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Democracy

Democracy "is government by the people in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their elected agents under a free electoral system."The world celebrates the democracy on 15th of September as the date of democracy.

History
The beginning of wisdom in such disputes is to see that democracy, like all other human inventions, has a history. The first historical phase of democracy, which began in ancient Mesopotamia (in 2500 BC) & stretched through classical Greece and Rome to the rise and maturation of Islamic civilization around 950 CE, democracy was associated with the creation and diffusion of public assemblies. It is so difficult that who invented the term or exactly where and when the word democracy was used first. But in Greek word demos means people and kratein means rule. The Middle Ages was a period of European history from the fall of the Roman Empire (476 AD) until the fall of Constantinople in 1453 AD. It is also known as the Dark Ages.Although there was not a democracy directly in place during the Middle Ages, Christianity was widely followed and so many democratic ideas were understood and followed by many of the people. Christianity taught that all men were created equal.Another form of government, known as feudalism developed during this time. Feudalism stressed that all people had certain rights and developed a system of courts to defend these rights.

Demos
(People)

Kratein
(Rule)

DEMOCRACY

Therefor it can be imagine the democracy has been born in Greece. However it is, in eastern countries in the world such as India, they exists a huge history of democracy.

Definitions

Definition of Abraham Lincon:

DEMOCRACY IS A GOVERNMENT OF THE PEOPLE, BY THE PEOPLE, AND FOR THE PEOPLE."

Definition of Kofi Annan (The Secretary of United Nation)

DEMOCRACY IS A UNIVERSAL RIGHT THAT


DOES NOT BELONG TO ANY COUNTRY OR REGION AND THAT PARTICIPATORY GOVERNANCE, BASED ON THE WILL OF THE PEOPLE IS THE BEST PATH TO FREEDOM GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

In our world, there are two kinds of democracy. One is Direct democracy. This is applicable in small states such as Switzerland, Norway, etc. Direct democracy refers to a situation in which citizens participate somewhat equally in the decision-making process. When the population becomes lager, the next best way is Representative democracy (Indirect democracy). Indirect democracy refers to a situation in which a subset of elected representatives makes most of the political decisions.

DEMOCRACY

DIRECT DEMOCRACY

REPRECENTATIVE DEMOCRACY

Direct democracy (also known as pure democracy) is a form of democracy in which people
decide (e.g. vote on, form consensus on, etc.) policy initiatives directly, as opposed to a representative democracy in which people vote for representatives who then decide policy initiatives. Depending on the particular system in use, it might entail passing executive decisions, the use of sortation, making laws, directly electing or dismissing officials and conducting trials. Two leading forms of direct democracy are participatory democracy and deliberative democracy.

Features of Direct democracy


mall

Applicable only small states


Modern legislation is becoming more complicated to be comprehended by average voters, it is just possible that they may participate in referendum without understanding the issues involved. People may not vote for a measure conductive to the national interest. Distribution of the copies of bills to the people & waiting for their approval in both expensive & dilatory. Direct legislation reduces the authority & status of the legislature & undermines its responsibility to the people Method of discovering the wishes of the people , an excellent barometer of the political atmosphere The legislator to conform with the aspiration of the people, if someone does not wish the fruit of his labour to perish Puts an end to acute conflicts between people & governments &, provides one of the safest barrier there can be against revolutionary agitations

Advantages and disadvantages to Direct Democracy: Advantages


Raises issues that others may want to hide Restores authority to the people, and makes them responsible, not the parties. Curbs the imbalance of power, makes politicians responsible to the people Gets the community involved Makes for better legislation Politicians are forced to act on petitions instead of throwing them out right away. Helps to gain control over Parliament and the direction of the country. Restores parliamentary government with representatives Makes politicians be accountable

Disadvantages

Cost The media and government may attempt to influence the decisions made by the people. Increase in referenda Some people may be more politically active than others

Direct democracy gives the steering wheel for government to the people. As we noticed above there are both many advantages and disadvantages to direct democracy. This form of government is already in effect in Switzerland and some states in the United States.

Representative democracy (also indirect democracy) is a variety of democracy founded


on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy. All modern Western style democracies are various types of representative democracies, for example the United Kingdoms a constitutional monarchy and Poland is a parliamentary republic.

Features of Representative Democracy (INDIRECT DEMOCRACY)


Every adult should have the right to vote- the universal adult suffrage Govern by the Majority One man One vote Each vote should count equally The principle of proportional representation should be adhered

The power of representatives is usually curtailed by a constitution (as in a constitutional democracy or a constitutional monarchy) or other measures to balance representative power:

An independent judiciary, which may have the power to declare legislative acts unconstitutional (e.g. constitutional court, supreme court) It may also provide for some deliberative democracy (e.g., Royal Commissions) or direct popular measures (e.g., initiative, referendum,recall elections). However, these are not always binding and usually require some legislative action-legal power usually remains firmly with representatives. In some cases, a bicameral legislature may have an "upper house" that is not directly elected, such as the Canadian Senate, which was in turn modeled on the British House of Lords.

The Record of Democratic Development of History


The historical development of modern democratic regimes falls in to four phases.

1) Early 19th century 2) Year around-1920 3) Aftermath of World War 11 4) Early 1950 to the 1980

Democratization (or democratization) is the transition to a more democratic political regime. It may be the transition from an authoritarian regime to a full democracy, a transition from an authoritarian political system to a semi-democracy or transition from a semi-authoritarian political system to a democratic political system. The outcome may be consolidated (as it was for example in the United Kingdom) or democratization may face frequent reversals (as it has faced for example in Argentina). Different patterns of democratization are often used to explain other political phenomena, such as whether a country goes to a war or whether its economy grows. Democratization itself is influenced by various factors, including economic development, history, and civil society

Transition to Democracy
Dankwart Alexander Rustow (December 21, 1924 August 3, 1996) was a professor of political science and sociology. He is perhaps best known as the 'father of transit logy,' a school of thought in the field of democratization studies. In his seminal 1970 article 'Transitions to Democracy: Toward a Dynamic Model,' Rustow broke from the prevailing schools of thought on how countries became democratic. Disagreeing with the heavy focus on necessary social and economic pre-conditions for democracy, he argued that only national unity was a necessary precondition for democracy. Beyond that, the most important thing for a transition from authoritarian rule to democracy was consensus between elites on the new rules of the game. Lipset's title is true to his functional concern. He is careful to speak of "Some Social Requisites," not prerequisites, "of Democ-racy," and thus to acknowledge the difference between correlation and cause. But the subtlety has escaped many readers who unthinkingly translate "requisites" into "preconditions. Moreover, encourages the same substitution, for it repeatedly slips from the language of correlation into the language of causality. Significantly, on all those occasions economic and social conditions become the independent, and democracy the dependent, variable.

Wealth and democracy Theories of wealth and democracy


The proposition that wealthy societies are usually also more democratic has a long Lineage. Political philosophers have suggested this proposition, for example John Stuart Mill.. Reflecting upon the British colonies, theorized that democracy was not suitable for all nation states. Exactly a century later, the political sociologist Seymour Martin Lipset laid the groundwork for the systematic empirical analysis of the complex relationship between wealth and democracy. The original claim, subsequently referred to as the Lipset hypothesis, specified that:The more well-to-do a nation, the greater the chances that it will sustain democracy.Development consolidates democracy, Lipset theorized, by expanding levels of literacy, schooling and media access, broadening the middle classes, reducing the extremes of poverty, facilitating intermediary organizations such as labor unions and voluntary organizations, and promoting the values of legitimacy and social tolerance. The shift from agrarian to industrial capitalist production was thought to weaken the power of the traditional landed estates. Newly-unionized urban workers and the middle class professional groups each mobilized around parties reflecting their interests and demanded access to the voting franchise. Lipset emphasized that extreme social inequality maintained oligarchy or tyranny, but more egalitarian conditions, and in particular the expansion of the educated middle class, facilitated moderation and mass participation: Only in a wealthy society in which relatively few citizens lived in real poverty could a situation exist in which the mass of the population could intelligently participate in politics and could develop the self restraint necessary to avoid succumbing to the appeals of irresponsible demagogues. Dankwart Rustow reinforced the argument that the transition to democracy could be attributed to a predictable series of social changes accompanying economic development and societal modernization, as predicted by measures such as per capita energy consumption, literacy, school enrollments, urbanization, life expectancy, infant mortality, the size of the industrial workforce, newspaper circulation, and radio and television ownership. Following in the footsteps of Lipset and Rustow, the relationship between wealth and democracy has been subject to rigorous empirical inquiry. For more than half a century the association has withstood repeated empirical tests under a variety of different conditions, using cross-sectional and time-series data with a large sample of countries and years, and with increasingly sophisticated statistical tests, as well as in many historical accounts of political developments within particular nation states. Many have reported that wealth is associated with the standard indicators of democratization, although the precise estimates of effects are sensitive to each studys choice of time-period, the selection of control variables specified in causal models, and the basic measurement of both democracy and economic growth.

The claim that wealth sustains democracy has important implications for public policy and for attempts to promote both poverty alleviation and democracy by the international development community. Yet two alternative interpretations dominate the policy debate and it remains unclear which one is correct. The case of South Korea plausibly fits the Lipset theory but, as Singapore shows, many important outliers remain. The key question which remains is whether, even with this battery of controls, political institutions also play an important role in sustaining democracy.

Pillars of Democracy
In 2004, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution that lays out seven essential elements of democracy, including: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Separation and balance of power Independence of the judiciary A pluralistic system of political parties and organizations Respect for the rule of law Accountability and transparency Free, independent and pluralistic media Respect for human and political rights; e.g., freedoms of association and expression; the right to vote and to stand in elections

01. THE SEPARATION AND BALANCE OF POWER The terms separation of power and balance of power mean that the power of the three branches of democratic government - the legislative, executive and judiciary should not be concentrated in one branch, but should be distributed such that each branch can independently carry out its own respective functions. The separation and balance of power rests on two main principles. First, the competencies of the three branches of governmental power must be clearly delimited and defined. Second, all branches of government are bound by the rule of law he idea of a separation and balance of powers emerged in an historical context as a protection against tyranny 02. INDEPENDENCE OF THE JUDICIARY Article 14 of the ICCPR states that in the determinations of any criminal charges against him [or her], or of his rights and obligations in a suit of law, everybody shall be entitled to a fair and public hearing by a competent, independent and impartial court established by law. There is, then, a hard international obligation to establish an independent judiciary. Moreover, the UN Human Rights Committee has made it clear that the ICCPR stipulates judicial

independence beyond the realm of criminal law such that it also comes to bear on administrative law and the organization of the state.

03. THE RULE OF LAW There are few definitions of the rule of law in the context of international instruments related to ensuring democratic practices within states Nonetheless, its core meaning is clear.

04. ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY As stated in both the 2005 UN General Assembly resolution and the 2003 declaration by the UN Human Rights Commission, transparency and accountability in public administration are essential to democracy. Without exception, this applies to all those with governmental and public authority (whether elected or not) and to all bodies of government and public authority. Elaborating this, the Inter-Parliamentary Unions Universal Declaration on Democracy explains, Accountability [and transparency] entails a public right of access to information about the activities of government, the right to petition government and to seek redress through impartial administrative and judicial mechanisms.

05. FREEDOM OF THE MEDIA Media freedom is vitally important for democracy. It contributes to creating plural, open societies and accountable, transparent systems of government, as well as safeguards human rights and fundamental freedoms. In particular, a free media sector plays an essential role in guaranteeing the freedom of expression and freedom of information, both of which are necessary for facilitating the effective participation of citizens in democratic processes.

06. RESPECT FOR POLITICAL RIGHTS The freedom of political debate, along with freedom of association and assembly, are at the centre of the concept of democracy. These essential political rights are well defined in legally binding treaties, such as the ICCPR.

Democratic Socialism
Its difficult to define also it is variant of socialism that reject centralized.Authoritation methods of transition from capitalism of socialism in favor of grass roots. level moments aiming for the immediate creation of decentralized economic democracy. In Russia Mihhail Grobuchew said perestroika as building a new human and democratic socialism. History of Democratic Socialism Prominent movement at the end of 19th centaury in German 1857 German social Democratic party another Australian Labor party moved forward.

Democratic Liberalisms
It aims to reach a synthesis of democracy which is the participation of the people in the power and the rational liberalisms, which decline the emotional populism. Describe their ideology as giving power to the people they are against the concentration of power in uncountable Bodies.

Other political theories compare with democracy


Facism Maxsism Capitalism

Fascism :
Society there is no speech to voices of freedom & criticisms therefore from democracy

Maxisism:
In ultimate We hope equal society in ultimate how we expect democracy but it begin & develop. Its visible limitations.

Capitalism:
We also see democracy but capital society in all over we see rights and democracy gain minority hands.

Most Democratic Countries


The Democracy has come a long way since that ancient times and now most countries are democratic. Now the most important features of democracy include civil liberties, politic rights, freedom of press and the low level of corruption. These features differentiate the states by the level of democracy implemented. Then I will turn next slid Economic Intelligent unit Annual Report on Global Democracy. This Index Analyses, 165 Independent Countries 2 Territories Criteria of Index Electoral process and pluralism Civil Liberties Functioning of Government Political Participation Political Culture

Gradient Level of Regimes Full Democracies Flawed Democracies Hybrid Regimes Authoritarian Regimes

According to the Index most democratic Countries found in Scandinavia, This includes Norway, Swede, Iceland, Denmark and New Zealand. Norway was the first independent country ever to allow women to vote and candidate. Sweden Although Sweden has a unitary parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, now a days is considered one of the most democratic European countries. Denmark Its another unitary parliamentary democracy with constitutional monarchy but has a long history of democracy starting with the 1915 universal suffrage. Switzerland Since 1848 Switzerland is governed by representative direct democracy, the citizens having the power to overturn the parliaments decisions.

Other Democratic countries

United State of America


The American Political system works as the federal constitutional republic system where the president the congress and the Judiciary System share the powers of the national government and where there is dominance of only two major parties. Amarican democracy is representative in sprit and hence a kind of republic representing and public of the common man.

United Kingdom
We should first look at the British system as it is the longest established. At a basic level it is understood that Prime Minister and government ultimately run the country. Members of Parliament are elected by the general public,usually once every four years based on the policies of the three or four main political parties.Issues of particular interest could be employment,the state of the economy,health and defence.It is called democracy whereby the people get to vote on who they want to take the country farward.The Nuts and bolt of the British government are far more complicated and I will mention few of them The Constitution ,The Prime Minister,The Cabinet,The sovereign,The speaker,The House of Commons,Parliament,Civil servents,House of Lords like that The houses of Parliament have long been known as the mother of parliaments and historically from the basis for democratic government across the world.

Middle East
The highest scores of countries in democracy are generally held by Isrel, Kuwet Turkey, Morocco and Lebanon. Countries as partly democratic are Egypt, Tunisia and Iraq The Lowest scores held by Saudi Arabia and Yemen. The most significant changed in the Middle East from 2011 to 2012

Latin America
Latin America was identified as one of the success stories from the wave of democratic development that accompanied the waning years of the Cold war. Over the past decade, however the commitment of governments in the region to democratic standards has wavered in some cases considerably.

Regions largest and most economically powerful country Brazil has experienced a strengthening of free institutions even It has impressive Economic growth. Chile and Uruguay continue to rank among the worlds leading Democracies.and Colombia has registered gains for civil liberties as its violent wind down.

China and Russia


Russia and china are essentially two non-democracies 1989-1991 both communist leaderships Soviet and Chinese came to realize the Communism had become a dysfunctional type of system. But they had different understandings of what was wrong with it.In soviet Union ,Gorbachev decided that what was worth preserving were the socialist ideas.His idea of social transformation meant moving beyond the party rule and developing a state which could be competitive in the western paradigm.The Chinese communist party took a totally different view.What was bad about communism were the communist socialist ideas, especially in an economic sense, and what was good about socialism was the communist party and its capacity to keep control of society. So they did everything to keep the power infrastructure intact. Accoding to Russia look like a democracy. It enjoys a democratic constitution runs election has a multiparty political system.has some free media . The Chinese regime is generally accepted by more effective than the Russian one and the quality of its decision making is certainly much better.Chinese regimes are much more capable for self-correction. Over the last two decades china was busy with capacity building Russia seems to have been pre-occupied with incapacity hiding.

Asia
The Democracy has shallow roots in Asia, the most dynamic part of the world economy, is clearly evident from the Economist Intelligence Units Democracy Index 2011.Only Two Asian countries are estimated to be full democracies :Japan and South Korea. Although parts of the region from Myanmar and North Korea to Laos, Vietnam and China are still entrenched authoritarian regimes, the past couple of decades have seen the spread of democracy in the region overall. Over the past decade, 20 Asian Countries have held elections, and many have undergone peaceful transitions in government. Despite its problem, India remains the worlds most populous Democracy. Yet even the democratic countries , there are often significant problems in the political systems. Because Political culture in Asia are often underdevelopment and shallow, Such as in the cases of the following democracies Taiwan, India, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines, Hongkong and Singapore are classed as having

hybrid regimes. Other hybrids from Asia are Bangladesh, Cambodia, Bhutan, Pakistan and Nepal Although Asians say they support democratic ideals, their commitment to limits on a leaders power is Far lower than in most other regions.

Sri Lanka
According to the Article 1 of Sri Lankan Constitution country is known as Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. Article 1 states that Sri Lanka (Ceylon) is a Free, Sovereign, Independent and Democratic Socialist Republic. There are several Articles in the constitution which are directly related to the concepts of Democracy Article 3- In the Republic of Sri Lanka sovereignty is in the People and is inalienable. Sovereignty includes the powers of government, fundamental rights and the franchise. Article 4- The Sovereignty of the People shall be exercised and enjoyed in the following manner : (a) the legislative power of the People shall be exercised by Parliament, consisting of elected representatives of the People and by the People at a Referendum ; (b) the executive power of the People, including the defence of Sri Lanka, shall be exercised by the President of the Republic elected by the People ; (c) the judicial power of the People shall be exercised by Parliament through courts, tribunals and institutions created and established, or recognized, by the Constitution, or created and established by law, except in regard to matters relating to the privileges, immunities and powers of Parliament and of its Members, wherein the judicial power of the People may be exercised directly by Parliament according to law ; (d) the fundamental rights which are by the Constitution declared and recognized shall be respected, secured and advanced by all the organs of government and shall not be abridged, restricted or denied, save in the manner and to the extent hereinafter provided; and (e) the franchise shall be exercisable at the election of the President of the Republic and of the Members of Parliament and at every Referendum by every citizen who has attained the age of eighteen years and who, being qualified to be an elector as hereinafter provided, has his name entered in the register of electors.

Human Rights are one of the basic elements in democracy Articles 10- 14 includes the Fundamental Rights of the people

Article 10- Freedom of thought, conscience and religion. Article 11- Freedom from torture. Article 12- Right to equality Article 13- Freedom from arbitrary arrest, detention and punishment and prohibition of retrospective penal legislation. Article 14- Freedom of speech, assembly, association, occupation, movement

Constitution A articles which deals with the Referendum or the use of Direct

Democracy

Article 83- Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in the provisions of Article 82 (a) a Bill for the amendment or for the repeal and replacement of or which is inconsistent with any of the provisions of Articles 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 or of this Article ; and (b) a Bill for the amendment or for the repeal and replacement of or which is inconsistent with the provisions of paragraph (2) of Article 30 or of, paragraph (2) of Article 62 which would extend the term of office of the President, or the duration of Parliament, as the case may be, to over six years, shall become law if the number of votes cast in favour thereof amounts to not less than two-thirds of the whole number of Members (including those not present), is approved by the People at a Referendum and a certificate is endorsed thereon by the President in accordance with Article 80.

Article 85- Submission of Bills to People by Referendum. Article 86- Submission of matters of national importance to People by Referendum. Article 87- Parliament to provide for procedure.

But like most of the countries in the world Sri Lanka also face so many difficulties and problems in making Democracy a practice. But when comparing to the other South Asian and Developing countries Sri Lanka possesses a better level in Democracy.

Challenges in achieving and maintaining Democracy

Democracy a challenge WHY?


Despite some notable success stories, democracy has proven more difficult to achieve than many assumed. Democracy does not come by itself and it cannot be imported from abroad, let alone be implanted by military means. It has to grow from within countries by gradually institutionalizing and constructing political processes and spreading the universal values that are intrinsic to democracy. No nation is born a democracy ( quote by Kofi Annan). So it requires effort and time to build while it requires permanent maintenance as well. To manage the process of democracy building and the expectations of people, governments need to ensure a social contract with their people that provides those governments the legitimacy to govern. Values such as respect for diversity and pluralism, tolerance, justice, freedom, human rights, and non-violence are universal core values that are embedded in the rich cultural diversity around the globe. Transforming these values into the practice of democratic governance takes time, which is in short supply because of peoples high expectations for democratic government to deliver.

What are the challenges?


The process of learning to practice democracy meets challenges of various kinds.

1. Growing economic and social inequalities among the people:


Although all the citizens have the right to vote and fight elections only rich people have a chance to win the election. The poor are sometimes even forced to sell their votes to fulfill their basic necessities of life like food, clothing and shelter. So rich people are elected representatives in the legislature who make laws and frame policies which favour them.

2. Corruption and inefficiency:


In many democratic countries of the world, political leaders and government officials are corrupt, dishonest and inefficient. As a result, people do not take interest in elections and have no faith in government officials. This affects the working of democracy in the country very badly.

3. Fact that democratization takes place in often still authoritarian environments that resist change, in countries with weak states that provide insufficient security to their citizens, in countries with incomplete processes of nation-building, and in countries with poorly developed or skewed economies. 4. Inadequate and inappropriate international supporting democratic development.

approaches

in

The delivery of international support is not always compatible with the intrinsic values of democracy itself. Whether the ultimate outcome of the process through which international support is delivered is democracy? Whether the instruments used and procedures followed in this process is democratic?

When they are not, democracy support is likely to become problematic Confusing democracy promotion -with regime change -with the use of military force to remove a regime -with foreign intrusion in violation of the sovereignty of the countries Are counter-productive and often inconsistent with the values of democracy e:g- Western interventions in Libya, Iraqi, Afghanistan It also is often accompanied by double standards since only unfriendly regimes are targeted while friendly tyrants are treated much more leniently. This gives democracy and democracy support a bad name. Actually in todays world Democracy and its core values such as Human Rights has become a weapon in controlling unfriendly regimes according to the aims and goals of powerful countries such as America

5. Responding to the backlash against democracy and democracy promotion


Some countries seek to frustrate, undermine, or prohibit the activities of democratic and civil society groups and individual activists. Number of semi-authoritarian or hybrid regimes have stepped up measures to prevent democratic activities such as curtailing fundamental freedoms, openly disregarding the rule of law, suppressing civil society organizations, and stifling independence of the media.

By imposing tight control over civil society under the pretexts of ensuring security, political stability and non-interference in the countrys internal affairs these governments place unlawful restrictions on NGO activities.

6. Making democracy deliver


For many emerging democracies in Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and elsewhere, the biggest challenge is to -institutionalize the newly chosen multiparty democracy systems -help democracy deliver in terms of Reducing poverty and improving the quality of life, Improving security and economic development, Enhancing the conditions for foreign investments

7. Strengthening moderate Democratic elements


The moderate democratic elements such as Distributing the resources equitably Hearing Moderate democratic voices

Supporting to democratic movements, including religious groups that can challenge extremists who misuse whatever religion to promote anti-democratic political agendas Must be strengthened.

8. The changing international context


The global environment for the advancement of democracy has become more complex in the present situation.

Responding to religious and other forms of extremism The competition for scarce energy resources The globalizing market economy, The forces of technology and capitalism Pose threats to the advancement of democracy in the present context

9. Role of anti-social elements:


The role of anti-social elements has increased very much during the elections. Voters are coerced to vote for a particular candidate or party. Rigging also takes place during the elections.

10. Casteism and communalism:


Casteism big challenges in many democratic countries like India as large number of voters give weight to the caste and religion of the candidate during elections. Political parties also keep in mind the caste or religion of a person while distributing tickets for the election. Representatives elected on the basis of caste or religion work for the welfare of the people belonging only to their caste or religion.

11. Terrorism
One of the major challenges that Democracy faces in todays world Terrorism challenges the fundamental aspects of democracy like liberty and equality It creates a great danger to the human rights as they use of violence in order to achieve political aims

Legitimacy of the democratic states and violations of this legitimacy in relation to preventing terrorism will be highlighted. So It is important for a democratic government to stay within the boundary of laws when it is implementing its policies concerning the prevention and combating of terrorism.

Promotion of democracy throughout the world has always been touted as a core American value, but following the terrorist attacks on 9/11, USA elevated democracy promotion from its traditional status and their national security became main goal of their foreign policy for in the post-9/11 world. This policy change affected the world democracy at large.

Remedies for the Removal of Drawbacks of Democracy:


1. Efforts should be made to reduce the social and economic inequalities among the citizens. 2. People should be educated. So that -people can realize the importance of the right to vote and other political rights. -They would be politically awakened to elect the right of representatives who are honest, selfless and efficient. 3. Democratic values should be cultivated in the families and the society at large. So that -Democratic culture would be developed among the people. -Every citizen would respect the rights and freedom of others. 4. Use of caste and religion during the elections should be banned. 5. People should be convinced that -The Revolution and Democracy are not the same thing not necessarily related, as mostly revolutions create instability, anarchy and violence which are against to the values of democracy. -The violence is revolutions friend but it is democracys enemy. - The Democracy takes time and its establishment calls for infinite patience and it often demands the work of generations to succeed

Advantages and Disadvantages of Democracy Advantages


Democracy is considered to be the best form of government these days. Most of the countries in the world have adopted it. (i) Safeguards the interests of the people: Representatives are elected by the people and they are responsible to the people

(ii) Based on the principle of equality: All members of the State are equal in the eyes of law. All enjoy equal social, political and economic rights and state cannot discriminate among citizens on the basis of caste, religion, sex, or property. All have equal right to choose their government.

(ii) Stability and responsibility in administration: Forms a stable government because it is based on public support. The administration is conducted with a sense of responsibility

(iv) Political education to the people: Democracy serves as a training school for citizens. People get impetus to take part in the affairs of the state. It creates political consciousness among the people

(v) Little chance of revolution: Since democracy is based on public will, there is no chance of public revolt.

(vi) Stable government: Democracy is based on public will. It conducts state business with public support. It is, therefore, more stable than other forms of Government.

(vii) Helps in making people good citizens: Success of democracy lies on its good citizens. Democracy creates proper environment for the development of personality and cultivating good habits. (viii) Based on public opinion:

Democratic administration is based on public will, public opinion lends it strength. It is


not based on fear of authority.

Disadvantages
Following arguments have been given against Democracy: (i) More emphasis on quantity than on quality: Majority party holds the control of government.

(ii) Rule of the incompetent: In the democratic system every citizen is allowed to take part, whereas everybody is not fit for it. Locke calls it the act of running administration by the ignorant

(iii) Based on unnatural equality: The concept of equality is enshrined in democracy. It is against the law of nature. Nature has not endowed every individual with intelligence and wisdom. Men's talents differ. Critics are of opinion that "it is against the law of nature to grant equal status to everybody

(iv) Voters do not take interest in election: Voters do not cast their vote in a spirit of duty as democracy requires them to do. Contestants of election persuade them. (v) Lowers the moral standard: The only aim of the candidates becomes to win election. -They often employ under-hand practices -Foul means to get elected -Character assassination is openly practiced, -Unethical ways are generally adopted.

-Muscle power and money power work hand-in-hand to ensure success to him. Thus, morality is the first casualty in election. It is a big loss for 'when character is lost, everything is lost' becomes explicit in due course. (vi) Democracy is a government of the rich: Modern democracy is, in fact, capitalistic. It is rule of the capitalists. The result is that we get plutocracy under the garb of democracy-democracy in name and form, plutocracy in reality. The rich candidates purchase votes. The rich hold the media and use it for their own benefit Influence of moneyed people over politics is probably clear in England, America and India. (vii) Misuse of public funds and time: Democracy is a huge waste of time and resources. It takes much time in the formulation of laws. A lot of money is spent during the elections. Ministers are proving white elephants. They are a heavy burden on public as they waste public money on their tours and recreations.

(viii) No stable government: When no party gets absolute majority, coalition governments are formed. The coalition of political parties with a view of sharing power is only a marriage of convenience. Whenever there occurs clash of interests, the coalition is lost and governments crumble down.

(ix) Dictatorship of majority: Democracy is criticised because it establishes dictatorship of majority. The majority is required to safeguard the interests of minority but in actual practice it does not.

(x) Bad influence of political parties: Political parties are the basis of democracy. A political party aims at capturing power. Its members are to safeguard the interests of the party. Sometimes, they overlook the overall interest of the state for the sake of their party.

They try to win election by hook or by crook. Practising the immoral methods, empty ideals, inciting hatred, spreading caste feelings, communalism has become a common practice. It lowers the national character.

Criticisms on democracy
Economic criticism

Irrational voters - voters are irrational as they are not adequately educated to be able to foresee the betterment of the community they belong to, and therefore are unable to cast a vote to that effect

Inefficiency of the system -It has been argued democracy is efficient based on the premise of rational voters, competitive elections, and relatively low political transactions costs.

Wealth disparity -The will of the democratic majority may not always be in the best interest of all citizens within the country or beneficial to the future of the country itself.

Sociological criticisms
Lack of political education Some have argued that voters may not be educated enough to exercise their democratic right.

Influence of non-specialized society - As ordinary citizens are encouraged to take part in the political life the result is that government policies may be more influenced by non-specialist opinions.

Political criticisms

Uncontested good -If we base our critique on the definition of democracy as governance based on the will of the majority, there can be some foreseeable consequences to this form of rule.

Cyclical theory of government -Machiavelli put forth a cyclical theory of government where monarchies always decay into aristocracies, that then decay into democracies, which decay into anarchy, then tyranny, then monarchy

Political instability - Democracy is criticized for not offering enough political stability. -As governments are frequently elected on and off there tend to be frequent changes in the policies of democratic countries both domestically and internationally.

Oppression by the majority -The majority of a population and its elected legislature can often be the source of minority persecutions, such as with racial discrimination

Philosophical criticisms

Mob rule -Plato's the Republic presents a critical view of democracy through the narration of Socrates: "Democracy, which is a charming form of government, full of variety and disorder, and dispensing a sort of equality to equals and unequaled alike. Violation of Property Rights -Some Right-Libertarians criticize democracy because they claim it is impractical or immoral. -democracy is critizised for being immoral on the grounds that it coercively involves people, i.e. it violates voluntarism and property rights.

Timocracy and oligarchy. -In Democracy, the oligarchs or merchants are unable to use their power effectively and the people take over, electing someone who plays on their wishes, by throwing lavish festivals etc. - However, the government grants the people too much freedom, and the state degenerates into the fourth form, Tyranny/mob rule Role of republicanism -this criticism is addressed by combining democracy with republicanism. A constitution would limit the powers of what a simple majority can accomplish.

Moral decay -Some thinkers believe democracy will result in the people's distrust and disrespect of governments or religious sanctity.

Administrative criticisms

Short-termism -Democracy is also criticized for frequent elections due to the instability of coalition governments.

Corruption within democratic governments Unsustainability -The new establishment of democratic institutions in countries where the associated practices have as yet been uncommon or deemed culturally unacceptable, can result in institutions that are not sustainable in the long term.

A New trend in Democracy


E-democracy, Government for the Information Age
The creation of the Internet allowed for people across the world to interact with one another and exchange ideas As Hilary Clinton put it , The freedom to connect the idea that governments should not prevent people from connecting to the internet, to websites, or to each other. The freedom to connect is like the freedom of assembly, only in cyberspace. E-democracy is concerned with the use of information and communication technologies to engage citizens, support the Democratic decision- making processes and strengthen representative democracy

Recent Developments towards the Democracy in the world

Nepal The performance of social class tension and radical change has sprouted from this land, carrying Nepal into the international spotlight. Mass campaigns in opposition to King Gyanendra, the dismissal of the monarchy, and the founding of an acting government in 2006 have emphasized the renovation that has cultivated in this nation

Pakistan June 5th Nawaz Sharif was sworn in as the Prime Minister of Pakistan. .The elected civilian government and parliament completed a full five-year term in office (2008-13) the first time in the 66 years since the country was born in 1947. The peaceful transfer of power from one democratic civilian government to another is injecting hope and trust into the countrys fragile democratic process. It signifies that despite various challenges, the countrys parliamentary system has finally arrived.

Bangladesh A government put in place by de facto military coup oversaw a return to free and fair elections at the end of 2008

Bhutan Series of reforms driven by the monarchy have resulted in the first open election in their history and the adoption of a formal constitution

Paraguay Held pivotal election that ended the 61 year reign of the Colorado Party and ushered in a reformist government

Arab Spring
Arab Spring refers to the democratic uprisings that arose independently and spread across the Arab world in 2011. The movement originated in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution, or Jasmine Revolution, began on Dec. 17, 2010 after Mohammed Bouazizi, a 26-year-old Tunisian man, set himself on fire in front of a local municipal office. The term was previously used beginning in March 2005 by numerous media commentators to suggest that a spin-off benefit of the invasion of Iraq would be the flowering of Western-friendly Middle East democracies. This movement quickly took hold in Egypt, Libya, Syria, Yemen, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and Jordan and several other countries in the region. The protests led to political changes in several countries, including regime change in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, a new head of state in Yemen, while there is still an ongoing civil war in Syria. A main force behind the uprisings was the call for a formative political change, with freedom, democracy and justice, and the attack on corruption and nepotism. The Arab Spring has brought down regimes in several Arab countries, sparked mass violence in others, while some governments managed to delay the trouble with a mix of repression, promise of reform, and state largesse.

Conclution
The goals of democratization and respect for human rights are still far from being fulfilled.