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VIMAL KUMAR 2 9 T H BATCH DEPT OF SHIP TECH CUSAT. Compliant offshore structure
VIMAL KUMAR
2 9 T H BATCH
DEPT OF SHIP TECH CUSAT.
Compliant offshore structure
Offshore structures that can be placed in water depths of up to 2 kilometers . These
Offshore structures that can be placed in water
depths of up to 2 kilometers . These structures may
be made of steel, rein forced concrete or a
combination of both.
Offshore structures can be desi gned for installation
in protected waters, such as lakes, rivers, and bays or
in the open sea, many kilometers from shorelines.
INTRODUCTION
Oil and gas exploration Navigation aid towers Bridges and causeways Ship loading and unloading facilities
Oil and gas exploration
Navigation aid towers
Bridges and causeways
Ship loading and unloading facilities
Drilling of oil well.
Major use Offshore structures
Environmental (initial transportation, and in-place 100-year storm conditions) Soil characteristics Intensity level of consequences of
Environmental (initial transportation, and in-place
100-year storm conditions)
Soil characteristics
Intensity level of consequences of failure
Purpose (drilling, production etc)
Life of structure.
Consideration for design and analysis
These structures vary in size and height, and can be used in water depths up to
These structures vary in size and height, and can be
used in water depths up to about 300 meters,
although most commonly in water depths less than
150 meters.
The Converted jackup barges are the rarest, and may
be used in remote areas with relatively shallow water
depths.
TYPES OF OFFSHORE OIL/GAS
EXPLORATION STRUCTURES
Converted Jackup barges
Fixed tower structures
The SPAR platforms are used in very deep water exploration, The SPAR is a vertical
The SPAR platforms are used in very deep water
exploration, The SPAR is a vertical floating cylinder
attached, by means of cables , to anchors placed on
the seafloor more than a kilometer away.
Within this category there are 4-leg, 6-leg, and 8-leg
towers and also minimal structures whose decks are
supported by a single unbraced or pile-braced
caisson.
Stationary floating SPARs
They consist of a floating deck structure anchored to pile heads on the sea floor
They consist of a floating deck structure anchored to
pile heads on the sea floor by means of long pipes
which are always kept in tension , and thus can be
flexible without risk of a column buckling collapse
failure
The water depth at the intended location dictates
platform height.
are used in water depths greater than 300 meters or
even more than that.
Compliant structure
foundation template having skirt pile sleeves open at each end and a plurality of sockets
foundation template having skirt pile sleeves open at
each end and a plurality of sockets closed at the
bottom,
A compliant offshore structure for use in
hydrocarbon drilling and producing operations,
comprising of
Compliant structure
tower’s jacket is composed of four le g tubular that can range from 3 to
tower’s jacket is composed of four le g tubular that
can range from 3 to 7 ft in diameter and are welded
together with pipe braces to form a space-frame-like
structure.
space-frame-like structure of compliant offshore structure
space-frame-like structure of compliant offshore structure
space-frame-like structure of compliant offshore structure
The lower jacket is secured to the seafloor b y weight and with 2- to
The lower jacket is secured to the seafloor b y weight
and with 2- to 6-ft piles that penetrate hundreds of
feet beneath the mud line.
Both the lower and upper jacket dimensions can
range up to 300 feet on a side.
lower jacket is secured to the seafloor
lower jacket is secured to the seafloor
lower jacket is secured to the seafloor
Deck adapted to be attached to the to p tower, the drilling, production, and crew
Deck adapted to be attached to the to p tower,
the drilling,
production,
and crew quarter
The surface facilities are smaller by design on
compliant towers than on fixed platforms because of
the decreased jacket dimensions that support them.
Drilling ,production and crew accommodation spaces
Drilling ,production and crew accommodation spaces
Drilling ,production and crew accommodation
spaces
A series of buo yant tanks (up to 12) located in the upper part of
A series of buo yant tanks (up to 12) located in the
upper part of the jacket places the members in
tension, reducing the foundation loads of the
structure.
The tanks can range up to 20 ft in diameter and up to
120 ft in length.
The amount of buoyancy is computer controlled,
members during wind and wave movements.
the appropriate tension in the structure
keepin
several mooring lines (up to 20 lines measuring 5 ½- inch dia.) are attached to
several mooring lines (up to 20 lines measuring 5 ½-
inch dia.) are attached to the jacket close to the
waterline and are spread out evenly around it (up to
4,000 ft of line ).
compliant towers in general, mooring is only used in
the guyed-tower design.
Clump weights (120 ft x 8 ft, up to 200 tons) may be
moves with the wind and wave forces.
line and move as the tower
attached to each moorin
The portion of the lines past the clump weights are anchored into the seafloor with
The portion of the lines past the clump weights are
anchored into the seafloor with piles (as many as 20,
each 72-inch dia., 115-ft long, penetrating 130 ft, and
weighing up to 60 tons).
To control the tower motions better , the lines are
kept in tension during the swaying motions.
mooring lines
mooring lines
mooring lines
A compliant piled tower design, it is 609.9 meters (2,001 feet) high, arguably the tallest free-standing
A compliant piled tower design, it is 609.9 meters (2,001 feet) high, arguably the tallest free-standing
A compliant piled tower design, it is 609.9 meters (2,001 feet) high,
arguably the tallest free-standing structure in the world, 75 meters of the
platform are above water. The multi-deck topsides are 64 meters by 43
meters by 18.3 meters high
Compliant offshore structure
Compliant offshore structure
Compliant offshore structure
Piles extending upward from ocean floor Coupling housing secured to the piles. Elastomeric shear pad.
Piles extending upward from ocean floor
Coupling housing secured to the piles.
Elastomeric shear pad.
Vertically extending tower having a bottom at sea
floor.
Important components of compliant structure
It s an elevation view of a compliant piled tower supported by resilient piles, 12 –resilient
It s an elevation view of a compliant piled tower supported by resilient piles, 12 –resilient
It s an elevation view of a compliant piled
tower supported by resilient piles,
12 –resilient piles
30-pile attachment location on land during
fabrication
18-tower base from which centre of rotation
passes.
14-tower frame
16-tower legs
Cut away view of the upper section of resilient assembly 12 –resilient piles 36-elastomeric structure 38-housing
Cut away view of the upper section of resilient assembly 12 –resilient piles 36-elastomeric structure 38-housing
Cut away view of the upper section of
resilient assembly
12 –resilient piles
36-elastomeric structure
38-housing rigidly secured to leg.
28-resillient coupling
34-cylindrical housing
Sectional view of at section3-3 in previous drawing. 16-tower leg 38-shear plate 28-Resillient coupling 26-pile element
Sectional view of at section3-3
in previous drawing.
16-tower leg
38-shear plate
28-Resillient coupling
26-pile element
36-elastomeric structure
Sectional view of at section3-3 in previous drawing. 16-tower leg 38-shear plate 28-Resillient coupling 26-pile element
It shows sheer deformation of elastomeric structure of platform leg while tower sway 26 –pile element
It shows sheer deformation of elastomeric structure of platform leg while tower sway 26 –pile element
It shows sheer deformation of
elastomeric structure of
platform leg while tower sway
26 –pile element
16-tower leg
Elastomeric pads 360-stack of elastomeric disks.
Elastomeric pads 360-stack of elastomeric disks.
Elastomeric pads
360-stack of elastomeric disks.
Need of compliant offshore structure
Need of compliant offshore structure
The size of conventional fixed leg platforms is approaching the economic limit due to the
The size of conventional fixed leg platforms is
approaching the economic limit due to the very large
amount of steel required and limitations imposed by
fabrication and installation methods.
Oil industry moves into deeper water in the search
for additional supplies of oil and gas.
Several concepts have been proposed for enhancing the water depth capability of platforms ,which are
Several concepts have been proposed for enhancing
the water depth capability of platforms ,which are as
follow.
Tension Leg Platforms (TLP),
guyed and articulated tower platforms.
Flex tube compliant offshore structure
These are types of compliant offshore
structure
guyed platforms, tension leg platforms articulated towers Flex tube compliant offshore structure Types of compliant
guyed platforms,
tension leg platforms
articulated towers
Flex tube compliant offshore structure
Types of compliant structures
A compliant offshore structure with flex tubes that are not driven into the sea bottom.
A compliant offshore structure with flex tubes that
are not driven into the sea bottom. A foundation
template has bottles with skirt pile sleeves and a
closed bottom socket. A tower and tower extension
support the deck above the water line. The tower legs
each enclose a flex tube
Flex tube compliant offshore structure
leg tension platforms
leg tension platforms
leg tension platforms
leg tension platforms
leg tension platforms
leg tension platforms
Compliant towers are similar to fixed platforms in that they have a steel tubular jacket
Compliant towers are similar to fixed platforms in
that they have a steel tubular jacket that is used to
support the surface facilities.
compliant towers yield to the water and wind
movements in a manner similar to floating
structures.
Like fixed platforms, they are secured to the seafloor
with piles
Comparison and similarity
It can also have buoyant sections in the upper jacket with mooring lines from jacket
It can also have buoyant sections in the upper jacket
with mooring lines from jacket to seafloor (guyed-
tower designs) or a combination of the two.
The jacket of a compliant tower has smaller
dimensions than those of a fixed platform and may
consist of two or more sections.
This characteristic makes the structure very rigid in the vertical direction and very flexible in
This characteristic makes the structure very rigid in
the vertical direction and very flexible in the
horizontal plane. Both these features result
particularly attractive .
structures whose mooring system is constituted b y
vertical tethers.
Major feature of compliant structure
The vertical rigidity helps to tie in wells for production, while, the horizontal compliance makes
The vertical rigidity helps to tie in wells for
production, while, the horizontal compliance makes
the platform insensitive to the primary effect of
waves.
Second-order, slowly varying drift forces at low
frequency, caused by waves may result in the low
frequency resonant oscillation of structure.
The foundations of these kinds of structures do not resist lateral environmental loads forces; instead,
The foundations of these kinds of structures do not
resist lateral environmental loads forces; instead,
restoring moments are provided by a large buoyancy
force, a set of guy lines or a combination of both
Economically attractive for deep water conditions
because of their reduced structural weight compared
to conventional platforms.
use of compliant towers in water depths ranging up to 3,000 ft. This range is
use of compliant towers in water depths ranging up
to 3,000 ft. This range is generally considered to be
beyond the economic limit for fixed jacket-type
platforms
These structures have a fundamental fre quency well
below the ocean wave’s lower frequency-bound.
Tower legs are fabricated in yards in small module. With normal shipyard facility ,it can
Tower legs are fabricated in yards in small module.
With normal shipyard facility ,it can be fabricated
easily. Tower legs, accommodation module, are
fabricated and transported to the site with the barge.
Length of tower is up to 500m or even more, hence
fabricated in considerable size.
INSTALLATION
Fabricated compliant offshore structure
Fabricated compliant offshore structure
Fabricated compliant offshore structure
Fabricated module for production
Fabricated module for production
Fabricated module for production
Fabricated complaint offshore transported to site
Fabricated complaint offshore transported to site
Fabricated complaint offshore transported to site
Once the lower jacket is secured to the seafloor, it acts as a base (compliant
Once the lower jacket is secured to the seafloor, it
acts as a base (compliant tower) for the upper jacket
and surface facilities.
Large barge-mounted cranes position and secure the
jacket and install the surface facility modules.
The water de pth at the intended location dictates
platform height.
Installation of accommodation module to compliant structure
Installation of accommodation module to compliant structure
Installation of accommodation module to compliant structure
Dynamic Response of Compliant Offshore Structures (R. Adrezin) US Patent 5431512 US Patent 4721417 www.marinetalk.com References
Dynamic Response of Compliant Offshore Structures
(R. Adrezin)
US Patent 5431512
US Patent 4721417
www.marinetalk.com
References
Thank you
Thank you