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2013

Groundwater Levels and Rainfall Events in the Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia

Windows User Environmental Engineering Technology Water Resources 3/14/2013 Page 1

Cover Photo: (Nova Scotia Department of Environment, 2012)

I, a graduating student of the Environmental Engineering Technology- Water Resources program at the Nova Scotia Community College Waterfront Campus grant the public permission to use this report for any purpose necessary.

Environmental Engineering Technology - Water Resources

Table of Contents
Executive Summary....................................................................................................................................... 1 Disclaimer...................................................................................................................................................... 1 Acknowledgments......................................................................................................................................... 1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 2 Limitations ................................................................................................................................................. 2 Purpose ......................................................................................................................................................... 3 Study Area ..................................................................................................................................................... 3 Background ................................................................................................................................................... 4 The Basics .................................................................................................................................................. 4 Annapolis Valley Waters Supply............................................................................................................... 6 Bedrock and Soil of the Annapolis Valley .................................................................................................. 7 Climate and Weather ................................................................................................................................ 8 Well History ............................................................................................................................................... 8 Surrounding Receiving Environments ....................................................................................................... 9 Methods ........................................................................................................................................................ 9 Approach ..................................................................................................................................................... 10 Results ......................................................................................................................................................... 10 Previous condition of aquifer .................................................................................................................. 10 Precipitation Events and Groundwater Levels ........................................................................................ 11 Observations and Results of Data ........................................................................................................... 13 Greenwood Observation Well Results ................................................................................................ 13 Wilmot Observation Well Results ....................................................................................................... 14 Annapolis Royal Observation Well Results ......................................................................................... 15 Atlanta Observation Well Results ....................................................................................................... 15 Sheffield Mills Observation Well Results ............................................................................................ 16 Recommendation........................................................................................................................................ 17 Appendix 1.1 Greenwood Observation Well Data ................................................................................... 18 Appendix 1.2 Wilmot Observation Well Data .......................................................................................... 19 Appendix 1.3 - Annapolis Royal Observation Well Data ............................................................................. 20 Appendix 1.4 Atlanta Observation Well Data .......................................................................................... 21 Appendix 1.5 Sheffield Mills Observation Well Data ............................................................................... 22

Appendix 2.1 Results of Groundwater Levels and Precipitation Events .................................................. 23 Works Cited ................................................................................................................................................. 24

Table of Figures
Figure 1: Study Area (Board, Annapolis Valley Regional School) .................................................................. 2 Figure 2: Annapolis Valley (Expeditions) ....................................................................................................... 4 Figure 3: Study Area (Google Maps) ............................................................................................................. 4 Figure 4: Hydrologic Cycle (Enviroment Canada, 2011)................................................................................ 5 Figure 5: The World's Freshwater Supply (Enviroment Canada, 2011) ........................................................ 6 Figure 6: Area of Interest (Nova Scotia Department of Environment, 2012) ............................................... 7 Figure 7: Bedrock of the Annapolis Valley (J.D.Keppie, 2000) ...................................................................... 8 Figure 8: Receiving Environments................................................................................................................. 9 Figure 9: Watersheds in Nova Scotia (Nova Scotia Museum of Natural History) ....................................... 10 Figure 10: Precipitation Amounts ............................................................................................................... 11 Figure 11: Precipitation Amounts from Sept. 1 to Dec. 1 ........................................................................... 12 Figure 12: Greenwood Results .................................................................................................................... 13 Figure 13: Wilmot Results ........................................................................................................................... 14 Figure 14: Annapolis Royal Results ............................................................................................................. 15 Figure 15: Atlanta Results ........................................................................................................................... 16 Figure 16: Sheffield Mills Results ................................................................................................................ 17

Tables
Table 1: Well History.9 Table 2: Results for Greenwood, Wilmot & Annapolis Royal....12 Table 3: Results for Atlanta & Sheffield Mills13

Executive Summary
The final year of the Environmental Engineering Technology- Water Resources program at the Nova Scotia Community College Waterfront Campus requires the course Applied Research Project to be completed upon graduation. This applied research project, Groundwater Levels and Rainfall Events in the Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia will meet the requirements as well as be presented at the Technology Showcase in April at the campus. This report compares the amount of rainfall and the aquifer levels in the Annapolis Valley area. Groundwater is a very important resource for Nova Scotians daily lives. Almost 50% of the populace use groundwater for their water supply. If this resource was to be depleted, a lack of water would cause major issues throughout the province. This applied research project will analyze the amount of recharge and depletion that occurs over many seasons and years, and, ultimately investigate issues that could arise in the future. The focus area for this project will be the groundwater wells in Annapolis Royal, Wilnot, Greenwood, Coldbrook, Wolfville, Atlanta, Sheffield Mills and, Kentville. The potential issue could be that the levels are lowering year after year because of a greater withdrawal than what is being introduced into the aquifer.

Disclaimer
On January 9th, 2013 Haley Newell, a student in the Environmental Engineering Technology Water Resources program at the Nova Scotia Community College (NSCC) Waterfront Campus was assigned the task of completing an applied research project. The purpose of this project is for students in the Environmental Engineering Technology- Water Resources program to meet the requirements of graduation and to gain skills in the report writing field. This project is to be completed for the purpose of completing requirements of the Applied Research Project course needed for graduation and to become a Certified Engineering Technologist within the Canadian Council of Technicians and Technologists (CCTT). This is not to be used for legal purposes or environmental complaint against any name or topic mentioned in this report.

Acknowledgments
I, Haley Newell, a student in the Environmental Engineering Technology- Water Resources program at the Nova Scotia Community College- Waterfront Campus, would like to thank the many people involved in the completion of this report. I would like to extend thanks John Drage, M.Sc., P.Geo. a Hydrogeologist in the Geological Services Division of the Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources for giving me the idea and helping with the methods of this report. I would also like to thank Jim Kerr, Paul Batson and Aret Nazaryan, all Instructors at the Nova Scotia Community College in the Environmental Engineering Technology Water resources program for teaching me all the skills that was necessary in the general knowledge of the topic and completion of this project. I would also like to thank Scott McPhee, the instructor of the Applied Research Project course at the Nova Scotia Community College for the guidance of the report planning and completion of the project. 1|Page

Introduction
This project is for the Applied Research Project course for the Nova Scotia Community College Program Environmental Engineering Technology- Water Resources. Nova Scotias groundwater is an important resource for all Nova Scotias citizens and the water is generally found to be of good quality. It is used by half of the citizens in the province for drinking and daily household water supply. The groundwater is removed from the subsurface and supplied to users by approximately 150,000 groundwater wells located throughout the province. A lack of understanding of groundwater users could lead to bad management of the resource, overexploitation, and a decline in the quality of Nova Scotias groundwater. This project will compare the relationship between rainfall events and the aquifer levels in Nova Scotias groundwater observation wells in the Annapolis Valley area. This data will be analyzed and applied to calculate the amount of rainfall needed to recharge an aquifer to keep our important water supply from being depleted. This could be useful in the future if Nova Scotias water supply becomes depleted, or on the verge of depletion.

Study Area

Figure 1: Study Area (Board, Annapolis Valley Regional School)

The oil and gas reservoirs in this country are better understood than the groundwater reservoirs, as you all know Karen Brown, Assistant Deputy, Minister of the Environment

Limitations
Limitations of this report are apparent in the wells that are analyzed. Since Kentville and surrounding areas use groundwater as their main drinking water supply, there are well fields that are used. These well fields cause a massive cone of depression around the area that affect the readings of the observation wells in this report. Of the eight wells that are in the Annapolis Valley area, three are within

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a one kilometer radius of a well field. These wells affected from the cone of depression are the Wolfville, Kentville and Coldbrook observation wells. This report relies on the accuracy of data collected by others which is a limitation. There are gaps where no data was collected and reports were not written. This limitation could affect the report as it is reliant on correct testing and measurements of others. Another limitation of this study would be the saturation of the soil prior to the study period, the degree of frost that could occur in the fall and the degree of thaw in the spring, as well as the amount of runoff that could occur. The fall months between September 1st and December 1st were chosen to avoid as many as these limiting factors as possible.

Purpose
The purpose of this applied research project is to bring awareness to the province on how important groundwater is to our daily lives. Throughout the country there is insufficient information on aquifers and how human use is affected the subsurface. These effects could be seen through land subsidence, wells, streams, rivers and lakes running dry, wetland and habitat damage, and salt water intrusion in wells close to the ocean when it had never been an issue before. These scenarios could all be from the over consumption and depletion of groundwater aquifers. More research and observations should be made on aquifers all over the country to try and better understand our countrys water supply. In British Columbia it has been observed over the past few years that groundwater levels are depleting. Since 1999, 8% of BC aquifers have been classified as at risk due to heavy use. In Mexico, land subsidence has become a great issue due to over consumption and pumping of groundwater. If this is happening all over the world it will only be a short time before this could be a major issue to Nova Scotians

Study Area
The Annapolis Valley is found on the southwest side of Nova Scotia along the shore of the Bay of Fundy. Statistics Canada, defines the Annapolis Valley as an economic region, composed of Annapolis County, Kings County, and Hants County. It is known for its Apple Blossom Festival, and agriculture like livestock, fruit trees and berries. It is estimated to have about 55 more days of sun than any other part of Nova Scotia. In figure 2 it shows the typical landscape of rural areas in the Annapolis Valley area. Figure 3 shows the span of the Annapolis valley which is about 126kilometers long as well as pointing out the study area.

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Figure 2: Annapolis Valley (Expeditions)

Figure 3: Study Area (Google Maps)

Background
The Basics
Groundwater is water that is found underground in the cracks and spaces in soil, sand and rock. (http://www.groundwater.org/gi/whatisgw.html) Groundwater enters the ground by percolating down through the soil and pore spaces in the subsurface and staying in cracks and void spaces. This water can 4|Page

stay in these for 10s of thousands of years. Groundwater is a very important part of the hydrologic cycle, as water percolates through the soil after a precipitation event it recharges the aquifer and starts what is called groundwater flow. This flow can flow into rivers, lakes, wells and the oceans and recharge other water bodies while discharging the aquifer itself and allowing new water to enter for recharge.

Figure 4: Hydrologic Cycle (Enviroment Canada, 2011)

Factors that affect groundwater recharge would include the characteristics of the recharge beds including topography, land use, vegetation cover, existing soil moisture and the ability of the recharge beds and aquifer materials to store and transmit water. Groundwater makes up a very important part of the worlds fresh water supply as well. Of the 2.5% of water on the earth that is freshwater, groundwater makes up almost 31% of that with snow and ice (glaciers, etc) taking up almost 68%.

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Figure 5: The World's Freshwater Supply (Enviroment Canada, 2011)

A third of Canadians use groundwater as its water source but almost 50% of the population of Nova Scotia use groundwater for their water supply. The groundwater is removed from the subsurface by deep groundwater wells and supplied to users by approximately 150,000 groundwater wells located throughout the province. In Nova Scotia, a government issued permit is needed for wells that pump more than 23,000 liters per day. This regulation keeps Nova Scotias aquifers from becoming depleted of groundwater. Nova Scotia averages 1300 mm of precipitation annually, but there are times when water levels become low, and rivers, streams, and wells run dry. It is estimated that less than 20% of the total amount of rain and snow seeps into the water table to recharge it. Throughout Canada this can only equal between 45 and 500 millimeters of recharge per year in the aquifer, and, if withdrawal exceeds this amount, depletion becomes an issue.

Annapolis Valley Waters Supply


The aquifers underlying the Annapolis Valley represent some of Nova Scotias most important water resources. They supply water from deep groundwater wells to the agriculture industry, private wells, municipal water, and commercial and industrial operations. In 1962, the town established the Kentville Water Commission (KWC) which was formed to oversee the management and maintenance of the towns water. Between 1962 and 2001 the towns population grew by 20% and began to put pressure on the towns current water supply. In 1976 it became apparent that the current use of McGee Lake, located about 10 kilometers from town was not going to be enough to keep up with the growing water demand in Kentville. That same year two groundwater wells located in the Annapolis Valley Industrial Park were added to the water supply system. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s the water supply became stressed again by population growth, agriculture and industrial use, as well as a drought that hit the area and lasted almost a decade. McGee Lake was found to have high levels of Trihalomethanes (THM) in the drinking water in 1999 which led to the decision to move away from surface water supply to the town. Deep water wells were suggested 6|Page

and accepted in 1999 and a suitable location for deep water wells was explored and determined. The suitable location of the well field was found to be in the west end of the town and therefore called the Westend Wellfield and completed in 2002. In total there are seven wells providing the town with more than the quantity necessary with two additional wells if the need for more water ever arises. The Town of Kentville also have six monitoring wells around the well field that are used to detect possible pollutants before they reach the well heads.

Bedrock and Soil of the Annapolis Valley


The Annapolis valley has an interesting surficial geology for Nova Scotia. The Groundwater observation wells are found in the North Mountain, Annapolis Valley, and South Mountain Physiographic Regions. In Figure 4, it shows the locations of the Observation wells being examined.

Figure 6: Area of Interest (Nova Scotia Department of Environment, 2012)

1.1. Greenwood The Greenwood observation well is located in Glaciofluvial deposits of outwash fans, deltas and valley train deposits. These are comprised of gravel and sands and have massive horizontal stratifications but the well is drilled in an overburden of outwash sand. This material is good for quality aggregate for concrete, roadbase and an excellent aquifer but the rapid drainage and acidity of the material allow for the aquifer to be easily contaminated. 1.2 Wilmot The Wilmot observation well is located in the same unit as the Greenwood observation well of the Pleistocene Outwash unit. It is drilled into an overburdened aquifer of gravel. 1.3 Kentville The Kentville Observation well is located in a Glaciofluvial deposit of kame fields and esker systems comprised of gravel, sand and silt in diamicton layers. It is found to be poor to well bedded with horizontal to angular beds and faulting and collapse features are common in the area. This specific well is drilled into sandstone bedrock of the Wolfville Formation. This well is also part of the Kentville Industrial Park well field and is affected by its drawdown. 1.4 Annapolis Royal The Annapolis Royal observation well is located by Lake La Rosa and is located in a unit of ground moraine and streamlined drift comprised from stony till plains and drumlins. Its derived from the local bedrock but is siltier due to erosion and deposition from glacial activity. It is located in the

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Liscomb Complex geologic unit and the aquifer material is comprised of granite bedrock. This unit is also found to have rapid drainage, susceptible to erosion, and has an unusually high water table. 1.5 Sheffield Mills The Sheffield Mills observation well is located in the same Glaciofluvial deposit as Kentville is as well as the Wolfville formation and drilled into the same sandstone bedrock comprising the aquifer. 1.6 Atlanta The Atlanta observation well is found in an area of bedrock that is overlain by a very thin layer of till. It is located in the Blomidon Formation and the aquifer is comprised of sandstone bedrock. 1.7 Coldbrook The Coldbrook observation well is located in the same material as the Kentville and Sheffield Mills observation wells. It is also within a one kilometer from a well field and is affected it the drawdown.

Figure 7: Bedrock of the Annapolis Valley (J.D.Keppie, 2000)

Climate and Weather


The Annapolis Valley, Kentville and surrounding areas are known for their warm summers and very cold winters. It has the warmest temperatures and the second lowest precipitation total in the province at 1100-1200 mm annually. The average temperature for the winter months is around -3C while the summer is between 16 C and 24 C. Spring ranges from 2 C to 9 C while fall is usually around 18 C. These temperatures can fluxuate above or below the average temperatures calculated. The first average frost in the fall is usually observed to happen after September 30th. This report covers a ten year history between 2002 and 2012 of the area and the observation wells.

Well History
The following wells all fall into the category of the Annapolis Valley area that are not within a one kilometer from a well field. In table 1, there is some information regarding the history of the wells.

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Well Name Greenwood Wilmot Kentville Annapolis Royal Sheffield Mills Atlanta Coldbrook
Table 1: Well History

Year Monitoring Started 1966 1966 1980 1990 2008 2008 2009

Year Well was Drilled 1966 1966 1977 1989 2007 2007 1961

Well Depth (m) 7.6 18.3 106.7 62.8 53.4 53.4 70.7

Casing Depth (m) 6.6 6.4 30.5 24.3 19.2 36.0 52.4

Surrounding Receiving Environments


Annapolis Royals receiving Environments of surface runoff, Rainfall and any other form of precipitation would include Hardwick Lake, Lake La Rosa, Jerry Lake, West Stoney Lake, as well as many small receiving streams. These environments collect water that seeps into the subsurface for the recharge of the aquifers. The Annapolis and Cornwallis Rivers run along the valley of the surficial bedrock units. These rivers affect the groundwater throughout the study area and all the observation wells are in a relatively short distance. Another source of water for these aquifers could be the bay of Fundy, water could enter the aquifer along with the tides and affect the levels.

Annapolis Royal Observation Well

Figure 8: Receiving Environments

Methods
Data has been collected from these seven observations wells for up to 47 years by the Nova Scotia Department of Environment and Natural Resources. Of these seven wells, three of them were located 9|Page

within a one kilometer from a well field. This would cause drawdown in the observation well leading in inaccurate results. Data was compiled and analyzed for the completion of this study.

Approach
The study involved three phases of activity: 1. Organizing and compiling data from the Nova Scotia Department of Environment and Natural Resources; 2. Analyzing and development of trends within the data; 3. Study the relationship between the precipitation events and groundwater levels in the stated observation wells.

Results
Previous condition of aquifer
The observation wells in this study are located in the watershed 1DD and 1DC, with the major rivers being the Annapolis River and the Gaspereau River. Together, these watersheds have a total area of 3654 square kilometers with 128 square kilometers of water within them.

Focus Area

Figure 9: Watersheds in Nova Scotia (Nova Scotia Museum of Natural History)

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In the following Chart, it shows the past Precipitation amounts since 1984. By looking at this chart we see that there was a decline in rainfall between 1996 and 2002. This could have led to depletion in the aquifers of the area before the main scope of this study.

Precipitation Amounts
Between 1985- 2011 ( May-August)
600 500 400 300 Precipitation Amounts 200 100

Compared to the Rainfall in the past few years, the historic rainfalls are less than what is currently happening. This is a good sign for the aquifers because depletion would be less of a worry since there is more rainfall. One factor that could affect the recent groundwater levels would be the extraction of groundwater for municipal use which started 2002.

Precipitation Events and Groundwater Levels


These tables show the data that had been collected from the Nova Scotia Department of Environment and Natural Resources, as well as Environment Canada. It was then compiled into these tables to get all the data into one place. There are many gaps and unknowns throughout the data and this is due to lack of reports from the Nova Scotia Groundwater Observation Well Network. The Nova Scotia Groundwater Observation Well Network started in 1965 and reports began in 2007. There is data dating back to the beginning of the program. In the following table, the precipitation from September 1st to December 1st of the study period is shown. You can see that it fluxuates between 22mm and 600mm throughout the years.

1984 1900 1900 1900 1900 1990 1900 1900 1995 1900 1900 1900 2000 1900 1900 2005 1900 1900 1900

Figure 10: Precipitation Amounts

2011

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Precipitation Amounts (mm) Sept. 1 - Dec. 1


700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 Precipitation (mm) Sept. 1 - Dec. 1

Figure 11: Precipitation Amounts from Sept. 1 to Dec. 1

Date Precipitation (mm) Groundwater Level Rise (mm) Groundwater Level Rise (mm) Groundwater Level Rise (mm) Sept. 1 - Dec. 1 Greenwood Wilmot Annapolis Royal 1984 271.7 -160 1985 238.5 20 80 1986 307.6 -70 490 1987 570.1 620 1210 1988 435.4 310 1300 1989 438.2 580 760 1990 465 750 620 1991 533.4 1030 770 1992 375.7 970 540 1993 601.3 500 1994 269.91 -90 -270 1995 441.8 -70 780 1996 1997 243.6 1998 408.7 1999 422.6 2000 354.6 2001 178.7 40 2002 302.4 2003 280.2 2004 348.9 560 2005 454.5 620 1180 2006 269.7 97 490 580 2007 270.1 318 670 550 2008 277 430 740 680 2009 272.9 24 -60 270 2010 462.3 370 950 800 2011 366.9 320 1200 640 Table 2: Results for Greenwood, Wilmot & Annapolis Royal

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Date Precipitation (mm) Groundwater Level Rise (mm) Groundwater Level Rise (mm) Sept. 1 - Dec. 1 Atlanta Sheffield Mills 2008 277 60 230 2009 272.9 20 -90 2010 462.3 160 330 2011 366.9 300 200
Table 3: results for Atlanta & Sheffield Mills

Observation in the Atlanta and Sheffield Mills well only began in 2008 while the other wells can date back to 1984 and before, but with gaps in the data for years that monitoring was not completed. These gaps are due to lack of data collected.

Observations and Results of Data


In the following charts, data was collected, compiled and compared to build these charts. A line of best fit was plotted on all charts to see the relationship between each point. The R2 value which is called the coefficient of determination, shows how good the equation matches the data. For example in the Greenwood observation well, the equation of the line shows that 1 mm of precipitation equals 1.561mm of recharge in the aquifer as well as the R2 value showing a .5753 accuracy (1.0 being completely accurate) Greenwood Observation Well Results

Greenwood
700 Groundwater Level Rise (mm) 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 -100 0 -200 -300 Autumn Precipitation (mm)
Figure 12: Greenwood Results

y = 1.561x - 295.56 R = 0.5753

Series1 Linear (Series1) 200 400 600 800

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In the Greenwood Observation well there were 15 pieces of data plotted. All data was taken at correct dates except the groundwater level for 1987 where the end date was November 30th instead of December 1st due to lack of data. The equation y=1.561x-295.56 shows that for every 1mm of rainfall, there is 1.561 mm of recharge happening in the aquifer. Considering that only about 20% of the rainfall enters the subsurface this is a good sign for the future of the aquifer in the greenwood area. Greenwood Observation Well data shows that there were two years where there was depletion in the aquifer. These were in 1984 and 1986, with the rainfall amounts calculated to be 271.7mm and 307.6mm respectively. Since the average rainfall over the 15 years of collected data was 361mm, these rainfalls were below average which could be the reason for depletion in those two years. This aquifer is composed of an overburden of sand, which would aid in the percolation of the water through tohe subsurface. Wilmot Observation Well Results

Wilmot
1400 Groundwater Level Rise (mm) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 -200 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Autumn Precipitation (mm)
Figure 13: Wilmot Results

y = 2.6484x - 341.01 R = 0.3502

Series1 Linear (Series1)

In the Wilmot Observation well there were 16 pieces of data plotted. All data was taken at correct dates except the groundwater level for 1990 where the start date was August 18th, instead of September 1st, as well as 1995 where the start date was October 13th. The 1994 end date was November 18th instead of December 1st due to lack of data. The equation y=2.6484x-341.01 shows that for every 1mm of rainfall, there is 2.6484mm of recharge happening in the aquifer. This is a tremendous gain from the amount of rainfall that occurs. The Wilmot Observation Well experienced depletion in 1994, 1995 and 2009 with rainfall amounts at 269.91mm, 441.8mm and 272.9mm respectively. The average rainfall within the 16 years of data that are looked at in this study was 374.66mm. This could explain that the depletion in 1994 was due to lack 14 | P a g e

of rainfall and the depletion in 1995 could have been to lack of recharge from the previous year as well. The depletion in 2009 could be from the previous four years amount of rainfall which was below average.

Annapolis Royal Observation Well Results

Annapolis Royal
1400 1200 Groundwater Level Rise (mm) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 -200 -400 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Series1 Linear (Series1) y = 2.1787x - 213.5 R = 0.3784

Autumn Precipitation (mm)


Figure 14: Annapolis Royal Results

In the Annapolis Royal Observation well there were 13 pieces of data plotted. All data was taken at correct dates. 15 pieces were not collected due to lack of data. The equation y=2.1787x-213.5 shows that for every 1mm of rainfall, there is 2.1787 mm of recharge happening in the aquifer. Depletion in the Annapolis Royal Observation Well occurred in 1994 where the precipitation was calculated at 269.91mm while the average of the 13 years of data being analyzed was 369.85mm. Before 1994, the previous five years of data were observed to be greatly above average. Depletion for this year could be contributed by overuse of groundwater or a very dry spring and summer possibly. This aquifer is made up of bedrock and granite which could lead to the difficulty of water to saturate the aquifer.

Atlanta Observation Well Results

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Atlanta
350 Groundwater Level Rise (mm) 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 Autumn Precipitation (mm)
Figure 15: Atlanta Results

y = 0.8286x - 150.69 R = 0.3538

Series1 Linear (Series1)

In the Atlanta Observation well there were four pieces of data plotted. All data was taken at correct dates but more was not collected due to the lack of data. This well did not join the Nova Scotia Observation Well Monitoring Program until 2008. The equation y=0.8286x-150.69 shows that for every 1mm of rainfall, there is 0.8286mm of recharge happening in the aquifer. There was no depletion observed in the Atlanta Observation Well over the four years of study that have been conducted. This aquifer is comprised of Sandstone which aids in the percolation of water through the subsurface. The average rainfall over the four years in question was calculated to be 344.76mm with groundwater level rise fluxuating between 20mm and 300mm.

Sheffield Mills Observation Well Results

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Sheffield Mills
400 350 Groundwater Level rise (mm) 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 -50 0 -100 -150 Autumn Precipitation (mm)
Figure 16: Sheffield Mills Results

y = 1.4168x - 320.96 R = 0.4945

Series1 Linear (Series1)

100

200

300

400

500

In the Sheffield Mills Observation well there were 4 pieces of data plotted. All data was taken at correct dates but more was not collected due to the lack of data. This well did not join the Nova Scotia Observation Well Monitoring Program until 2008. The equation y=1.4168x-320.96 shows that for every 1mm of rainfall, there is 1.4168mm of recharge happening in the aquifer.

Recommendation

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Appendix 1.1 Greenwood Observation Well Data

Well Name Observation Well ID Number NSEL Well Number County Nearest Community UTM - Easting UTM - Northing Year Monitoring Started Casing Depth (m) Well Depth (m) Elevation - top of casing (m, asl) Geologic Unit Aquifer material

Greenwood 003 661225 Kings Greenwood 350680 4985498 1967 6.6 7.6 24.2 Pleistocene Outwash Overburden - sand
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Appendix 1.2 Wilmot Observation Well Data

Well Name Observation Well ID Number NSEL Well Number County Nearest Community UTM - Easting UTM - Northing Year Monitoring Started Casing Depth (m) Well Depth (m) Elevation - top of casing (m, asl) Geologic Unit Aquifer material

Wilmot 005 NA Annapolis Wilmot 340015 4979368 1966 6.4 18.3 9.0 Pleistocene Outwash Overburden - gravel
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Appendix 1.3 - Annapolis Royal Observation Well Data

Well Name Observation Well ID Number NSEL Well Number County Nearest Community UTM - Easting UTM - Northing Year Monitoring Started Casing Depth (m) Well Depth (m) Elevation - top of casing (m, asl) Geologic Unit Aquifer material

Annapolis Royal 062 891722 Annapolis Lake La Rose 303029 4952588 1990 24.3 62.8 121.1 Liscomb Complex Bedrock - granite
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Appendix 1.4 Atlanta Observation Well Data

Well Name Observation Well ID Number NSE Well Number County Nearest Community UTM - Easting UTM - Northing Year Monitoring Started Casing Depth (m) Well Depth (m) Elevation - top of casing (m, asl) Geologic Unit Aquifer material

Atlanta 074 070613 Kings Atlanta 381956 5000758 2007 36.0 53.3 11 Blomidon Formation Bedrock - Sandstone

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Appendix 1.5 Sheffield Mills Observation Well Data

Well Name Observation Well ID Number NSE Well Number County Nearest Community UTM - Easting UTM - Northing Year Monitoring Started Casing Depth (m) Well Depth (m) Elevation - top of casing (m, asl) Geologic Unit Aquifer material

Sheffield Mills 075 070618 Kings Sheffield Mills 384693 5000590 2007 19.2 53.3 14 Wolfville Formation Bedrock - Sandstone

Appendix 1.1- 1.5 - (Nova Scotia Department of Environment, 2012)

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Appendix 2.1 Results of Groundwater Levels and Precipitation Events

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Works Cited
Board, Annapolis Valley Regional School. (n.d.). Annapolis Valley Regional School Board. Brown, K. (2008). Assistant Deputy Minister of the Enviroment. Drage, J. (2010 , March 19). Groundwater is Nova Scotia's Buried Treasure, Op-ed. Retrieved 2013, from http://novascotia.ca/news/release/?id=20100319002 Enviroment Canada. (2011, February 15). Groundwater. Retrieved 2013 Holmstrom, D. (1988). Soils Map of The Cambridge Station Map Sheet. In L. R. Centre. Truro, Nova Scotia: Agriculture Canada. J.D.Keppie. (2000). Geological Map of the Province of Nova Scotia. Halifax: Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources, Mineral and Energy Branch. Kentville Water Department. (2010). 2010 ANNUAL KENTVILLE WATER QUALITY REPORT. Retrieved 2013, from http://kentville.ca/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/waterannualreport10.pdf Nova Scotia Department of Environment. (2012, Nov 14). Observation Well Results - Active Wells. Retrieved 2013, from http://www.gov.ns.ca/nse/groundwater/docs/048KentvilleWellConstruction.pdf Nova Scotia Museum of Natural History. (n.d.). Freshwater Hydrology.

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