil and fuel being carried into the TIHPA region by the tidal and seasonal currents coming in from the Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea General abandoned materials and thrown over-the-side refuse & waste emanating from the trawlers, barter trade boats, and other fishing boats that travel within the TIHPA region

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Suspended silt caused from trawling and high volume monsoon rain runoff emanating from inland and river borne out to the TIHPA region

Action 1:

Implement eco-awareness programs and campaigns targeting plantation owners Enforce No Waste Dumping in TIHPA region Initiate long-term environmental monitoring surveys for silt & nutrient presence Provide data to assist in Government environmental regulation/s enforcement

Action 2: Action 3:

Action 4:

[2]

Issue for Regulation: Background:

Fish Trawling

Trawling nearby TIHPA has been as widespread as other coastal regions in nearby Sabah. As catches are limited and dwindling because of over harvesting, whereas, the same trawlers operate for longer periods and enter the TIHPA region; for Philippine trawlers only.

Action 1:

Enforce No-Take Zone No fish trawling allowed within the Baguan Island region by instituting an exclusion zone 10 kilometers around the island Enforce No day/night anchoring or drifting allowed within the Baguan Island region Allow movement & transverse the Baguan Island region allowed / All fishing gear stowed

Action 2:

Action 3:

[3]

Issue for Regulation: Background:

Mining & Off Shore Oil Extraction

Mineral rights re-instituted and future extraction undertaken in the region may affect the with regards to wastewater discharges from the various river and stream systems nearby. Gold extraction in Indonesia Kalimantan has caused extensive land destruction and subsequent off shore ecosystem degradation resulting from heavy concentrations of water borne silt & mud emanating from those rivers and streams. The silt & mud eventually precipitates and suffocates the shallow coral reef ecosystems in addition to increasing turbidity levels sufficient enough to inhibit solar penetration and photosynthesis required for coral survival. Philippine-based petroleum corporations are discovering possible oil and natural gas deposits through ongoing geological investigations in the Philippines province of Tawi Tawi. The position of the international boundary between Sabah, Malaysia and the Philippine Province of ARMM/Tawi Tawi virtually precludes any oil and natural gas rights and extraction concessions by Malaysia. This situation should be a reason to justify a mutual cross boundary conservation agreement that would cover mineral extraction safety.

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Action 1:

Implement TIHPA regional eco-awareness programs for mining / oil companies Initiate long-term environmental monitoring surveys for silt, nutrient, and extraction chemical presence Provide data to assist in Government environmental regulation/s enforcement

Action 2:

Action 3:

[4]

Issue for Regulation: Background:

Cyanide Fish Capture

Though considered illegal as well as unethical in the use of capturing live reef fish, the practice is still present in the TIHPA region. With vast sections of patch reefs obliterated in wide scars of dead zones along side live, healthy sections, this destructive method of fish capture is also responsible for sever depletion of the larger brood & breeding individuals of grouper and wrasse fishes. Both local and Sabah based fishing boats undertake this method of live fish capture in the region. In the Philippine / ARMM Province of Tawi Tawi, the majority of the live fish are directly transferred to waiting Chinese and other international, ocean going ships to be eventually delivered to the markets of mainland China, Taiwan, and often times, Japan. Target species for the cyanide live fish capture are grouper and Hump head / Napoleon wrasse.

Action 1:

Continue to enforce a ban on all uses of any chemical to extract / capture marine life in the TIHPA region Prevent any use of cage holding pens in the Baguan Island region as well as work to prevent the same devices within 20 nautical miles from the island Assist in Government regulation/s & enforcement

Action 2:

Action 3:

[5]

Issue for Regulation: Background:

Explosive / Blast Fish Capture

As with the use of cyanide, this method of fish capture is also illegal and has been physically destructive to the patch reefs of the TIHPA region. Both local and Sabah fishermen undertake this form of fish capture in the TIHPA region, whereas, the recently installed presence of AFP Army units have curtailed this action around Baguan Island that is often times loud and physically noticeable from a distance.

Action 1:

Enforce a ban on any / all uses of explosives to harvest any marine life in the TIHPA region Assist in Government regulation/s & enforcement Report and assist in apprehension / detainment

Action 2: Action 3:

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[6]

Issue for Regulation: Background:

Spear Fishing Day & Night

Combined with SCUBA and/or compressor units, spear fishermen are able to remain submerged for longer periods and subsequently increase their catches. The same method, when used at night with torches [flashlights], has become devastating to the fish populations both on Sabahs east and west coastal, offshore reefs, whereas, the fish are dormant and easily speared. Spearing fish at night, and utilizing SCUBA or air compressor devices modified for underwater air breathing for divers, is co nsidered a silent threat that may be just as destructive to fish and invertebrate populations as other methods of aberrant seafood hunting and gathering. This type of fish capture is widely banned and outlawed throughout the world. The U.S. Territory of Guam eventually passed prohibition laws on this type of fishing only after the demise of the larger adult fish, whereas, it may be to late for natural means of population recovery.

Action 1:

Enforce a ban of all uses of spear guns in the Baguan Island region

Action 2:

Assist in Government enforcement to secure ban of spear guns used in protected zones
Turtle & Turtle Egg Harvesting

[7]

Issue for Regulation: Background:

Harvesting of turtle eggs in TIHPA is still undergoing based upon provisions and agreements with those parties, allowed through native rights, to allow collection. Gathering turtle eggs is primarily seasonal and should continue to be regulated.

Action 1:

Draft a cooperative Native management program for turtle egg gatherers to be included in ecotourism benefits and compensation to limit turtle egg collection Implement an improved Baguan Island turtle egg hatchery that will ensure adequate male and female hatchlings for the region Assist in Government regulation/s & enforcement to regulate all turtle egg collection and to implement ecotourism compensation/s to legal native rights parties

Action 2:

Action 3:

[9]

Issue for Regulation: Background:

Cage Fishing

Cage capturing of reef fish from the shallow reefs in the TIHPA region is ongoing today. Profuse and unregulated cage deployments throughout the many shallow reefs of the region in the past has resulted in a major loss of the larger fish including grouper and hump-head / Napoleon wrasse fish populations.

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Cage fishing, if properly managed and regulated can be a viable alternative method for live fish harvesting.

Action 1: Action 2:

Enforce a ban on cage fishing within the Baguan Island region Implement a public awareness program about properly managed cage fishing Support community by purchasing nearby sustainable cage fish harvests for BEDP tourism uses

Action 3:

[10]

Issue for Regulation: Background: Sea Shell Collection

General Harvest of Invertebrate Marine Life

Seashell collecting for ornamental and trade purposes continues in the TIHPA region. The ornamental seashell trade is still a very much in demand in the Philippines with tons of ornamental seashells being shipped from the nearby Philippine / ARMM Province of Tawi Tawi to Zambuanga and Cebu on an annual basis. Colorful seashells of Cypraeidae, Conidae, Olividae, Muricidae, Cassidae, Strombidae, and Terebridae are the major groups undergoing over harvesting pressure in Tawi Tawi alone. The best periods for seashell collection are usually at night, near the new moon, and with the use of torchlights as most of these gastropods are nocturnal in their primary movement and feeding behaviour. Night spear fishermen may carry small net bags to store the seashells they are able to collect.

Giant Clam / Sponges / Sea Cucumber Collection


Giant clams, sea cucumbers, and sponge are also under pressure from over harvesting in the TIHPA region but no longer since the presence of dive tourism. The true giant clam Tridacna gigas is considered extinct in the TIHPA. Further coral reef random quick surveys in the region have determined that all species of giant clams are rare with Tridacna crocea being the prevalent and noticeable species left.

Action 1:

Enforce a ban all types of invertebrate marine life collection in the Baguan Island region except for restoration program needing brood stock Implement restoration / rehabilitation / restocking programs for certain species

Action 2:

[11]

Issue for Regulation: Recreation Sport / Pleasure Fishing , Scuba Diving, Water Sports Background:

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Sport-Pleasure and Commercial Fishing


Migratory pelagic fishes such as Black Marlin, Sailfish, and Yellow Fin Tuna are occasionally present in the deeper regions of the TIHPA region. Sport fishing FAD [Fish Aggregation Device] in nearby deep water areas could be incorporated as a positive practice for future management funding generation in the TIHPA region as well as provide local / native fishermen additional income by selling associated FAD catches directly to the F&B operations on Baguan Island.

Action 1: Action 2:

Enforce No fishing of any type within the Baguan Island region Implement a FAD program [Fish Aggregation Devices] outside the Baguan Island region to attract fish for recreational fishing as well as for commercial harvesting to support ecotourism F&B operations

Scuba Diving
Baguan Island is relatively small, only minimum and limited use of the land is available for establishing low impact eco-friendly visitor guest accommodations. Consequently, the majority of visitors will be scuba divers and snorkelers. Proper regulation of guests visiting any area of Baguans coral reefs is important for resource management and overall conservation.

Action 1:

Implement a system for dive site visit management - to limit number of divers at any one site at any given time through prior booking / reservation with on island BEDP administration Implement a guest diver checkout program for proper BCD & equipment use to deter ecosystem damage Implement an introductory coral reef & marine life awareness program for guests Require that all BEDP associated Diving Guides undertake an awareness program for marine resource management Implement safe & eco-friendly practices for power and non-power boat handling / operation

Action 2:

Action 3:

Action 4:

Action 5:

Water Sports
Kayaks, canoes, small sailboats, wind surf boards, and row boats are considered eco-friendly and compatible to a coral reef ecosystem, whereas, these devices are relatively safe and pose a low impact means for water sport recreation. However, the uses of power jet skies, power boat water skiing, and even powered underwater scooters have a serious history of not only human accidents and fatalities but also ecosystem disruption.

Action 1:

Ban the use of power jet skies, power boat water skiing from the Baguan Island region Implement procedures for water sport safety

Action 2:

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[12]

Issue for Regulation: Background:

Military Security & Patrols

With the ongoing, stationed detachments of the AFP Army and Navy, the Baguan Island region stands within a much better scenario of enforcing guidelines and rules meant primarily to manage human entrance and contact with the resource units themselves. Military garrisons are also an additional human presence in the Baguan Island region and should be subject to the same rules & guidelines.

Action 1: Action 2: Action 3:

MPA Cooperative Awareness & Educational Program for Military

Personnel BEDP Admin & Military / Police monthly coordination meetings Implement an eco-friendly practices program for island garrisons

10.2

Research & Monitoring

As the Baguan Island region becomes firmly established with objectives clearly supported and maintained by an effective management plan, the region will certainly become a unique opportunity for scientific investigation and research be it from institutions or from commercial entities. Long term monitoring of the Baguan Island region CREF will greatly assist in the ongoing evolution of management strategies. By reviewing and studying properly arranged and organized biodiversity management data, BIMPAC administration can better suit policies and guidelines catering to the needs of both sustaining the resource unit and allowing use of the same.

[1]

Issue for Regulation: Background:

Coral Reef Monitoring

This feature is perhaps the most important to quickly implement, whereas, without information and useable data, CREF [coral reef ecosystem feature] management will not be site specific, pertinent or efficient.

Action 1:

Establish routine monitoring programs for CREF as well as for ambient environmental conditions Seek expertise to assist in establishing monitoring programs Establish procedures / guidelines for data collection, reporting & publication

Action 2: Action 3:

[2]

Issue for Regulation: Background:

Coral Reef Research / Institutional / National

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Philippine institutions will have a unique opportunity to explore and document various marine, geological, and oceanographic characteristics associated with the Baguan Island region. Procedures for implementing research projects in the region should be carefully followed for protecting the welfare and interests of all stakeholders.

Action 1: Action 2:

Establish an R&D Project Application format Establish procedures for BIMPAC Administration project review & approval Establish procedures / guidelines for project reporting & publication

Action 3:

[3] Issue for Regulation: International Background:

Coral Reef Research / Institutional /

International institutions will also have a unique opportunity to explore and document various marine, geological, and oceanographic characteristics associated with the Baguan Island region. Procedures and applications for undertaking internationally sponsored research projects in the region should be carefully followed according to regulations set forth by both National and Provincial governments.

Action 1: Action 2:

Establish an international R&D Project Application format Establish procedures for BEDP Administration project review & approval Establish procedures / guidelines for project reporting & publication Coral Reef Research / NGO & Commercial

Action 3: [4]

Issue for Regulation: Background:

Commercial enterprises may also have an interest in undertaking various research and development projects in the Baguan region. Such endeavors could be bio-chemical prospecting, marine electronics testing, and even low-impact mariculture. Procedures and applications for undertaking internationally sponsored research projects in the region should be carefully followed according to regulations set forth by both National and Provincial governments.

Action 1: Action 2:

Establish a commercial R&D Project Application format Establish procedures for BEDP Administration project review & approval Establish procedures / guidelines for project reporting & publication as well as for other products associated

Action 3:

10.3

Restoration

Without doubt, the featured ecosystems of Baguan Island have been severely affected by human encroachment and subsequent extractive practices be they

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aberrant methods or not. Though having the highest growth primary productivity in the oceanic realm, coral reefs exhibit relatively low net productivity and potential fisheries yield available for extraction. [Birkeland, Feb 2001]. Certain species that have become rare and/or threatened in the Baguan Island region can be restored through innovative botanical and mariculture applications. This should be employed in sound, eco-friendly, and sustainable practices to be able to successfully produce juveniles for restocking programs.

[1]

Issue for Regulation: Background:

Giant Clam Conservation & Restoration

Giant clams [Tridacnidae], once abundant in the TIHPA region, are now rare to find on the shallow reefs in and around Baguan Island itself. The true giant clam Tridacna gigas is considered extinct in not only the TIHPA region but within the Sulu Sea as well. One individual T. gigas maintained at Lankayan Island is not sufficient to produce juveniles for restocking.

Action 1: Action 2: Action 3: Action 4: Action 5: [2]

Determine the best fit site to install a giant clam conservation site Undertake a pan-regional assessment for giant clam brood stocks Set up CREF brood stock sanctuary sites Maintain sanctuary sites with knowledgeable staff & management Establish a Giant Clam Hatchery Facility Coral Nursery

Issue for Regulation: Background:

Worldwide interest in coral reef restoration has inspired innovative culturing & nursery methodologies that are similar to terrestrial forestry applications. Cuttings and fragmenting certain species of hard and soft corals can provide viable juvenile stocks that can be utilized for rebuilding reef structures.

Action 1: Action 2: Action 3:

Determine best fit CREF sites to locate underwater coral nurseries Seek expertise to install and commence nurseries Determine priority sites for restocking program

[4]

Issue for Regulation: Background:

Island Plant Nursery

Baguan Island has been affected to a certain extent by tree and shrub removal. Former inhabitants, goats, and transient visitors for a variety of uses [e.g. boat repair, firewood] have caused such affection.

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A plant nursery can assist in replanting the island with sufficient flora, which will also directly add to the aesthetic appearance of the same.

Action 1: Action 2: Action 3:

Establish a plant nursery on Baguan Island Enforce a policy of minimum to no plant clearing Enforce a policy of No Take for plants in Baguan

10.4

Eco-Tourism

Eco-tourism has evolved to a state where there is a demand by tourists to not only see & photograph but to also participate and learn something about the region, ecosystem, and ethnic community there are visiting. They also desire to experience the atmosphere and thrill of sharing nature discoveries with friends and family when they return home. It is recommended that on-island resident staff to tourist/visitor ratio be 48 guests to 48 staff with regards to all eco-tourism support departments. In short, the ratio is actually 1:1 when considering full operations.

[1]

Issue for Regulation: Background:

Facilities & Infrastructures

Buildings and support facilities located at or near a coral reef ecosystem can pose as a serious environmental threat if improperly arranged and planned. Poor designs result in structures that quickly disintegrate and fail. Rebuilding can further add to ecosystem damage. Quality facilities and component support structures must be well planned with regards to location, size, easy of maintenance, and choice of environmentally compatible and safe materials.

Action 1:

Implement procedures for BEDP administrative review & approval of plans, designs, and facility operational procedures Implement installation procedures for eco-friendly guideline enforcement Implement an eco-friendly infrastructure theme design for the new Baguan Island facilities

Action 2:

Action 3:

[2]

Issue for Regulation: Background:

Solid & Liquid Waste Management

In a more specific address to infrastructure support and operations is a component often overlooked, shunned, and perhaps ignored that of the waste materials. Waste associated with human habitation takes the form of both solid and liquid: Solid packaging materials [plastics]
BAGUAN ECO-TOURISM DP (BEDP) SUMMARY OCT

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Solid discarded parts & equipment components [metal parts, engine parts] Solid discarded food materials Solid discarded disposable items [pampers, paper, tissues] Solid human waste materials Liquid oils and fuels Liquid bath/shower/sink freshwater Liquid cleaning soaps, detergents Liquid human waste materials

Action 1: Action 2: Action 3: Action 4: Action 5: agents

Implement procedures for solid packaging / discard item removal Implement procedures for liquid engine & fuel removal Implement & design systems for food waste management Implement & design systems for human waste management Implement the use of certifiable biodegradable soaps & cleaning

Please refer to Appendix F, H,and I. REFERENCES for Further Information

1 1 .0

Abidin, Zaaba [1999]. The Identification of Criteria and Indicators for the Sustainable Management of Ecotourism in Taman Negara National Park, Malaysia: A Delphi Concensus. West Virginia University, Doctor of Philosophy Thesis Paper, 287p. Aish, A. [2002]. The Role of Tourism Operations in the Management of Marine Coastal Protected Areas: A Case Study of the Seychelles. Shoals of Capricorn Programme, 5p. Alan T. White, Catherine A. Courtney, and Richard J. Tobin. [1998]. Coastal Management in Asia: Are Donor-Assisted Programs Sustainable and Beneficial? Presented at the Asian Fisheries Society and Food and Agriculture Organization Workshop Review of Foreign Assisted Fisheries Projects in Asia, 16-18 November, Bangkok Best, Barbara and Alan Bornbusch, Ed., [2001] Global Trade and Consumer Choices: Coral Reefs in Crisis, Papers, 2001 Annual Meeting, American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS], Feb. 19, 2001.32p. Boyer, M., Bearzi, P.,Cotta, S., and Pacciardi, L., [1996]. Kuda Laut Project Ecotourism, Education, Research. Manado Seagarden Diving Center, Manado, Indonesia, 18p. Braley, Richard D. [1992]. The Importance of Aquaculture and Establishment of Reserves for the Restocking of Giant Clams on Over-harvested Reefs in the Indo-Pacific Region World Fishery Congress, Athens, May 1992, Paper A0073. Brandon, K. and Margoluis, R. [1996]. Structuring Ecotourism Success: framework for analysis, International Society of Foresters, Yale University, New Haven, 9p.

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Case Concerning Sovereignty Over Pulau Lgitan and Pulau Sipadan, [December 17, 2002] International Court of Justice, The Hague, General List No. 102, 60p. Cesar, Herman. [1996]. Economic Analysis of Indonesian Coral Reefs. The World Bank / Environment Department, 97p. Costanza, R., dArge, R.,Groot, R., Farber, S., Grasso, M., Hannon, B., Limburg, K., Naeem, S., ONeill, R., Paruelo, J., Raskin, R., Sutton, P., and Van den Belt, M. The Value of the Worlds Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital NATURE, Vol. 387/ May 1997, p253260. Crosby, M.P., and Reese, E.S. [1996]. A Manual for Monitoring Coral Reefs With Indicator Species: Butterflyfishes as Indicators of Change on the Indo-Pacific Reefs, Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [NOAA], Silver Spring, MD, USA, 45p. Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources of the Department of Agriculture, and Department of the Interior and Local Government. 2001. Philippine Coastal Management Guidebook No. 5: Managing Coastal Habitats and Marine Protected Areas. Coastal Resource Management Project of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Cebu City, Philippines. 106p. Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources of the Department of Agriculture, and Department of the Interior and Local Government. 2001. Philippine Coastal Management Guidebook No. 7: Managing Impacts of Development in the Coastal Zone. Coastal Resource Management Project of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Cebu City, Philippines. 108p Eagles, P.F. J., McCool, S., and Hayes, C. D. A. [2002]. Sustainable Tourism in Protected Areas; Guidelines for Planning and Management. IUCN, Gland and London, 183p. English, S., Wilkinson, C., and Baker, V. Editors, [1994]. Survey Manual for Tropical Marine Resources, AIMS Australian Institute of Marine Sciences, Townsville, Australia, 368p. Florida Keys Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary: Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement / Final Supplemental Management Plan. November 2000. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Gawler, M., Cripps, S., Drijver, C., Jorge, M. and Morris, B. (eds.). [2000]. CoralWeb Coral Reef Ecoregions in Action, 2000-2005: Framework Document. WWF Action Network, Zeist, The Netherlands. 205 p. Guidelines for Community Based Ecotourism Development, WWF International, July 2001, 28p. Harriot, V. J. [2002]. Marine Tourism Impacts and their Management on the Great Barrier Reef. CRC Reef Research Ctr, Tech. Report No. 46, Townsville, 41p. Heeger, T., Cashman, M. and Sotto, F., Coral Farming as Alternative Livelihood, for Sustainable Natural Resource Management and Coral Reef Rehabilitation, [1999]. University of San Carlos, Marine Biology Section, Cebu, Philippines, 14p.

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Heogh-Guldberg, O., H. Heogh-Gulberg, D.K. Stout, H. Cesar and A. Timmerman. [2000]. Pacific in Peril: Biological, Economic, and Social Impacts of Climate Change on Pacific Coral Reefs. Greenpeace, 72p. Higgins, B.R. [1995]. The Global Structure of the Nature Tourism Industry: Ecotourists, Tour Operators, and Local Businesses. Business Research Division, University of Colorado. 19p. Hocking, M., Stolton, S. and Dudley, N. [2000]. Evaluating Effectiveness: A Framework for Assessing the Management of Protected Areas. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. x + 121p. Hottche, C. M., White, A.T. and Flores, M.M.M. 2002. Sustainable Coastal Tourism Handbook for the Philippines. Coastal Resource Management Project of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources and Department of Tourism, Cebu City, Philippines. 144p. Kelleher, G. [1999]. Guidelines for Marine Protected Areas. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. Xxiv & 107p. Manning, F.W., [1999]. Governance for Tourism; coping with tourism in impacted destinations. Centre for Sustainable Future, Canada, 41p. Mohamed, B. [2002]. The Development of Ecotourism in Malaysia Is It Really Sustainable? International Year of Ecotourism 2002 Conference, Thailand, 8p. PARKS; The International Journal for Protected Area Managers. June 1998. Vol. 8, No. 2, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Pattengill-Semmens, C., S.R. Gittings, and T. Shyka. [2000]. Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary: A Rapid Assessment of Coral, Fish, and Algae Using the AGGRA Protocol. Marine Sanctuaries Conservation Series MSD-00-3. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA, Marine Sanctuaries Division, Silver Spring, MD, USA. 15p. Phillips, Adrian. Editor. [2000]. Financing Protected Areas. Financing Protected Areas Task Force of the World Commission on Protected Areas [WCPA] of IUCN, in collaboration with the Economics Unit of IUCN, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. Viii & 58p. Pomeroy, Robert S., A Research Framework for Coastal Fisheries Co-Management Institutions, NAGA The ICLARM Quarterly, Jan. 1993, p14-16. REEF CHECK Survey Instruction Manual, Institute of the Environment, University of California at Los Angeles, USA, [No date]32p. Roe, D., Leader-Williams, N., and Dalal-Clayton, B. [1997]. Take Only Photographs Leave Only Footprints: the environmental impacts of wildlife tourism. IIED Wildlife Development Series No.10, London, 86p. Rogers, C.S., Garrison, G., Grober, R., Hillis, ZM., and Franke, M.A. [1994]. Coral Reef Monitoring Manual for the Caribbean and Western Atlantic, National Park Service Virgin Islands National Park, U.S. Virgin Islands, 92pp.

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Ruitenbeck, HJ. [1999]. Blue Pricing of Undersea Treasures: Needs and Opportunities for Environmental Economics Research on Coral Reef Management in South East Asia. Paper presented to the 12th Biannual Workshop of the Environmental Economics Program for South East Asia, Singapore, 11-14 May. IDRC, Singapore. Srokin, Y.I. Coral Reef Ecology Ecological Studies Vol.102, [1995]. Springer, New York, 465p. Twynam, D., Johnston, M., Payne, B., and Kingston, S., [1998]. Ecotourism And Sustainable Tourism Guidelines An Annotated Bibliography. The Ecotourism Society, VT. USA, 81p. U.S. Coral Reef Task Force Working Group on Ecosystem Science and Conservation, [2000]. Coral Reef Protected Areas: A Guide for Management. U.S. Coral Reef Task Force, Department of the Interior, Washington D.C. 14 p. White, A.T., and Cruz-Trinidad, A. 1998. The Values of Philippine Coastal Resources: Why Protection and Management are Critical. Coastal Resource Management Project, Cebu City, Philippines. 96p. White., A. T., Hale, L.Z., Renard, Y., and Cortesi, L. Editors, [1994]. Collaborative and Community-Based Management of Coral Reefs Lessons from Experience, Kumarian Press Inc. Connecticut, USA, 121p. Wilkinson, Clive., Ed. [2000] The Status of Coral Reefs in Eastern Malaysia, GCRMN / Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, AIMS, Australia, 63p. Wright, Pan & Associates. [1999]. Catalogue of Exemplary Practices in Adventure Travel and Ecotourism. Ref. Canadian Tourism Commission Distribution Centre, Ottawa, Canada, 131pp.

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