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You are on page 1of 5

Use of electronic devices including computers, calculators and cell phones is NOT

allowed

Show all work to get full credit

Name: Mehmet Akar

ID No.:

Sign if No Aid Given or Taken:

Problem Points

#1 (25)

#2 (25)

#3 (25)

#4 (25)

Total (100)

BU EE453 (Akar) Midterm 1 18/11/2008 Page 2

Problem 1 (25 points) Does there exist a solution for the following set of linear equations?

_

_

1 1 2 1

3 2 4 1

2 0 0 2

_

_

_

_

x

1

x

2

x

3

x

4

_

_

=

_

_

0

1

2

_

_

If so, nd the minimum norm solution. If not, show that a solution does not exist.

Solution: Let A =

_

_

1 1 2 1

3 2 4 1

2 0 0 2

_

_ and b =

_

_

0

1

2

_

equivalently i rank(A)=rank([A b]). Note that b is the dierence of the rst and second

columns of A, i.e., b is in the column space of A (alternatively check that rank(A)=rank([A

b]=2). Therefore a solution exists. This can also be seen by Gaussian elimination to get

_

_

1 1 2 1

.

.

. 0

3 2 4 1

.

.

. 1

2 0 0 2

.

.

. 2

_

_

1 0 0 1

.

.

. 1

0 1 2 2

.

.

. 1

0 0 0 0

.

.

. 0

_

_

Since x

1

= 1 x

4

and x

2

= 1 2x

3

+ 2x

4

, the solution set is given by

S =

_

_

_

_

1

1

0

0

_

_

+

_

_

0

2

1

0

_

_

+

_

_

1

2

0

1

_

_

, ,

_

_

In summary, there are innitely many solutions. In order to nd the minimum norm

solution let a particular solution be x

p

= [1, 1, 0, 0]

T

and take its orthogonal projection

onto N

T

(A) = R(A

T

). Note that

1

= [2, 0, 0, 2]

T

and

2

= [1, 1, 2, 1]

T

form an orthogonal

basis for N

T

(A) = R(A

T

). Therefore, the minimum norm solution, x, is obtained as

x =

< x

p

,

1

>

<

1

,

1

>

1

+

< x

p

,

2

>

<

2

,

2

>

2

=

_

_

0.5

0

0

0.5

_

_

.

BU EE453 (Akar) Midterm 1 18/11/2008 Page 3

Problem 2 (25 points) Given

A =

_

_

1 0 0

1 0 0

0 1 1

_

_

a). (10 points) Determine the characteristic and minimal polynomials of A. Can A be

diagonalized?

Solution: Characteristic polynomial:

() = ( + 1)

2

Minimal polynomial:

() = ( + 1)

2

Since () = (), and the eigenvalue -1 has multiplicity 2, there has to be a Jordan block

of dimension 2. Therefore, A cannot be diagonalized.

b). (15 points) Compute e

At

.

Solution: Let f() = e

t

and g() =

0

+

1

+

2

2

.

Use the three equations f(0) = g(0), f(1) = g(1), and f

(1) = g

(1) to obtain

0

= 1,

1

= 2 2e

t

te

t

,

2

= 1 e

t

te

t

.

Hence,

e

At

= g(A) =

0

+

1

A +

2

A

2

=

_

_

e

t

0 0

1 e

t

1 0

1 (t + 1)e

t

1 e

t

e

t

_

_.

BU EE453 (Akar) Midterm 1 18/11/2008 Page 4

Problem 3 (25 points) Consider 5 mobile robots with (x,y) coordinates (-1,-1), (1,0),

(1,2), (2,1) and (-1,0) in the 2D plane. Suppose that we want to move the robots parallel to

the y-axis to new locations such that they form a line and the sum of the squared distances

they have to travel is minimized. Determine the new (x,y) location for the robot initially at

(-1,-1), and the total distance all the robots have to travel.

Solution: Let the initial robot positions be denoted by (x

i

, y

i

), i = 1, . . . , 5. We want

the robots to be on a line y = mx + n where m and n are to be determined such that

5

i=1

(y

i

mx

i

n)

2

is minimized.

Alternatively, obtain the least squares solution of A = b, = [m, n]

T

where

A =

_

_

x

1

1

x

2

1

x

3

1

x

4

1

x

5

1

_

_

=

_

_

1 1

1 1

1 1

2 1

1 1

_

_

, b =

_

_

y

1

y

2

y

3

y

4

y

5

_

_

=

_

_

1

0

2

1

0

_

_

Noting that A is of full column rank (rank(A)=2), we can easily obtain the least squares

solution as

=

_

m

n

_

= (A

T

A)

1

A

T

b =

_

7/12

1/6

_

.

Therefore, the rst robot is placed at (-1,-5/12).

Total distance all the robots have to travel can be computed to be 10/3.

BU EE453 (Akar) Midterm 1 18/11/2008 Page 5

Problem 4 (25 points) The rotation matrix R that is obtained by rotating a frame by

= /2 degrees about the vector k = [1/

3, 1/

3, 1/

3]

T

is given by R = e

K/2

where

K =

_

_

0 1/

3 1/

3

1/

3 0 1/

3

1/

3 1/

3 0

_

_

Determine the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors of the rotation matrix R.

Solution: Given a matrix A, we have f(A) = Tf(J)T

1

where A = TJT

1

, J is the

Jordan form. Therefore, if be an eigenvalue of A, i.e., Av = v, then f() is an eigenvalue

of f(A) with the same eigenvalue v.

Let R = e

A

with A = K and = /2 . Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of A.

|I A| = (

2

+

2

).

The eigenvalue,eigenvector pairs for A:

_

_

_0,

_

_

1

1

1

_

_

_

_

_,

_

_

_j/2,

_

_

e

j/3

e

j/3

1

_

_

_

_

_,

_

_

_j/2,

_

_

e

j/3

e

j/3

1

_

_

_

_

_.

The eigenvalue,eigenvector pairs for R = e

A

:

_

_

_e

0

,

_

_

1

1

1

_

_

_

_

_,

_

_

_e

j/2

,

_

_

e

j/3

e

j/3

1

_

_

_

_

_,

_

_

_e

j/2

,

_

_

e

j/3

e

j/3

1

_

_

_

_

_.

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