1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
CONTENTS
Topic Page No.
Syllabus (i)
Structural Connections
Beams 22
Beam Columns 49
Industrial Buildings 69
MultiStoreyed Buildings 83
Transmission Line Towers 104
Light Gauge Steel Sections 124
Plastic Analysis and Design 144
__
SYLLABUS
ADVANCED DESIGN OF STEEL STRUC1"URES  (BCO 3.2)
Structural Connections: Design of high strength function grip bolts  Design of riveted and
bolted connections at the junctions of beams and columns in frames  Design of un stiffened and
stiffened seat connections  Welded connections  eccentric connections  Beam end
ConnectionsDirect web fillet welded connections  Direct web Butt welded connections  Double
plate web connection  Double angle web connection  Unstiffened and stiffened seat connection
 Moment resistant connection  Behaviour of welded connections  Problems.
Beams: Design of beams to resist biaxial bending moments  Design of section to resist
unsymmetrical bending  Beam splices  Lattice beams  Elastic lateral torsional buckling.
Beam Columns: Differential EquationsMoment Magnification Factor for end moments  Side
way Nominal strength  Interaction Equations  Biaxial bending.
Industrial Buildings: Industrial Building Frames  General  Framing Bracing  Crane girders
and columns analysis of trussed bents  Design example  Design of rigid joints knee for gable
frames
Structure of Multistoried buildings Bracing of multistory frames  Loads Lateral load of frame.
Strong Structures and Transmission Tower: Design of steel bunkers and silos  Janssen's
theory  Ary's Theory  Design parametersDesign criteria  Analysis of Bins  Hopper bottom
Design of bins Design and detailing of guyed steel chimneys.
Transmission line Towers  Introduction, types of towers  tower configuration, load analysis and
design of members.
light Gauge Steel Sections: Design of coldformed sections  concepts  effective width
stiffened sections multiple stiffened sections  design of flexure  design of light gauge columns
beam columnconnections.
Plastic Analysis and Design: Plastic design of tension and compression members  Theory of
plastic bending  plastic hinge redistribution of moments  failure mechanisms  plastic analysis
and design of fixed beams. continuous beam and portal frames by mechanism method.
CHAPTER 1: STRUCTURAL CONNECTIONS
SECTION A
Multiple Choice Type Questions:
The most common types of structural steel connections are:
1.
a. Riveted Connections
b. Bolted Connections
c. Welded Connections
d. All of the above
In case of Pinned Connections:
2.
a. Bolts are used
b
Pins are used
c.
Welding is used
d.
None of the above
Which of the following statement is wrong in relation to Bolted connections?
3.
4.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Require less manpower
Operation is far more quicker than riveting
Is a hot process
None of the above
In case of Black Bolts, the diameter of hole is kept mm more than the diameter of
bolt.
a. 1.5
b. 2.0
c. 2.5
d. 3.0
Which of the following bolt is classified according to type of shank?
5.
a. Ordinary structural bolt
b.
Square bolt
c. Turned bolts
d.
None of the above
In common steel structural work, the type of bolt used is
6.
a. Square bolt
b. Ordinary structural bolt
c. High strength bolt
d. Hexagonal bolt
1
7.
The bolts which are manufactured from black round bars of low carbon steel is:
a. Turned bolts
b. High strength bolts
c. Black bolts
d. None of the above
8.
The bolts which are manufactured from black round bars of mild steel containing low
carbon content are:
a. Turned bolts
b. High strength bolts
c. Black bolts
d. None of the above
9.
Bolts which are used for ordinary field work and light loads are:
a. Turned bolts
b. High strength bolts
c. Black bolts
d. None of the above
10.
The strength of turned and fitted bolts are __that of black bolts.
a. Less than .
b. More than
c. Equal to
d. None of the above
11.
The joint produced with the help of High Strength friction grip bolts is:
a. ,Rigid
b. Non Rigid
c. Semi Rigid
d.
None of the above
12.
The factor of safety considered during the design of bolted shear connection for all loads
~ ~ ~ n ~ ,
a. 1.2
b. 1.4
c. 2.0
d. 2.2
2
13. The factor of safety considered during the design of bolted shear connection, for all loads
except wind load is taken as:
a. 1.2
b. 1.4
c. 2.0
d. 2.2
14. The factor of safety allows for the stress relaxation in the bolts which may be of the order
of:
a. 1 0 percent
b. 20 percent
c. 25 percent
d. 30 percent
15. Which of the following is a type of shear connections?
a. Lap Joint
b. Butt Joint
c. Flange Plate Connection
d. All of the above
16. In case where, the beam is supported on ____, the beam reaction are borne by the
end connections of the beam.
a. Masonry walls
b. Steel columns
c. RCC columns .
d. None of the above
17. When the beam is connected to a girder of a stanchion by means of two angles placed on
the two sides of the web the beam is called:
a. Framed Connection
b. Seated Connection
c. Clip Angle Connection
d. None of the above
18. The connections in which clip angles are provided both at top and bottom of the flanges
of the beam in addition to web angles are known as:
a. Framed Connection
b. Seated Connection
c. Clip Angle Connection
d. None of the above
3
19,
A connection, which essentially consists of two sets of angles along with gusset plates is
cqlled as:
a. Bracket connection
b.
Split beam connection
c.
Modified split beam connection
d. None of the above
20.
In order to resist large moments, which type of connections are used?
a. Clip Angle connections
b. Large moment resistant connections
c. Split beam connections
d.
Modified split beam connections
Key:
1. (d) 2. (b) 3. (c) 4. (a) 5. (c) 6. (c)
7. (c) 8. (a) 9. (c) 10. 11. (b) (a) 12. (c)
13. (a) 14. (a) 15. (d) 16. (b) 17. (a) 18. (c)
19. (a) 20. (b)
4
SECTION 8
True I False Type Questions:
1. A bracket connection is essentially composed of two sets of angles with gusset plate.
2. Clip angle connections are used for resisting large moments.
3. In a framed connection, it is assumed that the connections are flexible and are
proportioned for transferring beam shears applied at appropriate eccentricities.
4. To provide the flexibility in the framed beam connections, the depth of the connecting
angles is limited to 0.5 times the depth of the beam connected.
5. When a beam is connected to a girder by means of two angles placed on the two sides of
the web of the beam, it is known as seated connections.
6. Actual connections are neither completely rigid nor completely flexible.
7. High strength bolts gives high static strength due to high frictional resistance.
8. The slip factor is defined as the ratio between the forces causing the large displacement
between the two interfaces of the plates connected together and the force normal to the
interfaces due to the tension in the bolts.
9. Bolting operation is far more quicker than riveting.
10. Unfinished bolts have more strength because of nonuniform diameter.
Key:
1. T 2. F 3. T 4. F 5. F
6. T 7. T 8. T 9. T 10. F
5
SECTION C
Q7. What do you mean by seated beam connections?
Ans. When a beam is connected to the flange (or the web) of a steel stanchion, the width of
Short Answer Type Questions:
the flange (or the depth of the web) may be insufficient to accommodate the connecting
Q1. What are the advantages of bolted connections?
Ans. Following are the advantages of bolted connections:
1. Bolting is a cold process, and hence there is no risk of fire.
2. Bolting operation is far quicker than riveting.
3. Less manpower is required in making the connection.
Q2. Classify the different types of bolt according to material and strength.
Ans. According to material and strength, bolts are classified as follows:
1. Ordinary structural bolt
2. High strength steel bolt
Q3.
What are the advantages of high strength bolts?
Ans.
1. It gives rigid joint as there is no slip between plates at working loads.
2. It gives high strength due to high frictional resistance.
3. There are no shearing or bearing stresses in the bolts.
4. It has high fatigue strength.
Q4.
What are the various types of shear connection?
Ans. 1. Lap joint
2. Butt joint with double cover plates
3. Moment connection
4. Flange plate connection
5. Bracket connection
Q5.
List the direct & indirect method of installation of HTFG bolts.
Ans. Direct Method
1. Load indicating bolt
2. Load indicating washer.
Indirect Method
4. Torque control method
5. Part turn method
, ,
j
Q6.
What are the Pinned Connections?
Ans. Pinned connections are used to connect tne members which are required
angles. In that case, framed beam connections are not suitable and seated beam
connections are preferred. In its simplest form, a seated connection is the one in which a
horizontal angle with its horizontal leg at its top is used to receive the beam on it.
Qa. Name few structures in which pins can be used?
Ans. 1. Crane booms
2. Arch hinges
3. Diagonal bracings
4. Expansion jOints
5. Rocker supports
Q9. What are the disadvantages of pinned connections?
Ans. 1. They should not be used for short span.
2. Pins cannot resist longitudinal tension
Q10. What do you mean by ordinary unfinished bolts?
Ans: These are manufactured from black round bars of low carbon steel and the surface of the
shank is left unfinished, that is rough as rolled. The head is formed by forging. The
diameter under the thread is usually 1.5 to 3 mm less than shank. They remain loose in
the holes which are usually made 1.5 mm larger in diameter than the nominal diameter of
the bolt.
Q.11. What do you mean by turned and fitted bolts?
Ans: These are specially made from black round bars or mild steel containing low carbon
content, but are turned down to exact diameter. The diameter of the shank is finished by
turning to a diameter which is larger than the ,nominal diameter of the bolt by 1.2 mm for
bolts M8 to M16 and by 1.3 mm for larger sizes.
Q12. What do you mean by High Strength Friction Grip Bolts?
Ans: High strength friction grip bolts are comparatively a recent development. They are made
of high strength steel and their surface is kept unfinished, i.e. as rolled and rough. Due to
this, they remain loose fit in the holes, similar to the unturned block bolts.
to rotate
relative to each other. Pins for structure purposes are cylinderical in shape, and are made
of structural carbon steel, forged and machined to accurate dimensions.
6
7
SECTIOND
Long AQswer Type Questions:
Qi. What are the advantages of bolted connections?
Ans. Advantages of bolted connections:
1. The bolting operation is very silent, in contrast to the hammering noise in riveting.
2. Bolting is a cold process, and hence there is no risk of fire.
3. Bolting operation is far more quicker than riveting.
4. There is no risk involved in the bolting, in contrast to the risk of flying rivets in
riveting work.
5. Less manpower is required in making the connections.
Disadvantages ofbolted connections:
1. The bolted connections, if subjected to vibratory loads, result in reduction in
strength if they get loosened.
2. Bolted connections for a given diameter of bolt have lesser strength in axial
tension since the net area at the root of the threads is less.
3. Unfinished bolts have lesser strength because of nonuniform diameter.
4. In the case of black bolts, the diameter of hole is kept 1.5 mm more than the
diameter of the bolt, and this extra clearance does not get filled up, in contrast to
the riveted joints.
Q2. What do you mean by bolt? What are the different types of bolts used in steel
structural work?
Ans. A bolt is a metal in which a head is formed at one end and the shank threaded at the
other 'end in order to receive a nut. Structural bolts are classifies as under:
a) to type of shank
i) Unfinished or black bolts
ii) Turned bolts
. !
A BOLT ASSEMBl,.'(
8
b) According to material and strength
i) Ordinary structural bolts
ii) High strength steel bolts
c) According to shape of head and nut
i) Square bolts
ii) Hexagonal bolts
d) According to pitch and fit of thread
i) Standard pitch bolts
ii) Coarse pitch bolts
iii) Fine pitch bolts
In common steel structural work, however, the following three bolt types are recognized:
1. Ordinary unfinished or black bolts
2, Turned and fitted bolts
3. High strength bolts
Q3. What do you mean by high strength friction grip bolts? Discuss its properties in
detail.
Ans. High strength friction grip bolts are comparatively a recent development. They are made
of high strength steel and their surface is kept unfinished, Le. as rolled and rough. Due to
this, they remain loose fit in the holes, similar to the unturned black bolts, However, high
initial tension is developed in such bolts in the initial stage of tightening, and this tension
clamps the joining plates between the bolt head and the nut. The tightening of the bolt to
a very high tension reaching their proof load, is done through calibrated torque wrenches.
This high precompression causes clamping action due to which the load is transmited
from one plate to the other by friction with negligible slip. The bearing of the bolt on the
hole surface does not come to play at all. The joint so produced is a rigid one, which
remain fully tight even under dynamic load, free from fatigue.
Fig. shows the load transmission by a friction grip bolt. In an ordinary bolted joint, the
force from one side is transferred to the other side through the interlocking and bearing of
the bolts. In a friction grip joint, however, the force is transmitted by virtue of friction
between the interfaces, To develop this friction a normal load is applied to the joint by
using high strength bolts tightened to proof load. By usual law of friction .
9
What are simple beam end connections? What are their types?
QS.
Ans.
Simple beam end connections :
Steel beams are supported at their ends by
i} masonry walls or piers,
ii) steel columns, or
(iii) heavier beams and girders running in transverse directions.
In the case where the beam is supported on steel supports, the beam reactions
are borne by the end connections of the beam with the supporting member. In
the case of simple framing , the original angle between the members may change
Disadvantages of high strength bolts
1. The material cost of these bolts is much higher It is about 50% greater than that
of ordinary bots and about 3 times that of rivets.
2. Special attention is required for workmanship in installing and tightening these
bolts, specially in regard to giving them right amount of tension.
P=pT
(1) .......
. upto 80% of the amount it would theoretically change if frictionless hinged
Where
connections could be used. For beams, such a connection provides only shear
T =clamping force induced by the bolt
transfer at the ends. Simple beam end connections.
jJ = coefficient of friction between the interfaces and
Framed beam connections (Fig.)
P =load carrying capacity of the Joint in shear
Hence if the actual applied load is equal to P or less, the Joint will withstand it, and transfer it
without any slip. When the actual load exceeds this value, there cocurs a major slip, and as load
is further increased, gradual slipping brings the bolt in contact with the edges of the plate. The
coefficient of friction is termed as slip factor. The slip factor is defined as the ratio between the
force causing the large displacement between the two interfaces of the plates connected together
and the force normal to the interfaces due to the tension in the bolts. A slip factor of 0.45 is
stipulated by IS : 40001967 for surfaces which are free of paint, dirt, loose rust and mill scale.
The high tensile friction grip bolts are commonly abbreviated as HTFG bolts.
Q4. What are the advantages & disadvantages of High Strength Bolts?
Ans. Advantages of high strength bolts
......
Fig. Framed Beam Connections
1. It gives rigid Joint as there is no slip between plates at working loads.
2. It gives high static strength due to high friction resistance
3. Smaller load is transmitted at net section of plates.
4. There are no shearing or bearing stresses in the bolts.
5. It has high fatigue strength.
6. As the bolts are in tension upto proof load they do not permit loosing of the nut
and the washer. ... ....
Fig. Beam Framing at the same level
11
10
r
Q6.
What are seated beam connection?
Ans.
When a beam is connected to the flange (or the web) of a steel stanchion, the width of
the flange (or the depth of the web) may be insufficient to accommodate the connecting
angles. In that case, framed beam connections are not suitable and seated beam
connections are preferred. In its simplest form, a seated connection is the one in which a
horizontal angle with its horizontal leg at its top is used to receive the beam on it, as
shown in Fig. (A) in such a case it is called unstiffened seat connection. In addition to the
seat angle, a web cleat is provided when the beam is connected to a beam (Fig. A) while
a flange cleat is used when the beam is connected to a stanchion. The angle cleats (Le.
web cleat or flange cleat) are essential parts of seated connections because they keep
the beam stable in a vertical position and prevent it from lateral buckling.
HAM
SEAT ANGLE
(8) BEAM CONNECTED TO STANe ....
S T ~ . O H '_....
Fig. (A) Unstiffened Seated Connection
FLANGE CLEAT
LBUM
SEAT ANGLE
STIFFENER
ANGLES
'.....fACK'"G
Fig. (8) Stiffened Seated Connection
12
p
When the reaction to be transferred by the beam is so large that the seat angle cannot
support it, then the horizontal leg of the set angle is stiffened by means of one or two
stiffener angles, as shown in fig. (8) The stiffener angles should be tightly fitted under the
seating angle and suitable packing should be provided, as shown in fig. (8).
Seated connections require more space in the vertical direction, and due to this. they are
not commonly used for connecting the beam to a beam. Seated connections are more
suitable for connecting the beam to either the flange or to the web of a steel stanchion.
Similarly. framed connection is not suitable for connecting a beam to the web of a column
because of the space limitation on either side of the beam.
Q7. Discuss Small Moment Resistant Connections in detail with diagram.
Ans. Such a connection is also known as clip angle connection because clip angles are
provided both at the top and bottom of the flange to the beam in addition to the web
angles. as shown in fig.
WEB AN ES
(0 )
(b'
~ . ~ ~ .
(c)
Thus, four angles (Le.,
Fig. Clip Angle Connection
two clip angles and two web angles) are used in such a
connection. The web angles, similar to those in framed connections, resist only shear,
they do not resist any moment. Similarly. the two clip angles resist only the moment and
they do not resist any shear. The vertical legs clip angles are connected to the flange of
the stanchion by two rivets provided in one gauge line, so that distribution of tension,
induced by moment, is uniform. If two gauge lines are used instead of one. the
distribution of tension is not uniform (Fig. a). Similar argument applies if the column
flange is wide enough to accommodate four rivets in one gauge line on the lip, the inner
most rivets may take disproportionate share of load (Fig. b). For this reason, many
engineers contend that the number of rivets (equal to two) limits the moment resisting
13
in, the rivets. Since eq. (iv) was obtained on the basis of detailed analysis, the design of
clip angle is based on this 8.M.
J
capacity of the connection; that's why such connection is used for resisting only small
moments.
Ca)
lbl
shows modes of bending of clip angles. If initial tension in rivets is neglected the
chp angle will under go simple cantilever flexure (Fig. a). If P is the tensile force in rivet A
the 8.M. to be resisted by the angle is '
p.
Q
1..1
.
?
l!=:::::=:::t!:o _
c p
Fig. Bending of Clip Angle
M = P (a.5t)
" .(i)
where t is the thickness of the angle.
If, however, the clamping action of the rivets is sufficient to prevent rotation at A and 8
the angle will bend in double flexure (Fig. b), with the point of contraflexure midwa;
between A and C. In that case the 8.M. is given by
M = P x O.5(a O.5t) = O.5P(a  0.5!) .. (ii) .
The 8.M. by (ii) is half of that obtained by (i). However, for safety, paint of
contraflexure IS assumed at a distance 0.6 (a0.5t), in which case, the 8,M. is given by
M=0.6P (a0.5t) ("')
, ... III
Also, from Eq . the maximum 8.M. in the angle is given by
M = MA =O.6P.a
.. (iv)
Riveted 8eam conn.ection
The different between Eqs. (iii), and (iv) is very small, both being based on initial tension
Ma = 0.6Pa
If I is the length of the clip angle between the two rivets (equal to gauge g of the flange of
stanchion) its moment of resistance is equal to 1:.. 1t
2
.G'bt'
6
1 ,
 It
2
.G'bl.=Ma=O.6Pa
6
t=./6Ma .... (v)
VI (J'bl I G'bl
In the above expression O"bt may be taken as 185 N/mm
2
QB. What do you mean by split beam connection? How they are analysed?
Ans. A split beam connection consists of
(i) two split beams consisting of either Tsection or Isection cut into two pieces,
provided at the top and bottom flanges of the beam, and
(ii) pair of web angles, connecting the web of the beam to the flange of the
stanchion. Such a connection is shown in fig.
A split beam connection is quite similar to the small moment connection, except that in
the place of clip angles of either TseCtions, or else beam section splitted into two parts.
Here also, it is assumed that the split beams (flange clips), resist moment only, while the
web angles resists shear only. Let M be the moment at the connection. Due to this
moment, a tensile force P will be induced at each of the two rivests of the upper tee, and
a compressive force P at each of the two rivets of the lower tee. The distorted view of the
lower tee. The distorted view of the upper T is shown in Fig.(a). thus the external moment
M, will be resisted by a couple provided tensile and .compressive forces of magnitude
2P (Fig. a), acting at a lever arm of (h + tws) where tws is the thickness of web of split
beam:
2 P (h + lws) =M
. .. (i)
Also, the Tsection will be subjected to a root moment Ms given by (Fig. b)
1
Ms =Px
2
(g t ) O.5P(gt J
... (ii)
ws w
Let tft be the thickness of the flange of split beam. The moment Ms induced at the T
1 2
section is resisted by its length I between the centres of rivets. Hence 61tft .G'.I =Ms
.'. (iii)
P p
.'
2P
"  0
P
p
'l
(0)
(td
Fig. Split Beam Connection
The thickness tws of the split beam should be such th " .
provides bearing strength to the rivets great th that It transmits the pull2P safely, and (ii) it
the flange of the beam. er an e single shear strength of rivets joining it to
Q9.
Fig. shows the lap joint. There is only one interface to transmit shear. Since there are two
1
bolt, so load per bolt = x2400 pN=1200 pN
Design a doubly bolted lap jOint for plates 16 mm thick t .
. 0 carry Its full load. Take
permissible axial tension in plate 0 6 I" wh I" 2
, . J x ere J x =250 N/mm
Solution: .
Load carried by the plate per pitch length
==aat xpxtxN
= (0.6 x 250)p x 16 == 2400pN
..
==:::::ii=:JtS
BOLT
LINE
.. 16mm
I .IGmm
HTFGBOLTS
M2411OtC)
J601Ml
..!.
2
Hence from Eq., taking N =1,
1200p='u xNxT
F
T = proof load
T = (1200p)F ==
.uN 0.45xl
=3733.33 p
Providing bolts at 60 mm pitch.
Proof load, T == 3733 x 60 == 224000 N = 224kN
From table we get T = 232.5 kN for 24 mm dia. 10K bolt. Hence provide HTFG bolts M24
(10K) with a pitch of 60 mm and edge distance of 40 mm.
Q10. A top column of section ISHB 400 @ 77.4 kg/m transmits a moment of 5 kNm to
the bottom column of section ISHB 450 @ 87;2 kg/m. Design the moment
connection.
Solution :. It is assumed that the direct load is transmitted from the upper column to the lower
column by web connection (shear connection). The moment of 5 kNm will be transmitted through
flange connection, providing bolts in the flanges.
XING
..
I
'T
'SHe 400
PAC
I
l .....
I

i i.
400
I

1
15MB 450
I
4::S0mm
.A
,
....
w I
Figure
17
Shear on the bolts at each flange = M == 5 X 10
3
== 12.5kN
h 400
The bolts are in single shear, i.e. there will be one interface only at each flange,
f.lxT=P
F
Or 0.45 x Proof load::: 12.5
1.4
Proof load ::: 12.5 x1.4 38.89kN
0.45
Select HTFG bolts M12 (8G) 4 Nos. on each flange as shown in fig.
Q11. A beam ISLB 400 @ 56.9 kg/m carrying a total U.D.L. of 280 kN over a.span of 7m,
is to be connected to the flange of a steel stanchion ISHB 250 @51.0 kg/m. Design
the connection taking 'ruf =100 MPa and fpy =300MPa for the rivets.
Solution:
For ISLB 400 @ 56.9 kg/m, we have: tw = 8 mm. h2 ::: 31.90 mm
For ISHB 250 @ 51.0 kg/m, t 9.7mm.
f
Maximum end reaction V ==!x280 140kN
2
Using 16mm dia. rivets,
Strength in single shear::: '::'(17.5)2 X 100 X 103 == 24.05kN
4
Strength in double shear = 48.10 kN
Strength in bearing on 8 mm thick web of beam :::
17.5x8x300xlO
3
=42kN
Strength in bearing on 9.7 mm thick flange :::
17.5x9.7x300xlO
3
::::50.93kN
The rivets connecting web of beam with the connection angles are in double shear.
Rivet value::: 42 kN
No. of rivets ::: 140 = 3.33' say 4 rivets.
42
The rivets connecting the angles with the flange of stanchion are in single shear.
Rivet value::: 24.05 N
Since there are two arrgles transferring th'e end reaction to the stanchion, reaction
transfer by each angle = !x140kN
2
No. of rivets ..!. x 140 = 2.91' say 3 rivets.
2 24.05
18
12mm
t 16mm ~ RIVE'TS
00
ISL8400
lSH82.50'
(b) SECnONAL PLAN
Figure
Hence provide 3 rivets on each angle. Using a pitch of 60 mm and an edge distance of
30mm, minimum depth of angle required = 3 x 60 +30 +30 =240mm,. w.h'ICh'IS Iess than
0.7 times the depth (=400) of the beam. Since there is only one row of rivets at both the
locations. use two ISA 90 x 90 x 8 mm angles. each 240 mm long. These angles .are
I ted as near to the compression as possible to restrain it against lateral buckling.
; ~ : i d e a clearance of 12 mm between the flange of the stanchion and end of the beam,
For ISA 90x90 gauge distance is 50 mm
Check for shear in connection angles
From eqn, Max. shear
3
 V 140xl0 54.7Nlmm2
 1.5=1.5x 8 240
2th 2x x
Permissible shear stress
=O.4f
y
0.4x250=100Nlmm
2
Hence safe.
The details of the connection are shown in fig. (a)  (b)
19
Q12. Design a framed connection between a main beam (ISWB 600 @ 133.7) and two
secondary beams ISMB 400 @ 61.6 to kg/m, connected on either side of the main
beam, keeping the top flanges of all the three beams at the same level. Each
second beam transmits an end reaction of 200 kN. The rivets on the web of ISMB
400 are power shop rivets while those on the web of ISWB 600 are hand driven filed
rivets.
Solution:
For ISWB 600 @ 133.7 kg/m, tw=11.2 mm; h2=42.9 mm
For ISMB 400 @ 61.6 kg/m, tw = 8.9 mm; h2=32.80 mm
"'\
I  ~
.
I
!
, ~
1"1
I
I
_oJ
.
I
~ l
r
I
I
I
''
Ib)
Figure
a) Connection between angles and secondary beam
Let us use 20 mm dia. power driven shop rivets,
2
For which Tv! WON / mm
2
and CJpI =300N/ mm The rivets are in double shear.
Strength of rivets in double shear = 2x (21.5)2 X 100X 10
3
= 72.61kN
Strength of rivets in bearing on 8.9 mm web =
= 21.5 x 8.9x300 x 10
3
57.405
Rivet value = 57.405 kN
No. of rivets = 200 = 3.48. Provide 4 rivets.
57.405
b) Connection between angles and the main beam
Let us provide 20 mm dia. hand driven field rivets,
For which Tv! 80N/ mm
2
and Cpf =250N/ mm
2
The rivets are in double shear.
Strength of rivets in double shear = 2 x!E. (21.5i x80 x10
3
=58.09kN
4
Strength of rivets in bearing on 11.2 mm web = 21.5 x 11.2 x 250 x 10
3
60.2 kN
20
(0)
Rivet value = 58.09 kN.
Total reaction to be transferred by the rivets = 2 x 200 = 400 kN
No. of rivets = 400 =6.9
58.09
Rivets on each side = .!.. x 6.9 =3.45, say 4 rivets.
2
Since only one row of rivets is required, provide connecting angles of size 90x90x8 mm.
Using a pitch of 60 mm and an edge distance of 35 mm, length of each angle
(60 x 3) +(2 x 35) = 250 mm, which is less than 0.7 times the height (=400 mm) of
secondary beams.
For ISWB 600, h2=42.60 mm. For ISMB 400, h2=32.80 mm,
Space available for connecting angles
= 400 .42.90 32.80 = 324.3 mm, which 'is much more than the height of angles.
The details of the joint are shown in fig.
Check for shear in angles
Max. Shear
V 1.5x200xl0
3
1.5=
2th 2x8x
= 75 N/mm2
<100 N/mm2
Hence OK.
21
i
CHAPTER 2: BEAMS
SECTION A
Multiple Choice Type Questions:
1. In rolled steel beams, shear force is mostly resisted by
a. Web only
b. Flanges only
c. Web and flanges together
d. None of the above
2. For steel members exposed to weather and not accessible for repainting, the thickness of
steel should not be less than
a. 4.5mm
b. 6mm
c. 8mm
d. 10mm
3. A beam is defined as a structural member subjected to
a. Axial loading
b. Transverse loading
c. Axial and transverse loading
d. None of the above
4. A major beam in a building structure, is known as
a. A girder
b. A floor beam
c. Amain beam
d. All the above
5. The Indian standard code which deals with steel structures, is
a. IS: 875
b. IS: 800
c. IS: 456
d. IS: 1893
6. Stiffeners are used in plate girders
a. To reduce the compressive s t r ~ s s
b. To reduce the shear stress
c. To take the bearing stress
d. To avoid buckling of web plates
22
The maximum shear stress of small beam shall not exceed
7.
a. 0.4 fy
b. 0.66fy
c. 0.5fy
d. 0.45fy
The bearing stress is calculated on the
8.
a. Crosssectional area of contact
b. Mean of the crosssectional area and the net projected area of contact
c. Net projected area of contact
d. None of the above
Slendemess ratio of a compression member is the ratio of effective length of member to
9.
the
Critical load
a.
b. Radius of gyration
c. Area of crosssection
d. Weight of section
In the plate girder, the vertical stiffeners are provided when ratio of clear depth to the
10.
thickness of web exceeds
a. 50
b. 85
c. 75
d. 65
The maximum deflection, for a simply supported beam should not exceed
11.
a. 1/325 of span
b.
1/525 of span
c.
1/225 of span
None of the above
d.
Section modulus is expressed in
12.
mm a.
2
b. mm
3
mm c.
4
d. mm
23
13. The permissible tensile bending stress in structural beam is
a. 150 N/mm2
b. 0.66 fy N/mm2
c. 189 N/mm2
d. 100 N/mm2
14. The permissible compressive bending stress of steel beams which are laterally supported
is
a. 150 N/mm2
b. 0.66 fy N/mm2
c. 189 N/mm2
d. 100 N/mm2
15. The moment carrying capacity of steel section is governed by the following stress
a. Axial tensile stress
b. Tensile bending stress
c. Compressive bending stress
d. Compressive or tensile bending stress
16. The rolled steel Isections are most commonly used as beams because they provide
a. Greater lateral stability
b. Larger moment of inertia with less sectional area
c. Larger moment of resistance when compared with other sections
d. All the above
17. Pick up the correct statement from the following
a. Vertical stiffeners may be placed in pairs
b. Single vertical stiffeners may be placed oppositely on opposite sides of the web
c. Horizontal stiffeners may be placed in pairs one on each side of web
d. All of above
18. Web crippling in beams generally occurs at the point where
a. Deflection is maximum
b. Bending moment is maximum
c. Shear force is maximum
d. Concentrated load is acting
19. Intermediate vertical stiffeners are provided in plate girder in order to
a. Eliminate flange buckling
b. Eliminate web buckling
c. Transfer concentrated loads
d. Prevent excessive deflection
24
. . 'ng of vertical stiffeners in plate girder is given by
The minimum spaci
20.
0.33d
a.
0.5d
b.
0.7d
0.6d
c.
d.
Key:
5.
(b)
4.
(d)
(b)
(c)
3.
(a)
2.
11.
(a)
1.
10.
(b)
(b)
(c)
9.
7.
(d) 8.
17.
(e)
15.
(d)
16.
(d)
14.
(b)
13.
(b)
(b)
20.
(a)
19.
25
6.
(d)
12.
(c)
18.
(d)
'
SECTION 8
True I False Type Questions:
1. A beam is a structural member, the primary function of which is to support loads parallel
to its axis.
2. The loads produce bending moment and shear force in the beam.
3. Closely spaced beams supporting the floors and roofs of the buildings are known as
Purlins.
4. The term beam  column is used for that structural element that supports both transverse
and axial loads.
I'
I
5. If one end of the beam is fixed and other end is free, then it is termed as overhanging
beam.
6. The optimum section for flexural resistance is the one in which the material is located as
far as possible from the neutral axis. in the form of flanges.
7. Shear failure is due to crushing of compression flange or fracture of the tension flange of
the beam.
8. Large beam deflections can also represent failure when the intended use of the beam
places limits on deflection.
9. Section modulus represents the strength of the section.
10. When a beam loaded transversely. it is subjected to both bending moment and shearing
force.
Key:
1. F 2. T 3. F 4. T 5. F
6. T 7. F 8. T 9. T 10. T
26
i .
!.[ ................. .... i i
i i'l
I' ,
SECTIONC
ji
I
Short Answer Type Questions:
!
Q1.
What do you mean by beam? .
Ans.
Flexural members or bending members are commonly called beams. A b e ~ m IS. a
structural member, the primary function of which is to support loads normal to ItS aXIs.
The loads produce bending moment and shear force in the beam. .
What are the different types of sections used in beam? Show through sketches.
Q2.
Some of the commonly used beam sections:
Ans.
L[I
Ct J eAR JOIST
c"PLATt GIROIR ,a,DOUILE wa
. . lOX.....
l i J CASTELLATED 8EAM
Q3. What are the different mode of failure of beam?
Ans. Modes of Failure of beam :
i) Bending failure
ii) Shear failure
iii) Deflection
27
Q4. On what factots, design process of beam is based?
Ans. In the beam design process there are three factors of importance for determining the size
of the necessary structural steel beam for a given set of conditions. In order of priority
they are:
1. Design based on stress due to bending.
2. Design based on deflection.
3. Design based on shear.
QS. . What is the Bending Moment Equation?
M cr E
Ans.
==
I y R
Where M =bending moment at the section
I = moment of inertia of the section.
R = radius of curvature of the beam.
E = modulus of elasti.city of the beam.
a= bending stress or flexural stress, at any layer distant y from the neutral axis.
Q6. What is Section Modulus?
Ans. At the extreme top fibre, the compressive stress is given by
M M
C1'bc, cal ==T Ymax =2.
Where Z = section modulus.
The section modulus represents the strength of the section. Greater the value of Z,
stronger will be t!1e section. The strength of the section does not therefore, depend on the
section area but depends on the disposition of this area with respect to the centroidal
axis.
Q7. What is the permissible Bending Stress for Laterally Supported and Laterally
Unsupported Beams?
Ans. For laterally supported beams, the permissible bending stress in tension (a
bt
) or in
compression (C1'bt) are given by
a
bt
or abc = 0.66/
y
For laterally unsupported beams, a
bt
is taken equal to 0.66 /y but abc is given by
abc =0.66 feb'!' lin
[(feb)" + (fy)" ]
28
QB. Give Shear Stress Distribution for some typical sections.
Ans.
gt8tO.
'a, c
,.,
",
Hatched parts show shear stress distribution.
Q9. What is bearing stress?
Ans. Beams may either be supported directly on other structural members (such as steel
stanchions etc.) or else they may rest on concrete or masonry supports such as walls or
pillars. In the latter case, the support is of a weaker material than steel, and it becomes
necessary to spread the load (support reaction) over a larger area, so that the bearing
stress does not exceed a certain permissible value. The bearing stress in any part of a
beam when calculated on the net area of contact shall not exceed the value of ap
determined form the following formula:
a
p
: 0.75/
y
Where ap = maximum permissible bearing stress, and
/y =yield stress of steel
Q10. What is the Maximum deflection caused at the midspan of the beam carrying
U.D.L.? What is the Limiting Deflection?
Ans. Deflection at the midspan of the beam carrying U.D.L. is given by:
Ymax=5w1
4
/384EI
Where, w =u.d.1. in N/m
I =span of the beam, in m
E = young's modulus of elasticity, N/mm2
I = Moment of Inertia in mm4.
Limiting Deflection: Generally, the maximum deflection should not exceed 1/325 of the
span.
29
,
y
Q11. What is web crippling? How will you calculate web crippling stress?
Ans. Web crippling is the localized failure of a beam web due to introduction of an excessive
load over a small length of the beam. It occurs at point of application of concentrated load
and at point of support of abeam. A load applied over a short length of beam can cause
failure due to crushing due to high compressive stress in the web of the beam below the
load or above the reaction. This phenomenon is also known as web crippling or web
crushing.
Q12. What is web buckling?
Ans. The web of flanged beam is very thin and when placed in direct compression, then at the
points of the concentrated load and at supports, unstiffened webs of universal beams and
compound beams are likely to fail by buckling.
Q13. What are Encased Beams?
Ans. In the case of steel framed structures, where steel stanchions and beams frame into each
other, it is considered desirable to encase the stanchion as well as the beam into
concreter to make these fire resistant and also to improve the appearance .
If'\ ...... '1..' #' , '11
....., ...
T
,..0
..... : 9. ,. ' .... f ' .. I'. .:.t...
." . .. '." .:
II _ &
...,: .
..
.....
.
.' ..
" .
:.... ..: .""T"
\ " .... ,. .. .. "#,a :'
: ...... '9 ...... 5
" to '* .. ... r
 w ..
..
.:.. ':
.... .. ,
STUtAUPS
@"Ommc/
....
Q15. Give function of Girders, Joists, Purlins, Rafters, Lintels, Girts &Spandrel beams.
Ans. Beams structure may also be referred to by typical names that suggest their function in
the structure, as given below:
i) Girders: Usually indicate a major beal'l) frequently at wide spacing that supports
small beams.
ii) Joists: Closely spaced beams supporting the floors and roofs of buildings.
iii) Purlins : Roof beams usually supported by trusses.
iv) Rafters: Roof beams usually supported by purlins.
v) Lintels: Beams over window or door openings that support the wall above.
30
vi) Girts : Horizontal wall beams used to support wall coverings on the side of an
industrial building.
vii) Spandrel beam : Beam around the outside perimeter of a floor that support the
exterior walls and outside edge of the floor.
31
SECTION D
Long Answer Type Questions:
Q1. What do you mean by beam? Also give the history of beam.
Ans. Flexural members or bending members are commonly called beams. A beam is a
structural member, the primary function of which is to support loads normal to its axis.
The loads produce bending moment and shear force in the beam. The idea of beam .
action is of great age but despite the long history of use, the systematic design of beams
had to await the development of theory of bending. Intellectual giants such as Leonardo
da Vinci and Galilco concerned themselves with the strength of beams but it was not until
nearly 200 years after Galilco's death that Navier derived the correct flexural stress
formula. Torsional stresses and lateral buckling were investigated by late nineteenth and
twentieth century workers.
Beams structure may also be referred to by typical names that suggest their function ,n
the structure, as given below:
i) Girder: Usually indicate a major beam frequently at wide spacing that supports
small beams.
ii) Joists: Closely spaced beams supporting the floors and roofs of buildings.
iii) Purlins : Roof beams usually supported by trusses.
iv) Rafters: Roof beams usually supported by purlins.
v) Lintels: Beams over window or door openings that support the wall above.
vi) Girts : Horizontal wall beams used to support wall coverings on the side of an
industrial building.
vii) Spandrel beam : Beam a r o u ~ d the outside perimeter of a floor that support the
exterior walls and outside edge of the floor.
The term beamcolumn is used for that structural element that supports both transverse
and axial loads.
Q2. What are the different type of sections used in beam? Discuss.
Ans. Fig. shows some of the commonly used beam sections. The efficient utilization of
material in a beam is determined by the geometrical layout of web and flanges. The
optimum section for flexural resistance is the one in which the material is located as far
as possible from the neutral axis, in the form of flanges. In practice, there will be need for
some web material to keep the flanges apart a n ~ to resist shear. As a measure of beam
efficiency, it is possible to relate the allocation of a given amount of material to flange and
web to satisfy three different and generally mutually contradictory criteria of elastic
bending strength, plastic bending strength and beam stiffness.
32
The angle section (fig. a) is not an efficient beam shape, though it may be good for short,
lightly loaded spans where the flat leg may be used to support some other element of the
structure, such as floor or roof deck. The channel section (fig. b) is also used for light
loads, such as purlins or girts. The Isection (Fig. c) known as universal beam, is most
commonly used for wall supported structure. Fig.. (d) shows a composite section, made of
Isection with thin web and with flat plates attached to flanges.

l f BAR JOIST tt PLATE GIRDER lid DOUBLE WE.
8C)XGlRDER
C< ) c85j
L
l i) CASTELLATED BEAM
This gives higher percentage of material concentrated in the flange, resulting in higher
elastic section modulus for the same mass per unit length. Fig. (e) shows composite
. beam section commonly used as gantry girders for cranes. The bar joist shown in Fig. (f)
is a light trussed beam, very widely used for floor and roof framing in lightly loaded
buildings. The flanges or chords of such a section may be made of angles, tees and
special hotrolled or cold formed sections, while the webs are most often bent, round bars
welded to chords. Such a section can be commonly seen on railway platforms. Fig. (h)
shows doubleweb box girders particularly useful for heavy, flexural members subjected
also to torsion or direct stress. Fig. (i) shows a castellated beam giving an increased
depth of the rolled beam by castellating. To obtain such asection, a zigzag line is cut
along the beam web by an automatic flame cutting machine. The two halves thus
produced are rearranged so that the teeth match up and the teeth are then welded
together.
33
Q3. What are the different mode of failure of beam? On what factors, design process of
beam is based?
Ans. Failure of a beam can occur in several ways, such as
(i) bending failure (ii) shear failure and (iii) deflection failure.
i) Bending failure: Bending failure may be due to crushing of compression flange
or fracture of the tension flange of the beam. Instead of failure due to crushing,
the compression flange may fail by a column like action with sideway or lateral
buckling. Collapse would probably follow the lateral bucking. '
ii) Shear failure: Bending failure would most likely be observed as buckling of web
of the beam near locations of high shear forces. Near reactions of concentrated
loads, the beam can fail locally due to curshing or buckling of web.
iii) Deflection failure : Large beam deflections can also represent failure when the
intended use of the beam places limits on deflection.
In the beam design process there are three factors of importance for determining the size
of the necessary structural steel beam for a given set of conditions. In order of priority
they are:
1. Design based on stress due to bending.
2. Design based on deflection.
3. Design based on shear.
Q4. How will you analyse a member subject to bending stresses?
Ans. A section resists the bending moment by setting up bending stress. Fig. shows the
distribution of bending stress across the section. which an be expressed by the following
well known flexure formula:
M  = = ~ ; " E ... (i)
Iy R
r.
J llie_ '0.
4 .,
te
..........,
T
L.A.
1
T
(a)
Figure
34
(b)
Where
M =bending moment at the section
I = moment of inertia of the section.
R =radius of curvature of the beam.
E =modulus of elasticity of the beam.
a = bending stress or flexural stress, at any layer distant y from the neutral axis.
If the applied B.M. is such that it causes concavity at top, the top fibres will be in
compression while the fibres situated below the N.A. will be in tension.
At the extreme top fibre, the compressive stress is given by
M
.... (ii)
0" xy
c be'cal I
M .... (ii) (a)
O"be.cal Z
c
Where Z =. section modulus of the section; for compression.
c
Yc
Similarly ,at the extreme bottom fibre, the tensile stress is given by
M
.... (iii)
O"be'cal I x Yt
. ... (iii) (a)
Where Z I = section modulus of the section, for tension.
t
Yt
For a section which is symmetrical about the N.A.,
= Y = Y Hence for such a section.
Yc t max..
M M
... (iv)
O"bc, cal I Ymax Z
. Where Z = section modulus .
The section modulus represents the strength of the section. Greater the value of Z,
stronger will be .the section. The strength of the section does not therefore, depend on the
section area but depends on the disposition of this area with respect to the centroidal
axis.
It should be noted that the total compressive forae C, above the N.A., is equal to the total
tensile forae T below the N.A. for the beam to be in equilibrium. These two foraes acting
in opposite directions, as marked in fig. (b) and form a couple =C (or T) x lever arm.
This couple, also known as the moment of resistance (Mr), resists the external bending
moment.
Maximum permissible bending stress
35
........ ......._....
For laterally supported beams, the permissible bending stress in tension (fbI) or in
.
compression (fbI) are given by
U
bf
or Ubc =0.66fy .. (v)
For laterally unsupported beams, U
bf
is taken equal to 0.66 fy but Ubc is given by
=066 feb.f
y
O'be [ Jlln
(feb Y+U
y
)"
... (vi)
Where n is assumed as 1.4, in the above expression, feb is the elastic critical stress.
The values of Ubc as derived from eq. (vi). Some Indian standard available in structural
steels are given in Steel Tables.
Q5. Discuss the variation of shear stress in a beam. Also give the relation to calculate
Maximum permissible shear stress and average shear stress.
Ans. Shear Stress: When a beam is loaded transversely, it is subjected to both bending
moment as well as shearing force. For a simplysupported beam, with uniformly
distributed load, maximum B.M. usually occurs at midspan, while maximum force is
induced at the supports. In general, every section of the beam is subjected to both B.M.
(M) as well as shear force (V). The shear force causes shearing stress at the section, the
magnitude of which varies across the depth of the beam, at that section.
On any layer, at height y from N.A., the intensity of transverse shear stress (Tv) is given
V
by: Tv == lz (AY)
.. (i)
Where
V = Transverse S.F. at section.
I = Moment of inertia of the section, about the bending axis.
Z = Width of the section at which Tv is being computed.
AY=First moment of the outer area, above the point where Tv is being computed, about
the NA
36
Cd'
,. ,
II.
It is to be noted that T does not vary uniformly across the depth of the section. Fig.
v
shows the shear stress distribution for some typical sections. For a rectangular section,
the maximum shearing stress occurs at the N.A., and its magnitude is given by:
Vd
2
3 V ... (ii)
, =
vmax 81 2 bd
b I
1
"
d/2.t_",\
lr
I
o
,...... '''''''.
eb)
Figure
Where b = width of beam and d is the depth of the beam.
The ratio of the maximum shear stress and mean shear stress is 1.5.
For an Ibeam (fig. b), the maximum shearing stress also occurs at the NA and its
magnitude is given by ;
... (iii)
T (D
2
d
2
)+d
2
]
vmax 81 t
Maximum permissible shear stress (IS: 8001984)
37
The maximum shear stress in a member having regard to the distribution of stress in
conformity with elastic behaviour of the member in flexure, shall not exceed the value tva
given by
tva = 0.4 Iy
For unstiffened web. The crosssection of the web shall be taken as follows:
For rolled Ibeams and channels: The depth of the beam multiplied by the web thickness.
For plate girders: The depth of the web plate multiplied by its thickness.
Q6. What is Bearing stress? How will you calculate the thickness of bearing plate?
Ans. Bearing Stress: Beams may either be supported directly on other structural members
(such as steel stanchions etc.) or else they may rest on concrete or masonry supports
such as walls or pillasters. In the later case, the support is of a weaker material than
steel, and it becomes necessary to spread the load (support reaction) over a larger area,
so that the bearing stress does not exceed a certain permissible value. This is achieved
by the provision of a bearing plate, as shown in fig.
':CRITICAL
: }+ k=hZ
!
11.="
",
.1.
T' ';, " tp
.9EARING [tt t, t , t f ,t ", t qT
PLATE, tp
(b)
Fig. Bearing Stress
Permissible bearing stress (IS: 8001984)
The bearing stress in any part of a beam when calculated on the net area of contact shall
not exceed the value of a
p
determined form the following formula:
Where ap =maximum permissible bearing and
Iy =yield stress of steel
Thickness of bearing plate (Fig.)
Let the size of bearing plate be B x N, and its thickness be tp. Let Ip be the actual
pressure. The critical section for bending will occur at a distance n form the edge, as
38
marked in fig.(b), where n= B _k.As per AISC practice, k is taken equal to h
2
equivalent
2
B
to the distance from bottom of beam to web toe of the fillet. Hence n = __
2
2
Considering unit length of the plate. we have M = +
Jp 2
Hence the bending stress h is given by Iv = ( )
Or
It = 3/pn
2
o t
2
p
Limiting the value of h to abe' we have t = /3Jpn
2
p V (To.
... (i)
Q.7.
Ans.
What do you mean by laterally supported beams? Discuss in detail?
Laterally Supported Beams
For most of the rolled shapes, the permissible stress in bending (abc) is equal to
0.661
y
The important conditions associated with the use of this value is (i) the member
must have an axis of symmetry in the plane of the web. (ii) the member must be loaded in
the plane of the web (iii) the compression flange must have lateral support, and (iv) the
section is compact. Loads on a beam cause bending, due to which tension is induced in
one flange and compression' is induced in the other flange. The compression flange
behaves somewhat like a column and will tend to buckle to the side, or laterally, as the
stress increases, if it is not restrained in some say. Most beams have some lateral way.
MQst beams have some lateral support  speCially those which support the floor slab.
However, the degree of lateral support is often a matter of engineering judgment. Fig.
shows lateral support conditions of beams. In some cases, it is conservative and safe to
assume no lateral support.
39
" i
I
I
,
1
(0 J FULL LAT[RAL SUPPORT
'c) NO LAT''''', SUfIPOIIT
C" INTIAIlITTINT LAT'''AL
SUPPOMT
Fig. (a) shows two cases of full lateral support for the top flange, to in
compression. In fig. (c), no lateral support exists for top flange. Fig. (b) shows intermittent
lateral support. . .
Another important condition (condition no. iv mentioned above) for the section to qualify
for the relation ()bc(or ()bJ=0.66 i
y
is that the section should be a compact section  a
condition that deals with the response of the beam in an overload situation. To qualify as
compact, the section must be proportioned so that no local buckling can occur. In other
words, the section must be proportioned so that no local buckling of the flange. or web
occurs before the full plastiC moment capacity is achieved. A crosssection that meets
this criterion is said to be compact, and for that section, (Tbe (or (Tbt) =0.66 i y '
Give the step by step procedure for the design of laterally supported beams.
Q8.
Design of laterally supported beam: The design of laterally supported beam is carried out
Ans.
in the following steps:
Step 1 : Determine the effective span of the beam. Also, estimate self weight of the and
add it to the superimposed load to get the' total load on the beam. The self weight may
40
t
be assumed to be equal to total load on the beam. The self weight may be assumed to be
equal to total load W/300 to W/350 kN/m.
Step 2 : Compute the maximum B.M. (M) and shear force (V) in the beam.
Step 3 : Take (Jbt =()bc =O.66fy
Step 4: Find section modulus (Z) of the beam:
Z= M
abc
Step 5: From the steel tables, choose a suitable rolled beam section which has Z value very near
to the one found above.
Step 6: Check for shear.
Step 7: Check for deflection.
In addition to the above checks, the beam is also checked for web crippling and web
bucking.
Q9. Give the IS recommendation for computing the length of compression flanges in
case of simply supported beams and girder.
Ans. Effective length of compression flange: The recommendations of IS : 8001984 for
computing the effective length of compression flanges are as follows:
1. For simply supported beams and girders, where no lateral restrain for the
compression flanges is provided, but where each end of the beam is restrained
against rotation, the effective length I of the compression flanges, to be used in
shall be taken as follows (Steel Tables)
a) With ends of compression flanges unrestrained against lateral bending (that is,
free to rotate in plane at the bearings)
I = span
b) With ends of compression flanges partially restrained against lateral bending
(that is, free to rotate in plane at the bearings)
I=O.85 x span
c) With ends of compression flanges fully restrained against lateral bending (that is,
not free to rotate in plan at the bearings)
J =O.7x span.
Restraint against torsion can be provided by :
i) Web or flange cleats, or
ii) Bearing stiffeners acting in conjunction with the bearing of the beam, or
iii) Lateral end frames or other external supports to the ends of the compression
flanges.
Or
iv) Their being built into walls.
41
I
Where the ends of the beams are not restrained against torsion, or where the load is
applied to the compression flange and both the load and flange are free to move laterally,
the above values of the effective length shall be increased by 20 per cent.
Q10. What is web crippling? How will you calculate web crippling stress?
Ans. Web Crippling : Web crippling is the localized failure of a beam web due to introduction of
an excessive load over a small length of the beam. It occurs at point of application of
concentrated load and at point of support of a beam. A load applied over a short length of
beam can cause failure due to crushing due to high compressive stress in the web of the
beam below the load (fig. a) or above the reaction (fig. b). This phenomenon is also
known as web crippling or web crushing.
J
...................... __...  .....
..
bd
,..
Fig. Web Crippling
Practical and commonly used bearing lengths b are usually large enough to prevent web
crippling from occurring. An assumption is made that the load spreads out along 30lines
(fig. e), so that critical area of stress, which occurs at the toe of the fillet has a length of
(b+2k) under the load and (b '+ k) at the end reaction, and with a width r w. The
compressive stress at the toe of the fillet should not exceed the permissible bearing
stress 0'p , which is taken equal to 0.75 i
y
For 30spread, and with h
z
as the depth of toe of the web, we have k =
42
Hence under the concentrated load,
R =. b +2k =. b +2h;. 13
Web crippling stress  p "50.75J,
..(i)
y
Where P is the concentrated load,
Similarly, at the supports, if b' is the width of the bearing plate,
R' == b'+ k == b'+ h;.13
Web crippling stress R
.. (ii)
= 5.0.751;
Where R is the end reaction.
The value of h2 can be found form section tables, should the web crippling stress be
exceSSive: the may be corrected by (i) increasing the bearing length (ii) selecting
a beam With a thicker web, or (iii) providing bearing stiffeners.
Web Crippling should invariably be checked at (i) all concentrated loads, and (ii) at
supports where the beam is supported by walls or pedestal or at columns when the
connection is a seated type.
Q11.
What is depended beam? How it will be designed?
Ans.
A depended beam consil3t of two rolled steel sections, placed one above the other as
shown in fig., with the sale aim of increasing the depth of the beam. '
The moment of inertia of the built up beam is (h)2 (.)
. 1==21, +24  ... I
\ 2
Where Ii and Ai are moment of inertia and area of crosssection of each primary beam.
.... b
T
...... ..
t
1.
Dividing both the sides of Eq. (i) by h, we get
43
... (ii)
Z =Zi+!...Aih
2
It is found that for most of the Isections, the term ! Ai.h lies between 1.5 Zi to 1.6 Zi.
2
Adopting a lower value of 1.5 Zj for safety, we get
.. , (iii)
Z =Zj +1.5Z; =2.5Zj
Z .. , (iv)
Hence 2.=
I 2.5
Where
What are Encased Beams? Explain in detail.
Q12.
In the case of steel framed structures, where steel stanchions and beams frame into each
Ans.
other, it is considered desirable to encase the stanchion as well as the beam into
concreter to make these fire resistant and also to improve the appearance. Fig. shows
such an encased beam. As per IS : 8001984, beams and girders with equal flanges may
be designed as encased beams when the following conditions are fulfilled.

,...
..
"...
..
..
.. ...
'" .
'I' 
........ ... T
... ..\ ' .."""
. .. .... :.e..
... f. '..., .
.. . . _.. ....
. ...
............5"'m4
STIRRUPS
@1'Ommc/
A. ;. 'I
I/' _ .& .. '''",
_ .... . '. . "," ""1.'" ...
...... .... ......
.(sor
The section is of single web and Iform or of double open channel form with the
a)
webs not less than 40 mm apart.
44
b) The beam is unpainted and is solidly encased in ordinary dense concrete with 10
mm aggregate (unless solidity can be obtained with larger aggregate), and of
grade designation M15.
c) The minimum width of solid casing = (b
o
+ 100) mm, where b
o
is the width of
steel flange in mm;
d) The surface and edges of the flanges of the beam have a concrete cover of not
less than 50 mm, and
e) The casing is effectively reinforced with steel wire of at least 5 mm diameter and
the reinforcement shall be in the form of stirrups or binding at not more than
150mm pitch, and so arranged as to pass through the centre of covering to the
edges and soffit of the lower flange.
Design of member: The steel section shall be considered as carrying the entire load but
allowance may be made for the effect of the concreter on the lateral stability of the
, compression flange. This allowance should be made by assuming for the purpose of
determining the permissible stress in compression that the equivalent moment of inertia
(Iy) about yy axis is equal to Ar/ where A is the area of steel section and r may be
. y
taken as 0.2 (b
o
+100) mm. Other properties required for referring to clause 6.2 of the
code may be taken as for uncased section. The permissible bending stress so
shall not exceed 1.5 times that permitted for uncased section.
Q13. A simply supported beam has an effective span of 7 m and carries a uniformly
distributed load of 50 kN/m. Taking i = 250N/mm
2
and E= 2 x 10
5
N/mm
2
, design
y
the beam, if it is laterally supported.
Solution:
Step1: Effective span L =7 m.
Assume self weight = W = 50 x
7
lkN Im
350 350
Total U.D.L. =w =50 +1 =5.1 kN/m.
Step 2: M WL2 51(7)2 =312.375 kN m =312.375xl0
6
Nmm
8 8
V wL 51(7) = 178.5
2 ' 2
Step 3: ()bt = ()bc = 0.66fy 0.66 x 250 = 165N I mm
2
6
Step4: Required Z=M = 312.375x10 1893.2xIQ3
mm
3
()bc 165
45
r
Step 5: From steel tables, try ISWB 500 @ 95.2 kg/m, having the following properties:
Zxx =2091.6cm
3
=2091.6 x 10
3
mm
3
;1xx == 52209.9 X 10
4
mm
4
h=500mm; t 14.7mm: tw==9.9mm
f
Step 6: Check for shear
3
178.5 x 1 0 36.lNI mm
2
Average shear stress = I V
rva,ca ='
hxt.,
500x9.9
2
Permissible value t == OAf, == 004 x 250 == lOON I mm
va y
Hence safe.
Step 7: Check for deflection
I
5 wL
4
5 (51 X 10
3
)(7)4 3
I
Y = __=X x (1000)
max 384 EI 384 (2 x 10
5
)(52209.9 x104)
Allowable deflection == Span == 7000 21.54mm. Hence safe.
325 325
Q14. A beam, consisting of ISMB 600 @ 122.6 kg/m is simply supported over span of
8.5m. Determine the safe load the beam can carry, assuming that the beam is
2
laterally supported. Take Iy =250Nlmm
2
and E=2xlOSN/mm
Solution: For ISMB 600 @ 122.6 kg/m, we have:
I ==91813.0cm
4
==91813xl0
4
mm
4
.
xx
Z ==3060Acm
3
=306004 x 103
mm
3
xx
h == 600mm ; b =210mm
tw 12.0mm;t
f
==20.8mm
2
(fbc == (fbi == 0.66 fy == 0.66 x 250 == 165N I mm
Mr =(fbc'
Z
==165 X 3060Ax10
3
N mm==505.6kNm
Hence Mmax Mr =505.6kN m.
M == WL2 == w(8.5i
But
max 8 8
w(8.5i == 505.6
8
w== ==55.98kN1m
From which
(8.5)
46
The above value of w will be acceptable only if the beam is safe in shear and deflection
Check for shear: V wI == 55.98x8.5 _
2 2  237.915 kN.
V 237.95 X 10
3
. 2
hxt  600x12 33.04Nlmm
w
1'va =Oo4l 0.4x250 100Nlmm
2
Hence OK
y
Check for deflection
5 wL
4
5 (55.98 X 10
3
)(8.5)4 3
Y
max
384 EI 384 (2x 105)(91813 x 104) x (1000) 20.7mm
Mass of beam/m =122.6 kg
Self weight of beam = 122.6 x 9.81 x10
3
r:::; 1.2kN1m
Permissible, superimposed load w = 55.981.2 = 54.86 kN/m.
Q15. A laterally supported beam having an effective span of 8 m consist of ISMB 550 @
1 kg/m and cover plate of 250mm x 16mm connected to each flange by 20 mm
dla. Determine the safe U.D.L. which the beam can carry in addition of its
own weight.
Solution:
ISWB 550 @ 103.7 kg/m has the following properties;
Ixx 64893.6xl04mm4
Zxx =2359.8xI0
3
mm
3
h 550mm b 190mm
=19.3mm; tw = 11.2mm t
f
a 13211mm
2
e E
E e
 0 C\I
++ . .,
.,.,
47
Ixx of builtup = [64893.6x lO4 + 2 x 250x 16(8+ 275)2]
= 128965 x 104mm4
(neglecting the moment of inertia of the plate about their own axes)
Gross area of flange = A
fg
(190x19.3)+ (250x 16)::: 7667mm
2
Net area of flange =Afn = 7667  21.5(16 + 19.3)= 6908mm
2
(only one row of rivets on each flange)
abccol =(
M::: (J'bc.cal xl
Ymax
Limiting (J'bl I::: 0.66!, = 0.66 x 250 = 165N I mm
2
,ca y
A 6908 2
(J'b 1=(J'b /x
i
=165x=148.67Nlmm
I,ea I,ca A 7667
fg
. 4
M = 148.67x128965xlO .=659.87x106 Nmm=659.87 KNm
291
W= 8x659.87 = 82.359kNlm
L2 (8)2
Mass of ISMB 550 = 103.7 kg/m.
Mass of 250mm x 16mm plates = 2[7.85X25X1.6 ]=62.8kg lm
Total mass/m = 103.7+62.8 = 166.5 kg/m
Weightlm =166.5x9.81x10
3
=1.633kN1m
Permissible w::: 82.359 1.633 ::: 80.726kN I m
48
CHAPTER 3: BEAM COLUMNS
SECTION A
Multiple Choice Type Questions:
1. A structural member that is subjected to varying amounts of both axial compression and
bending moment is termed as:
a. Beam
b. Column
c. Beam column
d. All ofthe above
2. Bending moment in a member is induced due to:
a. Eccentric load
b. Nonsymmetrical floor loads
c. Transverse loads
d. All of the above
3. If the axial load approaches to as a limit. the member is theoretically subjected to
B.M. only. and it is commonly known as;
a. Beam
b. Column
c. Beam Column
d. All of the above
4. When the B.M. approaches zero. as a limit. the member is theoretically subjected to axial
load only. and it is commonly known as:
a. Beam
b. Column
c. Beam Column
d. All of the above
5. Axial compression and bending about the strong axis results in the:
a. Failure by lateral torsional buckling
b. Failure by instability in one of the principal direction
c. Failure by combined twisting and bending
d. None of the above
49
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
The primary.bending moment and deflection are maximum at the mid span for a member
with:
a. No end restrained
b. One end restrained
c. Both end restrained
d. None of the above
The value of factor of safety, to give consideration to end conditions and side sway of the
column is:
a. 1/0.5
b. 1/0.6
c. 1/0.7
d. 1/0.8
The value of coefficient, em for a member in frame where side sway is not prevented is
taken as;
a. 0.6
b. 0.85
c. 1.00
d. None of the above
Axial compression and biaxial bending results in:
a. Failure by lateral torsional buckling
b. Failure by instability in one of the principal direction
c. Failur4e by combined twisting and bending
d. None of the above
A column is said to be short, when the slenderness ratio is:
a. Less than 12
b. Greater than 12
c. Either less than 12 or greater than 12
d. None of the above
Steel Section commonly used for column is:
a. Isection
b. Channel section .
c. Lsection
d. Tsection
50
12. Magnification factor for the deflection is given by:
a. 1
(Ia)
b. 1
(l+a)
1
c.
(a)
d. None of the above
13. Maximum deflection in case of simply supported beam subjected to U.D.L. is given by:
a. w1
2
/48
b. 5 wl
2
/8
c. 5wl
2
/384
d. None of the above
14. Effective length of a column is defined as a length:
a. Which takes part in buckling
b. Which will take all the load
c. Which will be small in length
d. None of the above
15. The load which is concentrated at one point is called:
a. Uniformly distributed load
b. Point load
c. Uniformly varying load
d. None of the above
Key:
1. (c) 2. (d) 3. (b) 4. (a) 5. (a) 6. (a)
7. (b) 8. (b) 9. (c) 10. (a) 11. (a) 12. (a)
13. (c) 14. (a) 15. (b)
51
!
~
I
r
SECTION C
Short Answer Type Questions:
1.
Ans:
What are the various causes of bending moment occurrence in a member?
It is gen.erally known that axially (or concentrically) loaded, compression members are
nonexistent in actual structures and that all compression members are subjected to
some amount of bending moment induced due to (i) eccentric load (ii) nonsymmetrical
floor loads (iii) transverse loads due to, wind or earthquake (iv) joint moment due to
continuous frame action (or building frame action) and (v) end reactive moments.
2.
Ans:
Under what conditions, a member is known as column or beam?
Since a column may be subjected to both the axial load and bending moment, two
extreme cases may exist. When the B.M. approaches zero, as a limit, the member is
theoretically subjected to axial load only, and it is commonly known as column. IY,
however, the axial load approaches zero as a limit, the member is theoretically subjected
to B.M. only, and it is commonly known as a beam.
3.
Ans:
Define the term Beam Column.
A structural member that is subjected to varying accounts of both axial compression and
bending moment is commonly termed as a beam column. It is generally known that
axially (or concentrically) loaded compression members are nonexistent in actual
structures and that all compression members are subjected to some amount of bending
moment.
4.
Ans:
What are the different categories of design procedures generally adopted?
The design procedures generally are in one of the following three categories:
i) Limitation on combined stress
ii) Semiempirical interaction formulae based on working stress procedure
iii) Semiempirical interaction formulae based on ultimate strength
5.
Ans:
How you will calculate critical buckling stress for a column?
The following equation gives the value of critical buckling stress for a column in xaxis
and yaxis:
f_ "'II .e .
"'II
f.. .t:
6.
Ans:
What are the conditions, under which a beam column may fail?
A beam column may fail due to the following reasons:
1. Failure by instability in plane of bending without twisting.
53
i,
SECTION B
True I False Type Questions:
1. Column is a vertical tension member.
2. Column may be subjected to both the axial load and bending moment.
3. All the compression members are subjected to some amount of bending moment induced
due to eccentric load.
4. 'Axial compression and bending about one axis results in failure by instability in plane of
bending without twisting.
5. A structural member that is subjected to varying amounts of both axial compression and
bending moment is termed as Beam
6. The primary bending moment and deflection are maximum at the mid span for a member
with both end restrained.
7. Deflection in case of simply supported beam is maximum at edges.
8. Uniformly distributed load is acting throughout the length of a member.
9. Bending moment in a member is induced due to transverse load due to wind or
earthquake.
10. When the B.M. approaches zero, as a limit, the member is theoretically subjected to axial
load only, and it is commonly known as column.
Key:
1. F 2. T 3. T 4. T
6. F 7. F 8. T 9. T
52
5. F
10. F

r
I:
I
" '
; !
; J
t
'
2. Failure by lateraltorsional buckling.
3. Failure by instability in one of the principal directions.
4. Failure by combined twisting and bending on these torsionally weak sections.
5. Failure by combined twisting and bending when plane of bending does not
contain the shear centre.
7. How you will design a beam column?
Ans: In order to design a beam column, it is usually advantageous to approximately convert
the resulting B.M. into an equivalent axial compressive load, and then determine the
crosssection of the column, using the usual column tables to find the permissible
compressive stress. Sometimes, the conversion of the axial load into the equivalent
moment will be more helpful.
8. How you will go for simplified approach for magnification factor?
Ans: In the simplified approach applicable for members with single curvature without end
translation, let us assume that the transverse load w(x) causes a deflection Yo at the
midspan, and that the secondary B.M. varies as a sinecurve. Also, let Ys be the mid
span deflection due to secondary B.M. Evidently according to momentareamethod Yx
due to secondary moment will be equal to moment of Ms IEl diagram between support
and midspan, taken about the support.
9. Give the values of Coefficient Cm, for the different end condition of columns.
Ans: The following table gives the values of coefficient of em, for the different end conditions:
....
10. Calculate the value of magnification factor for deflection and moment for different
values of a and give the difference between the two.
Ans: The following table give you the values of magnification factor for deflection and moment
with the value of a
Magnification factor for ITBunificatiOn factor for %
. deflection =1/(1a) moment. Difference
=(10.1775a)/(la) .
1.091 ! 0.1 11.111 1.8
1.206 1.250 3.6
i 0.3 I 1.429
/1.353
I5.6
I
0 1 667 1.548
7.7
I
1
1 .
1 .4 I
9.8

0.5 2.000 1 822
2.500 1 . 0.6
11.9
2.234
0.7 3.333 .2.919 14.2
0.8 5.000 4.290 14.6
'"
11. What is the difference between a short and a long column?
Ans: Short Column: A column whose slenderness ratio is less than 12 is termed as short
column. The load carrying capacity of short column is more. Also, the buckling of short
column is negligible.
Long Column: A column whose slenderness ratio is more than 12 is termed as long
column. The load carrying capacity is less than the short column. Long columns tend to
buckle and its failure is also due to buckling.
12. What do you mean by term "8eam"?
Ans: A beam is a structural member, the primary function of which is to support loads normal
to its axis. The loads produce bending moment and shear force in the beams. The idea of
. beam action is of great age but despite of long history of use, the systematic design of
beams had to await the development of theory of bending.
13. What are the different types of beams according to end conditions?
Ans: Depending upon the end conditions at the supports, beams may be classified as:
a) Simply Supported beams
b) Fixed Beams
CanWeverBeams
d) Propped Cantilever Beams
e) Continuous Beams
f) Over Hanging Beams
55
(af MemberSifllrames where side swayTs"rlot
prevented
frames where side sway is prevented
and not subject to transverse loading between their
supports, in the plane of bending
Members in frames where side sway is prevented
in the plane of loading and subjected to transverse
loading between their supports:
i) For members whose are restrained
against rotation
ii) For members whose ends are unrestrained
against rotation
(c)

54
_0.85

0.6  0.4
0.85
1.00
SECTION 0
Long Answer Type Questions:
Q1. What do you mean by Beam Column? What are the reasons of bending moment in
a member?
Ans. A structural member that is subjected to varying amounts of both axial compression and
bending moment is commonly termed as a beam column.
It is generally known that axially (or concentrically) loaded compression members are
nonexistent in actual structures and that all compression members are subjected to
some amount of bending moment induced due to (i) eccentric load (ii) nonsymmetrical
floor loads (iii) transverse loads due to wind or earthquake (iv) joint moment due to
continuous frame action (or building frame action) and (v) end reactive moments.
For example, the interior column will not receive concentric load if the live loads are not
symmetrical. Similarly bending moment will be induced in the column due to a load on a
bracket attached to it. Even in an ordinary truss, the purlins may not be at panel points
giving rise to moment in the main rafter.
Since a column may be subjected to both the axial load and bending moment, two
extreme cases may exist. When the S.M. approaches zero, as a limit, the member is
theoretically subjected to axial load only, and it is commonly known as column if,
however, the axial load approaches zero as a limit, the member is theoretically subjected
to S.M. only, and it is commonly known as a beam. In a beamcolumn, the original
maximum bending moment due to transverse loading is magnified due to the presence of
axial load.
Q2. What are the different modes of failure of Beam Column?
Ans. The following are categories of combined bending and axial load, along with the likely
mode offailure :
1. Axial compression and bending about one axis: Failure by instability in plane of
bending without twisting.
2. Axial compression and bending about the strong axis: Failure by
buckling.
3. Axial compression and biaxial bending (torsionally stiff sections): Failure by
! instability in one of the principal directions.
;' .
4. Axial compression and biaxial bending (thin walled sections): Failure by
combined twisting and bending on these torsionally weak sections.
5. Axial compression, biaxial bending, and torsion : Failure by combined twisting
and bending when plane of bending does not contain the shear centre.
56
'.
The design procedures generally are in one of the following three categories.
i) Limitation on combined stress
ii)
Semiempirical interaction formula based on working stress procedure.
iii)
Semiempirical interaction formula based on ultimate strength.
Q3.
Discuss the differential equation approach formoment magnification.
Ans.
Let us consider a general case of bending where the lateral load w(x) in combination with
end moments M1 and lor M2 constitute the primary bending moment (M1) which is a
function of x. This primary bending moment causes the member to deflect by y at a
section distant x from support, giving raise to a secondary moment P.y, where P is the
axial load.
d2y
Mx=El
dx
2
... (1)
=MjP.y
The negative sign has been, used because the beam column has been bent concave to
its original centre line.
d
2
y P M
'"
dx
2
+ EI
Y
=Ei
(2)
Where Mi is function of x.
Differentiating Eq. (2) twice, we get
d
4
dy P d
2
y I d
2
Mi
+=
dx
4 ... (3)
EI dx
2
EI dx
1
Sut from eq. (1), we have
2
d y _ Mx and d
4
y 1 d2Mx
dx
2
 EI dx
4
EI;;;Z
Hence, substituting in (3), we have
1 d
2
Mx P (M ld
2
M
EI dx
2
+ EI E;) dx
1
'
k
2
Substituting = P / El and simplifying
d
2
Mx +k2M =: d
2
Mj
dx
2
x dx
2
. .. (4)
The moment differential equation (4) is of the same form as the deflection differential
equation (2). The homogenous solution for eq. 4 is
Mx =C1sinh + c
2
cosh +.h,(x) ... (5)
Where J;(x) = value of Mx satisfying eq. (4). When Mx is a continuous function, the
maximum value of Mx may be found by differentiation:
57 I
r
dM' . kx dl"l(X)
__x =O=c kcoskxczksln +_!l_I
dx I dx
(6)
...
For most ordinary cases of loading (such as U.D.L., point loads, end moments etc). it can
be shown that dJ;(x)/ dx = 0
Hence for such situations, we get from eq. 6 :
c1kcoskx:::: c
2
k sin gkx
Or
tanh= C
1
c
2
At maximum Mx we get
.. , (7)
ii
sinkx = c
1
and coskx
... (8)
Substituting in eq. 5. we get
c
2
c
2
M I + 1 + I"(x}
X.max JI
VCI +C2 VCI +C2
.. , (9)
M
x
.
max
:::: +ci +It(x)
Q4.
Ans.
Discuss the simplified approach for moment magnification.
In the simplified approach applicable for members with single curvature without end
translation, let us assume that the transverse load w(x) causes a deflection Yo at the mid
span, and that the secondary B.M. varies as a sinecurve. Also, let y. be the midspan
deflection due to secondary B.M. Evidently according to momentareamethod Yx due to
secondary moment will be equal to moment of Ms / El diagram between support and
midspan taken about the support.
Ys==
PL
z
== (Yo +Ys) :rzEl
... (1)
Or
P
Ys = (Yo + Ys) PE
... (2)
Where PE= ,,2EI =Euler's Load.
L2
Solving Eq. 2 for Ys' we get
Ys::::YOL
... (3)
58
Where a =P/P
E
. Hence
Ymax == Yo +Ys :::: Yo +Yo (1 a)
Yo 1
==y  ... (4)
Ia la
Thus _1_ is the magnification factor for the deflection.
Ia
Hence, for a beamcolumn subjected to axial load P,
Mx.max =Mo + Pymax
... (5)
Substituting the value of Ymax and noting that p =aPE a:r
2
El
We get M El)(2L) =M +(a"
2
. X.max 0 . L2 1a
Or
2
M =M [1+ a:r ElyO x_I_]
x.max 0 M L2 1  a
c
Or
... (6)
2
Where Fm = magnification factor =1+_a:r Elyo x _1_
MoL2 Ia
... (7)
... (8)
Q5. Compare the moment magnification factors, obtained from differential equation
approach and that from the simplified approach, for the case of beamcolumn,
carrying U.D.L. w along with axial load P.
. Ans. From the differential equation, we have
... (1)
Where kL ::::!:...JP
2 2 E1 2
Hence F == _8(sec!!.f;; 1) ... (2)
m :r
2
a 2
From the approximate solution F = em
... (3)
m Ia
59
Where C
m
=i+[n
2
EIYo lJa
MoL2
5 wL
4
WL2
Yo =.and Mo =(numerically)
384 EI 8
Y 5 L2
_0 =_._
Mo 48 El
nlEI 5 Ll )
Cm 1+
(
T
X
48E11 a=1+0.0281a
F :=1+O.028Ia
m Ia
... (4)
The values of the magnificent factors, given by eq. 2 (exact method) and Eq. 4 (simplified
method) are tabulated below for comparison. It is also to be noted that the magnification
factor for deflection is 1/(1 a), which is the same for all types of loading. The values of
magnification factor for deflection have also been shown in the above table for
comparison.
Magnification factorfor deflection a s kL n 1Va1ues oj Fm by
ec=sec a
2 2 .
...

1
Eq. (a) or Eq. (b)
Ia
2 or4
 ... .
1.114 1.111 0.1 1.114 1.137
1.250 0.2 1.310 1.257 1.257
1.533 1.441 1.441 1.429 0.3
..
1.832 11.686 1.667 0.4 1.685
...
0.5 2.252 2.028 2.000
2.030
2.884 2.546 2.542 2.500 0.6
0.7 3.941 3.405 3.399 3.333
6.058 5.125 5.112 5.000 0.8
i i
12.419 10.284 , 10.253 10.000 0.9
From the table above, we find that there is no significant difference between values of
magnification factors computed by the two methods. Hence the approximate (or simplified
method can be safely Also, these values are very near to the magnification factor
for deflection.
60
_ Yo
Ymax 1
a
Hence magnification factor for deflection =
p
Q.6.
Ans.
.,..."""
......
. 'rtlGl
8
A beam column is subjected to axial load P and a transverse load W at the mid.
...Compute the magnification factors for deflection, and moment, using
approach, and compare the two values of the magnification factors.
The maximum deflection under any type of transverse loading is given by :
la
ttl
p
vii
Again, the magnification factor for moment is given by Equation
F
m la
where C 1 (,rElyo 'I
= +llja
m ML2
o
Here
Yo 1 L2
=
. Mo 12EI
(n2E1 1 'I
Cm 1+lx 1)a=10 1775a
4 12E1 .
F =1 O.
m 1 a
Thus we observe that the magnification factor for deflection (= is the same for all
types of transverse loading while the magnification factor (Fm) for the moment depends
upon the type of loading.
The values of magnification factors for deflection and moments, for various values of a
are tabulated below:
61
I
I
Magnification factor for IMagnification factor for moment
0/0
=(1 O.l775a)/(1 a) Difference deflection = 1/(1a)
a
1.+1:.111 
0 1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.9
11.8
______11_3._6___1
15.6
17.7

9.8
11.9
I 
+c.___ \19.0
Since the values of two factors are very near, the magnification factor for deflection can
be taken as the magnification factor for moment, as an approximation.
Q.7. Discuss the method of designing a beam column.
Ans. In order to design a beam column, it is usually advantageous to approximately convert
the resulting B.M. into an equivalent axial compressive load, and then determine the
crosssection of the column, using the usual column tables to find the permissible
compressive stress. Sometimes, the conversion of the axial load into the equivalent
moment will be more helpful.
For this purpose, Equation can be rewritten in the following form:
A:ac + O':zl(l;"'"'J =1.0
O.6/
cc
where A =area of crosssection and Z is the section modulus about the axis of bending.
Multiplying both the sides by A (joe we get
PM(i) (O'oe V Cm 'A =P.
+ Z lO'bJlIO'ac,eo/ 10.6 jj 0'0" EQ
where P
EQ
= equivalent axial load.
Hence ( <i V C
m
\
P
EQ
=P+M.Bfl!!.)i)
O'be \,)  (joc,caJO,6 fcc
where B, = bending factor = i!, the average value of which can be taken from the steel
Z
tables.
62
It is to be noted that while the allowable stress ratio ((j / (j ) reduces P. , the
oc be EQ
magnification term usually increases p.
EQ'
Equation may be used when a / a > 0 15. However when the ratio is less than
ac)cal ac
0.15, P
EQ
may be computed from the following expression corresponding to equation:
PEQ =P+M.Bf (::)
To start with, the ratio (J'ac,cal / (J'ac is not known. Hence, equation may be used to
determine P
EQ
, and based on this equivalent load, the section may be selected. After
having known the section, value (J'ac,cal / (J'ac can be determined, and if this value is
found to be greater than 0.15, Equation may be applied to find revised value of PEQ.
Extending the above logic to biaxial bending, equation for P
EQ
take the form.
BEAM COLUMNS
PEQ
(0' V C '] [ ( 0' )( C ']
= P +
[
Mbll ;")ll"'m'I + MbllE l_m)
O'oe,coJo.6fce/ x O'be 1O'ac,coI /0.6/cc y
I
and p. = p + M B aac + M B (jae
EQ xft. yfY
a
bcx
(jbey
Q.S.
A column of effective height 6m is subjected to an axial force of 560 kN and
bending moment of 25 kNm. The section of the column consists of ISMB 600 @
122.6 kg/m. Check the adequacy of the Take C =0.85.
m
Ans. For the ISMB 600 @ 122.6 kg/m section, we have
A = 15621 mm
2
;D = h = 600mm;b = 21Omm;
Z =3060.4 x 10
3
mm
3
,lxx = 91813 x 104mm4;
rxx =242.4 mm;rY.)' = 41.2;T =if =20.8 mm;tw == I = 12.0 mm.
d
l
=h 2if = 6002 x 20.8 == 558.4 mm.
Hence
T =tJ =20.8=1.73<2.0
t tw 12.0
d
1
=d
1
== 558.4 =46.53 < 85
tw 12.0
Since Tit < 2 and d1/t < 85, (Table 6.1B of the Code) will be applicable. Here
6000 D h 600
IIry==145.6and===28.85
41.2 T if 20.8
63
Hence from :rabie, we have the following data
25 30 Extrapolation for
Dff+ I
IIry+
. 97=1 98.38 140 103
I
93.38 98
I
O"bc ::::9S.6Nlmm2.
Again for A 145.6,O"ac 'i':: N 1 mm
2
1(2E_1(2(2.0xI05)_ 2
Also,
fcc 2  ( )2 93.1Nlmm
A. 145.6
3
P = 560 xl0 = 35.85 N Imm
2
A 15621
6
a  M 25xl0 =8.2Nlmm
2
ac,eal  Z 3060.4 X 10
3
em = 0.85 (given)
Hence from equation a C a
m be,eal :>;1
aae [
abc 1 0.61cc
or
35.85 0.85 x 8.2 1
+ <
47.6 95.6(1,
0.6x93.1
or 0.753 + 0.203:: 1
or 0.956 :: 1. Hence the section is adequate.
Q.9. A beamcolumn of effective length of 6 m carries an axial load of 450 kN and equal
end moments of 50 kNm each about the major axis. Design the Hsection of the
column. Assume that the frame falls under case (b) and the column bends either in
single or in double curvature.
Ans.
Step 1. Computation of equivalent axial load
To start with, let P
EQ
= (p'+ 0.75P) = 1.75P, for uniaxial bending.
= 1.75 x 450 = 787.5 kN. P
EQ
From steel tables, we find that average value of ry is around 50 mm for ISHB sections.
Hence A::=l Iry ::=6000/S0=120. Corresponding to this value of A,aac = 64 N Imm
2
64
Area required = 78.S x 10
3
1230S mm2
64
Select ISHB 450 @ 92.5 kg/m (the maximum
A 11789 mm
2
, Z = 1793300 mm
3
and ryy = 50.8 mm
available section, having
I
I.
I
I
B
f
A = 11789 6.57 x 10
3
Z 1793300
Hence from equation, taking O"ac,cal =0.6
D P ME ( aae
l
.LEQ = + fl)
abe
or P
EQ
450 + 50 x 10
3
x 6.57 X 10
3
(0.6) 450 +197.1 = 647.1kN
Step 2. Selection of section
A=l!r
y
=6000/S0.8=1l8 .
Hence aae 6S.6 N Imm
2
Area required = 647.1 x 10
3
=9864mm2
65.6
Try ISHB 400 @ 82.2 kg/m having the following properties:
A == 10466 mm
2
; 1i=400 mm; b=250 mm,
tf = 12.7 mm, tw = 10.6 mm fx = 166.1 mm ;
fy == 51.6 mm ; Zx = 1444.2 X 10
3
mm
3
;
d1 = h = 2 tf = 400  2 x 12.7 = 374.6 mm.
Step 3 Determination of aac
A.==l!r == 6000 =116.3. Hencea ",,66.o6Nlmm2
ac
y 51.6 {
Step 4 Determination of ace
' == tf 12.7 1.2 < 2; d1 =d1 == 374.6 35.34 < 85
t tw 10.6 t tw 10.6
Hence will be applicable.
Now D =!!..= 400 =31.5 and llry = 6000 116.3
T If 12.7 51.6
Hence from table, we get O"ac = 112.1 N/mm2
Step 5 Determination of critical buckling stress
x 2.0 X 10
5
1512.7 N Imm2
fce A.; =(6000/166.1)2
65 I
1
!
Step 6 Determination of actual stresses
3
a :::::: 450 X 10 43.00 N Imm
2
ae,eal 10466
SOx 10
6
2
cal:::::: 3 :::::: 34.62 N / mm a
b
e, 1444.2 x 10
Step 7 Determination of magnification factor Cm
1 a ac,cal
0.6/
e
For the first case, em == 0.6  0.4/3 == 0.6 +0.4 x 1== 1.0
em 1
43.00 1.05
0.6 x 1512.7
For second case
Cm =0.6  O.4x 1 =0.2 but 1 0.4
Cm =0.4
Cm
0.4 04
43.00 ==. 2
1 aae,eal
1
0.6/
cc
0.6 x 1512.7
Step 8 Check for the section
Here, O'ac,cal + O'bc,cal :::::: 43.00
0'DC a ac 66.96
Hence equation applicable will be
(a) for the first case
10,
E I
t 'I
0.6/
cc
or 43.00 + 34.62 x 1.05 1
1\
66.96 112.1
or 0.642 + 0.324 1
or 0.966 < 1. Hence safe.
(b) For the second case
(a)
U.JPRlMARY Cc) SECONDARY
43.00 + 34.62 x 0.42:S; 1 MOMENT
MOMENT
66.96 112.1
..,
....p.,
or 0.642 + 0.130 1
O. 772 1. Hence the section is over safe and needs revision.
66
Q.10. A column, having effective length of 6 m carries an axial load of 300 kN, along with
end moments of 50 kNm about its major axis and 10 kNm about its minor axis.
Taking Cm=1.0 for bending about major axis and 0.8 for bending about minor axis,
find suitable Hsection for the column.
Ans. Equivalent axial load for biaxial bending, let
P
EQ
= (p + O.75P +O.75P) == 2.5P == 2.5 x'300 == 750kN, to start with.
From steel tables we find that average value of fy is around 50 mm for ISHB sections.
Hence A, =11 r =6000/50 =120. Corresponding to this value of ..It , (jac =64 N/mm2
3
Area required == 750 x 10 == 11719mm2
64
Hence select ISHB 450@ 92.5 kgl m having A = 11789 mm
2
,
fy = 50.8 mm, Zxx =1793.3 x 10
3
and Zyy =242.1 x 10
3
B 11789 6.57xlO
3
ft Z"" 1793.3 X 10
3
Bfy N =48.69xl0
l
=0.6
Zyy 242.1 x Iv abc x
When bending takes place about minor axis, lateral buckling is not a problem and hence
abc =0.6fy:::::: 0.66 x 250 == 165 N I mm
2
( O'x'1
laJ 165
y
Substituting the values in equation
P == P + JJ:xB aae + M B aae
E
Q ft.a yJya
hex bey
= 300+ (50 X 10
3
x 6.57 X 10
3
x 0:6)+(10 x 10
3
x 48.69 X 10
3
x 0.0388)
= 300+ 197.1 + 188.9 =6861cN
Step2 Selection of Section
3
Area required :::::: 586 x 10 10718mm2
64
Hence select ISHB 450 @ 87.2 kg/m having the following properties:
A == 11114 mm
2
;h =450mm;t
f
== 13.7mm;t == 9.8mm;
w
rx =187.8 mm;ry == 51.8mm;Zx =1742.7 x 10
3
mm
3
;Zy == 238.8 x 10
3
Also, d
1
== h  21
f
== 450  2 x 13.7 == 422.6 mm.
67
Step 3 Determinati6n of (y
ac
T= tf =1,3.7 =140<2.dl = 422.6 43.1<85
t tw9.8 . , tw 9.8
Now D =!!.. =450 = 32.85 and i = 6000 =: 115.8
T 13.7 ry 51.8 t
f
Hence from Steel Table, we get ((TbC) ~ 110.5 N/mm2
For bending about minor axis, there is no problem of lateral bucking. Hence
t
bey
=O.66fy =165N I mm
2
Step 5 Determination of critical buckling stress
f ",2E ",2 x2.0xl05 =1933.8Nlmm2
cex =: :1,; (60001187.8)2
68
CHAPTER 4: INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS
SECTION A
Multiple Choice Type Questions:
1. Lug angle is:
a. Used with single member
b. Not used with double angle member
c. Used with channel member
d. All the above
2. A beam is defined as a structural member subjected to:
a. Axial loading
b. Transverse loading
c. Axial and transverse loading
d. None of these
3. A major beam in a building structure is known as,
a. A girder
b. A floor beam
c. A main beam
d. All the above
4. The beam outside a wall upto floor level above it, is known as:
a. Rafter
b. Purlin
c. Spandrel beam
d. Lintel
5. The beams supporting the steps of a stair are generally known as:
a. Header
b. Trimmer
c. Stringer
d. Spandrel beams
6. In a factory buildings, the horizontal beams spanning between the wall columns
supporting a wall covering, are called as:
a. Stringer
b. Trimmer
c. Grits
d. Lintels
69
J
!
r ~
!
7. The rolled steel I section are most commonly used as beam because these provide:
a. Large moment of inertia with less crosssectional area.
b. Large moment of resistance as compared to other section.
c. Greater lateral stability
d. All the above
8. The moment of the couple set up in a section of a beam by the longitudinal compressive
and tensile force, is known as:
a. Bending moment
b. Moment of resistance
c. Flexural stress moment
d. None of the above
9. In a rolled steel beams, shear force is mostly resisted by:
a. Web only
b. Flanges only
c. Web and flanges together
d. None of the above
10. According to I.S.: 8001871, lacing bars resist transverse shear equal to:
a. 1.0 % of the axial load
b. 2.0 % of the axial load
c. 2.5 % of the axial load
d. 3.0 % of the axial load
11. The thickness of the single flat lacing should not be less than:
a. 1/30 th length between inner end rivets
b. 1/40 th length between inner end rivets
c. 1/50 th length between inner end rivets
d. 1/60 th length between inner end rivets
12. In double lacing, the thickness t of the flat lacing is:
a. t < 1/40 th length between inner end rivets.
b. t < 1/50 th length between inner end rivets
c. t < 1/60 th length between inner end rivets
d. t < 1170 th length between inner end rivets
13. Perforated cover plates are particularly suitable for built up sections conSisting of:
a. Channels placed back to back
b. Channels placed toe to toe
c. Four angle box section
d. All the above
70
I
L
14. Which of the following assumption is made in the design of roof trusses
a. Roof truss is restrained by the reactions
b. Riveted joints act as frictionless hinges
c. Loads act normal to roof surface
d. All the above
15. For a portal truss column fixed at the base, the point of contraflexure is assumed at:
a. A distance midway between base and the foot of the knee brace
b. A distance midway between base and top of the column
c. Foot of the knee brace
d. Quarter distance between base and top of the column.
16. To minimize total cost of a roof truss, the ratio of cost of truss to the cost of purlins shall
be:
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4
17. Generally purlins are placed at the panel points so as to avoid:
a. Axial force in rafter
b. Shear force in rafter
c. Deflection of rafter
d. Bending moment in rafter
18. The risk coefficient k1 depends on
a. Mean probable design life of structure
b. Basic wind speed
c. Both (a) and (b)
d. None of the above
19. The sway bracing is designed to transfer:
a. 2.5 % of the top panel wind load to the bottom bracing
b. 10 % of the top panel wind load to the bottom bracing
c. 25 % of the top panel wind load to the bottom bracing
d. 50 % of the top panel wind load to the bottom bracing
71
r
I
20.
If capacity <?f the electric operated crane is 100 kN and weight of the crab is 25 kN, then
I lateral forces acting on the girder will be:
a. 10 kN
b. 2.5 kN
c. 12.5 kN
d. 25kN
Key:
1. (d) 2. (b) 3. (d) 4. (c) 5. . (c) 6. (c)
7. (d) 8. (b) 9. (a) 10. (c) 11. (b) 12. (c)
13. (c) 14. (c) 15. (a) 16. (b) 17. (d) 18. (c)
19. (d) 20. (b)
\ I
72
SECTION B
True I False Type Questions:
1. Industrial buildings are high rise steel structures.
2. Industrial buildings may be a normal or simple industrial bU,ildings.
3. Normal Industrial buildings consist of simple single storeyed industrial sheds, with or
without gantry girders.
4. The industrial buildings are planned on the basis of operations to be performed during the
manufacturing processes.
5. Sophisticated industrial buildings, usually called steel mill buildings, are used to house big
industries.
6. When the roof truss is attached to and is supported by steel columns at the ends, the
assembly is known as a bent or a mill bent.
7. A roof truss is a frame work which supports the roofing and ceiling material, and is
supported at the both ends on walls or lines of column.
8. It should be clearly noted that if the main load on the purlin is due to earthquake, no
increase in permissible stresses is allowed.
9. The trolly or crab mounted on Crane Bridge can travel longitudinally along the bridge.
10. Sag rods are made from 20 to 30 mm dia. bars with screwed ends.
Key:
1. F 2. T 3. T 4. T 5. T
6. T 7. T 8. F 9. F 10. F
73
SECTIONC
Short Answer Type Questions:
Q1. Classify the industrial buildings?
Ans. Industrial buildings may be classified into two categories:
1. Normal or simple industrial buildings
2. Sophisticated industrial buildings
Normal industrial buildings consist of simple single storeyed industrial sheds, with or
without gantry girder, to house workshops, warehouses or factories and do not contain
intermediate columns.
Sophisticated industrial buildings, usually called steel mill buildings, are used to house big
industries in which some main factorings processes, need spaces with specific and
controlled environmental condition.
Q2. Give the essential component of crane system
Ans. 1. Crane bridge or cross girder
2. Trolley or cab mounted on crane bridge
3. Gantry girder or crane girder
4. Crane runway
5. Column brackets
Q3. Where is gable wind girder provided?
Ans. Gable wind girder is provided at the eaver level. at the end panal of the building, to resist
the wind loads on the gable end. It is thus a horizontal girder formed by bracings together
the lower node points of ithe end truss and the gable columns
Q4. How the planning of industrial buildings are carried out?
Ans: The industrial buildings are planned on the basis of operations to be performed during the
manufacturing processes. Large, clear areas unobstructed by columns. partitions and
elevators are desirable so as to provide sufficient flexibility and to facilitate later changes
in the production layout with major alterations.
QS. Give the wind load specifications for Purlins
Ans. P=O.6 Vz
2
=O.6(k1k2kNb)2
The wind load F. acting' in a direction normal to the individual structure element or
cladding unit is F=(Cpe Cpi)Apd
Q6. Give the dead load specification for Purlins
Ans. 1. Corrugated steel sheets weighing 100150N/m
2
of plan area
2. Corrugated A.C sheets weighing 150200N/m
2
74
Q7. Name major components of an industrial building
Ans. 1. Roof trusses
2. Gantry girder
3. Gable rafter
4. Rafter bracing
5. Eaves girder
Q8. Give formula for tension in sag roads
Ans. Ts=( L1L2/4cose)Wgsine
L1 is span of truss, 12 is the spacing to trusses
e is the slope of truss and Ws is the design gravity load
Q9. Where is braCing provided?
Ans. 1. Inclined plane of the upper chords of truss
2. Horizontal plane of the lower chords of the trusses
3. Vertical planes of the columns.
Q10. What are the functions of Eaves girder?
Ans. 1. It acts as stiff binder beam
2. Side cladding may be hung from the eaves girder
3. The wind bracing along with the eaves girder acts as a truss in plan view. in
which eaves girder is a compression chord
75
I
SECTIOND
Long Answer Type Questions:
Q1: What do you mean by Industrial Buildings? How these are classified?
Ans: Industrial buildings are low rise steel structures, housing workshops or industries, and
characterized by their comparatively low height and absence of interior walls and
partitions. Usually, their roof system consists of trusses with light weight roof coverings.
However, few industrial buildings may be multistoried (usually not more than four storeys)
to house these industries which involve some processes predominantly in vertical plane.
More commonly, industrial buildings have single storey or single' storey with mezzanine
floors. To provide more working space, interior columns are either all together avoided, or
else are very widely spaced in big industrial buildings.
Industrial buildings may be classified into two categories:
i) Normal or simple industrial buildings
(ii) Sophisticated industrial buildings
Normal industrial buildings consist of simple single storeyed industrial sheds, with or
without gantry girders, to house workshops, warehouses or factories, and do not contain
intermediate columns. Sophisticated industrial buildings, usually called steel mill
buildings, are used to house big industries in which some manufacturing processes, need
spaces. with specific and controlled environmental conditions. These may contain
mezzanine floors, and may be multistoreyed also, in some portion of the total floor area.
When .the roof,truss is attached to, and is supported by steel columns at the assembly is
known as a bent or a mill bent. Bents are braced together at intervals which depend on
character of the building, its width. length, covering, exposure etc. Two bent. braced
together form a braced bay. The space between two .column lines is usually called an
arise.
Q2: Draw a neat sketch of Industrial Buildings and name the major components in
them.
.Ans: The major components of an industrial building (fig.) consists of the following:
(a) Roof trusses
(b) Gantry girder
(c) Side rails (or girts) with claddings
d) Gable Rafter
e) Gable Column
f) Rafter Bracing
g) Vertical BraCing in Longitudinal side
h) Gable wind girder at eave level
i) Eaves Girder
76
j) Main Columns
h) Columns Brackets
. ~   ~ I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ !
,..
I
(,!)
z
9
'" z
~
C/)
J
<I.
:2
iii
S
....
77
Q 3: What are the different types of loads for which Purlins are designed?
Ans: Pur/ins arf! designed for the following loads:
1. Dead load:
(a) Load from roof sheeting:
(i) Corrugated steel sheets weighing 100  150 N/m2 of plan area.
(Weight of 20 gauge CGI sheets = 112.7 N/m2)
(ii) Corrugated A.C. sheets weighing 150  200 N/m2 of plan area.
(Weight of Trafford AC. Sheets = 159 N/m2)
(b) Self weight of pur/ins:
The weight of purlins per square metre of plan area, may be assumed as 30 to 120 N for
glazed roofing, 60 to 90 N for GJ. sheeting and 90 to 130 N for AC. sheeting.
2. Live load:
For slopes e < 10: 750 N/m2 of plan area
For upper chord slopes e >10: [750  (8  10) 20] N/m
2
, subject to a minimum of
400 N/m2
3. Wind load:
Design wind pressure p = 0.6 1V
2
z =0.6 (k1 k2 k3 Vb/
The wind load F, acting in a direction' normal to the individual structural element or
cladding unit is
F =(Cpe  CpJApd
where
cpe =External pressure coefficient:
Cpi =Internal pressure coeffcient:
The following load combinations should be tried:
(i) . Dead load + live load (ii) Dead load + wind load
It should be clearly noted that if the main load on the purlin is due to wind, no increase in
permissible stresses is allowed.
\ :
Q4: Explain the bracing of industrial buildings in detail.
Ans: Bracing of Industrial Building
i
I
The bents, consisting of truss and columns can resist vertical loads and all horizontal
loads acting in their own planes. However, they offer very little resistance to horizontal
loads acting normal to their planes. The trusses and columns of an industrial building
must be thoroughly braced to preclude collapse of structure due to wind or earthquake or
the effects of moving loads such as cranes. The function of bracing is to transfer horizon
tal forces from the frames to the foundations of the building. Bracing are provided in the
following three planes:
i) Inclined plane of the upper chords of truss
ii) Horizontal plane of the lower chords of the trusses (tie bracing) and
78
(iii)
Vertical planes of the columns Braces are provided in the form of X, K or knee
bracing as shown in Fig. Out of these, Xbracing is quite common. In a long
building, every fourth or fifth bay should be braced. Even in shorter building, a
minimum of two bays should be braced. When wind blows in the longitudinal
direction (Le. normal to the plane of trusses) a horizontal truss will be required to
transmit the wind load on the gable end to the' column, and a cross frame (or
cross bracing) in the longitudinal vertical planes of the columns will be required to
transmit the loads to the foundations.
I
1
(0) x BRACING (b 1 K BRACING (c) KNEE BRACING
Fig. Forms of Bracing
Q5: How will you analyse Knee Braced Bent with columns. hinged at the base?
Ans: Analysis of Braced Bents
1. knee braced bent with columns hinged at the base
Such a bent is shown in Fig. in which the column is connected to the truss through rivets
at Band C. similarly, the column is connected to knee braces through rivets at E and F.
Such a bent is statically indeterminate to single degree. Approximate analysis of the bent
can be made by making one assumption that the horizontal components of the applied
loads are divided equally between the twG pOints of supports. This means that if P is the
lateral load acting at the head of the column,
1
, I
1
F
H21 A o
v,
,LI
(0) THE BENT
( b). DISTORTED SHAPE
1
Hz
(e) (d)
eNLARGED 8.M.D,
VIEW
Fig. Columns Hinged at Base
79
Such an assumption is reasonable in cases, where the bent is symmetrical and the
bending stiffnesses of both the column are equal.
V  p (hi + h2 )
Hence v1 2
L
Also,
Fig. (b) shows the distorted shape of the bent, while Fig. (c) shows, the enlarged view of
distorted column CD. It is assumed that the column remains straight between F and C.
The B.M.D. for the column is shown in Fig. (d), in which the maximum B.M. (MF) occurs at
the foot of the. knee. At any point x from hinged end D, the column is subjected to (i) B.M.
Mx (ii) shear Fx and (iii) direct force V
x
, the values of which can be easily determined.
Q6: What type of Crane Data is required to design it? Aiso draw the diagram for its
detail.
Ans: The following crane data" should be obtained from the manufacturers. The dimensions
and wheel loads are normally available in manufacturer's hand books.
Crane capacity : kN
Span : m
Weight of crane :kN
i !
. _..: i
to.
**
Fig. ISCR SECTIONS FOR CRANE RAILS
........ "INC 011 I
AMC
t"',n.rAhi::.,. Ii
Lei.... D._ _
..
*IOC:IIl a..)AD . 'J'
SPA... ....
. ... .
t400K .......:.CH I
',
I
I '0.
I
80
I
I
._......  ... ... ...
Weight of crab :kN
End carriage Wheel
centres :m
Minimum hook
Approach :m
Maximum static wheel
load : kN
End clearance : mm
The above data are marked in Fig.
Q7: How will you analyse Maximum Bending Moment and Shear in Gantry Girders
Subjected to Rolling Loads?
Ans: Maximum Moments and Shears
A gantry girder is subjected to rolling loads in the form of two concentrated wheel loads
spaced at a fixed distance. Hence these loads must be placed in position so as to give
maximum B.M., and max. S.F. For maximum shear in the gantry girder (crane girder),
one of the wheel load (W) should be nearly over a support, as shown in Fig.(a).
b1l:SPACING
L = SPAN OF GIROE.R
(0) POSITION FOR MAX. SHEAR
w
MAX. a.M.
1I2  ... '..,Ir L:2
(b) POSITION FOR MAX.B.M.
For maximum B.M., the loads should be so placed that the CG. of the two wheel loads
and one of the wheel load lie equidistant from the centre of the span, as shown in fig. The
maximum B.M. will then occur under that wheel load which is nearer to the centre of the
girder. However, if the spacing (b), between the two equal loads exceeds 0.586 L, the
maximum BM. will be given by placing one wheel load at the centre of the girder.
The bending of the crane gantry girder occurs both about vertical axis as well as about
the horizontal axis of the girder. While the vertical bending is resisted by the entire
section of the girder, the horizontal bending is resisted by the top flange and channel
only, for the common sections of gantry girder shown in Fig. (a).
81
Let Mx = vertical B.M. (Nmm) and My =Horizontal B.M (Nmm)
For the vertical bending moment, the bending stresses are given by:
Top flange: (0' )V=M. (Compressive)
bccal Zc
Bottom flange (0' ) V =M. (tensile)
bfca/ Zt
(oJ
I)
I
!...WIOTH _I
C
If
i
I _:J it
I t
U
UTU
~
t
x
 '
J L
.. _
h
..
I
.
, .. J Ie)
Where Ze = section modulus, with respect to compression =!:.
yc
. . Ix
Where Zt = section modulus, with respect to compressIon =_
yt
The allowable tensile stressO'bl is taken equal to O.66fy while the allowable compressive stress for
the, top flange should be determined by taking lateral instability into account.
82
CHAPTER 5: MULTISTOREYED BUILDINGS
SECTIONA
Multiple Choice Type Questions:
1. Multistoreyed buildings are usually constructed for:
a. Offices
b. Residential flats
c. Hotels
d. All of the above
2. Multistoreyed buildings are constructed of which material?
a. RCC
b. . Steel
c. Both (a) and (b)
d. None of the above
3.
Structural behaviour of mUltistorey buildings is subjected to lateral forces due to:
a. Self weight of beams
b.
Live load on structure
c. Wind load
c. All of the above
4.
When the frames have no internal resistance against horizontal loads and external
braCing members must be used for this purpose, then the type of jOint is:
a. Simple
b. Semi rigid
c. Rigid
c. All of the above
5. The structure will be able to resist the lateral forces, if the joint is:
a. Flexible
b. Semi rigid
c. Rigid
d. None of the above
6.
Rigidity of the jOint is not necessary if ____type of bracing is used.
a. Cross
b. Diagonal
c. K bracing
d. All of the above
83
..  .....  .. .. ..... ..........~    ~        .. _.
7. ___ type of bracing is effective only when the direction of horizontal load does not
change.
a. Cross
b. Diagonal
c. K bracing
d. All of the above
8. When small openings are recommended, which type of bracing is used?
a. Cross
b. Diagonal
c. K bracing
d. All of the above
9. To provides lateral stiffness to high rise building:
a. Frames are braced
b. Shear wall is provided
c. Both (a) and (b)
d. None of the above
9. A structure, where the exterior parts of the exterior frame of the building are rigidity
connected, there by forming a very rigid structure called as:
a. Multistoreyed structure
b. Utility core
c. Steel structure
d. Tube structure
10. Which of the following is a type of Tube Structure?
a. Framed Tube
b. Tube in Tube
c. Bundled Tube
d. All of the above
11. In which type of tube structure, the exterior tube and the interior tube are designed. to act
together?
a. Framed Tube
b. Tube in Tube
c. Bundled Tube
d. All of the above
I
I 84
I
L
,
12.
The system basically consists of numbers of framed tubes, bundled together or act as
one unit is known as:
a. Framed Tube
b. Tube in Tube
c. Bundled Tube
d. All of the above
13.
Which of the following is a type of Substitute frame?
a. Three span structure with two storey columns
b. Substitute frame for wall columns
c. Substitute frame for two panel wide building
d. All of the above
14.
The maximum bending moment in case of simply supported beam, carrying udl, is at.. ..
a. Centre
b. Supports
c. Anywhere in the beam
d. None of the above
KEY:
1. (d) 2. (c) 3. (c) 4. (a) 5. (c) 6. (a)
7. (b) 8. (c) 9. (c) 10. (d) 11. (d) 12. (b)
13. (c) 14. (d)
85
SECTION  B SECTION C
True I False Type Questions:
1. Multistoreyed buildings are usually constructed for offices. residential flats, hotels, etc.
2. The framing in a multistoery building consists of column, girders and beams which
support roof and floor load.
3. Beams which support the interior walls are known as spandrel beams.
4. Partitions are some times made of hollow masonry, or of various panels using metal,
wood, gypsum, or plaster, and other specially product.
5. The vertical loads consist of the dead weight of structural components such as beams,
slabs, columns, etc., and live load.
6. Structural behavior of Multistoreyed buildings subjected to lateral forces is complex and
highly indeterminate.
7. The Kbracing may be used to advantage where only large openings are to be
accommodated.
B. The diagonal bracing is effective only when the direction of horizontal load changes.
9. A bent that is provided with any form of braCing is called braced bent.
10. The trussed tube imparts great deal of stiffness, and has proven to be very efficient.
Key:
1. T 2. T 3. F 4. T 5. T
6. T 7. F B. F 9. T 10. T
M
Short Answer Type Questions:
Q1. What are the assumptions of the cantilever method?
Ans. The cantilever method is based on the following two assumptions:
a) Points of contraflexure in each member lies at its midspan or midheight.
b) The direct stresses (axial stresses) in the columns, due to horizontal forces, are
directly proportional to their distance from the centroidal vertical axis of the frame.
Q2. What are the assumptions of the portal method?
Ans. The portal method is based on the following two assumptions:
a) The point of contraflexure in all members lie at the midspan.
b) Horizontal shear taken by each interior column is double the horizontal shear
taken by each of exterior column.
Q3. What are the various approximate methods used for the analysis of building
frames subjected to lateral loads?
Ans. Approximate methods commonly used for the analysis of building frames subjected to
lateral loads are:
a) Portal Method.
b) Cantilever Method.
c) Factor Method.
Q4. Name the different methods of computing the bending moments
Ans. The different methods of computing the bending moments are:
a) Slopedeflection method.
b) Moment distribution method.
c) Building frame formulae.
d) Kani's method.
Q5. What do you mean by bundled tube?
Ans. This system basically consists of a number of framed tubes, bundled together to act as
one unit through shear walls between the exterior walls. The tubes rise to various heights;
only two tubes reach the full height. The bundled tube concept allows each module in the
building to be designed as an independent framed tube.
Q6. Name the various form of the tube structures?
Ans. Various forms of the tube structures are:
a) Framed tube.
b) Trussed tube.
~
,
c) Tube in tube.
d) Bundled tube.
Q7. What is a building frame and a multipanelled frame?
Ans. A building frame may contain a number of bays and may have several storeys.
A multistoreyed, multipanelled frame is a complicated statically indeterminate structure.
It consists of number of beams and columns built monolithically, framing a network.
QS. What are the various types of substitute frames?
Ans. Under ordinary conditions, the following four types of substitute structures are considered
sufficient:
a) threespan structure with two storey columns.
b) sUbstitute frame for wall columns.
c) Substitute frame for two panel wide building.
d) substitute frame for one panel wide building.
Q9: What are the features of Multistoreyed Buildings?
Ans: Multistoreyed buildings are usually constructed for offices, residential flats, hotels,
hospitals, schools, social centers, etc. These are becoming increasingly popular because
of crowding of cosmopolitan cities like Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Delhi, etc. These are
constructed either of RC.C. or of Steel.
Q10: What do you mean by Diaphragms or Shear Walls?
Ans: Alternatively, it is possible to provide lateral resistance with the introduction of vertical
walls in proper locations. These are often referred as diaphragms or in tall structures,
shear walls or cores. Such diaphragms infills should be made of some structural material
of substantial stiffness and should be positively attached to the frame.
Q11: What do you mean by Tube structures?
Ans: A tube structure is the one where the exterior parts of the exterior frame of the buildings
are rigidly connected, there by forming a very rigid cage or peripheral tube. For taller
buildings such as more than 40 storeys, the effect of lateral forces become increasingly
intense, necessitating the use of so called tube structure.
Q12: What do you mean by Trussed Tube struc:ture?
Ans: In the trussed tube structure, the exterior cage combines vertical, horizontal and diagonal
, '
: members, all of which are rigidly connected. The diagonal members, which may be
considered as major columns that are diagonally oriented, carry gravity loads as well as
lateral loads. The trussed tube imparts great deals of stiffness, and has proven to be very
efficient.
L
88
SECTION  D
Long Answer Type Questions:
Q1: What are Building Frames? What are its uses and components?
Ans: Multistoreyed buildings are usually constructed for offices, residential flats, hotels,
hospitals, schools, social centers etc. These are becoming increasingly popular because
of crowding of cosmopolitan cities like Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Delhi etc. These are
constructed either of RC.C. or of steel. Upto a certain height (say upto 20 storeys),
RC.C. buildings may work out to be more economical, but beyond this height, steel
buildings are more cheaper. Also, steel buildings are adopted where speed of
construction is required.
I I
, '
"r
" .
I i I
l
I.
.
L..I
. , . " .
L.J ..
L
'L.J ~ L . . . . l
. " .
The framing in a multistorey building consists of columns, girders, and beams which
support roof and floor load as shown in ,figure. Such type of building frame is sometimes
known as beam and column frame. The columns are generally continuous from storey to
storey, and the girders and beams are connected to the columns. The flooring, which
may consist of wood or concrete (or even steel plates in some cases), is supported on
floor beams. The floor beams, in turn, are supported by the girders and the girders are
supported by the columns to which they connect. The beams which support the exterior
walls are known as wall beams or spandrel beams. Partitions are sometimes made of
hollow masonry, or various panels using metal, wood, gypsum, or plaster, and other
special products.
Q2: Why Multistoreyed building frames are braced? Also discuss about different types
of bracing used in building frames.
Ans: Structural behaviour of multi storey buildings subjected to lateral forces (such as wind
and/or earthquake) is complex and highly indeterminate. There are three recognized
types of joints between beams and columns: simple (or flexible), semirigid and rigid
89
joints. F r a m ~ s with flexible joints have no internal resistance against horizontal loads
(Fig.b) and external bracing members Fig. (c) must be used for this purpose.
If the joints are rigid enough so that the angles between them does not change, the
structure as a whole will be able to resist the lateral forces. In genera], the most common
way to brace buildings of low to medium heights is through the use of (a) external
bracing, (b) shear walls, and (c) momentresisting connections between beams and
columns.
If cross braces are used, as shown in Fig. (c), rigidity of joints is not necessary. However,
such bracing is possible only if there are no openings (i.e. doors and windows) in the
panel braced. Fig. (af) show different bracing arrangements along with positions of
openings (i.e. doors, windows) indicated by dotted lines.
r
The diagonal bracing shown in Figure (a) may permit larger openings, butis effective only
when the direction of horizontal load does not change. If the direction of horizontal load
changes due to change in wind direction, crossbracing shown in (b) may be used. Such
a bracing forms a series of vertical trusses, but is not preferred because it restricts the
openings.
The Kbracing, shown in Fig. (c) may be used to advantage where only small openings
are to be accommodated. Bracing shown in Fig. (d) permits only ventilators. The
degenerate form of Kbracing is shown in Fig. (e) permits larger openings. Still larger
openings can be provided for by using knee braces. All these forms of bracings cause
encroachment that may notbe tolerated, so that moment resistant connections (Le. rigid
joints) must be used to create a Vierendeel truss.
90
A bent that is provided with any form of bracing is called braced tent.
I
i
l : 1
L ___ l
(e) (f)
Fig. Various Bracing Arrangements
Q3: What are Diaphragms, Shear walls or Cores? Discuss in detail.
Ans: It is possible to provide lateral resistance with the introduction of vertical walls in
proper locations, shown in Fig (ac). These are often referred to as diaphragms, or in tall
structures, shear walls or cores. Such diaphragm infills should be made of some
structural material of SUbstantial stiffness and should be positively attached to the frame.
The stiffness of infill diaphragm will resist any change to the original rectangular shape of
the frame. The frame will thus be braced effectively. The diaphragm infills (Le. shear
walls) may be placed in one, two or multiple bays, but a symmetrical arrangement is used
in deference to the fact that lateral forces may be due to earthquake. Symmetrical
placement of cores or shear walls provide the wall with reasonably uniform stiffness. All
tall buildings require space for vertical circulation, and the items that fall under these
spaces are (i) elevators (ii) stairs (iii) duct work etc;, all of which require fair degree of fire
protection. Hence these items are placed within utility cores made or R.C.C. walls. This
forms a large vertical cantilever with great lateral stiffness and vertical loadcarrying
capacity. Such utility cores, various forms of which are shown in Fig (af). are designed to
effectively brace the frame.
(b)
Fig. Diaphragms or Shear Walls
91
i
r
Co)
rUTILITY
. COR
..L
(bl
L
,
I
CORIi: _
I. )
....
....
'" ::'i
'"
I+Q""I
+Q.... ;x;
(0)
In some buildings, it may be desirable to provide fireresistive separation, in the form of
RCC walls having high fire resistance, at fairly regular intervals. Such walls, referred to as
shear walls provide great lateral stiffness to the building frame, in addition to the utility
core. Such shear walls may have openings also, provided such openings do not exceed
20 to 30% of the panel area, and that the openings are properly reinforced. Here again,
shear walls should have symmetrical arrangement, specially if the lateral forces to be
resisted are due to seismic action. Fig. (a) & (b) shows possible arrangements of shear
wall
92
I
Q4: What do you mean by tube structure?
Ans: For buildings taller than 3040 storeys the effect of lateral forces become increasingly
intense, necessitating the use of so called tube structures. Basically, a tube structure is
the one where the exterior parts of the exterior frame of the building are rigidly connected,
there by forming a very rigid cage or peripheral
The interior core, discussed in the previous questions, is analogous to the tube structure;
thus the interior core constructed to resist the lateral forces, forms the interior tube. In
some structures, the peripheral tube, also known as exterior tube is connected to the
interior tube and the two are designed to behave as an integral structural system .
Q5: Discuss the different types of tube structures in detail.
Ans: Various forms or types of tube. structures can be divided into four groups.
(i) Framed tube (ii) Trussed tube
,
(iii) Tube in tube and (iv) Bundled tube
i) Framed tube: in this system, the entire exterior tube is made of closely spaced
columns rigidly connected to spandrel beams. Due to close spacing of the
columns, the framed tube as may be thought or as a bearing wall which is quite
rigid and which resists both the shear as well as bending produced by lateral
forces. Since shears are not transferred to the interior, The structure within the
exterior frame is designed to take only gravity loads. A prominent example of the
framed tube is the 110 storey World Trade Centre in New York. In variation of
framed tube, known as perforated wall tube, or shell tube, the exterior tube is
made of wide columns and deep spandrel girders. Though the openings are only
about 30 to 40% of the surface area, the system gives rise to a extremely rigid
cage. The walls almost appear to be of solid steel Standard Oil Building in
Chicago is an example of a shell tube structure.
93
L
..
I
ii) Trussed tube: In the trussed tube structure, the exterior cage combines vertical
(Le. columns), horizontal (Le. girders), and diagonal members, all of which are
rigidly connected, as shown in Fig. The diagonal members, which may be
considered as major columns that are diagonally oriented, carry gravity loads as
well as lateral loads. The trussed tube impart great deal of stiffness, and has
proven to be very efficient. A prominent example of this system is the John
Hancock Centre in Chicago. Here also, the exterior tube resists the entire shear
as well as bending and the interior structure carries only gravitational loads.
Special care is taken to avoid the transfer of lateral force to the interior parts of
the building.
Sfl".6R
WAl.L
ta) PLAN
(b) VIEW
iii) Tubein tube: In this system, the exterior tube and the interior tube (consisting of
interior core) are designed to act together. The exterior tube has relatively large
width and hence it is designed to resist the entire bending moment caused by
lateral forces. On the other hand. the interior tubes are generally very slender,
and hence these are designed to carry shear produced by the lateral forces.
Such a system is used where there are large openings in the exterior frame, due
to which its ability to resist shear is diminished. The stiff floor system transfers the
lateral shearing forces to the interior tube. A staled carrier the interior tube may
simply be RC.C. seat which houses stairs, elevators, etc.
iv) Bundled tube: This system basically consists of a number of framed tubes,
bundled together.to act a one unit through shear walls between the exterior walls.
Fig. (a) shows the schematic arrangement (plan view) of bundled tube, A
!
prominent examples of such a system is the 110storey Sears Tower in Chicago,
i  .
1:'
where each tube is of size 22.8 m x 22.8m, arranged in a square base. The tubes
rise to various heights; only two tubes reach the full height. The bundled tube
concept allows each module in the building to be designed as independent
framed tube.
94
Q6: What do you mean by Substitute frame? What are its different types?
Ans: The analysis of a multistoreyed multi paneled building frame is very cumbersome, since
the frame contains a number of continuous beams and columns. The effect of loading on
the span upon other span; is much smaller. The moments in any beam or column are
mainly due to the loads on spans very to it.. Loads on distant spans do not have
appreciable effect. Due to this, a simple method of accurate enough for practical
purpose, is used by analyzing a small portion of the frame, called substitute frame' rather
than analysis of the whole frame.
It has been found by exact analysis that the moments carried from floor to floor, through
columns, are very small in comparison to the beam moments. In other word, the
moments in one floor have negligible effect on the moments of the floors above and
below it. Therefore, a substitute frame consists of one floor, connected above and below
with their far end either hinged or fixed or restrained. Fig. (a) shows a building frame
consisting of five storeys and three bays. Fig. (b) shows the substitute frame for
determining bending moment in the second floor. Generally, it is sufficient to consider two
adjacent spans on each side of joint considered. The substitute frame gives the results
which are safe for all practical purposes.
",
AI ,.!ft. "'1.;::00:'
...
to). lC:TUA1.f'RA'\E'
Cz
AI BI C1
(b) SUBSTITUTE FRAME
Fig. (a) & (b)
95
I
r..
Types of Frames: Under ordinary conditions, the following four types of substitute
structures are considered sufficient:
(a) threespan structure with two storey columns
(b) substitute frame or wall columns
(c) substitute frame for two panel wide building
(d) substitute frame for one panel wide building.
Fig. (a) shows the most general SUbstitute frame consisting of three span, twostorey
SUbstitute structure with irregular spacing of columns. Fig. (b) shows the SUbstitute frame
for finding the building moments in wall columns. This consists of three spans and three
twostorey columns, one of which is the wall column. Fig. (c) shows the SUbstitute frame
for structures two panels wide. Fig. (d) shows the substitute frame for one span multi
storey.
.ur I
I
I
t
I
i
i
"''"
1
I
(c) SUBSTITUTE FRAME FOR TWO
.,..;.",
PANEL WIDE BUILDING
t d ) SUBSTITUTE f"RAM
ONE PANEL WIDE 8'J
Fig. Various Types of Substitute Frames
Q7: What are the different end conditions used for SUbstitute frame?
Ans: The restraining effect of anyone member, upon other members forming a joint depends
also upon the condition existing on the other end of the restraining member. The other
end may have three conditions: (i) free to turn (i.e. hinged), Oi) partially restrained, or (iii)
rigidly fixed. The restraining. effect is largest for the rigidly fixed conditions of the end and
smallest for free end. It should be noted that the restraining effect of a fixed member is
one third larger than the restraining effect if it were free to turn. The rigidity of any
member is expressed by th.e ratio 1: 1 where I i:> its moment of inertial and L is its length
(for beam) or height (for column). If the loaded member has rigidity IlL, and the
restraining member has rigidity IlL then this restraining member is considered as fixed at
the other end if i+!..is equal to or greater than 10 the end of a member is considered as
11 I
partly restrained when it runs into another joint composed of several members, a
96
condition which is often found in concrete skeleton structure. No restraint exists if ..+<10
I, 1
The outer ends of the member of the substitute frame are sometimes taken as hinged
(except for columns fixed in the ground). This gives severest condition for a particular
reaction under investigation. The moments obtained by assuming the ends hinged gives
the moments nearest to the value obtained from full frame analysis and compensates to
some extent for the error caused due to neglecting loads on members of distant span.
Q8: How will you calculate Maximum Bending Moment in Beams subjected to vertical
loads?
Ans: (a) Maximum bending moments in beams. The magnitude of bending moments in
beams and columns respectively depend upon their re.lative rigidity. Generally, the beams
are made of the same dimensions in all floors, while the dimensions of column vary from
storey to storey. Columns have smallest dimensions at the top and largest dimensions at
the bottom. Due to this reason, the ratio of the rigidity of the beam to that of the column is
larger in the upper floors than in the lower floors. The positive bending moments in the
beams increase with decrease of the rigidity of the columns, while the negative B.M. in
them increase with the increase in the 'rigidity of the columns. Due to this, the positive
B.M. are largest in the upper storeys where the columns are least rigid and the negative
bending moments are maximum in the lower storeys where the columns are rigid.
Ie) LOAOING F:)R MAX.M
A
Fig. Loading for Bending Moments in Beams
97
r
I
I
In order to fiIJd the maximum moment in a given span of the beam, the substitute frame is
so selected that span under investigation forms the centre span. This substitute frame
may be moved from floor to floor. However, since the beams in all floors are made of the
same dimensions and provided with same amount of steel, only one sUbstitute frame may
be sufficient when placed in a position in the structure for which the bending moments are
the largest. The beam should be loaded with live loads as follows for maximum effects:
(i) For maximum positive B.M. At the midpoint C of a span AB. the loads should be
placed on the span and on alternative spans as shown in Fig. (a).
(ii) For maximum negative B.M. At the midpoint C of a span AB, the span AB should
be unloaded while load should be placed on spans adjacent to the span under
consideration, as shown in Fig. (b).
(iii) For maximum negative B.M. At the support A, loads should be placed on the two
spans adjacent to the support, as shown in Fig. (c).
When the spans of beams are not equal, substitute frames should be selected in which
the largest span forms the centre span and also frames in which the smallest span forms
the centre span. Several trial computations may be necessary to get the frame for which
the bending moments are maximum.
The bending moments due to dead loads are found separately. The bending moments for
dead and live loads are then added, and the beam is designed.
Q9: How will you analyse a frame subjected to horizontal forces?
Ans: A building frame is subjected to horizontal forces due to wind pressure and seismic
effects. These horizontal forces cause axial forces in columns and bending moment in all
the members of the frame. As stated earlier, a building frame is a highly indeterminate
structure. The degree of indeterminacy of a building bent (Fig.) is found by providing a cut
near midspan of each beam. Each cut beam will thus have three unknown reaction
components: moment (M), shear (F) and axial thrust (H). Each column with its cut beams
will act as a cantilever, which is a statically determinate structure. Thus, if Ii is the number
of beams in a bent, the degree of indeterminacy will be 3n. For the building bent shown in
Fig. there are eight beam and hence the beam is statically indeterminate upto 24th
degree. An ordinary 20 storey building with 20 storeys and 5 stacks of columns has 80
beams, thus having the degree of indeterminacy of 240.
98
t<;fl
Due to this reason, suitable assumptions are made so that the frame subjected to
horizontal forces can be analyzed by using simple principles of mechanics. Following
approximate methods are commonly used for the analysis of building frames subjected to
lateral forces:
1. Portal method,
2. Cantilever method.
3. Factor method.
Q10: Discuss the Portal Method for the analysis of frames subjected to Horizontal
forces.
Ans: For the purposes of analysis it is assumed that the horizontal forces are acting on the
joints. The portal method is based on the following two important assumptions:
,
PI;'" ., C 0, J
TOP STOREY
.. Dt
r.,Ir""lDt
"
d!l
Figure
(i) the points of contraflexure in all the members lie at their midpoints. and
(ii) horizontal shear taken by each interior column is double the horizontal shear
taken by each of exterior column.
Fig. shows a three storey building frame with three spans. Let PI, P2, P3 be the external
horizontal forces acting at the joints of the wall columns. Under the action of the
99
I
I
clockwise moment in each beam will be (P + 0) h/2. Thus the ends of each beam receive
the same clockwise moment of (P + 0) h/2. with the result that points of contraflexure will
He in the middle of the beams.
The moment m acting at each end of the beams A2 B2 B2 C
2
, C
2
O
2
give rise to vertical
reactions in columns. If L is the span of these beams, each beam will impose an upward
pull of 2m/L on windward column and a push of 2m/L on leeward column connected to
the beam, for each span. The vertical reactions will neutralize for any intermediate
column, provided span of beams on. either side are equal. Only the end columns will
experience vertical reactions. The windward column will have an upward pull of 2m/L and
the .Ieeward column will have a downward push of 2m/L..
Q11. Analyse the building frame, subjected to horizontal forces, as shown in Fig. (a) use
portal method.
Ans. 1 . Horizontal shears: Let the horizontal shears in the exterior columns be P and in
the interior columns be 2P for the top storey. Similarly. for the bottom storey, let the
shears be Rand 2R for the exterior and interior columns. For the top storey, we have
P+2P+2P+P=120
p=120=20kN
6
For bottom storey. we have R + 2R + 2R + R =120 + 180
R=300 kN
6
=50kN
____________ __ __ ____ ______ ____
r
f ........ _

2P
. M
p
35m
P f
____________ ______4__ __ ____J.
E GH+
R R    J.J"!} :J..   ......P..  ... ..R..  "   N
.... f lz=3S I l;.3!' "4
(Figure a)
101
horizontal forces, the frame will deflect. The point of contraflexure will lie at the middle of
each member. Only horizontal shears will act at these points of contraflexure, since B.M.
will be zero at these points.'
Consider the top storey having vertical members AjA2, B, B
2
' and 0
1
O
2
The C
1
C
2
horizontal shear for the outer columns Aj A
2
and OJ 02will be P each while that for the
inner columns B, B2 and Cj C2will be 2P each, as marked. The value of P given by
P1 =P + 2 P + 2 P + P
1
p=
6
Similarly, consider the second storey. where the exterior columns A2A3 and 0
2
0
3
have
shear O. The value of shear 0 is found by:
2P
Q J 2Q I
J  L t.. HI..... ...... 4I_
1A:s 18
3
P1 +P2=0+ 20 + 20 + 0
Q=
1
CPr
6
p 2P
m
02
_J
2Q I
o j
L ,.,..11+1.. __
.... L..IIIooI.
lC
3
Figure
Similarly, for the bottom storey. the shear R is given by
Pj + P2+ P3= R + 2R + 2R + R
1
R=6 +PJ
Knowing the horizontal shears at the points of contraflexure, the bending moments in the
columns can be easily found. Let us consider the floor A2 B2 C
2
O
2
between third and
second storey. The shear acting at the pOint of contraflexure are as shown in Fig. The
joint A2 is subjected to a clockwise moment of Ph/2 at A2 in column Aj A
2
, and to a
clockwise moment equal to 0 h/2 at A2 in Column A
2
A
3
,. The beam Aj B2 is thus required
to resist a clockwise moment of m=(P+O) h/2 at A
2
. Similarly, at joint B. there will be a
Clockwise moment equal to (2P + 20) h/2. But there are two beams to resist this. Hence
100
2. Moments at the ends of columns
For the top.storey,
20 x
2 2
20 x3.5=:.70kNm
2
For the bottom storey.
 M  M  M h 3.5 k
MEI EI LH HL=:.Rx=:.50x=87.5 Nm
2 2
MJF = MFJ = MKG = MGK 50 x3.5=175kNm
2
3. Moments at the ends of beams
First floor beams:
mEF = MEA + MEl 35 + 87.5 = 122.5 kNm
Similarly, mFG = mGF = mGH =mHG =122.5 Knm, since the point of contraflexure lies at
the middle of each span.
In general,
m=(P+R) h (20+50) x 3.5 =122.5
2 2
roof beams:
 m  m m  m  m h 3.5
mAS  SA  SC cs  CD  DC =P = 20 x =35kN m
2 2
4. Shear in beams: Since no external vertical force is acting on the beam, shear F
is given by F
L
Where m1 and m2 are the moments at ends of the beams of span L.
Thus, 125.5+ 122.5 t
7 35kN
FFE =35 kN I
122.5+ 122.5
70kN
3.5
122.5+ 122.5
49kN
FaH
5
35+35 =10kN
FAJ)
7
35+35 =20kN
3.5
35+35=14kN
5
102
5. Axial force in columns. The axial force in the columns will be as under:
Column AE = shear in beam AB == 10
Column EI == axial force in AE + shear in EF= 10+35=45 t
Column DH :: shear in beam DC = 14 KN I
Column HL== axial force in DH + shear in HG=14+49=631
Since the spans are not equal, interior columns will also have axial forces.
Column BF=FsAFsc = 1020= 10 (Le.) t '
Column FJ=(10)+(FFEFFG) = (1 O)+(FFEFFG)=(1 0)+(3570)= 45(Le.)t
l l
Alternatively, axial force in BF 2m 2m 2x35 10kN
LI 7
And axial force in column FJ =(_10)+(2m _ 2m1
LI L2 )
=(_10)+(2X122.5 2X122.5i 45 (i)
\ 7 3.5 /
l
Axial force in column CG 2ml 2m 2x35 2x35 =6(J..)
L3 3.5 5
Axial force in column GK =6+ 2mJ=6+(2X122.5
L2 Lj' \ 3.5
Check Total force at the base= 45 (t )45 t + 27 ( .J,. )+ 63 (.J,. ) = zero
_2_x__
5
103
CHAPTER 6: TRANSMISSION LINE TOWERS
SECTION A
Multiple Choice Type Questions:
1. Transmission line towers are used for supporting:
a. Cable Stayed Bridges
b. Extra High Voltage electric lines
c. Telephone Lines
d. All of the above
2. Extra high voltage electric transmission lines are:
a. Very long in length
b. Carrying heavy currents
c. Very heavy
d. None of the above
3. Extra high voltage electric transmission lines should be carried:
a. Near to ground level
b. Below the ground level
c. Very much higher than ground level
d. None of the above
4. Structure constructed to support transmission line towers are made of :
a. Wood
b. RCC
c. Steel
d. All of the above
5. Tower with tension system of bracing, results in:
a. Larger deflection
b. Large bending moment
c. Large shear force
d. All of the above
6. Which of the following is a type of Bracing system?
a. Tension system .
b. Tension compression system
c. Kbraced system
d. All of the above
104
7.
When the dimensions of the towers are not too great with respect to the tower loads, which
system of braCing is suitable?
a. Tension system
b. Tension compression system
c. Kbraced system
d. All of the above
8.
System which is suitable for large tower:
a. Tension system
b. Tension compression system
c. Kbraced system
d. All of the above
9.
Depending on the voltage and the number of circuits, the height of transmission towers
varies from:
a. 10 to 20 m
b. 20 to 40 m
c. 40 to 50 m
d. All of the above
10.
The ratio of width to height for small angle towers is kept as:
a. 1/4
b. 1/5
c. 1/6
d. 1/8
11. The flatter slope of leg is applicable to:
a. Low end towers
b. Light suspension towers
c. High river crossing towers
d. All of the above
12.
As per American Practice, the tower is economical when the slope of the leg member below
the cross arm is around:
a. 1 in 5
b. 1 in 6
c. 1 in 8
d. 1 in 10
105
__
r
!
13. Tower may support:
a. Single circuit
b. Double circuit
c. Multiple circuit
d. All of the above
14. Which types of towers are preferred for transmission lines?
a. Self supporting towers
b. Flexible towers
c. Both (a) and (b)
d. None of the above
15. Which of the following is a type of vertical load. acting on tower?
a. Wind load
b. Weight of tower structure
c. Seismic load on wires
d. Due to earth wires
16. Centre to centre distance between towers is known as:
a. Normal Span
b. Wind Span
c. Weight Span
d. All of the above
17. The wind pressures on tower and support shall be computed as per:
a. IS : 8751987
b. IS: 800
c. IS: 802
d. None of the above
18. Guyed steel stacks are used for height more than:
a. 45 m
b. 60m
c. 75m
d. 90m
19. Shape of steel stack is:
a. Rectangular
b. Hexagonal
c. Cylindrical
d. Conical
106
i
i
20.
The chimney should be at least
of 150m radius.
a. 5 m
b. 10 m
c. 15m
d. 20m
KEY:
1. (b) 2. (b) 3.
7. (d) 8. (c) 9.
13. (d) 14. (c) 15.
19. (c) 20. (a)
(c)
(b)
(b)
taller than the tallest building in the surrounding area
4. (d) 5. (a) 6. (b)
10. (b) 11. (b) 12. (b)
16. (a) 17. (a) 18. (b)
107
SectionB
True I False Type Questions:
1. The wind pressures on tower and support shall be computed as per IS: BOO19B7.
2. The wind pressure intensity on towers varies from 1.5 to 2.B kN/m
2
3. The tension in the conductor becomes maximum, when the atmospheric temperature is
maximum.
4. Steel chimneys are ideally suited for process work where a short heat up period and low
thermal capacity are required.
5. The height and clear diameter depends upon draft required, flue gas velocity, flue gas
temperature, type of fuel adopted, etc.
6. Minimum outside diameter of flared chimney shell at base be equal to 1.2 times the outside
diameter of chimney shell at top.
7. Lining for steel chimney may be required to protect the chimney shell from heat.
B. Breach opening is provided for the entrance of flue gases.
9. Transmission line towers are used for supporting extra high voltage electric transmission
lines.
10. Tension System is suitable for large transmission line towers
KEY:
1. F 2. T 3. F 4. T 5. T
6. F 7. T B. T 9. T 10. F
10B
SECTIONC
Long Answer Type Questions:
Q1. What do you mean by transmission line tower?
Ans. Transmission line towers are used for supporting the extra high voltage electric
transmission lines. These lines also carry very heavy' currents, to the tune of several
hundred amperes. It is therefore necessary that these transmission lines should be carried
at a level which is very much higher than the ground level. This has necessitated the use of
tall towers to support the transmission lines conductors carrying a combination a EHV and
heavy currents.
Q2. Give the name of structures made of structural steel which support the electric
power transmission line
Ans. 1. Round or Isection steel poles
2. Fabricated steel poles
3. Flexible towers
4. Semiflexible towers
5. Selfsupporting wide base towers
6. Guyed towers.
Q3. What are the different type of tower?
Ans. 1. Selfsupporting towers
2. Flexible towers
Selfsupporting towers are subjected to two types of loads:
1. Wind loads acting transversely
2. Longitudinal horizontal load
Q4. Name the loads acting on the transmission line tower
Ans..
1. Vertical loads
2. Horizontal load
3. Longitudinal load
4. Torsional load
QS. Give the terminology which is used for various types of design span
Ans. Normal span: It is the centre to centre distance between towers.
Wind span: The wind span is the sum of the two half spans adjacent to the support under
consideration
Weight span: The weight span is the horizontal distance between the lowest point of the
conductor, on the two spans adjacent to the tower
109
r"
!
Q6. What do yo.u mean by longitudinal loads?
Ans. Longitudinal loads are mainly caused due to broken wire condition and these loads have
much more effect on the design of the tower than any other load. The unbalanced pull due
to broken conductor, in case of supports with suspension strings, may be assumed equal to
50% of the maximum working tension of the conductor.
Q7. What is the effect of temperature variation on conductors and earth wires?
Ans. The temperature range varies for different localities under different diurnal and seasonal
condition. The absolute maximum and minimum temperature, which may be expected in
different localities in the country are indicated on the maps of India. These may be used for
assessing the temperature stresses in conductor and ground wire.
I,
f:
Q8. Give the criteria for selecting the dimensions of the chimney.
Ans. The criteria for selecting the dimensions of the chimney are:
a) Minimum height of flare be equal to onethird the height of chimney.
b) Minimum outside diameter of unlined chimney shell at top be equal to
onetwentieth the height of the cylindrical portion of the chimney and for lined
chimney it shall be onetwenty fifth the height of the cylindrical portion.
c) Minimum outside diameter of flare chimney shell at base be equal to 1.6 times the
outside diameter of chimney shell at top.
Q9. What is the purpose of chimney lining?
Ans. The purpose of chimney lining is:
a) To protect the chimney shell from heat.
b) To act as a protective covering thus reducing corrosion.
c) To maintain the temperature of the flue gases.
Q10. Discuss about the dimensions of steel stacks.
Ans: Steel stacks are cylindrical in shape. The basic dimensions, Le., the height and clear
diameter depends upon several factors such as the draft required, flue gas velocity, flue
gas temperature, natural or mechanical draft, turn down ratio, site data and type of fuel
adopted.
110
Section  D
Long Answer Type Questions:
Q1: What are Transmission Line Towers? What are the various types of structure which
support the electric power transmission line?
Ans: Transmission line towers are used for supporting the extra high voltage (EHV) electric
transmission lines. These lines also carry very heavy currents, to the tune of several
hundred amperes. It is therefore necessary that these transmission lines should be carried
at a level which is very much higher than the ground level. This has necessitated the use of
tall towers to support the transmission lines conductors carrying a combination a EHV and
heavy currents.
Following are various types of structures which support the electric power transmission
lines:
(1) Structures made of timber
(i) Wood poles (N) Wood Hpoles
CROSS
.  . ~ ....'S.ARMS
( Q ) ( b)
Fig. Fabricated Poles
These have now become obsolete.
2) Structures made of concrete
(i) R.C.C. poles
(ii) Prestressed concrete poles. These are still used or supporting relatively low
voltage transmission lines.
3) Structures made of structural steel
(i) Round or Isection steel poles
(ii) Fabricated steel poles
(Hij Flexible towers
(iv) SemiFlexible towers
(v) Selfsupporting wide base towers
(vi) Guyed towers.
111
(c)
,
I
CROSS ARMS
I
..l..
,
\
.
r TRANSMISSION L!NS  __...I
4) structure made of aluminum
i) self supporting towers ii) guyed towers
Q2: What are different types of Transmission Towers? Discuss in detail.
Ans: Towers may support single, double or multiple circuits, along with supporting the ground
wire. Transmission line towers are designed as
i} selfsupporting towers, or
ii) flexible towers.
The selfsupporting towers are subjected to two types of loads: (a) wind loads acting
transversely and (b) longitudinal horizontal loads occurring when pan or all of the
conductors snap in one span, forcing the structure to resist the unbalanced cable pulls from
the unbroken span. These towers are therefore rigid in both the directions. In contrast to
these, flexible tower are rigid only in transverse direction (to resist wind loads) and their
longitudinal stability is provided by the cables. Due to this reason, selfsupporting towers
are preferred. However, where it is not possible to provide selfsupporting towers, flexible
towers are provided, but then it is essential to provide selfsupporting towers at some
suitable interval to prevent the simUltaneous collapse of the whole line.
I! __ __ !
~ I'
I ,'' .
__..l._~ l/2.
I J ~ 9 / 2
~     . . i /
I;
\
\ TRANSMISSION LINES
. ~
( b ) ANGLE TOWER
Again based on alignment, towers may be of two types: (i) line towers or tangenttowers
and (ii) angle towers. Towers on straight line portion of the transmission line are known as
line towers. Angle towers are provided at angles in the lines and are designed to resist the
angular component of the cable pulls. These are placed in such a way that the axis of
crossarms bisects the angle between the deviated transmission line. IS : 802 (part F)
1977 'Code of practice for use of structural steel in over head transmission line towers'
recommends the following four types of towers
(a) Tangent tower 0to 2line deviatior'
(b) Small angle tower ': 10line deviation with suspension insulators
(e) Medium angle tower : 30line tower
(d) Large angle (60) and dead end tower.
112
(0) LINE TOWER (TANGENT TOWER)
Figure
Power conductors are supported by one or more strings of insulators, hanging vertically
from the tower cross arms. The conductors or wires hang between the towers, and are in
tension. The spacing of tangent towers (also known as suspension towers) depend upon
terrain. Tangent towers are spaced from 200 to 400 m apart for lines with voltage of
220300 kV and from 400 to 600 m for lines with high voltage Beca,use of high voltage
carried by the conductors, there should be a clear verrtical distance of 6 to 10 metres
between the ground level and suspended conductors, Due to this reason, the height of
tower ranges from 20 to 40 metres, depending upon the spacing of towers, The weight of a
single suspension, tower for 220500 kV may range between 40 to 80 kN. Where, from
terrain considerations, it is considered advantageous to have tangent towers with 0 line
deviation, the towers may be designed accordingly. The angle of line deviation specified
above are for the normal span. The span may, however, be increased upto an optimum
limit by reducing the angle of line deviation,
Q 3: What are the different types of Loads acting on Transmission Line Towers?
Ans: The transmission line towers are subjected to the following loads:
(a) Vertical loads (b) Lateral or horizontal loads (c) Longitudinal loads and (d) Torsional
loads.
(a) Vertical loads: These arise from the following:
(i) Weight of tower structure
(ii) Weight of insulator strings and fittings
(iii) Weight of power conductors
(iv) Weight of ground wire
(v) Weight of ice coatings (if any)
(vi) Weight of maintenance crew (line man) with tools (1.5 kN)
(b) transverse or horizontal loads '(T) ,
(i) Wind (or seismic) load on conductors
Oi) Wind (or seismic) load on ground wire
(iii) Wind (or seismic) load on insulator string
(iv) Wind (or seismic) load on tower structure
(v) Transverse components of tensions in conductors
(c) Longitudinal load (P)
(I) Unbalanced pull due to a broken conductor
(ii) Unbalanced pull due to broken ground wire
(iii) Seismic load on wires
(iv) Seismic load on tower structure
(v) Load due to temperature variation
(d) Torsional load (MJ
(0 Due to earth wire broken
113
(N) Due to conductor broken,
(iii) Conditions of design": Design is done under two conditions:
(i) Normal condition and
(ii.) Broken Wire Condition
Q4: What are the different conditions used for the design of Transmission line towers?
Ans: A broken wire condition occurs when a wire (Le. conductor wire or earth wire) breaks from
one line, giving rise to an unbalanced longitudinal force.
As per IS: 802 (Part I) the following brokenwire conditions may be assumed in designs:
(a) Single circuit towers Anyone powerconductor broken or one
(i) Tangent tower (2) groundwire broken, whichever is more
(ii) Small angle tower (10) stringent for a particular member
(i) Medium angle lower ,(30)
(N) Large angle tower (upto<) 60) end.
tower and dead end tower
(b) Double circuit towers Anyone powerconductor broken or one
(i) Tangent tower (2) groundwire broken; whichever is more
(N) Small angle tower (10") stringent for a particular member
(iii) Medium angle tower (30") Any two of the power conductors broken on
the same circuit and on the same span, or
anyone of the power conductors and one
ground wire broken on the same span;
whichever combination constitutes the most
stringent condition for a particular member.
(iv) Large angle tower(upto 60") and Three power conductors broken on the same
end tower: circuit and on the same span or any two of the
power conductors and anyone ground wire
broken on the same span; whichever
constitutes the most stringent
condition for a particular member.
(c) Crossarms: In all tower deSigns, the powerconductor
supports and earthwire supports: shall be
designed for the brokenwire supports shall
be designed for the brokenwire conditions
also.
114
Q5: How will you analyse the weight of tower, conductors and ground wire?
Ans: Weight of tower: The weight (W) of tower may be estimated by comparison with similar
existing towers. Alternatively, it may also be estimated with the help of the following
empirical.
formulae by Ryle.
(i) W= kH (mi" kN . ...(1 )
H = overall height of tower above ground (m)
M = (overturning moment at ground, due to wind, in kNm
k =constant, the value of which usually lies between 0.035 and 0.046
(n) W= cKh (Fr + 0.41 F/2 + F/
213
) kN ... (2)
c =constant, varying from 0.043 to 0.065
h =height of c.g. of conductor loads above ground, m
F
t
= total conductor transverse load (kN)
Fv =total conductor vertical load (kN)
F, = longitudinal conductor load
K L2 for suspension towers.
37
/13.5 lor dead end lowers.
L =maximum torque arm for longitudinal load (m)
For the design of a leg member, 2 kN per meter may' be used as weight of the
tower'  weight of conductors and ground wire. The vertical load due to conductors and
ground wire shall be based on the appropriate weight span. A provision of 1.5 kN may be
made for the weight of a lineman with tools.
These loads are addition to the vertical loads due to insulators and fittings and dead weight
of the structure. In computing the weight of conductor and earth wire, the weight span,
which is 1.5 times the normal span or wind span, is used. In broken wire condition, 60% of
the weight span is used, accounting for 10% for the broken wire and 50% for the span with
unbroken wire. For tower and crossarm design, the weight of maintenance crew with tools
(1.5 kN) is used while for the of crossarm only, an additional erection load of 3.5 kN
is used. The weight of string insulator, 225 mm in diameter with a length of 2 m may be
taken as 2 kN.
Thus, if L is the wind span(m), We is the weight of earth wire (N/m) and We is the weight of
conductor (N/m), the vertical loads for normal and broken wire conditions will be as under
table.
115
TABLE: VERTICAL LOADS DUE TO CONDUCTOR AND EARTH WIRE
Item Vertica//oad, in N, under
Normal Condition Bracken wire condition
(a) Earth wire support
(i) Weight of wire per weight span,
(Ii) Weight of earth wire attachment
(iii)
Weight of line man with tools
(1.5 L) We
50
1500
0.6 (1.5 L) W"
50
1500
Total V,,= Sum Sum
(b) Conductor support
(i) Weight of conductor per weight span
! (ii) Weight of insulator string
(iii) Weight of lineman with tools
(1.5 L) We
2000
1500
0.6 (1.5 L) We
2000
1500
Total Ve= Sum Sum
Q6: What are the different types of Lateral Loads acting on the transmission line
towers?
Ans: The wind pressures contained in IS : 802 (Part 1) 1967 are based on IS 875 1964. Since
IS 875 has been revised in 1987, wind pressures on tower structure as well as on
conductors etc should be computed based on recommendations contained in 1 S:875
(Part 3) 1987.
(i) Wind load on tower structure: The wind pressures on towers and supports shall be
computed as per IS : 875  1987. The wind load is then computed by multiplying the
basic wind pressure by the exposed projected area, using appropriate solidity ratio
and wind force coefficient. In case of lattice steel and other compound structures,
the wind pressure on the leeward side members may be taken as onehalf the
pressure on wind ward side members. In other words, the wind load on the tower is
taken as the load on 0.5 times the exposed area of one face. The wind pressure
intensity on towers varies from 1.5 to 2.8 kN/mz, depending on the zone and the
height above the ground where wind is considered.
Wind load on insulator strings: In calculating the wind pressure on insulator strings
(if any), the pressures as for towers are to be used on 0.5 times the projected area
of the cylinder having its diameter equal to the diameter of the insulator skirt.
(iii) Wind load on conductors and earth wire: The wind pressure on wires may be taken
as 0.42 kN/m2 for light wind zone, 0.44 kN/m2 for medium wine zone and
0.51 kN/m2 on heavy wind zone. For wind load calculations, the full projected area
of each wire (whether single or a part of bundle of wires) over a length of wind span
116
is used. Thus, the shape factor' of 1.0 is taken for 'circular wires. The wind span (L')
is taken as the sum of the two half span on either side of the support under
consideration. Under broken wire condition, 60% of the wind span is used,
accounting for 10% for the broken wire span and 50% for the span with unbroken
wire.
Lateral load due to deviation B: In addition to the lateral l o ~ d due to wind, lateral (or
horizontal) load is also induced due to deviation B in the line wires. Thus, if T is the
tension in the wire. the lateral load due to a deviation of B in the direction will be equal to
27 sin B. For normal condition; for broken wire condition. this lateral load will be equal to
(.!. 27sin B).
2
Q7: Under what conditions, Longitudinal and torsional loads occur in Transmission
Tower?
Ans: Longitudinal loads: Longitudinal loads are mainly caused due to broken wire condition. and
these loads have much more effect on the design of the tower than any other load. The
unbalanced pull due to broken conductor. in case of supports with suspension strings. may
be assumed equal to 50 per cent of the minimum working tension (Tc) of the conductor.
In case of blindle conductors, the pull due to broken conductor may be assumed to be
equal to 25% of the maximum working tension of all the sub conductors in one bundle. For
the ground wire broken condition. 100 per cent or such percentage of ground wire tension,
for which the ground wire clamp is proportioned and whichever is less should be
considered for be purpose of design of tower.
\
Thus, if Te and To are the working tensions in earth wire and conductor respectively and B
is the deviation, the longitudinal loads will be as given is Table.
TABLE: LONGITUDINAL LOADS
Longitudinal/oads
Norma/ condition
Item
Broken wire condition
Te cosO Nil (a) Earth wire broken (100%)
~ Tc cosO (b) Conductor broken (50%) Nil
Torsional load (mJ
Torsional moment is caused under broken wire condition, when the broken earth wire or
conductor wire is located at an eccentricity e with respect to the centre line of the tower. as
shown in Fig.
117
 ......,.,
...... .
I.
(0)
. !
I
. I
1Ft.
I
r
t
i l.l
I
The torsional moment (M
t
) is given by
Mt =PL. e
The torsional shear per face,
!L=m
t
t 2b
Q8: Discuss the different types of steel chimneys along with their advantages.
Ans: Chimneys are used to emit the exhaust gases higher up in the atmosphere so that diffusion
of gases may take place. Chimneys may be constructed of steel, R.C.C. or masonry. Steel
chimneys, also known as steel stacks, are ideally suited for process work where a short
heat up period and low thermal capacity are required whereas it encourages acid
condensation and corrosion, and hence smuting and reduction in the life of chimney.
Reinforced concrete chimneys are more expensive than other forms of construction upto
about 45 m height, out above this, they are more competitive. Above 65m height, they are
more readily acceptable because of their flexibility of shape and flue layouts, in addition to
the absence of any limitation on size. Brick chimneys are suitable in clay industries for use
with intermittent kiln firing,and with, very high temperatures. They are cheaper
for smaller heights but require regular attention and, therefore, involve  high maintenance
cost.
On the basis of types of construction of the shaft, steel stacks (or chimneys) are classified
into two types as shown in figure: (i) Self supporting stacks  and (ii) Guyed stacks.
118
A selfsupporting steel stack is made of steel plates supported on the foundation (Fig. a).
The wind or earthquake forces are transferred to the foundation by cantilever action. For
heights more than 60m, guyed steel stacks may be used, as shown in Fig. (b). The ropes or
guys attached to the chimney transmit the lateral forces and thus ensure their stability.
When one set of guys are used, they are attached to a collar at one third or onefourth of
the height from the top. Steel stacks are fined from inSide. by a suitable refractory material
as per relevant Indian Standard Specifications .
(b) GINED CHIMNfVS
(0) SELF 
SlJPPQRTING
CHIMNEYS
Q9: On what factors, the dimensions of chimney depends? Give the criteria for selecting
the dimension of chimney.
Ans: Steel stacks are cylindrical in shape. The basic dimensions, I.e., the height and clear
diameter depends upon several factors such as the draft required, flue gas velocity, flue
gas temperature, natural or mechanical draft, turndown ratio. site data (such as ambient
temperature. barometric pressure etc.) and the type of fuel adopted. The chimney should
be at least 5 m taller than the tallest building in the surrounding area of 150 m radius. Fig.
shows a selfsupporting steel stack, which is cylindrical for the major portion of the height,
except at the bottom, where the stack is given a conical flare for better stability and for easy
entrance of flue gases. The diameter of the base of the conical flare may vary between 413
to 5/4 of the diameter of the cylindrical portion. While the height of conical portion may vary
from 1. to 1. of the total height of the stack.
3 4
119
CYLINDRICAL
PORTiON
~ :
Though, due to the flare, the unit stresses are reduced, the thickness of plates in the flared
portion should not be thinner than the thickness of the lowermost course in the cylindrical
portion. As, per IS: 6533 (part 2); 1989, proportion_ of the basic dimensions of a self
supporting chimney shall conform to the following.
CLE NOUT
DOOR
,
(a) Minimum height of flare be equal to one thiro the height of chimney.
(b) Minimum outside diameter of unlined chimney shell at top be equal to one twentieth of the
height of cylindrical portion of chimney and for lined chimney it shall be onetwenty fifth of
the height of cylindrical portion.
(c) Minimum outside diameter of flared chimney shell at base be equal to 1.6 times the outside
diameter of chimney shell at top.
The inside diameter of the chimney in m is given by.
D= f4Q
v;;v
Q =quantity of the gas in m
3
/sec.
V =velocity of the flue gas at exit point of chimney, in m/sec.
However, the diameter shall be so chosen that the velocity will not exceed, under any
circumstance,30 m/sec. Toe optimum range ot velocity may be taken as 15 to 20 m/sec.
The height of chimney depends upon the dispersion requirement of the flue gases into the
atmosphere.
120
Q 10: What is the purpose of chimney lining? What are the different types of lining
provided for steel chimney?
Ans: Lining for steel chimney may be required for one or more of the following purposes:
i) to protect the chimney shell from heat, (ii) to act as a protective covering thus
reducing corrosion, and (iii) to maintain the temperature of the flue gases. Lining is carried
to the full height of the stack, and is supported on steel angles riveted to the inside of the
stack. Lining may be of the following materials: (i) fire bricks, (ii) insulation refractory bricks
(iii) solid grade diatomaceous (Molar) bricks, (iv) acid resisting bricks, (v) solid grade
diatomaceous concrete, (vi) refractory concrete and (vii) sand and cement mixtures.
Fire bricks, having an alumina content between 28 to 32 percent are satisfactory for the
majority of applications. Fire bricks are made in radial form to suit the chimney dimensions.
These bricks are set in mortar made from ground fire clay. Insulation refractory bricks are
available in three grades suitable to temperatures of 850,1250and 1500C. Solid grade
diatomaceous bricks are made to suit the diameter of the chimney and in suitable thickness
(generally between 76 to 114 mm) to suit the degree of insulation required. These bricks
are set in mortar made from bricks material ground to powder form with the addition of
Portland or high alumina cement. Acid resisting bricks are used when the flue gases are
highly acidic or are at temperature at or below 150 C. These are set in acid resisting
cement. The aggregate for solid grade diatomaceous concrete is of the same materials as
the bricks mentioned above, in appropriate grading, and is mixed with high alumina
cement. The concrete can be precast in shapes as required, cast in situ or placed by the
'gunning' process. The thickness of the monolithic lining should, in no case, be less than 50
mm. A minimum cover of 25, mm should be provided to anchorages whereas corrosive
conditions exist. Refractory concrete lining may be formed insitu or applied 'by 'gunning'
process. In use, it is similar to a fire brick lining and fulfills similar requirements. Sand and
cement mixtures are suitable for lining constructed by the gunning process, more 'generally
for use in the low temperature range.
Brickwork: Shaped 'bricks should be used for chimneys upto 4 m in internal diameter, and
the general contour of the brickwork should correspond with the curvature of the chimney
shell Joists, should be properly ruled and should be as thin as possible. Mortar should not
be placed between the bricks and the steel shell and there should be no cavity between
them and the shell. Normally, the nominal thickness of the brickwork should be not less
than 114mm and should be taken to the top of chimney unless the operating conditions are
such that the lining of the whole chimney is not required.
Q 11:
Ans:
What are the different loads acting on chimney? What are
combinations used for the design of chimney and its foundation?
Following forceslloads act on a steel stack:
the different
1. Dead load due to self weight of chimney stack, including the weight of permanent
fixtures such as ladders, platforms, baffles, guys (if any) etc.
2. Weight of lining.
121
3. Imposed loads on platform, usually taken at the rate of 3 k N/m2
4. Wind loads (including static and dynamic effect of wind)
5. Seismic loads.
Loads combinations
For the design of chimney and its foundation, any of the following load combinations which
produce maximum forces and effects and consequently maximum stresses should he
considered.
(a) Dead load + wind load.
(b) Dead load + earthquake load.
(e) Dead load + load due to lining + imposed load on service platform +wind load, or
(d) Dead load + load due to lining + imposed load on service platforms + earthquake
loads.
Q12: How you will analyse stresses in chimneys which occurs due to self weight and
lining?
Ans: 1. Stresses due to self weight of chimney. At any section h below the top, the self
weight of chimney about that section is given by
W=1C Dthp
Where D =diameter of chimney (m)
t = thickness of plate (m)
h =height of stack above the section (m)
p = unit weight of steel =78.5 k N/m
3
Hence the stress due to weight of stack is given by
2
J: Ws =h.pkN I m
s tcDt
fs =0.0785 h Nlnm2
2. Stresses due to weight of lining. The load due to weight of lining is given
VVi =re Dt,hp,
where t, =thickness of lining =0.1 m (assumed)
PI = unit weight of lining ;20 kN/m
3
Stress due to weight of lining is given by
J, = ~ = reD(O.l)h20 kN1m2
t reDt reDt
2hkN
h
2
F[ = _t=O.002N I mm
z
m t
More precisely, W;=re(Dt,)t/hp,
122
re(Dt,)tlp/h
..
w;
reDt
re(D  0.1) 0.1 x 20h
Or
It
reDt
Or
(DO.l)2h kNm2 r:::,2h kl N 1m2
It
Dt t
123
CHAPTER 7: LIGHT GAUGE STEEL SECTIONS
SECTION A
Multiple Choice Type Questions:
1. Which of the following is a type of light gauge steel member?
a. Framing members
b. Floor and wall panels
c. Wall claddings
d. All of the above
2. The thickness of framing members generally range from:
a. 1.2 mm to 4.0 mm
b. 4.00 mm to 6.00 mm
c. 0.5 mm to 1.2 mm
d. None of the above
3. The method of manufacturing light gauge section is:
a. Cold rolling
b. Pressing in press brakes
c. Both (a) and (b)
d. None of the above
4. Light gauge members are having thickness not more than:
a. 10 mm
b. 12.5 mm
c. 18.5 mm
d. 22.5 mm
5. Light gauge members are widely used in:
a. Bus body
b. Railway coaches
c. Deck of roof
d. All of the above
6. Code of practice for use of cold formed light gauge steel structural members in general
building construction is:
a. IS: 8001984
b. IS: 8011987
c. IS: 8111974
d. None of the above
124
7. Code of practice for general construction in steel is:
a. IS: 8001984
b. IS: 8011987
c. IS: 8111974
d. None of the above
8. The standard roof decks, are used on span between Purlins upto:
a. 2.5m
b. 5m
c. 7.5m
d. 10 m
9. The cellular shape for deck. permits:
a. installation of sound absorbing materials
b. installation of recessed lighting
c. both (a) and (b)
d. none of the above
10. Which of the following is not an advantage of different deck and panel shapes?
a. Light weight
b. Absence of shoring
c. Heavier load carrying capacity
d. Speed of erection
11. Different shape of deck and panel is selected because it;
a. lVIinimise the deflection
b. Provide maximum coverage
c. Permit adequate insulation
d. All of the above
12. In case of light gauge steel sections, ratio of width to thickness is:
a. Quite small
b. Quite large
c. Medium
d. None of the above
13. The failure of plate element of light gauge steel members is due to:
a. Buckling
b. Compression
c. Bending
d. None of the above
125
~ , '.
.".,
!
14. Device used for connecting light gauge structural members is:
a. welding
b. Riveting
c. Screwing
d. All of the above
15. The tension stress on the net section of a bolted connection shall not exceed:
a. 0.4 fy
b. 0.6 fy
c. 0.8 fy
d. 0.9 fy
Key:
1. (d) 2. (a) 3. (c) 4. (b) 5. (d)
6. (b) 7. (a) 8. (b) 9. (c) 10. (c)
11. (d) 12. (b) 13. (a) 14. (d) 15. (b)
126
Section B
True I False Type Questions:
1.
Light gauge steel structural members are cold formed from steel sheets or strips.
2.
Light gauge members can be either coldformed in roiLs or by press brakes from flat steel
generally not thicker than 12.5 mm.
3.
Code of practice used for general construction in steel is IS: 8011987.
4.
When a flat element is stiffened at only one edge parallel to the direction of stress, the
element is considered as stiffened compression member.
5. The cold rolled steel sections are produced from strip steel conforming to IS: 10791973.
6. In the case of light gauge members, the ratio of width to thickness of the plate element is
small.
7.
When a column, buckles, it has no post buckling strength.
8. Maximum bending stress can be cOITIPuted by dividing the maximum bending moment by
the section modulus.
9. Fusion welding is used for connecting cold formed light gauge steel members.
10. Light gauge members are widely used in the construction of Bridges.
Key:
1. T 2. T 3. F 4. F 5. T
6. F 7. T 8. T 9. T 10. F
127
SECTION C
Short Answer Type Questions:
Q1. What are the two processes for manufacturing or forming the light gauge section?
Ans. the two processes for manufacturing or forming the light gauge section are:
a) Cold Rolling.
b) Processing in press brakes.
Q2. What are the uses of light gauge steel?
Ans. Light gauge steel are used:
1. Where moderate loads and spans make the thicker hot rolled shapes
uneconomical.
e.g. joists, purlins, roof trusses, complete framing for 1 & 2 storey residential,
commercial and industrial structure.
2. Where it is desired that load carrying members also provide useful surfaces.
e.g. Floor panels, roof decks, mostly installed without any shoring and wall
panels.
3. Where sub assemblies of such members can be prefabricated in the plan,
reducing site erection to a minimum of simple operation.
e.g. subassembly of panel framing upto 3*4 or more the structures listed in standardized
package, shed type utility building, etc.
Q3. What do you mean by stiffened and unstiffened compression elements?
Ans. When any flat compression element is stiffened on both edges parallel to the direction of
stress by connecting to a stiffening element offering a specified resistance to lateral
deflection, then the element is considered as stiffened. When a flat element is stiffened at
only one edge parallel to the direction of the stress, the element is considered as
unstiffened.
Q4. Give the formula for critical stress of a plate in compression.
Ans. The formula for critical stress of a plate in compression is given as follows:
Fcr= k{n
2
E)/12(1ll)(w/F)
Where
fer= critical stress
E= modulus of elasticity
IJ= poisson's ratio
w= width of plane
t= thickness of plate
k= constant depending on the manner in which the plate is supported.
128
Q5. What are the devices used for connecting the light gauge structural members?
Ans. The devices used for connecting the light gauge structural members are:
1. Welding.
2. Bolting.
3. Screwing.
4. Riveting.
5. Special devices include:
A) metal stitching.
B)
connecting by upsetting by means of special clinching tools.
Q6.
What are the requirements that govern the bolted connections of cold formed steel
structural mt:mber?
Ans.
The requirements that govern the bolted connections of cold formed steel structural
member are:
1. Minimum spacing and edge distance in line of stress.
2. Tension stresses on net section.
3. Bearing stress in bolted connection.
4. Shear stress on bolts.
Q7. What do you mean by fusion welding?
Ans. It is used for connecting cold formed light gauged steel members to each other as well as
connecting such member to heavy hot rolled steel framing. It is used in fillet welds, butt
welds and in plug. These latter are often used in connecting light gauge to heavy rolled
steel and are made by burning a circular hole through the sheet and fillet welding, the
sheet along periphery of the hole to the underlaying, heavy steel section.
,
Q8. Give the advantages of the deck and panel shapes?
Ans. 1. Light weight, resulting in reduction in the cost of main framing and foundation.
2. Speed of erection.
3.
Absence of shoring or temporary supports for floors and roofs for immediate
availability.
4.
Adaptability to later changes and additions.
5.
Suitability to perform enumerated ancillary functions.
Q9. What do you mean by flat width ratio?
Ans. The flat width ratio of a single flat element is the ratio of flat width w, exclusive of the end
fillets, to the thickness. In case of section such as I, T, channels and Z shaped sections,
the width w is the width of the flat projection of the flange from web, exclusive of end
fillets and of any stiffening lip may be at the outer edge of the flange. In case of multiple
129
web section, the width w is the flat width of flange between adjacent web, exclusive of
fillets.
Q10. What do you mean by Multiple stiffened elements and subelements?
Ans. When an elements is stiffened between webs, or between a web and stiffened edge, by
means of intermediate stiffeners which are parallel to the direction of stress, then it is
known as multiple stiffened element.
Multiple Stiffened Sub
+ + Elements
U LC
J
U
Q11. What do you mean by Light gauge steel structural members?
Ans. Light gauge steel structural members are cold formed from steel sheets or strips. Various
cold formed light gauge members can be divided into three heads.
a. Framing members, such as beams, joists, studs, etc.
b. Floor and wall panels and long span roof deck.
c. Wall claddings and standard rood deck.
130
SECTION D
Long Answer Type Questions:
Q.1. What do you mean by Light Gauge Steel Structural members? What are the
different types of light gauge members? Also give the method of their processing.
Ans: Light gauge, steel structural members are cold formed from steel sheets or strips. Various
cold formed light gauge members can be divided into three heads. :
i) Framing members, such as beams, joists, studs etc.
H) Floor and wall panels and long span roof deck
iii) Wall claddings and standard roof deck
The thickness for framing members generally range from 1.2 mm to 4.0 mm. The
thickness of floor and wall panel sections and for long span roof deck varies from 1.2 to
2.5 mm. The thickness of wall claddings and standard roof deck varies from 0.8 to 1.2
mm. In India, light gauge members are widely used in bus body construction, railway
coaches etc., and the thickeness ofthese members may vary from 1.0 to 3.2 mm.
There are mainly two processes for manufacturing or forming the light gauge sections:
(i) Coldrolling (ii) Pressing in pressbrakes.
Light gauge members can be either coldformed in rolls or by press brakes from flat steel
generally not thicker than 12.5 mm. For repetitive mass production, these are formed
most economically by coldrolling,. while small quantities of special shapes are most
economically produced on press brakes. The latter process, with its great versatility of
shape variation makes this type of construction as adaptable to special requirements as
reinforced concrete is in its field use. Presently, light, gauge members are produced in
India both by press brake system (for use in small quantities) and by coldrolling (for use
in large quantities). These members are connected together by spot, fillet, plug or slot
welds, by screws, bolts, cold rivets, or by special fasteners.
Q.2. What is the use of light gauge steel sections? Under what conditions it is preferred
to hot rolled sections?
Ans: The use of light gauge steel section is not new it was being used in the form of
corrugated sheet to serve as roof coverings. However, its use has increased considerably
in the recent past. The cold formed structural members are used in preference to the
usual hot rolled sections in the following situations:
1. Where moderate loads and spans make the thicker hot rolled shapes
uneconomical; for example, jOists, purlins, girts, roofs trusses, complete framing
for one and two storey residential, commercial and industrial structures.
2. Where it is desired that the load carrying members also provide useful surface;
for example, floor panels and roof decks, mostly installed without any shoring and
wall panels, and
131
I
1
3. Where subassemblies of such members can be prefabricated in the plant,
reducing site erection to a minimum of simple operations; for example, sub
of panel framing upto 3 x 4 m or more for structures listed in (a),
standardized package shed type utility building etc. The design in coldformed
light gauge steel is governed by the following codes. :
1. IS:8001984: Code of practice for general construction in steel.
2. IS: 800 1987: Code of practice for use of cold formed light gauge steel structural
members in general building construction.
3. IS: 8111974: Specifications for cold formed light gauge structural steel sections.
The structural steel sheet used for production of these light gauge sections should
conform to IS:1079.
Q.3. Define the following terms related to light gauge steel members:
1. Stiffened Compression Element
2. Unstiffened Compression Element
1. Stiffened compression element: When any flat compression element (such as a plane
compression flange of a flexural member shown in. Fig. a, band c, or a plane web or
flange of a compression member) is stiffened on both edges parallel to the direction of
stress by connecting to a stiffening element (such as a web, flange stiffening lip,
intermediate stiffener or the like), offering a specified resistance to lateral deflection, then
the element is considered as stiffened.
STIFFENED
STIFFENED
COMPRESSION ELEMENT
)
SrlFF'.ENEOO .. .
COMPRESSION
ELEMENTS
td ) (p )
In Fig. (a), the horizontal flange (which is the compression flange of a flexural member) is
stiffened along one edge by the stiffening lip and along the other edge by the vertical
web. Similarly, in Fig. (b), the horizontal compression flange of the flexural member is
r ELEMENT
(c)
stiffened along both the edges by vertical webs. In Fig. (d), the web of a compression
member is stiffened by flanges. Lastly, all the elements (i.e. webs as well as flanges) of
the compression members shown in Fig. (e) are stiffened.
UNSTIFFENEO
.COMPRESSION
. UNSTfFFENgO
ELFZME'NTS
COMPRES'SfON
(a)
(b)
Fig. Unstiffenened Compression Elements
2. Unstiffened compression element. When a flat element is stiffened at only one edge
parallel to the direction of stress, the element is considered as unstiffened. For example,
in Fig. (a), both the flange as well as the web are unstiffened. Similarly, the flanges of
members of Fig. (b) are unstiffened.
Q.4. Discuss in detail about local buckling of thin element.
Ans: In the case of light gauge members,. the ratio of width to thickness (wit) of the plate ele
ment is quite large and hence failure of plate elements is invariably by buckling. In
contrast to this, in hotrolled sections, the buckling of the plate elements was neglected
because limits were put on the width thickness ratio of plate elements so that they fail by
yielding and not by buckling. For light gauge plate elements, the buckling occurs at low
stresses resulting due to compression, or bending or shear or bearing.
f
vr' ,
I
J,
Cb) eOGES FIJCED
FIG. Buckling of Rectangular Plate
1l
133
. . . . b J, k ,.2E
The critical stress of a plate In compression IS given y r = 2 2
. 12(l,u )(wlt)
fer =critical stress
E =modulus of elasticity
j.l =Poisson's ratio
w =width of plate
t =thickness of plate
k= constant depending on the manner in which the plate is supported, chiefly along the
longitudinal edges parallel to the compressive stress.
When the edges parallel to the compression stress are simply supported, the value of
k =4. Hence for such a case, the critical stress is given by J, ,.2E
r 3(1,u2)(wlt)2
Q.5. When multiple stiffened compression members are preferred? How will you
analyse them?
Ans: The elements with large flat width ratios become uneconomical because they have only
very small effective widths. For wit =100, less than 50% of the width is effective. For still
larger wit ratio, effective width will be still smaller. In such cases the elements may be
stiffened with intermediate stiffeners.
If the wit ratio of sub element of a multiple stiffened compression element does not
exceed 60, the effective design width b. However, where wit ratio exceeds 60, the
(effective design width be of the sub element is determined from the following formula:
be 60)
t t t
where b =effective width
For computing the effective structural properties of a member having compression sub
elements subject to the above reduction in effective width, the area of stiffeners, (AsU
shall be considered reduced to an effective area (Aef) as follows:
(i) For wit between 60 and 90,
A
e
! =aAst
where a=(32b I
e W 30. w t
(ii) For wit greater than 90,
Aef =(be/w)Ast
In the above expression, Aef and Ast refer only to the area of the stiffener section,
exclusive of any portion of adjacent elements. However, the c.g. of the stiffener and its
134
moment of inertia about its own axes may be considered unchanged.
Adequacy of intermediate stiffeners
In order that a flat compression element may be considered a multiple stiffened element,
it shall be stiffened between webs, or between a web and a stiffened edge, by means of
intermediate stiffeners parallel to the direction of stress, and the moment of inertia of
each such intermediate stiffener shall be not less than twice the, minimum allowable
moment of inertia specified for edge stiffeners, where w is the width of the subelements.
In addition to this, there are some more limitations, for which reference may be made to
clause 5.2.2.2 of IS:8011975
Q. 6. Discuss the different cases of Bending Stress in case of Laterally supported
Beams.
Ans: 1. Bending Stress. The maximum bending stress occurs in the flange, and it can be
computed by dividing the maximum bending moment by the section modulus. For
the case of section with stiffened flanges, section modulus is computed on the
basis of effective area only. Several cases may arise as under.
Case (i) : For sections which are symmetrical about XX axis, (Fig. a) or in which the
tension flanges are heavier than the compression flange (Fig. b), the stiffened compres
sion flange will govern the design. Hence the effective width of compression flange will be
computed on the basis of the basic design, stress fb ( =0.6 fy).
COMPR.ESSION
FLANGE
COMPRESSION FLANGE
TENSION
FLANGE .
(a)
COMPRESSION
FLANGE
_. __.
TENSION FLANGE
(c)
Case (ii). On the other hand, if the compression flange is heavier than the tension flange,
stress in compression flange, at the time of failure, will be smaller than fy, and the tension
flange will yield first. For such a case, the actual stress in compression flange will have to
be found by trial and error procedure because the actual stress will depend on the
position of N.A which will depend upon the effective area of compression flange which
135
... .. ....
itself depends upon the stress in compression flange.
Case (iii}. In case the compression elements consist of both stiffened as well as
unstiffened elements, the stress in it should not exceed the permissible stress.
Q.7. What are the different devices used for connecting light gauge structural
members?
Ans: Following are the devices used for connecting light gauge structural members:
(i) welding, (ii) bolting (iii) riveting, (iv) screwing, and (v) special devices such as metal
stitching and upsetting.
(i) Welding: Welding may be further subdivided in the (a) resistance welding or spot
welding (mostly for shop fabrication), and (b) fusion welding, mostly for erection
welding.
(ii) Bolting: Bolting may be subdivided into (a) ordinary black bolts without special
control on bolt tension, and (b) highstrength bolts with controlled high bolt
tension.
(iii) Riveting: While hot riveting has little application in lightgauge construction, cold
riveting finds considerable use, particularly in special forms, such as blind rivets
(for application from one side only), tubular rivets (to increase bearing area), high
shear rivets, explosive rivets, and others.
(iv) Screwing: This is done mostly by means of selftapping screws of considerable
variety of shapes.
(iv) Special devices: These include (a) metal stitching, achieved by tools which are
special developments of common office stapler, and (b) connecting by upsetting,
by means of special clinching tools which draws the sheets into interlocking
proje,ctions.
Q.B. What are the different types of welding used for connecting light gauge steel
members?
Ans: Following are the different types of welding used for connecting light gauge steel
members:
(a) Fusion welding: It is used for connecting cold formed lightgauge steel members
to each other as well as connecting such members to heavy hotrolled steel framing
(such as floor panels or floor joists to beams and girder: of the, steel frame). It is used in
fillet welds, butt welds (rather rarely) and in plug or puddle welds. These latter are often
used in connecting light gauge to heavy rolled steel and are made by burning a circular
. .
hole through the sheet and fillet welding the sheet along the periphery of the hole to the
underlying, heavy steel section. As per IS : 8011975, the fusion welds shall be
proportioned so that stresses therein do not exceed the values given in Table.
136
TABLE: PERMISSIBLE STRESSES IN FUSION WELDS
Specified minimum yield point of Permissible stress in shear on
lowest strength steel being joined throat of fillet or plug weld
Kglcm
2
Nlmm2
<2500 <245 955 94
>2500 but<3500 >245 but < 343 1100 108
> 3500 >343 1250 122
It is mentioned that shear stresses are referred to the throat of the weld.
This throat is a fictitious dimension, equal to 0.707 t (t being the sheet thickness), the
meaning of which is shown in Fig., that is, in welding thin sheet, the weld shape generally
obtained is that shown in the Figure, with the thickness of the weld actually exceeding
that of the sheet. The intention is to disregard any material deposited beyond the dashed
line in Fig., and to calculate the throat thickness in the same manner as in heavy welded
construction.
The allowable stress in tension or compression on butt welds shall be the same as
prescribed for the lower grade of the base metals being jointed, provided the welds are of
full penetration type and the yield strength of the filler metal is equal to or greater than the
yield strength of the base metal. S t r e s ~ due to eccentricity of loading, if any, shall be
combined with the primary stresses, and the combined stresses shall not exceed the
values given above.
Stresses in a fillet weld shall be considered as shear on the throat for any direction of the
applied stress. Neither plug nor slot welds shall be assigned any value in resistance to
any stresses other than shear.
When plug welds are made with prepunched holes, the length of the fillet weld for
computing weld strength is identical with the perimeter of the hole. When the hole is
burned and weld made in the, same operation, a frequent process (which is more aptly
designated as puddle welding), a conservative procedure is to compute the perimeter for
a hole of diameter 6 to 10 mm less than the visible diameter of the puddle.
(b) Resistance welding (spot welding)
In its normal form as well as by prOjection, welding is probably the most important means
of shop connection in light gauge steel fabrication. As per IS 8011975, in sheets joined
137
by spot welding the allowable shear per spot shall be as given in Table.
TABLE : ALLOWABLE SHEAR STRENGTH PER SPOT
Thickness of
Allowable shear
Thickness at
Allowable shear
strength per
thinnest thinnest
strength per spot
spot
outside outside
I
sheet{mmJ I kg N N kg I sheet (mm)
!
0.25 23 225 2.0 489 4796
57 559 2.50 6129
I
0.80
0.50 625
102 I 1000 I 2.80 750 I 7355 I
159 1559 3.15 09 8915 1.00
1818 17829 1.25 239 2344 5.00
1.60 I
330 3236
! I
. Q.9. What are the various requirements of Bolted connections used for cold formed
steel structural members?
Ans: The following requirements govern bolted connections of cold formed steel structural
members.
(a) Minimum spacing and edge distance in line of stress: The clear distance between
bolts which are arranged in rows parallel to the direction of force. also the
distance from centre of any bolt to that end or other boundary of the connecting
member towards which the pressure of the bolt is directed shall not be less than
1.5 d nor less than P I (0.6 fy .t) where d =dia. of bolt P =force transmitted by
bolt't =thickness of thinnest connected sheet. and fy=yield paint.
(b) Tension stresses on net section: The tension stress on the net section of a bolted
connection shall not exceed 0.6 fy nor shall it exceed:
(1.0  9 r+ 3 rdls) 0.6 fy
where r = the force transmitted by the bolt or bolts at the section considered. divided by
the tension force in the member at that section. If r is less than 0.2. it may be taken as
zero and s = spacing of bolts perpendicular to the line of stress. In the case of a single
bolt. s is equal to the width of the sheet. .
(c) Bearing stress in bolted connections: The bearing stress on the area (d x t) .shall
not exceed 2.1 fy
(d) Shear stress on bolts: Shear stress on the gross crosssectional area of bolt.
under dead and live load. shall not exceed the following values.
1 . Precision and semiprecision bolts 970 kg/cm
2
(95 N/mm2)
2. Black bolts 820 kg/cm
2
(80 N/mrn2)
138
Q.10. Find the allowable load for the rectangular tubular column section shown in
Fig. (a). The effective length of column is 3.6 m. take f
y
=235 N/mm
2
Ans. 1. Computation of sectional properties. The actual section of Fig. (a) can be
replaced by the simplified section of Fig. (b). without much error.
1 (2x2)(12W
2.
I
min
12 4
+2 x 2(196)(59)2
4
=330.5 X 10
4
mm
A=2x2x120+2x2x196
=1264mm
2
. Hence,
Imm 0
4
)/1264
air = 3600 151.13 = 70.4
3. Determination of effective width b. The section consists of stiffened elements
only. Hence basic design stressf= 0.6fy=0.6x235=141N/mm
2
For large plate: w =190 =95
t 2
139
I
b 658 [I 130 ]
t (wlt)fj
=
M 9SM
b;:;98mm
For small plate =
t 2
b 658
t 51 5551
b=44.38x2;:;=88.8mm
The effective section is shown in Fig. c
Determination of factor Q
Aeff = 12642x2x9221.2=811.2mm2
Q= A'fJ = 811.2 =0.642
A 1264
4. Determination of permissible stress and load
c = 12ff2E 2ff2 (2xlO') =129.61
< V fy 235
c 129.61
(Ilr)I' = 17\=
1m vQ ,,0.642
12 3(Qt;Y (,)2
fa = 23 Qt;, 23 1{2E ;
g xO.642x 235 _ 3 (0.642x 235l #70.4 )2=71.26Nfmm
2
23 23 1{2x2xl0
5
permissibleload = fa.A=71.26x1264 ;:; 90080N=90.08 kN
Q.11 Fig. (a) shows the section of a beam which is laterally supported at interval of
1.5m. taking Cb = 1.0, determine the allowable bending moment for the section.
Adopt fy=235N/mm
2
and E =2 x10
5
N/mm
2
,Ans. 1. Computation of sectional properties
Fig. (b) shows the simplified section, from which:
A = (2x1.5x120)+4x1.5x15+4x27x1.5=612mm
2
.
. .
I =4x1.5(120Y 2x1.5(90)3 +4x27x1.5(600.75)2
12 2,
=125046mm
4
140
t+30 30 +{ 1.
.'
30 ....; ....34
2
Isll.e
T 1" 0.;;;;;:>
(0) ACTUAL SECTION
(b) SECTto'"
Figure
1250460 2084lmnf
60
Also,
I 1.5(6W +2 x13.5(300.75)2
yc 12
=50100mm
3
2. Computation of parameters A and B
A=L2Zxc = (l500)2
x
20841 7800
dlyc 120x50100
B= 1{2ECb 1{2 x2.0xl05xl 8400
fy 235
3.
Computation of permissible bending stress 1.8B :::: 1.8x8400 =15119
Thus A lies between 0.36 Band 1.8 B.
f lfY=(2 7800 )235=116.26Nlmm
2
y 3 5AB/ \ 3 5.4x8400
4. Determination of effective width
w 2x4
=30=14.67
t 1.5
(
W\j 446 f,) 446 41.4>14.67
t Jim=!l (where f = b J116.26
Hence the full section is effective.
141
T15 I 1\ II
eO
T
5. Determination of moment of resistance
Mr =ZxcX fb =20841 x 116.26 = 2.42 x10
6
Nmm=2.42 kNm
Q.12. A beam section, shown in Fig. (a) is laterally supported ct 1.1 interval. Taking M1 =.
0.8M
2
, determine the moment of resistance of the section. Take fy =236 N/mm2 and
E =2 X 10
5
N/mm
2
.
Ans.
y
I
_48mm_
24 III 24 I
1.
T
r_...
J
1.5
T
T
60mm 120mm
.... "" ........ "" .. + ..................... ..
t
"'
1    
t
60mm
1.
III
I I
2.5 44 1.5
y
(it) Original Section (b) SimplifiedSec:tlon
1. Computation of sectional properties
The simplified section is shown in Fig. (b).
A =2x1.5x120+2x45x1.5 =495mm
2
+2x45x1.5(600.75)=905926nm2
12
Zxc= 905926=1509&nm
3
60
lyc 1.5(48)3 13824mm4
12
2. Determination parameters A and B
A L
2
Zxc (1100)2 x15098 =11026
dlyc 120x13824
M .
_1=0.8. Hence,
M2
C
b
= 1.75+1.05(0.8)+0.3(0.8)2=1.102
fy
,,2 x2xl0
5
xl.l02
236
142
3. Computation of permissible bending stress
Hence A lies between 0.36 Band 1.8 B
J 11 026 )236
ib l3 5AB 3 5.4x9217
=105.05 N/mm2
4. Determination of fe
For the unstiffened flange element.
244 =13.3
t 1.5
Now 375 = 375 =24.41and 165
flY Ii36 flY .1236
Since wit lies between 10.74 and 24.41. fe is given by Eq.
236[0.76710
3
x13.3.1236=125.32Nlmm
2
> ib
5. Determination of moment of resistance
Since fe>fb. permissible stress = 105.05 Nmm=
Mr = Zxe fb =15098 x 150.05
=1.586 x 10
6
Nmm = 1.586 kNm
143
1
HAPTER 8 : PLASTIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
SECTIONA
Multiple Choice Type Questions:
1. The value of collapse load of simply supported beam having plastic moment Mp is
W
6Mp
a. 4Mp
b.
L
L
8Mp
c. 5Mp
d.
L
L
2.
The value of collapse load of the beam as shown in the figure will be
.!W
2 Load
{
. :':
  j
'"
\ 1,t "
"
L
4Mp
a. 5Mp
b.
L
L
6Mp
c. 8Mp
d.
L
L
3. If Mp is plastic moment capacity of the cross section of the portal frame shown in the
figure, value of load W at collapse in that frame will be
2W
W
h
h
2
2
h
h
2
2
6Mp
a. Mp
b.
L
L
4Mp
c. 2Mp
d.
L
L
144
4. If plastic moment capacity of the beam is Mp as shown in the figure, then value of
collapse load w will be
w
a b
2MpL
a.
ab
1fI",11
2MpL
b.
ab
3MpL
c.
ab
4MpL
d.
ab
5. Collapse load of beam as shown in the figure will be
4Mp
a.
L
6Mp
b.
L
8Mp
c.
L
16Mp
d.
L
6. In propped cantilever loaded as shown in the figure, plastic hinge will form
. ~ ) ~
A'" L .. iB
a. AtB
b. At L12 from B
c. At 0.414L from B
d. At 0.414L from A
145
7.
The load ~ t collapse for the cantilever beam as shown in the figure will be
2w
a.
L
Q.75Mp
b.
L
Q.6Mp
c.
L
Q.45Mp
d.
L
8.
At fully plastic section, infinite rotation can occur at
a. Zero moment
b. Constant elastic moment
c. Constant plastic moment
d. All of the above
9.
The shape factor of an isosceles triangle for bending about the axis parallel to the base is
a. 1.5
b. 1.7
c. 2.0
d. 2.34
10.
A rectangular steel section of width 'b' and depth 'h' has been stressedupto yield point
(O'y) up to a depth of ~ from both top and bottom faces under the action of moment 'M'.
the magnitude of the moment M is
a. ~ b h 2 0 '
24 y
b.
146
11. For an Ibeam, the shape factor is 1.12. factor of safety in bending is 1.5. if allowable
stress is increased by 29% for wind and earthquake loads, then load factor is
a. 1.10
b. 1.25
c. 1.35
d. 1.40
12. Mechanism method and the static method of plastic analysis will give
a. Lower and upper bounds respectively on the strength of structure
b. Upper and lower bound respectively on the strength of structure
c. Lower bound on the strength of structure
d. Upper bound on the strength of structure
13. Effect of axial force and shear force on the plastic moment capacity of a section are
a. To decrease and to increase the plastic moment respectively
b. To increase and to decrease the plastic moment respectively.
c. To increase plastic moment capacity in both cases
d. To decrease plastiC moment capacity in both the cases
14. If a structure is statically indeterminate to second degree, then maximum number of
plastic hinges required to render the structure a mechanism is
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. Infinite
15. The statical method of plastic analysis satisfies which condition
a. Equilibrium and mechanism conditioned
b. Equilibrium and plastic moment conditions
c. Mechanism and plastic moment conditions
d. Equilibrium condition only
16. The mechanism method of plastic analysis satisfies
a. Equilibrium and mechanism conditions.
b. Equilibrium and plastic moment conditions
c. Mechanism and plastic moment conditions
d. Equilibrium conditions only
147
17.
Which of1:he following conditions is to be satisfied both in elastic and plastic analysis?
a. Equilibrium condition
b. Yield condition
c. Plastic moment condition
d. Mechanism condition
18.
A simply supported beam of rectangular section and span L is subjected to a uniformly
distributed load at the centre. The length of elasto plastic zone of the plastic hinge will be
a. L/3
b. Llfj
c. Ll2
d. Ll8
19.
The plastic design method is an advantageous replacement over elastic design method
for the structures stressed primarily in bending in case of
a. Statically loaded structures
b. Indeterminate structures
c. Both (a) and (b)
d. None of the above
20. In case of plastic design, calculated maximum shear capacity of a beam as per IS:800
shall be:
a. 0.55 Awfy
b. 0.65 Awfy
c. 0.75 Awfy
d. 0.85 Awfy
Key:
1. (b) 2. (d) 3. . (c) 4. (b) 5. (d) 6. (c)
7. (b) 8. (c) 9. 10. 11.
(d) (c) (d) 12. (b)
13. (d) 14. (c) 15. (b) 16. 17. (a)
(b) 18. (b)
19. (c) 20. (a)
148
SECTION B
True I False Type Questions:
1. The elastic design limits the usefulness of the structural material upto a certain load at
which the maximum stress in the extreme fiber is the yield stress of the material in
bending.
2. The plastic design is an aspect of limit design which is based on the attainment of
maximum plastic strength.
3. The elastic method of analysis is very cumbersome, especially for redundant frames.
4. The plastic method of design gives an uneconomical design.
5. The margin of safety provided in the plastic method. is not less than that provided
according to the past practice.
6. The need for the study of plastic behavior was appreciated by A.E.H. Love in 1892.
7. The possibility of the development of plastic hinge was first suggested by G.V. Kazinczy
in 1934.
8. The plastic theory is based on the plasticity of steel.
Key:
1. T 2. T 3. F 4.. F
5. T 6. T 7. F 8. F
149
SECTION D
Long Answer Type Questions:
Q.1. What are the different methods of structural design? Explain.
Ans: The ability to carry the load is termed as 'structural strength' of the member. There are
three methods of structural design
(i) the elastic design
. (ii) the limit state design, and
(iii) the plastic design or ultimate load design.
The elastic design or the working stress design limits the usefulness of that, structural
material upto a certain load at which the maximum stress in extreme fibers reaches the
yield stress of the material in bending. In such a method, the rest of the crosssection
remains understressed. The working load or stress is determined by "applying a certain
factor of safety to the guaranteed minimum yield stress of steel, and this factor of safety
accounts for unpredictable overload, imperfections of the structure, defective material,
residual stresses etc. Broadly speaking, the structural strength or design load is
controlled by a number of factors  factors that have been called limits of structural
usefulness. These factors are (i) first attainment of yield stress (conventional design or
elastic design), (ii) brittle fracture, (iii) fatigue, (iv) instability, (v) deflection, and (vi)
attainment of maximum plastic strength. Strictly speaking, a design based on anyone of
the above six factors is known as a limit design. The plastic design is all aspect of limit
design which, is based on the attainment, of maximum plastic strength. The unique
feature of the plastic design is that the ultimate load (rather than the yield stress) is
regarded as the design criterion. The term 'plastic' is used because the ultimate load is
found from the strength of steel in the plastic range. The method is also known as the
load factor design or ultimate load design. The concept of ductility of structural steel
forms the basis for the plastic design.
Q.2. Discuss the ductility of Steel, on which plastic theory is based.
Ans: The plastic theory is based on the ductility of steel. Through ductility, structural steel has
capacity of absorbing large deformation beyond elastic limit without the danger of
fracture. However, in the ,plastic range, the of steel depends strongly not only
on its chemical composition but also on the mechanical and thermal treatments to which
it has been subjected.
Fig. (a) shows the complete stressstrain curve of mild steel. Fig. (b) shows the portion
ABC enlarged. It will be seen that the stress  strain relation is linear in the elastic range.
The upper yield is reached at point A, and then the stress suddenly drops to lower yield
stress at B. The strain then increases upto C at constant stress. This represents the
plsstic range. Beyond C the strain increases with the increase of stress and the material
152
is said to be in strain hardening range. For ordinary steel the elastic strain is about 1/12 to
1/15 of strain at the beginning of the strain hardening and about 1/200 of maximum strain.

1
r
c
STRAIN '
ttl) COMP",m sTR!SSSTRAfi CURVE
(b' PORTa. Ale M.ARGEO CUllY[
Experience shows that the metal of rolled beams does not usually exhibit any upper yield
point and that even when an upper yield point exists, it can be removed by cold working
such as straightening. Hence the theory of plastic bending is based on the assumption of
a steel without upper yield point. The strain upto point C is about 1.5%: In plastic design,
at ultimate load the critical straining will not have exceeded about 1.5% elongation.
Hence the strain hardening range is neglected in simple theory of plastic bending. This
reduces complications in the calculations, and still leaves available a major portion of
reserve ductility of steel which can be used as an added margin of safety. Fig. (c) shows
the idealized stressstain curve which forms the basis of plastic design.
Q3. How will you analysed plastic Bending of Beams?
Ans: Let a beam be subjected to an increasing bending moment M (pure bending). The beam
has at least one axis of symmetry so that bending is symmetrical about that axis. When
the bending stresses are within the elastic range, the bending stress distribution will be as
shown in Fig. (b1). The neutral axis will pass through the centroid of the section. As the
moment is increased, yield stress will appear either in the top most or in the bottom most
fibre as the case may be with the neutral axis still paSSing through the centroid of the
153
section [Fig. b2). The moment at which the first yield has occurred is called the Yield
moment (My). With further increase of M, the yield will also occur in the bottom fibre and
it will spread inwards in the top portion [Fig. (b3). The neutral axis no longer passes
through the centroid, its location being determined by the fact that the total compressive
force is equal to the total tensile force over the crosssection.
rAXlS OF
I SYMMETRY
O"<.cr.
GY
0;
(3) (4)
Co) (D)
..
STRAIN I). , (CURVATURE)
t c , CURVE
ReLATIONHIP
Fig. Plastic Bending of Beams
Further increase of bending moment will cause the yield to spread further inwards
towards neutral axis. [Fig.(b4)]. A stage is ultimately reached when the yield spreads
right up to the neutral axis and the section becomes fully plastic [Fig.(b5)]. The
corresponding bending moment is called the full plastic moment and is denoted by Mp.
Neglecting strain hardening in the outer fibres, no further increase in the bending moment
can be attained. The plastic moment, therefore, represents the limiting strength of the
beam in bending. The neutral axis in case of fully plastic section will pass through the
equal area axis. In case of sections having two axes of symmetry, the location of neutral
axis in  elastic and fully plastic conditions remain unchanged. When the fully plastic
moment is reached, the section will act as a hinge permitting rotation. With further
increase of the load, the yield will spread in longitudinal direction:
154
a.4. What do you mean by fully plastic moment? What are the assumptions made for
the evaluation of fully plastic moment?
Ans: The moment of resistance developed by a fully plastic section is called the fully plastic
moment My. The following simplifying assumptions are made for evaluation of fully plastic
moment.
1. The material obeys Hooke's law until the stress reaches the upper yield value; on
further straining the stress drops to the lower yield value and thereafter remains
constant.
2. The upper and lower yield stresses and the modulus of elasticity have the same
values of compression as in tension.
3. The material is homogeneous and isotropic in both the elastic and plastic states.
4. Plane transverse section remain plane and normal to the longitudinal axis after
bending, the effect of shear being neglected.
5. There is no resultant axial force on the beam.
6. The crosssection of beam is symmetrical about an axis through its centroid
parallel to the plane of bending.
7. Every layer of the material is free to expand and contract longitudinally and
laterally under stress as if separated from the other layers.
a.s. What is Plastic Hinge? Explain in detail.
Ans: A plastic hinge is a zone of yielding due to flexure in a structural member. At those
sections where plastiC hinges are located, the member acts as if it were hinged, except
with a constant restraining moment Mp. Just like any ordinary hinge, the plastic hinge
allows the rotation of members on its two sides without change in curvature of members .
The plastiC .hinge is capable of resisting rotation until fully plastic moment is developed
and then permitting rotation of any magnitude while the bending moment remains
constant at Mp.
The hinge extends over a length of member that is dependent on loading and the
geometry. The hinge length I1L is the length of the beam over which the bending moment
is greater than the yield moment My. However in all of its length I1L the sections are not
plastic to its full depth. To illustrate this we shall consider the case of a simply supported
beam loaded with a central point load W, the section of the beam being rectangular.
Let the yielded portion (i.e. the plastic hinge) extreme points be distant x from either end.
The moment at these extreme points is My and the moment at other points beyond these
is less than My,
155
",
,
'f
m
(0)
i.at...
.. II L
t
..
Ie
,
,
II ...
L/J
,,1
a' ..f
..
Ib)
(c)
=
I
E
<1
From Fig. (b) we get,
L
Mp 2
My x
M
p=S=3/2 for rec tan gular section
My
3 L
:'"2= 2x
L
Orx==
3
H 2L L
ence 6.L=L2x=L=:
3 3
Similarly it can be shown that if the beam is of Isection the length!::.L is about U8. The
length!::.L in fact, represents the length of elastoplastic zone.
Because of the shape of the moment curvature diagram [Fig.c] the curvature Fig.c
remains very small near ends C and D of the plastic region, while in the neighborhood of
point E, the curvature is extremely high as shown in Fig. (c). The beam therefore,
156
Q6.
Ans:
deforms very nearly as if it consisted of two rigid portions connected by a hinge in E
[Fig.(d)]. in most of the analytical work, it is assumed that all plastic. rotations occur at a
point, i.e. length If the hinge approaches zero.
What are the conditions, which must be satisfied for the analysis of members with
Plastic Method?
In the elastic method of analysis, three conditions must be satisfied: (1) continuity
condition, (2) equilibrium condition, and (3) limiting stress condition. Thus, an elastic
analysis requires that the deformations must be compatible, the structure should be in
equilibrium and the bending moments anywhere in the structure should be less than My
(or the Stress should be less than O'y).
Compared to this, an analysis according to the plastic method must satisfy the following
fundamental conditions: .
1, Mechanism condition. The ultimate load or collapse load is reached when a
mechanism is formed. There must, however, be just enough plastic hinges that a
mechanism is formed.
2. Equilibrium condition. The summation of the forces and moments acting on a
structure must be equal to zero ..
3. Plastic moment condition. The bending moment anywhere must not exceed the
fully plastic moment.
Actually, these conditions are similar to those in elastic analysis which requires a
consideration of (i) the continuity, (iI) the equilibrium, and (iii) !he limiting stress condition.
The similarity is demonstrated in Fig.
With regard to continuity, in plastic analysis, the situation is just the reverse.
Theoretically, plastic hinges interrupt continuity, so the requirement is that sufficient
plastic hinges form to allow structure (or part of it) to deform as a mechanism. This could
be termed as a mechanism condition. The equilibrium condition is the same. However,
instead of initial field, the limit of usefulness is the attainment of plastic hinge moments;
not only at one crosssection but at each of the critical sections; this condition is termed
as plastic moment condition.
Elastic Anal sis Plastic Ana/ysis
Less than M,
v........r:="""J
M, M,
Continuity Condition Mechanism Condition
Equilibrium Condition
Initial Yield PlastiC moment Condition
(Limiting Stress Condition)
Mp
Mp Mp
Fig. Conditions for Elastic and Plastic Analysis
157
It should, however, be noted that all the three conditions cannot be satisfied in one
operation. Two theorems have been evolved which must be satisfied to ensure that all
the conditions are fulfilled. The general method of plastic analysis and design are based
on the two fundamental theorems evolved by Greenberg and Prager. The first theorem,
called the static or lower bound theorem, furnishes a lower boundary for the limit load, .
while second theorem, called the kinematic or upper bound theorem gives an upper
boundary for the limit load.
and statically admissible bending moment distribution can be found and in this
distribution, the bending moment is equal to the fully plastic moment at sufficient cross
sections to cause failure of the frame as a. mechanism due to rotations of the plastic
hinges at these sections, the corresponding IQad would be the collapse load.
(Le. W= We).
All these theorems are represented diagrammatically in Fig.
Q.8.
Ans:
What are the basic methods used for the Plastic analysis of members?
Based on the two theorems, there are two basic methods of plastic analysis:
Q.7. What are the basic theorems of Plastic Analysis? Discuss in detail.
Ans: Following are the theorems of Plastic Analysis:
1. Static theorem or lower bound theorem. The static theorem states that for .a
given frame and loading, if there exists any distribution of bending moment throughout
the frame which is both safe and statically. admissible, with a set of loads W, the value of
W must be less than or equal to the collapse 'load We.
The distribution of bending moment, such that it satisfies all the conditions of equilibrium
is called statically admissible distribution. If the distribution of bending moment is such
that the fully plastic moment is not exceeded anywhere in frame, it is called safe
distribution.
2. Kinematic or Upper Bound Theorem The upper bound theorem states that for a given
frame subjected to a set of loads W1 the value of W which is found to correspond to any
assumed mechanism will always be greater than or equal to the actual cof/apse load We.
KINEMATIC THEOREM
o
<::
:3
~
a..
<C
...J
.J
W;"w
c
STATIC THEOREM:
War::. Wa
I
I
8
. I
t
'I.'
,
 CURVATURE
Fig. Basic Theorems of Plastic Analysis
This theorem satisfies the equilibrium condition as well as mechanism condition, and
provides the upper bound or limit of collapse load. If the values of W corresponding to a
number of mechanisms for a given frame under given set of loading are found, the
collapse load We will be the smallest of all these found. Uniqueness Theorem or
Combined Theorem. This theorem combines both static as well as kinematic theorems.
The Uniqueness Theorem states that if for a given frame and loading at least one safe
158
(1 ) Static (or equilibrium) method
<
(2) Kinematic (or mechanism) method.
Plastic moment condition
(a) Static or equilibrium method
Equilibrium condition
(b) Kinematic or mechanism method
Mechanism condition
<
In the static or equilibrium method, an equilibrium moment diagram is drawn such that
M:s Mp. The resulting Ultimate load is only the correct value if sufficient plastiC hinges are
assumed to create a mechanism. On the other hand, in kinematic (or mechanism)
method, mechanism is assumed and the resulting equilibrium equations are solved for
the ultimate load. This value is only correct if the plastic moment condition is also
satisfied.
\
1. Static method:
Static method is based on the static or lower bound theorem according to which a load
computed on the basis of an assumed equilibrium moment diagram in which the
moments not greater than Mp, is less than or at best equal to the true ultimate load. In
this method, a moment diagram is sketched in such a way that the conditions of
equilibrium are satisfied. The moments must either be. less than or' equal to Mp. If a
mechanism is formed, then the solution of equilibrium equation will give true collapse
load. If the mechanism is not formed, the moment, at some of the sections will have to be
increased so as to obtain a mechanism. ie. the existing load will have to be increased.
The load will become equal to the collapse load when a mechanism is formed. The
procedure for application of static theorem is as follows:
1. Convert the structure into statically determinate structure by removing the
redundant forces.
2. Draw free bending moment diagram for the structure.
3. Draw the bending moment diagram for the redundant forces.
159
4. Draw the composite bending moment diagram in such a way that mechanism is
obtained.
5. Find out the value of collapse load by solving equilibrium equations.
6.
Check the moments to ensure that M < Mp . If it is so, correct value of collapse
load is obtained.
The method is suitable only for simple structures. For complicated frames; the method
becomes very difficult and, therefore, kinematic method is preferred,
2. Kinematic or Mechanism method:
Kinematic method is based on the kinematic or upper bound theorem according to which
a load computed on the basis of an assumed mechanism will always be greater than or at
best equal to the true ultimate load. For the application of this method, it is very essential
to know the possible types and number of mechanisms. There are four types of
independent mechanisms (Fig.) : (i) beam mechanism, (ii) panel mechanism, (iii)gable
mechanism, and (iv) joint mechanism. Various combination of the independent
mechanisms may be made to obtain certain number of composite mechanisms.
For a particular structure with a loading, the number of independent mechanisms is given
by N = n  T ... (Eq. 1) where N =Number of independent mechanisms n = number of
possible hinges T= number of redundancies.
" VI
 .
t
!o) BEAM MECHANISMS
lil
I
;" ..J
\, ,
,
A number of possible collapse mechanisms may be obtained by the combination of
independent mechanisms. The correct mechanism 'will be the one which results in the
lowest possible load (upper bound theorem) and for which the moment does not exceed
the plastic moment at any section of the structure (lower bound theorem). The procedure
of application of the kinematic theorem is as follows:
1. Determine the location 'of possible plastic hinges.
2. Select possible independent and composite mechanisms.
3. Solve eqUilibrium equation by virtual displacements method for the 'lowest load.
4. Check that M5, Mp.
160
Principle of virtual work.
It is as follows:
'If( a deformable structure in equilibrium under the action of a system of external forces is
subjected to a virtual deformation compatible with its conditions of support, the work done
by these forces on the displacements associated with the virtual deformation is equal to
the work done by the internal stresses on the strains associated with this deformation. 11
This principle has wide utility for the structure at collapse. During collapse there is no
change in the elastic strain energy stored in the beam since the bending moment and,
therefore, the curvature remains the same. So the work done during small motion of
collapse mechanism is equal to the work absorbed by the plastic hinge. The work
absorbed in the hinges is always positive irrespective of the sign of B.M.
Note: From Eq. (1), we get n =N + T. In case of beams, only beam mechanism is
possible. Hence N (i.e: number of independent mechanisms) is equal to 1. Thus, n =1 +
T. which means number of hinges required will be one more than number of
redundancies.
a.9. Calculate the plastic section modulus, shape factor and plastic moment of the
following sections:
(a) ISMB 200 [Fig. (a)] having the following properties:
Ixx =2235.4 cm
4
j Zxx= 223.5 crrf; A = 32.33 crrf; Thickness of web =5.7 mmj
thickness of flange: 10.8 mm.
(b) ISHT 150 [Fig. (b)] having the following properties:
4
Ixx=: 573.7 cm j A = 37.42 sq. em and distance of C.G. from the top is 26.6 mm.
Take the yield stress for mid steel as 250 Nlmrrf.
Solution:
4
(a) ISection: Given: Ixx: =2235.4'x 10
4
mm ; Zxx: = 223.5 x '103 mm
3
and A =
3
mm
A
Zp='2(Yl+Y2)
Since the equal area axis coincides with the centroidal axis, YI and Y2 are equal. To find YI
of the upper half area, we have.
100XIO.8(100  5.4)+5.7 (10010.8) 
(100xlO.8)+(5.7) (100 10.8) 1080+508.4
A 1 2
:. Zp=(YI+Y2) AYl 3233 x 78.6 =254 06mm
2
3
Z == 223.5 x 10
3
mm == 223500 mm
3
:. s= 254106 =1.14
Z 223500
161
2
Mp = ZPO'y= 254106 x 250 Q.10. A beam of rectangular crosssection b x d fig. is subjected to a bending moment
0.9 Mp. Find out the depth of the elastic core.
=63.53 X 10
6
Nmm
= 63.53 kNm
Solution. Let the total depth of the elastic core =2 Yo. Therefore, the depth of the plastic zone :l
(b) Tee Section
4
Given Ixx= 573.7 x 10
4
mm ; A= 3742mm
2
Elastic section modulus Z
=573.7xlO .46491mm3
15026.6
T
200mm
J
j toS
(a)
Figure
Let the equal area axis pass through; the flange at distance x below the top fibre.
250x= 250 (10.6  x) + (150 10.6) x 7.6 or 500x== 3709
From which x == 7.42 mm
YI == distance of C.G. of the top area from equal area axis= 7.42/2 == 3.71 mm
Distance of bottom flange from equal area axis = 10.6  7.42 = 3.18 mm
Y2 == distance of C.G. of bottom area from the equal area axis
7.6[ (150;0.6)1 +3.18]
41.94mm
!(3742)
2
A 3742 3
Zp=  (Y1+Y2)= [3.71+41.94]==85417mm
2 2
s= Zp = 85417 =1.84
z 46491
Mp= Zpay = 85417x250=21.35x1 0
6
Nmm=21.35 kNm
162
2
= 3d 4y2o
12(dyo)
Total internal moment of the forces about N.A.
r 0
T .
id/2
"fT
. "DEPTH OF
't eLASTlC _.. !l.
. x
It. CORE
d ______1_1
2"
\.___i
{
(
d '\ bY} 3d
2
_4y2
2x b y J+_o cr
2 0 2' y 12(dyo)
Figure
3d24l
_ 0
12
.
xbxf
y
2
2
Equating the two, we get 3d
2
_ 4
Y
obcr =0.9x bd cr
12 y 4 y
2
4yO =O.3d
2
or Yo =0.274d
Hence depth of elastic core =2 Yo =0.548 d
163
Q.11. . Fixed beam of span L carries a uniformly distributed load W on the left half portion.
Determine the value of W at collapse. The elastic moment of resistance of the beam
is Mp.
Solution. Let the maximum free bending moment occur at C, distant xfrom A. From statics,
RA='iW.
4
i, Hence,
"II i ej,
I
A,/:.'i.+'!4f:::;.rli I
1
I
to)
1L/2" 1 L12 ...... ,.;j,
l
I
\
M:p
"',.. ..
]1""1 ....io<:,.,........;t
L
...., ...
..."O'""""{oj
3Wx 2W x
2
Mp =4 + 2
Wx
2
3Wx
=+
4 L
For maxima,
=dM. = + '!'!!x
dx 4 L
3
.. x=L
8
Figure
, .
M =_3W W
m", 48L8 64
At collapse, it becomes equal to We L (Numerically)
64 '
Hence as per static method, the equilibrium equation is ...9_ We L =Mp + Mp
64 '
2M 64 128 M M
.. W x= p=14.22(Answer)
c L 9 9'L L
164