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APPRECIATION

Thanks God, we give thanks to the Almighty for His grace and we can set up a report entitled highway laboratary (CC 302)'. Appreciation and gratitude goes to Pn. Hazilah as lecturer highway engineering for their help, cooperation, guidance, advice and practical ideas that poured along the run. Thankfully we have colleagues who help others and help each other work, here are our group members, Hilmi, Syahiruddin, Zaim, Luqman, Nurul Shafiqa, Noor Syafiqah, Asyikin, and Amiera are always striving to complete this highway laboratary work. Moreover, not least thank you to friends, colleagues and all those who have helped us either directly or indirectly. Hopefully reports this produced a certain extent helped to increase the effectiveness student learning and enhance students' knowledge in the subjects studied civil engineering in general and in particular Highway Engineering. Thank you.

[Date]

OBJECTIVE

Investigation of pressure losses in pipes. Influence of flow speed on pressure loss. Comparison of calculated and experimental values.

APPARATUS

Hydraulic Bench Fluid Friction Test Apparatus Stop Watch.

1. Shut-off valves for individual measuring sections. 2. Double pressure gauge with connecting hoses. 3. Infeed (covered). 4. Steel tube support. 5. Measuring objects for flow measurement. 6. Connections for measuring points. 7. Pressure tapping nipple 8. Drain. 9. Measuring objects for shut-off device.

[Date]

THEORY

Experimental Conditions

With turbulent pipe flow, where the flow is considered steady at Reynolds numbers of Re > 2320, pressure loss is proportional to the Length, l of the pipe Coefficient of pipe friction Density, p of flowing medium Square of the flow speed, u

In addition, the pressure loss increases as the pipe diameter reduces. It is calculated as follows :-

pu =

l 2

v2

hv =

l v2 2

For turbulent pipe flow (Re > 2320) the pipe friction coefficient depends on the pipe roughness K and the Reynolds number Re. The pipe roughness K specifies the height of the wall elevations in mm. The relationship between Re, and K is shown in the Colebrook and Nikuradse diagram. Here the wall roughness is related to the pipe diameter, d. The Reynolds number Re is calculated from the pipe diameter (d), flow speed (v), kinematic viscosity (v)

[Date]

Re =

vd

The kinematic viscosity for water can be taken from the table as a function of the temperature. The flow speed v is calculated from the volumetric flow V and the pipe crosssection. v =

4V 2

For hydraulically smooth pipes (Re < 65 d/k) and a Reynolds number in the range of 2320 < Re < 105, the pipe friction coefficient is determined using the Blasius formula.

0.3164

4

For pipes in the transition range to rough pipes (65d/k < Re < 1300 d/k, the range below the limit curve in the diagram) the pipe friction coefficient is calculated according to Colebrook

-2

It is an implicit formula that has to be iteratively resolved. First of all estimate , place it in the formula and calculate an initial approximation. This approximation is re-used in the equation to calculated second approximation.

[Date]

If the estimated value is taken from the Colebrook and nikuradse diagram, the initial approximation is generally sufficiently accurate and the values only differ after the 3rd decimal place. Table 1 kinematic viscosity of water as a function of temperature (after kalide : Technisce Stromungslehre [Technical Fluid Mechanics ])

Temperature In c 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

Kin. Viscosity v in 10-6 m2/s 1.134 1.106 1.079 1.055 1.028 1.004 0.980 0.957 0.935

Experimental method In the following experiment, the pipe is investigated in measuring section 11. The measuring length is I = 800mm. The series of measurements is carried out based on the head loss hv, i.e the ball cock before the measuring section is used to set certain heights on the pressure gauge and determine the relevant volumetric flow. The pressure gauge is connected and the measurements are carried out as described in section 2.

[Date]

PROCEDURE

1. The HM 150 Basic hydraulics Module experimental unit, with the drain above the volumetric tank was set up. 2. Rear star handle nuts was unscrew for pressure gauge mounting and move pressure gauge down one hole. Then tighten star handle nuts again. 3. Those connections between HM 150 and the unit was set up. 4. Opened HM 150 drain. 5. Switched on the pump and slowly open the main value on the HM150. 6. The pressure gauge was connected to the desired measuring point. 7. The ball cock was opened slowly before the desired measuring section and vent the pressure gauge (see section 2.1) Dual pressure gauge. 8. Regulated the water level such that both water columns are in the measuring range, by simultaneously adjusting the vent and drain valves on the pressure gauge. 9. The volumetric flow was determine. To do this, the time, t was stop for required top up the volumetric tank on the HM150 from 10 to 20 or 30 litres. The drain valve below the tank must be closed.

[Date]

RESULTS

Measuring section II Pvc pipe 20 1.5 Measured head loss hvm (m) Volumetric flow (m3) 42.2 19.5 17.9 21.0

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

53.0

56.1

60.8

55.17

53.0

56.1

60.8

55.17

Reynolds number Re

11972.11

11294.8

10577.7

11494.0

Pipe friction coefficient according to Blasius Calculated head loss, hvt (m)

0.030

0.031

0.031

0.031

216.72

200.03

174.82

206.42

Variance (%)

81

90

90

90

Area = d2 = (0.02)2

4 4

= 3.142 10-4 m2

[Date]

DISCUSSION

1. What conclusion can you draw from the data obtained ? The heavy head loss hvm is at the corners of pipe. The mirror loss at downsizing.

2. What further assertion can you make after evaluating the diagram ? Loss of energy at the entry pipe channel. Loss of energy at the exit of pipe channel. A sudden loss at energy due to the diameter enlargement Loss of energy in the downsizing of a sudden pipe.

[Date]

CONCLUSION

[Date]

REFFERENCE

[Date]

10

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