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RISK ASSESSMENT

BSc (hon) Building Construction Management

OUTCOME
Identify The

the differences of risks and hazards

reason or purpose to conduct risk

assessment
Who

should involved or carry out risk

assessment
When The

the risk assessment should be done

process of risk assessment

WHAT IS HAZARD?
the

potential for anything to cause harm.

In a sense, it is an accident waiting to

happen. Such things as moving machinery,


hazardous substances, high levels of noise,

or traffic on a road etc. are hazards.


(Hughes and Ferrett, 2008. pp 71)

WHAT IS HAZARD?

the potential of a substance, activity or process to cause harm. Hazards take many forms including, for example, chemicals, electricity and the use of a ladder. A hazard can be ranked relative to other hazards or to

a possible level of danger(Heating and Ventilating


Contractors Association(HVCA), 2005. pp5)

WHAT IS RISK?

A risk is the likelihood of a substance, activity or process to cause harm. Risk (or, strictly, the level of risk) is also linked to the severity of its consequences. A risk can be reduced and the hazard controlled by good management. (Hughes and Ferrett, 2008. pp 71)

A risk is the likelihood of the harm actually occurring.(HVCA,2005.pp5)

PURPOSE OF RISK ASSESSMENT


an essential part of the planning stage of any health and safety management system to:

Identify the potential hazards in work activities

decide on priorities of different type of risks


Set objectives for eliminating hazards and reducing risks.

make sure that no-one(e.g. employer, employee, third


parties) gets hurt or becomes ill as a result of work activities. comply with legal statutory duty

FORMS OF RISK ASSESSMENT

Quantitative risk assessment

to measure the risk by relating the probability of the risk occurring to the possible severity of the outcome

Risk indicated in numerical value used in situations where a malfunction could be very serious (e.g. aircraft design and maintenance

or the petrochemical industry).

FORMS OF RISK ASSESSMENT

Qualitative Risk assessment:


Measure

based on personal judgement and define in time table Risk indicated in low(months), medium(weeks) and high(days or no actions required)

LEGAL ASPECTS OF RISK ASSESSMENT


Health

and Safety at Work Act

1974 employer employee, contractors, visitors, customers or members of the public.

A SUITABLE AND SUFFICIENT RISK ASSESSMENT SHOULD:

identify the significant risks and ignore the trivial ones. identify and prioritise the measures required to comply with any relevant statutory provisions remain appropriate to the nature of the work and valid over a reasonable period of time. identify the risk arising or in connection with the work. The level of detail should be proportionate to the risk.

LEGAL ASPECTS OF RISK ASSESSMENT


Other regulation act required to carry out risk assessment: Electricity at Work Regulations Noise at Work Regulations

Manual Handling Operations Regulations


Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations Confined Space Regulations Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations.

WHO HAS TO ASSESS THE RISKS?

Normally, employers and self-employed people are responsible for assessing the risks.

Except for self-employed person who under the Display Screen Regulations; they don't have to undertake an analysis of workstations.

The employer no need to carry the work physically


by himself as he can employ a qualified person to

access the risks(e.g. Health and Safety Officer).

WHEN TO ASSESS?

Before begin any new work. Or; carry out in certain stage (e.g. Noise at Work Regulations, when noise of workplace is at or exceeds a certain level ) When task change; equipment, timing, location, person when review on regular basis is require

PROCEDURE OF RISK ASSESSMENT

The process of risk assessment can be divided by five steps: 1. Divide your work into manageable categories 2. Look for the hazards 3. Evaluate the risks 4. Prepare a plan for controlling the risks 5. Review and revise the assessment

OVERVIEW OF RISK ASSESSMENT PROCESS

Source: BSI British Standards(2004)

PROCEDURE OF RISK ASSESSMENT


six elements:

hazard identification persons at risk evaluation of risk level risk controls (existing and additional) record of risk assessment findings monitoring and review

DIVIDE WORK INTO


MANAGEABLE CATEGORIES Type of categories:

separate work areas, e.g. stores, production

areas, offices, yard, etc.

stages in the production process, e.g. handling raw materials, machining, assembling, finishing, etc.

defined tasks, e.g. driving, maintenance,

scaffolding etc.

HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

How? A tour of the area under consideration by the risk assessment team e.g. safety inspection, survey

A review of accident, incident and ill-health records Other information: job or task analysis reports, manufacturers handbooks or data sheets

HAZARD CHECK LIST


1.Equipment/mechanical cutting impact crushing ejection of parts 2. Transport site vehicles mechanical handling people/vehicle interface. 3. Access slips, trips and falls falling or moving objects working at height confined spaces 4. Handling/lifting manual handling mechanical handling. 5. Electricity fixed installation portable and tools equipment 6. Chemicals dust/fume/gas toxic 7. Biological bacterial viral fungal 8. Environmental noise vibration light

ACCIDENT CATEGORIES
Comment accident on construction site:

contact with moving machinery or material being machined

struck by moving, flying or falling object


hit by a moving vehicle

injured while handling, lifting or carrying


slips, trips and falls on the same level

Fall from height

F E BIRDS WELL-KNOWN ACCIDENT TRIANGLE

most accidents are predictable and avoidable !


Source: Hughes and Ferrett (2008)

PERSONS AT RISK
Employer Employee

and contractor who

work on site
Third

parties; visitors, passengers,

general public

RISK EVALUATION
SEVERITY x LIKELIHOOD = RISK
SEVERITY

- depend on the magnitude of

the hazard
LIKELIHOOD

depend on the possibility

of the hazard

RISK LEVEL MATRIX TABLE

Likelihood of occurrence Harm is certain or near certain to occur Harm will often occur Harm will seldom occur
Severity of harm Death or major injury 3-day injury or illness All other injuries or illnesses Thus: 69 High risk 34 Medium risk 12 Low risk

Likelihood level High 3 Medium 2 Low 1


Severity level Major 3 Serious 2 Slight 1

Source: Hughes and Ferrett (2008)

EXAMPLE OF CALCULATION

Source: HSE(2004)

RISK CONTROL
Hierarchy of options:
1. Elimination (e.g. buying ready cut material rather than using a circular saw). 2. Substitution with something less hazardous 3. Enclosure (e.g. fitting a sound absorbing enclosure around noisy plant). 4. Guarding and/or segregation (e.g. erecting

barriers to keep people away from a hazardous


area).

HIERARCHY OF OPTIONS:
5. Safe systems of work that reduce the risk to an acceptable level. 6.Written procedures that are known and understood by

those affected.
7. Adequate supervision. 8. Training 9. Information and instruction (e.g. signs and written guidance).

10. Personal protective equipment (e.g. dust masks)

EXAMPLE OF ACTION PLAN

Source: HSE(2004)

RECORDING RISK ASSESSMENT


Re-assess

likelihood and severity;

recalculate
Compare

and results before and

after the control

EXAMPLE OF RISK ASSESSMENT RECORD

Source: Hughes and Ferrett (2008)

EXAMPLE OF RISK ASSESSMENT RECORD

Source: Hughes and Ferrett (2008)

MONITORING AND REVIEW


When ?
o

Condition of work change; e.g. introduction of new machinery or work processes

Release of new information on hazardous substances or new legislation.

changes in the workforce, e.g. the introduction of trainees.

An accident or incident occur

REFERENCE

BSI British Standards(2008)Guide to achieving effective occupational health and safety performance. BS 18004:2008

HSE(2004) Basic guidance on risk assessment for employers

in small to medium sized businesses. Health & Safety


Executive, Northern Ireland.

Hughes and Ferrett (2008) Introduction to Health and Safety

in Construction.3th edition. Elsevier Ltd.

HVAC(2005) Risk management Manual. Heating and Ventilating Contractors Association Publications Department.

Thank you for your attention