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Ch. 12 Kinematics of a Particle Section 12B-1: 12.7 Section 12B-2: 12.8 Section 12B-3a: 12.9 Section 12B-3b: 12.10 Class Note for Section 12B-1: 12.7 Curvilinear Motion: Normal and Tangential Components 1) Planar Motion: moving in a plane along a fixed curve s a fixed curved path, s = s(t) ds differential arc segment along s radius of curvature O center of curvature t the axis tangent to the curve at P (positive in increasing s) n the axis normal to the t-axis (positive toward O) ut unit vector in t-direction un unit vector in n-direction 2) Velocity v = ds/dt = s v = v ut magnitude of velocity direction of v - tangent to the path (or in t-direction)

3) Acceleration a = dv/dt = d(v ut)/dt = (dv/dt)ut + v(dut /dt) = s = / = v/ ds = d s dut = d un dut /dt = un = (v/) un a = (dv/dt) ut + (v2/) un = at ut + an un

at = dv/dt = v

an = v2 / a = (at2 + an2)1/2

at: tangential component of a (change in magnitude of velocity) an: normal component of a (change in direction of velocity) a: magnitude of a

[ 1 + (dy / dx) ]

d 2 y / dx 2

2 3/ 2

MAE 2600

v= s at = v

an = v /

2

[ 1 + (dy / dx) ]

d 2 y / dx 2

2 3/ 2

Example Problems for Section 12B-1: EP1. When the motorcyclist is at A, he increases his speed along the vertical circular path at the = (0.72 t) ft/s2, where t is in seconds. If he starts from rest at A, determine the rate of v magnitudes of his velocity and acceleration when he reaches B.

= 0.72 t dv = 0.72 t dt at = dv/dt = v

dv = 0.72 t dt v = 0.36 t2

0 0

v = ds/dt ds = v dt

ds = 0.36 t2 dt s = 0.12 t3

0 0

When s = r = 300(/3) = 100, 100 = 0.12 t3 t = 13.78 s v = 0.36 t2 = (0.36)(13.78)2 = 68.36 = 68.4 ft/s an = v2 / = (68.36)2 /300 = 15.58 = 0.72 t = (0.72)(13.78) = 9.922 at = v Ans.

Ans.

EP2. The car passes point A with a speed of 32 m/s after which its speed is defined by v = (32 - 0.08s) m/s, where s is in m. Determine the magnitude of the cars acceleration when it reaches point B, where s = 100 m and x = 60 m. Neglect the size of the car. v = 32 - 0.08s dv/ds = - 0.08 At point B (s = 100 m): vB = 32 - 0.08(100) = 24 At point B (x = 60 m): y = 30 - x2/750 dy/dx = - 2x /750 = - 2(60)/750 = - 0.16 d2y/dx2 = - 2/750 = - 0.002667 =

[1 + (dy / dx) ]

d 2 y / dx 2

2 3/ 2

an = vB2 / = (24)2/389.4 = 1.479 at ds = v dv at = v(dv/ds) at = vB(dv/ds) = (24)(- 0.08) = - 1.92 a = (at2 + an2)1/2 = [(- 1.92)2 + (1.479)2]1/2 = 2.424 = 2.42 m/s2 Ans. Homework #4 (Section 12B-1)

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